Abstract

We experimentally demonstrate a high-efficiency Bell state measurement for time-bin qubits that employs two superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors with short dead-times, allowing projections onto two Bell states, |ψ〉 and |ψ+〉. Compared to previous implementations for time-bin qubits, this yields an increase in the efficiency of Bell state analysis by a factor of thirty.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  1. N. Sangouard, C. Simon, H. de Riedmatten, and N. Gisin, “Quantum repeaters based on atomic ensembles and linear optics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 83, 33–80 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  2. C. H. Bennett, G. Brassard, C. Crépeau, R. Jozsa, A. Peres, and W. K. Wootters, “Teleporting an unknown quantum state via dual classical and Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen channels,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1895–1899 (1993).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. K. Mattle, H. Weinfurter, P. G. Kwiat, and A. Zeilinger, “Dense Coding in Experimental Quantum Communication,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4656–4659 (1996).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. H.-K. Lo, M. Curty, and B. Qi, “Measurement-device-independent quantum key disitrbution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 130503 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  5. N. Lütkenhaus, J. Calsamiglia, and K.-A. Suominen, “Bell measurements for teleportation,” Phys. Rev. A 59, 3295–3300 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  6. A. Muller, T. Herzog, B. Huttner, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Plug and play systems for quantum cryptography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 793–795 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  7. J. Brendel, N. Gisin, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, “Pulsed energy-time enangled twin-photon source for quantum communication,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2594–2597 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  8. W. Tittel, J. Brendel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Quantum cryptography using entangled photons in energy-time Bell states,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4737–4740 (2000).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. I. Marcikic, H. De Riedmatten, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Long-distance teleportation of qubits at telecommunication wavelengths,” Nature 421, 509–513 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. H. De Riedmatten, I. Marcikic, J. A. W. van Houwelingen, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Long-distance entanglement swapping with photons from separated sources,” Phys. Rev. A 71, 050302 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  11. J. Jin, J. A. Slater, E. Saglamyurek, NJ Sinclair, M. George, R. Ricken, D. Oblak, W. Sohler, and W. Tittel, “Two-photon interference of weak coherent laser pulses recalled from separate solid-state quantum memories,” Nature Comm. 4, 2386 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  12. A. Rubenok, J. A. Slater, P. Chan, I. Lucio-Martinez, and W. Tittel, “Real-World Two-Photon Interference and Proof-of-Principle Quantum Key Distribution Immune to Detector Attacks,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 130501 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. Y. Liu, T.-Y. Chen, L.-J. Wang, H. Liang, G.-L. Shentu, J. Wang, K. Cui, H.-L. Yin, N.-L. Liu, L. Li, X. Ma, J. S. Pelc, M. M. Fejer, C.-Z. Peng, Q. Zhang, and J.-W. Pan, “Experimental Measurement-Device-Independent Quantum Key Distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 130502 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
  15. J. Zhang, R. Thew, C. Barreiro, and H. Zbinden, “Practical fast gate rate InGaAs/InP single-photon avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 091103 (2009).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  20. B. S. Robinson, A. J. Kerman, E. A. Dauler, R. J. Barron, D. O. Caplan, M. L. Stevens, J. J. Carney, S. A. Hamilton, J. K. Yang, and K. K. Berggren, “781-Mbit/s photon-counting optical communications using a super-conducting nanowire detector,” Opt. Lett. 31, 444–446 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, T. Gerrits, I. Vayshenker, B. Baek, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “Detecting single infrared photons with 93% system efficiency,” Nat. Photon. 7, 210–214 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  22. V. B. Verma, F. Marsili, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “A three-dimensional, polarization-insensitive superconducting nanowire avalanche photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 251114 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  23. J. K. W. Yang, A. J. Kerman, E. A. Dauler, V. Anant, K. M. Rosfjord, and K. K. Berggren, “Modeling the Electrical and Thermal Response of Superconducting Nanowire Single-Photon Detectors,” IEEE Trans. on Appl. Supercond. 17, 581–585 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  24. X.-B. Wang, “Three-intensity decoy state method for device independent quantum key distribution with basis dependent errors,” Phys. Rev. A 87, 012320 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  25. V. B. Verma, R. Horansky, F. Marsili, J. A. Stern, M. D. Shaw, A. E. Lita, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, ”A four-pixel single-photon pulse-position array fabricated from WSi superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 051115 (2014)
    [Crossref]

2014 (1)

V. B. Verma, R. Horansky, F. Marsili, J. A. Stern, M. D. Shaw, A. E. Lita, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, ”A four-pixel single-photon pulse-position array fabricated from WSi superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 051115 (2014)
[Crossref]

2013 (5)

X.-B. Wang, “Three-intensity decoy state method for device independent quantum key distribution with basis dependent errors,” Phys. Rev. A 87, 012320 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Jin, J. A. Slater, E. Saglamyurek, NJ Sinclair, M. George, R. Ricken, D. Oblak, W. Sohler, and W. Tittel, “Two-photon interference of weak coherent laser pulses recalled from separate solid-state quantum memories,” Nature Comm. 4, 2386 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Rubenok, J. A. Slater, P. Chan, I. Lucio-Martinez, and W. Tittel, “Real-World Two-Photon Interference and Proof-of-Principle Quantum Key Distribution Immune to Detector Attacks,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 130501 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Liu, T.-Y. Chen, L.-J. Wang, H. Liang, G.-L. Shentu, J. Wang, K. Cui, H.-L. Yin, N.-L. Liu, L. Li, X. Ma, J. S. Pelc, M. M. Fejer, C.-Z. Peng, Q. Zhang, and J.-W. Pan, “Experimental Measurement-Device-Independent Quantum Key Distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 130502 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, T. Gerrits, I. Vayshenker, B. Baek, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “Detecting single infrared photons with 93% system efficiency,” Nat. Photon. 7, 210–214 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

V. B. Verma, F. Marsili, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “A three-dimensional, polarization-insensitive superconducting nanowire avalanche photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 251114 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. M. Natarajan, M. G. Tanner, and R. H. Hadfield, “Superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors: physics and applications,” Supercond. Sci. Technol. 25, 063001 (2012).
[Crossref]

H.-K. Lo, M. Curty, and B. Qi, “Measurement-device-independent quantum key disitrbution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 130503 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

N. Sangouard, C. Simon, H. de Riedmatten, and N. Gisin, “Quantum repeaters based on atomic ensembles and linear optics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 83, 33–80 (2011).
[Crossref]

2009 (3)

A. R. Dixon, J. F. Dynes, Z. L. Yuan, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Bennet, and A. J. Shields, “Ultrashort dead time of photon-counting InGaAs avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 231113 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Zhang, R. Thew, C. Barreiro, and H. Zbinden, “Practical fast gate rate InGaAs/InP single-photon avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 091103 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Zhang, R. Thew, J.-D. Gautier, N. Gisin, and H. Zbinden, “Comprehensive Characterization of InGaAs/InP Avalanche Photodiodes at 1550nm with an Active Quenching ASIC,” J. Quantum Electron. 45, 792–799 (2009).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

J. K. W. Yang, A. J. Kerman, E. A. Dauler, V. Anant, K. M. Rosfjord, and K. K. Berggren, “Modeling the Electrical and Thermal Response of Superconducting Nanowire Single-Photon Detectors,” IEEE Trans. on Appl. Supercond. 17, 581–585 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (3)

A. J. Kerman, E. A. Dauler, W. E. Keicher, J. K. W. Yang, K. K. Berggren, G. Goltsman, and B. Voronov, “Kinetic-inductance-limited reset time of superconducting nanowire photon counters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 111116 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. A. W. van Houwelingen, N. Brunner, A. Beveratos, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Quantum Teleportation with a Three-Bell-State Analyzer,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 130502 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. S. Robinson, A. J. Kerman, E. A. Dauler, R. J. Barron, D. O. Caplan, M. L. Stevens, J. J. Carney, S. A. Hamilton, J. K. Yang, and K. K. Berggren, “781-Mbit/s photon-counting optical communications using a super-conducting nanowire detector,” Opt. Lett. 31, 444–446 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

H. De Riedmatten, I. Marcikic, J. A. W. van Houwelingen, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Long-distance entanglement swapping with photons from separated sources,” Phys. Rev. A 71, 050302 (2005).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

I. Marcikic, H. De Riedmatten, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Long-distance teleportation of qubits at telecommunication wavelengths,” Nature 421, 509–513 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

W. Tittel, J. Brendel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Quantum cryptography using entangled photons in energy-time Bell states,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4737–4740 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1999 (2)

J. Brendel, N. Gisin, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, “Pulsed energy-time enangled twin-photon source for quantum communication,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2594–2597 (1999).
[Crossref]

N. Lütkenhaus, J. Calsamiglia, and K.-A. Suominen, “Bell measurements for teleportation,” Phys. Rev. A 59, 3295–3300 (1999).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

A. Muller, T. Herzog, B. Huttner, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Plug and play systems for quantum cryptography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 793–795 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

K. Mattle, H. Weinfurter, P. G. Kwiat, and A. Zeilinger, “Dense Coding in Experimental Quantum Communication,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4656–4659 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

C. H. Bennett, G. Brassard, C. Crépeau, R. Jozsa, A. Peres, and W. K. Wootters, “Teleporting an unknown quantum state via dual classical and Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen channels,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1895–1899 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Anant, V.

J. K. W. Yang, A. J. Kerman, E. A. Dauler, V. Anant, K. M. Rosfjord, and K. K. Berggren, “Modeling the Electrical and Thermal Response of Superconducting Nanowire Single-Photon Detectors,” IEEE Trans. on Appl. Supercond. 17, 581–585 (2007).
[Crossref]

Baek, B.

F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, T. Gerrits, I. Vayshenker, B. Baek, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “Detecting single infrared photons with 93% system efficiency,” Nat. Photon. 7, 210–214 (2013).
[Crossref]

Barreiro, C.

J. Zhang, R. Thew, C. Barreiro, and H. Zbinden, “Practical fast gate rate InGaAs/InP single-photon avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 091103 (2009).
[Crossref]

Barron, R. J.

Bennet, A. J.

A. R. Dixon, J. F. Dynes, Z. L. Yuan, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Bennet, and A. J. Shields, “Ultrashort dead time of photon-counting InGaAs avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 231113 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bennett, C. H.

C. H. Bennett, G. Brassard, C. Crépeau, R. Jozsa, A. Peres, and W. K. Wootters, “Teleporting an unknown quantum state via dual classical and Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen channels,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1895–1899 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Berggren, K. K.

J. K. W. Yang, A. J. Kerman, E. A. Dauler, V. Anant, K. M. Rosfjord, and K. K. Berggren, “Modeling the Electrical and Thermal Response of Superconducting Nanowire Single-Photon Detectors,” IEEE Trans. on Appl. Supercond. 17, 581–585 (2007).
[Crossref]

B. S. Robinson, A. J. Kerman, E. A. Dauler, R. J. Barron, D. O. Caplan, M. L. Stevens, J. J. Carney, S. A. Hamilton, J. K. Yang, and K. K. Berggren, “781-Mbit/s photon-counting optical communications using a super-conducting nanowire detector,” Opt. Lett. 31, 444–446 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. J. Kerman, E. A. Dauler, W. E. Keicher, J. K. W. Yang, K. K. Berggren, G. Goltsman, and B. Voronov, “Kinetic-inductance-limited reset time of superconducting nanowire photon counters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 111116 (2006).
[Crossref]

Beveratos, A.

J. A. W. van Houwelingen, N. Brunner, A. Beveratos, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Quantum Teleportation with a Three-Bell-State Analyzer,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 130502 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brassard, G.

C. H. Bennett, G. Brassard, C. Crépeau, R. Jozsa, A. Peres, and W. K. Wootters, “Teleporting an unknown quantum state via dual classical and Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen channels,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1895–1899 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brendel, J.

W. Tittel, J. Brendel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Quantum cryptography using entangled photons in energy-time Bell states,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4737–4740 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Brendel, N. Gisin, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, “Pulsed energy-time enangled twin-photon source for quantum communication,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2594–2597 (1999).
[Crossref]

Brunner, N.

J. A. W. van Houwelingen, N. Brunner, A. Beveratos, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Quantum Teleportation with a Three-Bell-State Analyzer,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 130502 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Calsamiglia, J.

N. Lütkenhaus, J. Calsamiglia, and K.-A. Suominen, “Bell measurements for teleportation,” Phys. Rev. A 59, 3295–3300 (1999).
[Crossref]

Caplan, D. O.

Carney, J. J.

Chan, P.

A. Rubenok, J. A. Slater, P. Chan, I. Lucio-Martinez, and W. Tittel, “Real-World Two-Photon Interference and Proof-of-Principle Quantum Key Distribution Immune to Detector Attacks,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 130501 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, T.-Y.

Y. Liu, T.-Y. Chen, L.-J. Wang, H. Liang, G.-L. Shentu, J. Wang, K. Cui, H.-L. Yin, N.-L. Liu, L. Li, X. Ma, J. S. Pelc, M. M. Fejer, C.-Z. Peng, Q. Zhang, and J.-W. Pan, “Experimental Measurement-Device-Independent Quantum Key Distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 130502 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Crépeau, C.

C. H. Bennett, G. Brassard, C. Crépeau, R. Jozsa, A. Peres, and W. K. Wootters, “Teleporting an unknown quantum state via dual classical and Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen channels,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1895–1899 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cui, K.

Y. Liu, T.-Y. Chen, L.-J. Wang, H. Liang, G.-L. Shentu, J. Wang, K. Cui, H.-L. Yin, N.-L. Liu, L. Li, X. Ma, J. S. Pelc, M. M. Fejer, C.-Z. Peng, Q. Zhang, and J.-W. Pan, “Experimental Measurement-Device-Independent Quantum Key Distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 130502 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Curty, M.

H.-K. Lo, M. Curty, and B. Qi, “Measurement-device-independent quantum key disitrbution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 130503 (2012).
[Crossref]

Dauler, E. A.

J. K. W. Yang, A. J. Kerman, E. A. Dauler, V. Anant, K. M. Rosfjord, and K. K. Berggren, “Modeling the Electrical and Thermal Response of Superconducting Nanowire Single-Photon Detectors,” IEEE Trans. on Appl. Supercond. 17, 581–585 (2007).
[Crossref]

B. S. Robinson, A. J. Kerman, E. A. Dauler, R. J. Barron, D. O. Caplan, M. L. Stevens, J. J. Carney, S. A. Hamilton, J. K. Yang, and K. K. Berggren, “781-Mbit/s photon-counting optical communications using a super-conducting nanowire detector,” Opt. Lett. 31, 444–446 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. J. Kerman, E. A. Dauler, W. E. Keicher, J. K. W. Yang, K. K. Berggren, G. Goltsman, and B. Voronov, “Kinetic-inductance-limited reset time of superconducting nanowire photon counters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 111116 (2006).
[Crossref]

de Riedmatten, H.

N. Sangouard, C. Simon, H. de Riedmatten, and N. Gisin, “Quantum repeaters based on atomic ensembles and linear optics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 83, 33–80 (2011).
[Crossref]

H. De Riedmatten, I. Marcikic, J. A. W. van Houwelingen, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Long-distance entanglement swapping with photons from separated sources,” Phys. Rev. A 71, 050302 (2005).
[Crossref]

I. Marcikic, H. De Riedmatten, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Long-distance teleportation of qubits at telecommunication wavelengths,” Nature 421, 509–513 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dixon, A. R.

A. R. Dixon, J. F. Dynes, Z. L. Yuan, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Bennet, and A. J. Shields, “Ultrashort dead time of photon-counting InGaAs avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 231113 (2009).
[Crossref]

Dynes, J. F.

A. R. Dixon, J. F. Dynes, Z. L. Yuan, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Bennet, and A. J. Shields, “Ultrashort dead time of photon-counting InGaAs avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 231113 (2009).
[Crossref]

Fejer, M. M.

Y. Liu, T.-Y. Chen, L.-J. Wang, H. Liang, G.-L. Shentu, J. Wang, K. Cui, H.-L. Yin, N.-L. Liu, L. Li, X. Ma, J. S. Pelc, M. M. Fejer, C.-Z. Peng, Q. Zhang, and J.-W. Pan, “Experimental Measurement-Device-Independent Quantum Key Distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 130502 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gautier, J.-D.

J. Zhang, R. Thew, J.-D. Gautier, N. Gisin, and H. Zbinden, “Comprehensive Characterization of InGaAs/InP Avalanche Photodiodes at 1550nm with an Active Quenching ASIC,” J. Quantum Electron. 45, 792–799 (2009).
[Crossref]

George, M.

J. Jin, J. A. Slater, E. Saglamyurek, NJ Sinclair, M. George, R. Ricken, D. Oblak, W. Sohler, and W. Tittel, “Two-photon interference of weak coherent laser pulses recalled from separate solid-state quantum memories,” Nature Comm. 4, 2386 (2013).
[Crossref]

Gerrits, T.

F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, T. Gerrits, I. Vayshenker, B. Baek, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “Detecting single infrared photons with 93% system efficiency,” Nat. Photon. 7, 210–214 (2013).
[Crossref]

Gisin, N.

N. Sangouard, C. Simon, H. de Riedmatten, and N. Gisin, “Quantum repeaters based on atomic ensembles and linear optics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 83, 33–80 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Zhang, R. Thew, J.-D. Gautier, N. Gisin, and H. Zbinden, “Comprehensive Characterization of InGaAs/InP Avalanche Photodiodes at 1550nm with an Active Quenching ASIC,” J. Quantum Electron. 45, 792–799 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. A. W. van Houwelingen, N. Brunner, A. Beveratos, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Quantum Teleportation with a Three-Bell-State Analyzer,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 130502 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. De Riedmatten, I. Marcikic, J. A. W. van Houwelingen, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Long-distance entanglement swapping with photons from separated sources,” Phys. Rev. A 71, 050302 (2005).
[Crossref]

I. Marcikic, H. De Riedmatten, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Long-distance teleportation of qubits at telecommunication wavelengths,” Nature 421, 509–513 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Tittel, J. Brendel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Quantum cryptography using entangled photons in energy-time Bell states,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4737–4740 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Brendel, N. Gisin, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, “Pulsed energy-time enangled twin-photon source for quantum communication,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2594–2597 (1999).
[Crossref]

A. Muller, T. Herzog, B. Huttner, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Plug and play systems for quantum cryptography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 793–795 (1997).
[Crossref]

Goltsman, G.

A. J. Kerman, E. A. Dauler, W. E. Keicher, J. K. W. Yang, K. K. Berggren, G. Goltsman, and B. Voronov, “Kinetic-inductance-limited reset time of superconducting nanowire photon counters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 111116 (2006).
[Crossref]

Hadfield, R. H.

C. M. Natarajan, M. G. Tanner, and R. H. Hadfield, “Superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors: physics and applications,” Supercond. Sci. Technol. 25, 063001 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hamilton, S. A.

Harrington, S.

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F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, T. Gerrits, I. Vayshenker, B. Baek, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “Detecting single infrared photons with 93% system efficiency,” Nat. Photon. 7, 210–214 (2013).
[Crossref]

V. B. Verma, F. Marsili, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “A three-dimensional, polarization-insensitive superconducting nanowire avalanche photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 251114 (2012).
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K. Mattle, H. Weinfurter, P. G. Kwiat, and A. Zeilinger, “Dense Coding in Experimental Quantum Communication,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4656–4659 (1996).
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V. B. Verma, R. Horansky, F. Marsili, J. A. Stern, M. D. Shaw, A. E. Lita, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, ”A four-pixel single-photon pulse-position array fabricated from WSi superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 051115 (2014)
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F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, T. Gerrits, I. Vayshenker, B. Baek, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “Detecting single infrared photons with 93% system efficiency,” Nat. Photon. 7, 210–214 (2013).
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V. B. Verma, F. Marsili, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “A three-dimensional, polarization-insensitive superconducting nanowire avalanche photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 251114 (2012).
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A. Muller, T. Herzog, B. Huttner, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Plug and play systems for quantum cryptography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 793–795 (1997).
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V. B. Verma, R. Horansky, F. Marsili, J. A. Stern, M. D. Shaw, A. E. Lita, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, ”A four-pixel single-photon pulse-position array fabricated from WSi superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 051115 (2014)
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F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, T. Gerrits, I. Vayshenker, B. Baek, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “Detecting single infrared photons with 93% system efficiency,” Nat. Photon. 7, 210–214 (2013).
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V. B. Verma, F. Marsili, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “A three-dimensional, polarization-insensitive superconducting nanowire avalanche photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 251114 (2012).
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H.-K. Lo, M. Curty, and B. Qi, “Measurement-device-independent quantum key disitrbution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 130503 (2012).
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J. Jin, J. A. Slater, E. Saglamyurek, NJ Sinclair, M. George, R. Ricken, D. Oblak, W. Sohler, and W. Tittel, “Two-photon interference of weak coherent laser pulses recalled from separate solid-state quantum memories,” Nature Comm. 4, 2386 (2013).
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A. Rubenok, J. A. Slater, P. Chan, I. Lucio-Martinez, and W. Tittel, “Real-World Two-Photon Interference and Proof-of-Principle Quantum Key Distribution Immune to Detector Attacks,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 130501 (2013).
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V. B. Verma, R. Horansky, F. Marsili, J. A. Stern, M. D. Shaw, A. E. Lita, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, ”A four-pixel single-photon pulse-position array fabricated from WSi superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 051115 (2014)
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F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, T. Gerrits, I. Vayshenker, B. Baek, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “Detecting single infrared photons with 93% system efficiency,” Nat. Photon. 7, 210–214 (2013).
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J. Jin, J. A. Slater, E. Saglamyurek, NJ Sinclair, M. George, R. Ricken, D. Oblak, W. Sohler, and W. Tittel, “Two-photon interference of weak coherent laser pulses recalled from separate solid-state quantum memories,” Nature Comm. 4, 2386 (2013).
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V. B. Verma, R. Horansky, F. Marsili, J. A. Stern, M. D. Shaw, A. E. Lita, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, ”A four-pixel single-photon pulse-position array fabricated from WSi superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 051115 (2014)
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F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, T. Gerrits, I. Vayshenker, B. Baek, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “Detecting single infrared photons with 93% system efficiency,” Nat. Photon. 7, 210–214 (2013).
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V. B. Verma, R. Horansky, F. Marsili, J. A. Stern, M. D. Shaw, A. E. Lita, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, ”A four-pixel single-photon pulse-position array fabricated from WSi superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 051115 (2014)
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F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, T. Gerrits, I. Vayshenker, B. Baek, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “Detecting single infrared photons with 93% system efficiency,” Nat. Photon. 7, 210–214 (2013).
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V. B. Verma, F. Marsili, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “A three-dimensional, polarization-insensitive superconducting nanowire avalanche photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 251114 (2012).
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A. J. Kerman, E. A. Dauler, W. E. Keicher, J. K. W. Yang, K. K. Berggren, G. Goltsman, and B. Voronov, “Kinetic-inductance-limited reset time of superconducting nanowire photon counters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 111116 (2006).
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Yang, J. K. W.

J. K. W. Yang, A. J. Kerman, E. A. Dauler, V. Anant, K. M. Rosfjord, and K. K. Berggren, “Modeling the Electrical and Thermal Response of Superconducting Nanowire Single-Photon Detectors,” IEEE Trans. on Appl. Supercond. 17, 581–585 (2007).
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A. R. Dixon, J. F. Dynes, Z. L. Yuan, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Bennet, and A. J. Shields, “Ultrashort dead time of photon-counting InGaAs avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 231113 (2009).
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J. Zhang, R. Thew, J.-D. Gautier, N. Gisin, and H. Zbinden, “Comprehensive Characterization of InGaAs/InP Avalanche Photodiodes at 1550nm with an Active Quenching ASIC,” J. Quantum Electron. 45, 792–799 (2009).
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J. A. W. van Houwelingen, N. Brunner, A. Beveratos, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Quantum Teleportation with a Three-Bell-State Analyzer,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 130502 (2006).
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H. De Riedmatten, I. Marcikic, J. A. W. van Houwelingen, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Long-distance entanglement swapping with photons from separated sources,” Phys. Rev. A 71, 050302 (2005).
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J. Brendel, N. Gisin, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, “Pulsed energy-time enangled twin-photon source for quantum communication,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2594–2597 (1999).
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A. Muller, T. Herzog, B. Huttner, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Plug and play systems for quantum cryptography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 793–795 (1997).
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K. Mattle, H. Weinfurter, P. G. Kwiat, and A. Zeilinger, “Dense Coding in Experimental Quantum Communication,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4656–4659 (1996).
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Zhang, J.

J. Zhang, R. Thew, J.-D. Gautier, N. Gisin, and H. Zbinden, “Comprehensive Characterization of InGaAs/InP Avalanche Photodiodes at 1550nm with an Active Quenching ASIC,” J. Quantum Electron. 45, 792–799 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Zhang, R. Thew, C. Barreiro, and H. Zbinden, “Practical fast gate rate InGaAs/InP single-photon avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 091103 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Q.

Y. Liu, T.-Y. Chen, L.-J. Wang, H. Liang, G.-L. Shentu, J. Wang, K. Cui, H.-L. Yin, N.-L. Liu, L. Li, X. Ma, J. S. Pelc, M. M. Fejer, C.-Z. Peng, Q. Zhang, and J.-W. Pan, “Experimental Measurement-Device-Independent Quantum Key Distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 130502 (2013).
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Appl. Phys. Lett. (6)

A. Muller, T. Herzog, B. Huttner, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Plug and play systems for quantum cryptography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 793–795 (1997).
[Crossref]

A. R. Dixon, J. F. Dynes, Z. L. Yuan, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Bennet, and A. J. Shields, “Ultrashort dead time of photon-counting InGaAs avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 231113 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Zhang, R. Thew, C. Barreiro, and H. Zbinden, “Practical fast gate rate InGaAs/InP single-photon avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 091103 (2009).
[Crossref]

A. J. Kerman, E. A. Dauler, W. E. Keicher, J. K. W. Yang, K. K. Berggren, G. Goltsman, and B. Voronov, “Kinetic-inductance-limited reset time of superconducting nanowire photon counters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 111116 (2006).
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V. B. Verma, R. Horansky, F. Marsili, J. A. Stern, M. D. Shaw, A. E. Lita, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, ”A four-pixel single-photon pulse-position array fabricated from WSi superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 051115 (2014)
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Nature (1)

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Nature Comm. (1)

J. Jin, J. A. Slater, E. Saglamyurek, NJ Sinclair, M. George, R. Ricken, D. Oblak, W. Sohler, and W. Tittel, “Two-photon interference of weak coherent laser pulses recalled from separate solid-state quantum memories,” Nature Comm. 4, 2386 (2013).
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Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. A (3)

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C. H. Bennett, G. Brassard, C. Crépeau, R. Jozsa, A. Peres, and W. K. Wootters, “Teleporting an unknown quantum state via dual classical and Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen channels,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1895–1899 (1993).
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H.-K. Lo, M. Curty, and B. Qi, “Measurement-device-independent quantum key disitrbution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 130503 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Brendel, N. Gisin, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, “Pulsed energy-time enangled twin-photon source for quantum communication,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2594–2597 (1999).
[Crossref]

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[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup used to perform BSMs for a) polarization qubits and b) time-bin qubits. Density matrices ρA and ρB characterize the states of the photons emitted at Alice’s and Bob’s, respectively. Optical components: beam splitter (BS) and single photon detectors (SPD).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

a) General setup for Bell state measurement for time-bin qubits using linear optics and single photon detectors (SPD). b) Detection pattern for projections onto |ψ〉 and (c) |ψ+〉.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Detector setup and signal. a) Electrical diagram of the SNSPD setup. The Rb = 10 kΩ bias resistor translates the 60 mV bias voltage into a Ib = 6 μA bias current, which is directed to the superconducting detectors via the DC-port of the bias-T. The RF-port of the bias-T directs the photon detection signal through two amplifiers and a low-pass-filter (LPF) to a comparator, which generates a TTL output signal. The parallel connected voltmeter measures the voltage drop over the SNSPD and allows verifying that it is in the superconducting state. The panel also shows a sketch of an SNSPD consisting of two meanders. b) Single photon detection signals of detector 2 immediately after the amplifiers (marked by an x in Fig. a). A few detection inter-arrival times Δt are indicated for illustration.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Detection dead-times. Histograms of detection inter-arrival times for SNSPD 1 and 2 in the left and right panel, respectively. Solid lines correspond to the setup with Rl = 50 Ω (given by the impedance of the coaxial cable), while the dashed line shows the result when a Rl = 350 Ω resistor is connected to detector 2 inside the cryostat. For Rl=50 Ω we find τ ≈ 30 ns for detector 1 and τ ≈ 100 ns for detector 2. The dead-time of detector 2 is reduced to around 40 ns when using Rl=350 Ω.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Schematic of the experimental setup employed for a BSM with time-bin qubits. LD, laser diode; PMBS, polarization maintaining beam splitter; IM, intensity modulator; PM, phase modulator; PBS, polarization beam splitter; POC, polarization controller; PD, photodiode; BS, beam splitter; AWG, arbitrary waveform generator; ATT, variable optical attenuator; SNSPD, superconducting nanowire single-photon detector. The lasers LDC and LDP are used for timing and polarization feedback control, respectively, which is further explained in [12].

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Bounded error rates e 11 z and e 11 x for two single photon inputs (one at Alice’s and one at Bob’s) with both photons prepared in the z and x basis, respectively. The rates are extracted from the measured data using a decoy state method [24].

Tables Icon

Table 2 Bell state measurement efficiencies extracted from measured data using a decoy state method [24].

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

| ϕ ± = 1 2 ( | 00 ± | 11 )
| ψ ± = 1 2 ( | 01 ± | 10 ) .
η BSM = 1 2 η det 2 .
Q 11 x , z = P 1 ( μ ) P 1 ( μ ) t 2 η BSM x , z .
η BSM = 1 3 ( η bsm , z + 2 η bsm , x ) = ( 29.3 ± 0.4 ) % 1 2 η det 2 = ( 29.5 ± 0.4 ) %

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