Abstract

We report the fabrication and characterization of freestanding graphene coated ZnO nanowires (GZNs) for optical waveguiding. The GZNs are fabricated using a tape-assist transfer under micromanipulation. Owing to the deep-subwavelength diameter and high index contrast of the ZnO nanowire waveguide, light-graphene interaction is significantly enhanced by the strong surface optical fields, resulting in a linear absorption as high as 0.11 dB/µm in a 606-nm-diameter GZN at 1550-nm wavelength. Launched by 1550-nm-wavelength femto-second pulses, a 475-nm-diameter GZN with a graphene coating length of merely 24 µm exhibits evident nonlinear saturable absorption with a peak power threshold down to 1.3 W. In addition, we also demonstrate a transmission modulation for 1550-nm-wavelength signal with a 590-nm-diameter GZN, showing the possibility of using GZN waveguides as nanoscale bulding blocks for nanophotonic devices.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
OSA Recommended Articles
Graphene decorated microfiber for ultrafast optical modulation

Shaoliang Yu, Chao Meng, Bigeng Chen, Hongqing Wang, Xiaoqin Wu, Weitao Liu, Shangjian Zhang, Yong Liu, Yikai Su, and Limin Tong
Opt. Express 23(8) 10764-10770 (2015)

High-performance and low-loss plasmon waveguiding in graphene-coated nanowire with substrate

Morteza Hajati and Yaser Hajati
J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 33(12) 2560-2565 (2016)

Semiconductor nanowire lasers

Yaoguang Ma, Xin Guo, Xiaoqin Wu, Lun Dai, and Limin Tong
Adv. Opt. Photon. 5(3) 216-273 (2013)

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. R. X. Yan, D. Gargas, and P. D. Yang, “Nanowire photonics,” Nat. Photonics 3(10), 569–576 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  2. A. B. Greytak, C. J. Barrelet, Y. Li, and C. M. Lieber, “Semiconductor nanowire laser and nanowire waveguide electro-optic modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(15), 151103 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  3. M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Nonlinear optics in photonic nanowires,” Opt. Express 16(2), 1300–1320 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. F. X. Gu, H. K. Yu, W. Fang, and L. M. Tong, “Low-threshold supercontinuum generation in semiconductor nanoribbons by continuous-wave pumping,” Opt. Express 20(8), 8667–8674 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. C. J. Barrelet, H. S. Ee, S. H. Kwon, and H. G. Park, “Nonlinear Mixing in Nanowire Subwavelength Waveguides,” Nano Lett. 11(7), 3022–3025 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. R. Salem, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, D. F. Geraghty, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Signal regeneration using low-power four-wave mixing on silicon chip,” Nat. Photonics 2(1), 35–38 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  7. G. P. Agrawal and N. A. Olsson, “Self-Phase Modulation and Spectral Broadening of Optical Pulses in Semiconductor Laser Amplifiers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25(11), 2297–2306 (1989).
    [Crossref]
  8. T. L. Koch and R. A. Linke, “Effect of nonlinear gain reduction on semiconductor laser wavelength chirping,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48(10), 613–615 (1986).
    [Crossref]
  9. D. Van Thourhout, C. R. Doerr, C. H. Joyner, and J. L. Pleumeekers, “Observation of WDM Crosstalk in Passive Semiconductor Waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13(5), 457–459 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  10. D. Sun, Z. K. Wu, C. Divin, X. B. Li, C. Berger, W. A. de Heer, P. N. First, and T. B. Norris, “Ultrafast Relaxation of Excited Dirac Fermions in Epitaxial Graphene Using Optical Differential Transmission Spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(15), 157402 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. R. Wu, Y. L. Zhang, S. C. Yan, F. Bian, W. L. Wang, X. D. Bai, X. H. Lu, J. M. Zhao, and E. G. Wang, “Purely Coherent Nonlinear Optical Response in Solution Dispersions of Graphene Sheets,” Nano Lett. 11(12), 5159–5164 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. E. Hendry, P. J. Hale, J. Moger, A. K. Savchenko, and S. A. Mikhailov, “Coherent Nonlinear Optical Response of Graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(9), 097401 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics (Academic, 2008), Chap. 4.
  14. Q. L. Bao and K. P. Loh, “Graphene Photonics, Plasmonics, and Broadband Optoelectronic Devices,” ACS Nano 6(5), 3677–3694 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, M. I. Katsnelson, I. V. Grigorieva, S. V. Dubonos, and A. A. Firsov, “Two-dimensional gas of massless Dirac fermions in graphene,” Nature 438(7065), 197–200 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. C. G. Lee, X. D. Wei, J. W. Kysar, and J. Hone, “Measurement of the Elastic Properties and Intrinsic Strength of Monolayer Graphene,” Science 321(5887), 385–388 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. M. Liu, X. B. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. S. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. W. Li, B. G. Chen, C. Meng, W. Fang, Y. Xiao, X. Y. Li, Z. F. Hu, Y. X. Xu, L. M. Tong, H. Q. Wang, W. T. Liu, J. M. Bao, and Y. R. Shen, “Ultrafast All-Optical Graphene Modulator,” Nano Lett. 14(2), 955–959 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  19. M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Q. Yan, Y. Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. D. Yang, “Room-Temperature Ultraviolet Nanowire Nanolasers,” Science 292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. K. S. Kim, Y. Zhao, H. Jang, S. Y. Lee, J. M. Kim, K. S. Kim, J. H. Ahn, P. Kim, J. Y. Choi, and B. H. Hong, “Large-scale pattern growth of graphene films for stretchable transparent electrodes,” Nature 457(7230), 706–710 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. Y. F. Hao, Y. Y. Wang, L. Wang, Z. H. Ni, Z. Q. Wang, R. Wang, C. K. Koo, Z. X. Shen, and J. T. L. Thong, “Probing Layer Number and Stacking Order of Few-Layer Graphene by Raman Spectroscopy,” Small 6(2), 195–200 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  22. A. C. Ferrari, J. C. Meyer, V. Scardaci, C. Casiraghi, M. Lazzeri, F. Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth, and A. K. Geim, “Raman Spectrum of Graphene and Graphene Layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(18), 187401 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  23. L. M. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. L. He, J. Y. Lou, M. Y. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature 426(6968), 816–819 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  24. B. Yan, L. Liao, Y. M. You, X. J. Xu, Z. Zheng, Z. X. Shen, J. Ma, L. M. Tong, and T. Yu, “Single-Crystalline V2O5 Ultralong Nanoribbon Waveguides,” Adv. Mater. 21(23), 2436–2440 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  25. Y. G. Ma, X. Y. Li, H. K. Yu, L. M. Tong, Y. Gu, and Q. H. Gong, “Direct measurement of propagation losses in silver nanowires,” Opt. Lett. 35(8), 1160–1162 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  26. Y. Chen, Z. Ma, Q. Yang, and L. M. Tong, “Compact optical short-pass filters based on microfibers,” Opt. Lett. 33(21), 2565–2567 (2008).
    [PubMed]
  27. Q. Ye, J. Wang, Z. B. Liu, Z. C. Deng, X. T. Kong, F. Xing, X.-D. Chen, W.-Y. Zhou, C.-P. Zhang, and J.-G. Tian, “Polarization-dependent optical absorption of graphene under total internal reflection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(2), 021912 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  28. R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine Structure Constant Defines Visual Transparency of Graphene,” Science 320(5881), 1308 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  29. Y. G. Ma, X. Guo, X. Q. Wu, L. Dai, and L. M. Tong, “Semiconductor nanowire lasers,” Adv. Opt. Photon. 5(3), 216–273 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  30. Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. H. Ni, Y. L. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-Layer Graphene as a Saturable Absorber for Ultrafast Pulsed Lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  31. H. Z. Yang, X. B. Feng, Q. Wang, H. Huang, W. Chen, A. T. S. Wee, and W. Ji, “Giant Two-Photon Absorption in Bilayer Graphene,” Nano Lett. 11(7), 2622–2627 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  32. Z. B. Liu, M. Feng, W. S. Jiang, W. Xin, P. Wang, Q. W. Sheng, Y. G. Liu, D. N. Wang, W. Y. Zhou, and J. G. Tian, “Broadband all-optical modulation using a graphene-covered-microfiber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(6), 065901 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  33. J. Svensson, N. Anttu, N. Vainorius, B. M. Borg, and L. E. Wernersson, “Diameter-Dependent Photocurrent in InAsSb Nanowire Infrared Photodetectors,” Nano Lett. 13(4), 1380–1385 (2013).
    [PubMed]

2014 (1)

W. Li, B. G. Chen, C. Meng, W. Fang, Y. Xiao, X. Y. Li, Z. F. Hu, Y. X. Xu, L. M. Tong, H. Q. Wang, W. T. Liu, J. M. Bao, and Y. R. Shen, “Ultrafast All-Optical Graphene Modulator,” Nano Lett. 14(2), 955–959 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (4)

Q. Ye, J. Wang, Z. B. Liu, Z. C. Deng, X. T. Kong, F. Xing, X.-D. Chen, W.-Y. Zhou, C.-P. Zhang, and J.-G. Tian, “Polarization-dependent optical absorption of graphene under total internal reflection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(2), 021912 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. G. Ma, X. Guo, X. Q. Wu, L. Dai, and L. M. Tong, “Semiconductor nanowire lasers,” Adv. Opt. Photon. 5(3), 216–273 (2013).
[Crossref]

Z. B. Liu, M. Feng, W. S. Jiang, W. Xin, P. Wang, Q. W. Sheng, Y. G. Liu, D. N. Wang, W. Y. Zhou, and J. G. Tian, “Broadband all-optical modulation using a graphene-covered-microfiber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(6), 065901 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Svensson, N. Anttu, N. Vainorius, B. M. Borg, and L. E. Wernersson, “Diameter-Dependent Photocurrent in InAsSb Nanowire Infrared Photodetectors,” Nano Lett. 13(4), 1380–1385 (2013).
[PubMed]

2012 (2)

2011 (4)

C. J. Barrelet, H. S. Ee, S. H. Kwon, and H. G. Park, “Nonlinear Mixing in Nanowire Subwavelength Waveguides,” Nano Lett. 11(7), 3022–3025 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Wu, Y. L. Zhang, S. C. Yan, F. Bian, W. L. Wang, X. D. Bai, X. H. Lu, J. M. Zhao, and E. G. Wang, “Purely Coherent Nonlinear Optical Response in Solution Dispersions of Graphene Sheets,” Nano Lett. 11(12), 5159–5164 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Z. Yang, X. B. Feng, Q. Wang, H. Huang, W. Chen, A. T. S. Wee, and W. Ji, “Giant Two-Photon Absorption in Bilayer Graphene,” Nano Lett. 11(7), 2622–2627 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Liu, X. B. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. S. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (3)

Y. F. Hao, Y. Y. Wang, L. Wang, Z. H. Ni, Z. Q. Wang, R. Wang, C. K. Koo, Z. X. Shen, and J. T. L. Thong, “Probing Layer Number and Stacking Order of Few-Layer Graphene by Raman Spectroscopy,” Small 6(2), 195–200 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. G. Ma, X. Y. Li, H. K. Yu, L. M. Tong, Y. Gu, and Q. H. Gong, “Direct measurement of propagation losses in silver nanowires,” Opt. Lett. 35(8), 1160–1162 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Hendry, P. J. Hale, J. Moger, A. K. Savchenko, and S. A. Mikhailov, “Coherent Nonlinear Optical Response of Graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(9), 097401 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (4)

R. X. Yan, D. Gargas, and P. D. Yang, “Nanowire photonics,” Nat. Photonics 3(10), 569–576 (2009).
[Crossref]

K. S. Kim, Y. Zhao, H. Jang, S. Y. Lee, J. M. Kim, K. S. Kim, J. H. Ahn, P. Kim, J. Y. Choi, and B. H. Hong, “Large-scale pattern growth of graphene films for stretchable transparent electrodes,” Nature 457(7230), 706–710 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Yan, L. Liao, Y. M. You, X. J. Xu, Z. Zheng, Z. X. Shen, J. Ma, L. M. Tong, and T. Yu, “Single-Crystalline V2O5 Ultralong Nanoribbon Waveguides,” Adv. Mater. 21(23), 2436–2440 (2009).
[Crossref]

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. H. Ni, Y. L. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-Layer Graphene as a Saturable Absorber for Ultrafast Pulsed Lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (6)

Y. Chen, Z. Ma, Q. Yang, and L. M. Tong, “Compact optical short-pass filters based on microfibers,” Opt. Lett. 33(21), 2565–2567 (2008).
[PubMed]

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine Structure Constant Defines Visual Transparency of Graphene,” Science 320(5881), 1308 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Nonlinear optics in photonic nanowires,” Opt. Express 16(2), 1300–1320 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Salem, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, D. F. Geraghty, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Signal regeneration using low-power four-wave mixing on silicon chip,” Nat. Photonics 2(1), 35–38 (2008).
[Crossref]

D. Sun, Z. K. Wu, C. Divin, X. B. Li, C. Berger, W. A. de Heer, P. N. First, and T. B. Norris, “Ultrafast Relaxation of Excited Dirac Fermions in Epitaxial Graphene Using Optical Differential Transmission Spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(15), 157402 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. G. Lee, X. D. Wei, J. W. Kysar, and J. Hone, “Measurement of the Elastic Properties and Intrinsic Strength of Monolayer Graphene,” Science 321(5887), 385–388 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

A. C. Ferrari, J. C. Meyer, V. Scardaci, C. Casiraghi, M. Lazzeri, F. Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth, and A. K. Geim, “Raman Spectrum of Graphene and Graphene Layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(18), 187401 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, M. I. Katsnelson, I. V. Grigorieva, S. V. Dubonos, and A. A. Firsov, “Two-dimensional gas of massless Dirac fermions in graphene,” Nature 438(7065), 197–200 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. B. Greytak, C. J. Barrelet, Y. Li, and C. M. Lieber, “Semiconductor nanowire laser and nanowire waveguide electro-optic modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(15), 151103 (2005).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

L. M. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. L. He, J. Y. Lou, M. Y. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature 426(6968), 816–819 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (2)

D. Van Thourhout, C. R. Doerr, C. H. Joyner, and J. L. Pleumeekers, “Observation of WDM Crosstalk in Passive Semiconductor Waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13(5), 457–459 (2001).
[Crossref]

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Q. Yan, Y. Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. D. Yang, “Room-Temperature Ultraviolet Nanowire Nanolasers,” Science 292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1989 (1)

G. P. Agrawal and N. A. Olsson, “Self-Phase Modulation and Spectral Broadening of Optical Pulses in Semiconductor Laser Amplifiers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25(11), 2297–2306 (1989).
[Crossref]

1986 (1)

T. L. Koch and R. A. Linke, “Effect of nonlinear gain reduction on semiconductor laser wavelength chirping,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48(10), 613–615 (1986).
[Crossref]

Agrawal, G. P.

G. P. Agrawal and N. A. Olsson, “Self-Phase Modulation and Spectral Broadening of Optical Pulses in Semiconductor Laser Amplifiers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25(11), 2297–2306 (1989).
[Crossref]

Ahn, J. H.

K. S. Kim, Y. Zhao, H. Jang, S. Y. Lee, J. M. Kim, K. S. Kim, J. H. Ahn, P. Kim, J. Y. Choi, and B. H. Hong, “Large-scale pattern growth of graphene films for stretchable transparent electrodes,” Nature 457(7230), 706–710 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Anttu, N.

J. Svensson, N. Anttu, N. Vainorius, B. M. Borg, and L. E. Wernersson, “Diameter-Dependent Photocurrent in InAsSb Nanowire Infrared Photodetectors,” Nano Lett. 13(4), 1380–1385 (2013).
[PubMed]

Ashcom, J. B.

L. M. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. L. He, J. Y. Lou, M. Y. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature 426(6968), 816–819 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bai, X. D.

R. Wu, Y. L. Zhang, S. C. Yan, F. Bian, W. L. Wang, X. D. Bai, X. H. Lu, J. M. Zhao, and E. G. Wang, “Purely Coherent Nonlinear Optical Response in Solution Dispersions of Graphene Sheets,” Nano Lett. 11(12), 5159–5164 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bao, J. M.

W. Li, B. G. Chen, C. Meng, W. Fang, Y. Xiao, X. Y. Li, Z. F. Hu, Y. X. Xu, L. M. Tong, H. Q. Wang, W. T. Liu, J. M. Bao, and Y. R. Shen, “Ultrafast All-Optical Graphene Modulator,” Nano Lett. 14(2), 955–959 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bao, Q. L.

Q. L. Bao and K. P. Loh, “Graphene Photonics, Plasmonics, and Broadband Optoelectronic Devices,” ACS Nano 6(5), 3677–3694 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. H. Ni, Y. L. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-Layer Graphene as a Saturable Absorber for Ultrafast Pulsed Lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[Crossref]

Barrelet, C. J.

C. J. Barrelet, H. S. Ee, S. H. Kwon, and H. G. Park, “Nonlinear Mixing in Nanowire Subwavelength Waveguides,” Nano Lett. 11(7), 3022–3025 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. B. Greytak, C. J. Barrelet, Y. Li, and C. M. Lieber, “Semiconductor nanowire laser and nanowire waveguide electro-optic modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(15), 151103 (2005).
[Crossref]

Berger, C.

D. Sun, Z. K. Wu, C. Divin, X. B. Li, C. Berger, W. A. de Heer, P. N. First, and T. B. Norris, “Ultrafast Relaxation of Excited Dirac Fermions in Epitaxial Graphene Using Optical Differential Transmission Spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(15), 157402 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bian, F.

R. Wu, Y. L. Zhang, S. C. Yan, F. Bian, W. L. Wang, X. D. Bai, X. H. Lu, J. M. Zhao, and E. G. Wang, “Purely Coherent Nonlinear Optical Response in Solution Dispersions of Graphene Sheets,” Nano Lett. 11(12), 5159–5164 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Blake, P.

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine Structure Constant Defines Visual Transparency of Graphene,” Science 320(5881), 1308 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Booth, T. J.

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine Structure Constant Defines Visual Transparency of Graphene,” Science 320(5881), 1308 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Borg, B. M.

J. Svensson, N. Anttu, N. Vainorius, B. M. Borg, and L. E. Wernersson, “Diameter-Dependent Photocurrent in InAsSb Nanowire Infrared Photodetectors,” Nano Lett. 13(4), 1380–1385 (2013).
[PubMed]

Casiraghi, C.

A. C. Ferrari, J. C. Meyer, V. Scardaci, C. Casiraghi, M. Lazzeri, F. Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth, and A. K. Geim, “Raman Spectrum of Graphene and Graphene Layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(18), 187401 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, B. G.

W. Li, B. G. Chen, C. Meng, W. Fang, Y. Xiao, X. Y. Li, Z. F. Hu, Y. X. Xu, L. M. Tong, H. Q. Wang, W. T. Liu, J. M. Bao, and Y. R. Shen, “Ultrafast All-Optical Graphene Modulator,” Nano Lett. 14(2), 955–959 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, W.

H. Z. Yang, X. B. Feng, Q. Wang, H. Huang, W. Chen, A. T. S. Wee, and W. Ji, “Giant Two-Photon Absorption in Bilayer Graphene,” Nano Lett. 11(7), 2622–2627 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, X.-D.

Q. Ye, J. Wang, Z. B. Liu, Z. C. Deng, X. T. Kong, F. Xing, X.-D. Chen, W.-Y. Zhou, C.-P. Zhang, and J.-G. Tian, “Polarization-dependent optical absorption of graphene under total internal reflection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(2), 021912 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y.

Choi, J. Y.

K. S. Kim, Y. Zhao, H. Jang, S. Y. Lee, J. M. Kim, K. S. Kim, J. H. Ahn, P. Kim, J. Y. Choi, and B. H. Hong, “Large-scale pattern growth of graphene films for stretchable transparent electrodes,” Nature 457(7230), 706–710 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dai, L.

de Heer, W. A.

D. Sun, Z. K. Wu, C. Divin, X. B. Li, C. Berger, W. A. de Heer, P. N. First, and T. B. Norris, “Ultrafast Relaxation of Excited Dirac Fermions in Epitaxial Graphene Using Optical Differential Transmission Spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(15), 157402 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Deng, Z. C.

Q. Ye, J. Wang, Z. B. Liu, Z. C. Deng, X. T. Kong, F. Xing, X.-D. Chen, W.-Y. Zhou, C.-P. Zhang, and J.-G. Tian, “Polarization-dependent optical absorption of graphene under total internal reflection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(2), 021912 (2013).
[Crossref]

Divin, C.

D. Sun, Z. K. Wu, C. Divin, X. B. Li, C. Berger, W. A. de Heer, P. N. First, and T. B. Norris, “Ultrafast Relaxation of Excited Dirac Fermions in Epitaxial Graphene Using Optical Differential Transmission Spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(15), 157402 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Doerr, C. R.

D. Van Thourhout, C. R. Doerr, C. H. Joyner, and J. L. Pleumeekers, “Observation of WDM Crosstalk in Passive Semiconductor Waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13(5), 457–459 (2001).
[Crossref]

Dubonos, S. V.

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, M. I. Katsnelson, I. V. Grigorieva, S. V. Dubonos, and A. A. Firsov, “Two-dimensional gas of massless Dirac fermions in graphene,” Nature 438(7065), 197–200 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ee, H. S.

C. J. Barrelet, H. S. Ee, S. H. Kwon, and H. G. Park, “Nonlinear Mixing in Nanowire Subwavelength Waveguides,” Nano Lett. 11(7), 3022–3025 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fang, W.

W. Li, B. G. Chen, C. Meng, W. Fang, Y. Xiao, X. Y. Li, Z. F. Hu, Y. X. Xu, L. M. Tong, H. Q. Wang, W. T. Liu, J. M. Bao, and Y. R. Shen, “Ultrafast All-Optical Graphene Modulator,” Nano Lett. 14(2), 955–959 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. X. Gu, H. K. Yu, W. Fang, and L. M. Tong, “Low-threshold supercontinuum generation in semiconductor nanoribbons by continuous-wave pumping,” Opt. Express 20(8), 8667–8674 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Feick, H.

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Q. Yan, Y. Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. D. Yang, “Room-Temperature Ultraviolet Nanowire Nanolasers,” Science 292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Feng, M.

Z. B. Liu, M. Feng, W. S. Jiang, W. Xin, P. Wang, Q. W. Sheng, Y. G. Liu, D. N. Wang, W. Y. Zhou, and J. G. Tian, “Broadband all-optical modulation using a graphene-covered-microfiber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(6), 065901 (2013).
[Crossref]

Feng, X. B.

H. Z. Yang, X. B. Feng, Q. Wang, H. Huang, W. Chen, A. T. S. Wee, and W. Ji, “Giant Two-Photon Absorption in Bilayer Graphene,” Nano Lett. 11(7), 2622–2627 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ferrari, A. C.

A. C. Ferrari, J. C. Meyer, V. Scardaci, C. Casiraghi, M. Lazzeri, F. Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth, and A. K. Geim, “Raman Spectrum of Graphene and Graphene Layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(18), 187401 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Firsov, A. A.

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, M. I. Katsnelson, I. V. Grigorieva, S. V. Dubonos, and A. A. Firsov, “Two-dimensional gas of massless Dirac fermions in graphene,” Nature 438(7065), 197–200 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

First, P. N.

D. Sun, Z. K. Wu, C. Divin, X. B. Li, C. Berger, W. A. de Heer, P. N. First, and T. B. Norris, “Ultrafast Relaxation of Excited Dirac Fermions in Epitaxial Graphene Using Optical Differential Transmission Spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(15), 157402 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Foster, M. A.

R. Salem, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, D. F. Geraghty, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Signal regeneration using low-power four-wave mixing on silicon chip,” Nat. Photonics 2(1), 35–38 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Nonlinear optics in photonic nanowires,” Opt. Express 16(2), 1300–1320 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gaeta, A. L.

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Nonlinear optics in photonic nanowires,” Opt. Express 16(2), 1300–1320 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Salem, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, D. F. Geraghty, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Signal regeneration using low-power four-wave mixing on silicon chip,” Nat. Photonics 2(1), 35–38 (2008).
[Crossref]

Gargas, D.

R. X. Yan, D. Gargas, and P. D. Yang, “Nanowire photonics,” Nat. Photonics 3(10), 569–576 (2009).
[Crossref]

Gattass, R. R.

L. M. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. L. He, J. Y. Lou, M. Y. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature 426(6968), 816–819 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Geim, A. K.

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine Structure Constant Defines Visual Transparency of Graphene,” Science 320(5881), 1308 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. C. Ferrari, J. C. Meyer, V. Scardaci, C. Casiraghi, M. Lazzeri, F. Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth, and A. K. Geim, “Raman Spectrum of Graphene and Graphene Layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(18), 187401 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, M. I. Katsnelson, I. V. Grigorieva, S. V. Dubonos, and A. A. Firsov, “Two-dimensional gas of massless Dirac fermions in graphene,” Nature 438(7065), 197–200 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Geng, B. S.

M. Liu, X. B. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. S. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Geraghty, D. F.

R. Salem, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, D. F. Geraghty, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Signal regeneration using low-power four-wave mixing on silicon chip,” Nat. Photonics 2(1), 35–38 (2008).
[Crossref]

Gong, Q. H.

Greytak, A. B.

A. B. Greytak, C. J. Barrelet, Y. Li, and C. M. Lieber, “Semiconductor nanowire laser and nanowire waveguide electro-optic modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(15), 151103 (2005).
[Crossref]

Grigorenko, A. N.

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine Structure Constant Defines Visual Transparency of Graphene,” Science 320(5881), 1308 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grigorieva, I. V.

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, M. I. Katsnelson, I. V. Grigorieva, S. V. Dubonos, and A. A. Firsov, “Two-dimensional gas of massless Dirac fermions in graphene,” Nature 438(7065), 197–200 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gu, F. X.

Gu, Y.

Guo, X.

Hale, P. J.

E. Hendry, P. J. Hale, J. Moger, A. K. Savchenko, and S. A. Mikhailov, “Coherent Nonlinear Optical Response of Graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(9), 097401 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hao, Y. F.

Y. F. Hao, Y. Y. Wang, L. Wang, Z. H. Ni, Z. Q. Wang, R. Wang, C. K. Koo, Z. X. Shen, and J. T. L. Thong, “Probing Layer Number and Stacking Order of Few-Layer Graphene by Raman Spectroscopy,” Small 6(2), 195–200 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

He, S. L.

L. M. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. L. He, J. Y. Lou, M. Y. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature 426(6968), 816–819 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hendry, E.

E. Hendry, P. J. Hale, J. Moger, A. K. Savchenko, and S. A. Mikhailov, “Coherent Nonlinear Optical Response of Graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(9), 097401 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hone, J.

C. G. Lee, X. D. Wei, J. W. Kysar, and J. Hone, “Measurement of the Elastic Properties and Intrinsic Strength of Monolayer Graphene,” Science 321(5887), 385–388 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hong, B. H.

K. S. Kim, Y. Zhao, H. Jang, S. Y. Lee, J. M. Kim, K. S. Kim, J. H. Ahn, P. Kim, J. Y. Choi, and B. H. Hong, “Large-scale pattern growth of graphene films for stretchable transparent electrodes,” Nature 457(7230), 706–710 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hu, Z. F.

W. Li, B. G. Chen, C. Meng, W. Fang, Y. Xiao, X. Y. Li, Z. F. Hu, Y. X. Xu, L. M. Tong, H. Q. Wang, W. T. Liu, J. M. Bao, and Y. R. Shen, “Ultrafast All-Optical Graphene Modulator,” Nano Lett. 14(2), 955–959 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, H.

H. Z. Yang, X. B. Feng, Q. Wang, H. Huang, W. Chen, A. T. S. Wee, and W. Ji, “Giant Two-Photon Absorption in Bilayer Graphene,” Nano Lett. 11(7), 2622–2627 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, M. H.

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Q. Yan, Y. Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. D. Yang, “Room-Temperature Ultraviolet Nanowire Nanolasers,” Science 292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jang, H.

K. S. Kim, Y. Zhao, H. Jang, S. Y. Lee, J. M. Kim, K. S. Kim, J. H. Ahn, P. Kim, J. Y. Choi, and B. H. Hong, “Large-scale pattern growth of graphene films for stretchable transparent electrodes,” Nature 457(7230), 706–710 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ji, W.

H. Z. Yang, X. B. Feng, Q. Wang, H. Huang, W. Chen, A. T. S. Wee, and W. Ji, “Giant Two-Photon Absorption in Bilayer Graphene,” Nano Lett. 11(7), 2622–2627 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jiang, D.

A. C. Ferrari, J. C. Meyer, V. Scardaci, C. Casiraghi, M. Lazzeri, F. Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth, and A. K. Geim, “Raman Spectrum of Graphene and Graphene Layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(18), 187401 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, M. I. Katsnelson, I. V. Grigorieva, S. V. Dubonos, and A. A. Firsov, “Two-dimensional gas of massless Dirac fermions in graphene,” Nature 438(7065), 197–200 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jiang, W. S.

Z. B. Liu, M. Feng, W. S. Jiang, W. Xin, P. Wang, Q. W. Sheng, Y. G. Liu, D. N. Wang, W. Y. Zhou, and J. G. Tian, “Broadband all-optical modulation using a graphene-covered-microfiber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(6), 065901 (2013).
[Crossref]

Joyner, C. H.

D. Van Thourhout, C. R. Doerr, C. H. Joyner, and J. L. Pleumeekers, “Observation of WDM Crosstalk in Passive Semiconductor Waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13(5), 457–459 (2001).
[Crossref]

Ju, L.

M. Liu, X. B. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. S. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Katsnelson, M. I.

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, M. I. Katsnelson, I. V. Grigorieva, S. V. Dubonos, and A. A. Firsov, “Two-dimensional gas of massless Dirac fermions in graphene,” Nature 438(7065), 197–200 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, J. M.

K. S. Kim, Y. Zhao, H. Jang, S. Y. Lee, J. M. Kim, K. S. Kim, J. H. Ahn, P. Kim, J. Y. Choi, and B. H. Hong, “Large-scale pattern growth of graphene films for stretchable transparent electrodes,” Nature 457(7230), 706–710 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, K. S.

K. S. Kim, Y. Zhao, H. Jang, S. Y. Lee, J. M. Kim, K. S. Kim, J. H. Ahn, P. Kim, J. Y. Choi, and B. H. Hong, “Large-scale pattern growth of graphene films for stretchable transparent electrodes,” Nature 457(7230), 706–710 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. S. Kim, Y. Zhao, H. Jang, S. Y. Lee, J. M. Kim, K. S. Kim, J. H. Ahn, P. Kim, J. Y. Choi, and B. H. Hong, “Large-scale pattern growth of graphene films for stretchable transparent electrodes,” Nature 457(7230), 706–710 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, P.

K. S. Kim, Y. Zhao, H. Jang, S. Y. Lee, J. M. Kim, K. S. Kim, J. H. Ahn, P. Kim, J. Y. Choi, and B. H. Hong, “Large-scale pattern growth of graphene films for stretchable transparent electrodes,” Nature 457(7230), 706–710 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kind, H.

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Q. Yan, Y. Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. D. Yang, “Room-Temperature Ultraviolet Nanowire Nanolasers,” Science 292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Koch, T. L.

T. L. Koch and R. A. Linke, “Effect of nonlinear gain reduction on semiconductor laser wavelength chirping,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48(10), 613–615 (1986).
[Crossref]

Kong, X. T.

Q. Ye, J. Wang, Z. B. Liu, Z. C. Deng, X. T. Kong, F. Xing, X.-D. Chen, W.-Y. Zhou, C.-P. Zhang, and J.-G. Tian, “Polarization-dependent optical absorption of graphene under total internal reflection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(2), 021912 (2013).
[Crossref]

Koo, C. K.

Y. F. Hao, Y. Y. Wang, L. Wang, Z. H. Ni, Z. Q. Wang, R. Wang, C. K. Koo, Z. X. Shen, and J. T. L. Thong, “Probing Layer Number and Stacking Order of Few-Layer Graphene by Raman Spectroscopy,” Small 6(2), 195–200 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kwon, S. H.

C. J. Barrelet, H. S. Ee, S. H. Kwon, and H. G. Park, “Nonlinear Mixing in Nanowire Subwavelength Waveguides,” Nano Lett. 11(7), 3022–3025 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kysar, J. W.

C. G. Lee, X. D. Wei, J. W. Kysar, and J. Hone, “Measurement of the Elastic Properties and Intrinsic Strength of Monolayer Graphene,” Science 321(5887), 385–388 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lazzeri, M.

A. C. Ferrari, J. C. Meyer, V. Scardaci, C. Casiraghi, M. Lazzeri, F. Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth, and A. K. Geim, “Raman Spectrum of Graphene and Graphene Layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(18), 187401 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, C. G.

C. G. Lee, X. D. Wei, J. W. Kysar, and J. Hone, “Measurement of the Elastic Properties and Intrinsic Strength of Monolayer Graphene,” Science 321(5887), 385–388 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, S. Y.

K. S. Kim, Y. Zhao, H. Jang, S. Y. Lee, J. M. Kim, K. S. Kim, J. H. Ahn, P. Kim, J. Y. Choi, and B. H. Hong, “Large-scale pattern growth of graphene films for stretchable transparent electrodes,” Nature 457(7230), 706–710 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, W.

W. Li, B. G. Chen, C. Meng, W. Fang, Y. Xiao, X. Y. Li, Z. F. Hu, Y. X. Xu, L. M. Tong, H. Q. Wang, W. T. Liu, J. M. Bao, and Y. R. Shen, “Ultrafast All-Optical Graphene Modulator,” Nano Lett. 14(2), 955–959 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, X. B.

D. Sun, Z. K. Wu, C. Divin, X. B. Li, C. Berger, W. A. de Heer, P. N. First, and T. B. Norris, “Ultrafast Relaxation of Excited Dirac Fermions in Epitaxial Graphene Using Optical Differential Transmission Spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(15), 157402 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, X. Y.

W. Li, B. G. Chen, C. Meng, W. Fang, Y. Xiao, X. Y. Li, Z. F. Hu, Y. X. Xu, L. M. Tong, H. Q. Wang, W. T. Liu, J. M. Bao, and Y. R. Shen, “Ultrafast All-Optical Graphene Modulator,” Nano Lett. 14(2), 955–959 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. G. Ma, X. Y. Li, H. K. Yu, L. M. Tong, Y. Gu, and Q. H. Gong, “Direct measurement of propagation losses in silver nanowires,” Opt. Lett. 35(8), 1160–1162 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, Y.

A. B. Greytak, C. J. Barrelet, Y. Li, and C. M. Lieber, “Semiconductor nanowire laser and nanowire waveguide electro-optic modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(15), 151103 (2005).
[Crossref]

Liao, L.

B. Yan, L. Liao, Y. M. You, X. J. Xu, Z. Zheng, Z. X. Shen, J. Ma, L. M. Tong, and T. Yu, “Single-Crystalline V2O5 Ultralong Nanoribbon Waveguides,” Adv. Mater. 21(23), 2436–2440 (2009).
[Crossref]

Lieber, C. M.

A. B. Greytak, C. J. Barrelet, Y. Li, and C. M. Lieber, “Semiconductor nanowire laser and nanowire waveguide electro-optic modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(15), 151103 (2005).
[Crossref]

Linke, R. A.

T. L. Koch and R. A. Linke, “Effect of nonlinear gain reduction on semiconductor laser wavelength chirping,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48(10), 613–615 (1986).
[Crossref]

Lipson, M.

R. Salem, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, D. F. Geraghty, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Signal regeneration using low-power four-wave mixing on silicon chip,” Nat. Photonics 2(1), 35–38 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Nonlinear optics in photonic nanowires,” Opt. Express 16(2), 1300–1320 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, M.

M. Liu, X. B. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. S. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, W. T.

W. Li, B. G. Chen, C. Meng, W. Fang, Y. Xiao, X. Y. Li, Z. F. Hu, Y. X. Xu, L. M. Tong, H. Q. Wang, W. T. Liu, J. M. Bao, and Y. R. Shen, “Ultrafast All-Optical Graphene Modulator,” Nano Lett. 14(2), 955–959 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, Y. G.

Z. B. Liu, M. Feng, W. S. Jiang, W. Xin, P. Wang, Q. W. Sheng, Y. G. Liu, D. N. Wang, W. Y. Zhou, and J. G. Tian, “Broadband all-optical modulation using a graphene-covered-microfiber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(6), 065901 (2013).
[Crossref]

Liu, Z. B.

Z. B. Liu, M. Feng, W. S. Jiang, W. Xin, P. Wang, Q. W. Sheng, Y. G. Liu, D. N. Wang, W. Y. Zhou, and J. G. Tian, “Broadband all-optical modulation using a graphene-covered-microfiber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(6), 065901 (2013).
[Crossref]

Q. Ye, J. Wang, Z. B. Liu, Z. C. Deng, X. T. Kong, F. Xing, X.-D. Chen, W.-Y. Zhou, C.-P. Zhang, and J.-G. Tian, “Polarization-dependent optical absorption of graphene under total internal reflection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(2), 021912 (2013).
[Crossref]

Loh, K. P.

Q. L. Bao and K. P. Loh, “Graphene Photonics, Plasmonics, and Broadband Optoelectronic Devices,” ACS Nano 6(5), 3677–3694 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. H. Ni, Y. L. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-Layer Graphene as a Saturable Absorber for Ultrafast Pulsed Lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[Crossref]

Lou, J. Y.

L. M. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. L. He, J. Y. Lou, M. Y. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature 426(6968), 816–819 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lu, X. H.

R. Wu, Y. L. Zhang, S. C. Yan, F. Bian, W. L. Wang, X. D. Bai, X. H. Lu, J. M. Zhao, and E. G. Wang, “Purely Coherent Nonlinear Optical Response in Solution Dispersions of Graphene Sheets,” Nano Lett. 11(12), 5159–5164 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ma, J.

B. Yan, L. Liao, Y. M. You, X. J. Xu, Z. Zheng, Z. X. Shen, J. Ma, L. M. Tong, and T. Yu, “Single-Crystalline V2O5 Ultralong Nanoribbon Waveguides,” Adv. Mater. 21(23), 2436–2440 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ma, Y. G.

Ma, Z.

Mao, S.

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Q. Yan, Y. Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. D. Yang, “Room-Temperature Ultraviolet Nanowire Nanolasers,” Science 292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mauri, F.

A. C. Ferrari, J. C. Meyer, V. Scardaci, C. Casiraghi, M. Lazzeri, F. Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth, and A. K. Geim, “Raman Spectrum of Graphene and Graphene Layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(18), 187401 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Maxwell, I.

L. M. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. L. He, J. Y. Lou, M. Y. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature 426(6968), 816–819 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mazur, E.

L. M. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. L. He, J. Y. Lou, M. Y. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature 426(6968), 816–819 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Meng, C.

W. Li, B. G. Chen, C. Meng, W. Fang, Y. Xiao, X. Y. Li, Z. F. Hu, Y. X. Xu, L. M. Tong, H. Q. Wang, W. T. Liu, J. M. Bao, and Y. R. Shen, “Ultrafast All-Optical Graphene Modulator,” Nano Lett. 14(2), 955–959 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Meyer, J. C.

A. C. Ferrari, J. C. Meyer, V. Scardaci, C. Casiraghi, M. Lazzeri, F. Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth, and A. K. Geim, “Raman Spectrum of Graphene and Graphene Layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(18), 187401 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mikhailov, S. A.

E. Hendry, P. J. Hale, J. Moger, A. K. Savchenko, and S. A. Mikhailov, “Coherent Nonlinear Optical Response of Graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(9), 097401 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Moger, J.

E. Hendry, P. J. Hale, J. Moger, A. K. Savchenko, and S. A. Mikhailov, “Coherent Nonlinear Optical Response of Graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(9), 097401 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Morozov, S. V.

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, M. I. Katsnelson, I. V. Grigorieva, S. V. Dubonos, and A. A. Firsov, “Two-dimensional gas of massless Dirac fermions in graphene,” Nature 438(7065), 197–200 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nair, R. R.

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine Structure Constant Defines Visual Transparency of Graphene,” Science 320(5881), 1308 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ni, Z. H.

Y. F. Hao, Y. Y. Wang, L. Wang, Z. H. Ni, Z. Q. Wang, R. Wang, C. K. Koo, Z. X. Shen, and J. T. L. Thong, “Probing Layer Number and Stacking Order of Few-Layer Graphene by Raman Spectroscopy,” Small 6(2), 195–200 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. H. Ni, Y. L. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-Layer Graphene as a Saturable Absorber for Ultrafast Pulsed Lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[Crossref]

Norris, T. B.

D. Sun, Z. K. Wu, C. Divin, X. B. Li, C. Berger, W. A. de Heer, P. N. First, and T. B. Norris, “Ultrafast Relaxation of Excited Dirac Fermions in Epitaxial Graphene Using Optical Differential Transmission Spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(15), 157402 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Novoselov, K. S.

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine Structure Constant Defines Visual Transparency of Graphene,” Science 320(5881), 1308 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. C. Ferrari, J. C. Meyer, V. Scardaci, C. Casiraghi, M. Lazzeri, F. Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth, and A. K. Geim, “Raman Spectrum of Graphene and Graphene Layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(18), 187401 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, M. I. Katsnelson, I. V. Grigorieva, S. V. Dubonos, and A. A. Firsov, “Two-dimensional gas of massless Dirac fermions in graphene,” Nature 438(7065), 197–200 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Olsson, N. A.

G. P. Agrawal and N. A. Olsson, “Self-Phase Modulation and Spectral Broadening of Optical Pulses in Semiconductor Laser Amplifiers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25(11), 2297–2306 (1989).
[Crossref]

Park, H. G.

C. J. Barrelet, H. S. Ee, S. H. Kwon, and H. G. Park, “Nonlinear Mixing in Nanowire Subwavelength Waveguides,” Nano Lett. 11(7), 3022–3025 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Peres, N. M. R.

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine Structure Constant Defines Visual Transparency of Graphene,” Science 320(5881), 1308 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Piscanec, S.

A. C. Ferrari, J. C. Meyer, V. Scardaci, C. Casiraghi, M. Lazzeri, F. Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth, and A. K. Geim, “Raman Spectrum of Graphene and Graphene Layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(18), 187401 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pleumeekers, J. L.

D. Van Thourhout, C. R. Doerr, C. H. Joyner, and J. L. Pleumeekers, “Observation of WDM Crosstalk in Passive Semiconductor Waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13(5), 457–459 (2001).
[Crossref]

Roth, S.

A. C. Ferrari, J. C. Meyer, V. Scardaci, C. Casiraghi, M. Lazzeri, F. Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth, and A. K. Geim, “Raman Spectrum of Graphene and Graphene Layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(18), 187401 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Russo, R.

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Q. Yan, Y. Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. D. Yang, “Room-Temperature Ultraviolet Nanowire Nanolasers,” Science 292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Salem, R.

R. Salem, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, D. F. Geraghty, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Signal regeneration using low-power four-wave mixing on silicon chip,” Nat. Photonics 2(1), 35–38 (2008).
[Crossref]

Savchenko, A. K.

E. Hendry, P. J. Hale, J. Moger, A. K. Savchenko, and S. A. Mikhailov, “Coherent Nonlinear Optical Response of Graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(9), 097401 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Scardaci, V.

A. C. Ferrari, J. C. Meyer, V. Scardaci, C. Casiraghi, M. Lazzeri, F. Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth, and A. K. Geim, “Raman Spectrum of Graphene and Graphene Layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(18), 187401 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shen, M. Y.

L. M. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. L. He, J. Y. Lou, M. Y. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature 426(6968), 816–819 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shen, Y. R.

W. Li, B. G. Chen, C. Meng, W. Fang, Y. Xiao, X. Y. Li, Z. F. Hu, Y. X. Xu, L. M. Tong, H. Q. Wang, W. T. Liu, J. M. Bao, and Y. R. Shen, “Ultrafast All-Optical Graphene Modulator,” Nano Lett. 14(2), 955–959 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shen, Z. X.

Y. F. Hao, Y. Y. Wang, L. Wang, Z. H. Ni, Z. Q. Wang, R. Wang, C. K. Koo, Z. X. Shen, and J. T. L. Thong, “Probing Layer Number and Stacking Order of Few-Layer Graphene by Raman Spectroscopy,” Small 6(2), 195–200 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Yan, L. Liao, Y. M. You, X. J. Xu, Z. Zheng, Z. X. Shen, J. Ma, L. M. Tong, and T. Yu, “Single-Crystalline V2O5 Ultralong Nanoribbon Waveguides,” Adv. Mater. 21(23), 2436–2440 (2009).
[Crossref]

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. H. Ni, Y. L. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-Layer Graphene as a Saturable Absorber for Ultrafast Pulsed Lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[Crossref]

Sheng, Q. W.

Z. B. Liu, M. Feng, W. S. Jiang, W. Xin, P. Wang, Q. W. Sheng, Y. G. Liu, D. N. Wang, W. Y. Zhou, and J. G. Tian, “Broadband all-optical modulation using a graphene-covered-microfiber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(6), 065901 (2013).
[Crossref]

Stauber, T.

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine Structure Constant Defines Visual Transparency of Graphene,” Science 320(5881), 1308 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sun, D.

D. Sun, Z. K. Wu, C. Divin, X. B. Li, C. Berger, W. A. de Heer, P. N. First, and T. B. Norris, “Ultrafast Relaxation of Excited Dirac Fermions in Epitaxial Graphene Using Optical Differential Transmission Spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(15), 157402 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Svensson, J.

J. Svensson, N. Anttu, N. Vainorius, B. M. Borg, and L. E. Wernersson, “Diameter-Dependent Photocurrent in InAsSb Nanowire Infrared Photodetectors,” Nano Lett. 13(4), 1380–1385 (2013).
[PubMed]

Tang, D. Y.

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. H. Ni, Y. L. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-Layer Graphene as a Saturable Absorber for Ultrafast Pulsed Lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[Crossref]

Thong, J. T. L.

Y. F. Hao, Y. Y. Wang, L. Wang, Z. H. Ni, Z. Q. Wang, R. Wang, C. K. Koo, Z. X. Shen, and J. T. L. Thong, “Probing Layer Number and Stacking Order of Few-Layer Graphene by Raman Spectroscopy,” Small 6(2), 195–200 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tian, J. G.

Z. B. Liu, M. Feng, W. S. Jiang, W. Xin, P. Wang, Q. W. Sheng, Y. G. Liu, D. N. Wang, W. Y. Zhou, and J. G. Tian, “Broadband all-optical modulation using a graphene-covered-microfiber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(6), 065901 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tian, J.-G.

Q. Ye, J. Wang, Z. B. Liu, Z. C. Deng, X. T. Kong, F. Xing, X.-D. Chen, W.-Y. Zhou, C.-P. Zhang, and J.-G. Tian, “Polarization-dependent optical absorption of graphene under total internal reflection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(2), 021912 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tong, L. M.

W. Li, B. G. Chen, C. Meng, W. Fang, Y. Xiao, X. Y. Li, Z. F. Hu, Y. X. Xu, L. M. Tong, H. Q. Wang, W. T. Liu, J. M. Bao, and Y. R. Shen, “Ultrafast All-Optical Graphene Modulator,” Nano Lett. 14(2), 955–959 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. G. Ma, X. Guo, X. Q. Wu, L. Dai, and L. M. Tong, “Semiconductor nanowire lasers,” Adv. Opt. Photon. 5(3), 216–273 (2013).
[Crossref]

F. X. Gu, H. K. Yu, W. Fang, and L. M. Tong, “Low-threshold supercontinuum generation in semiconductor nanoribbons by continuous-wave pumping,” Opt. Express 20(8), 8667–8674 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. G. Ma, X. Y. Li, H. K. Yu, L. M. Tong, Y. Gu, and Q. H. Gong, “Direct measurement of propagation losses in silver nanowires,” Opt. Lett. 35(8), 1160–1162 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Yan, L. Liao, Y. M. You, X. J. Xu, Z. Zheng, Z. X. Shen, J. Ma, L. M. Tong, and T. Yu, “Single-Crystalline V2O5 Ultralong Nanoribbon Waveguides,” Adv. Mater. 21(23), 2436–2440 (2009).
[Crossref]

Y. Chen, Z. Ma, Q. Yang, and L. M. Tong, “Compact optical short-pass filters based on microfibers,” Opt. Lett. 33(21), 2565–2567 (2008).
[PubMed]

L. M. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. L. He, J. Y. Lou, M. Y. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature 426(6968), 816–819 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Turner, A. C.

R. Salem, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, D. F. Geraghty, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Signal regeneration using low-power four-wave mixing on silicon chip,” Nat. Photonics 2(1), 35–38 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Nonlinear optics in photonic nanowires,” Opt. Express 16(2), 1300–1320 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ulin-Avila, E.

M. Liu, X. B. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. S. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vainorius, N.

J. Svensson, N. Anttu, N. Vainorius, B. M. Borg, and L. E. Wernersson, “Diameter-Dependent Photocurrent in InAsSb Nanowire Infrared Photodetectors,” Nano Lett. 13(4), 1380–1385 (2013).
[PubMed]

Van Thourhout, D.

D. Van Thourhout, C. R. Doerr, C. H. Joyner, and J. L. Pleumeekers, “Observation of WDM Crosstalk in Passive Semiconductor Waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13(5), 457–459 (2001).
[Crossref]

Wang, D. N.

Z. B. Liu, M. Feng, W. S. Jiang, W. Xin, P. Wang, Q. W. Sheng, Y. G. Liu, D. N. Wang, W. Y. Zhou, and J. G. Tian, “Broadband all-optical modulation using a graphene-covered-microfiber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(6), 065901 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wang, E. G.

R. Wu, Y. L. Zhang, S. C. Yan, F. Bian, W. L. Wang, X. D. Bai, X. H. Lu, J. M. Zhao, and E. G. Wang, “Purely Coherent Nonlinear Optical Response in Solution Dispersions of Graphene Sheets,” Nano Lett. 11(12), 5159–5164 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, F.

M. Liu, X. B. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. S. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, H. Q.

W. Li, B. G. Chen, C. Meng, W. Fang, Y. Xiao, X. Y. Li, Z. F. Hu, Y. X. Xu, L. M. Tong, H. Q. Wang, W. T. Liu, J. M. Bao, and Y. R. Shen, “Ultrafast All-Optical Graphene Modulator,” Nano Lett. 14(2), 955–959 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, J.

Q. Ye, J. Wang, Z. B. Liu, Z. C. Deng, X. T. Kong, F. Xing, X.-D. Chen, W.-Y. Zhou, C.-P. Zhang, and J.-G. Tian, “Polarization-dependent optical absorption of graphene under total internal reflection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(2), 021912 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wang, L.

Y. F. Hao, Y. Y. Wang, L. Wang, Z. H. Ni, Z. Q. Wang, R. Wang, C. K. Koo, Z. X. Shen, and J. T. L. Thong, “Probing Layer Number and Stacking Order of Few-Layer Graphene by Raman Spectroscopy,” Small 6(2), 195–200 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, P.

Z. B. Liu, M. Feng, W. S. Jiang, W. Xin, P. Wang, Q. W. Sheng, Y. G. Liu, D. N. Wang, W. Y. Zhou, and J. G. Tian, “Broadband all-optical modulation using a graphene-covered-microfiber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(6), 065901 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wang, Q.

H. Z. Yang, X. B. Feng, Q. Wang, H. Huang, W. Chen, A. T. S. Wee, and W. Ji, “Giant Two-Photon Absorption in Bilayer Graphene,” Nano Lett. 11(7), 2622–2627 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, R.

Y. F. Hao, Y. Y. Wang, L. Wang, Z. H. Ni, Z. Q. Wang, R. Wang, C. K. Koo, Z. X. Shen, and J. T. L. Thong, “Probing Layer Number and Stacking Order of Few-Layer Graphene by Raman Spectroscopy,” Small 6(2), 195–200 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, W. L.

R. Wu, Y. L. Zhang, S. C. Yan, F. Bian, W. L. Wang, X. D. Bai, X. H. Lu, J. M. Zhao, and E. G. Wang, “Purely Coherent Nonlinear Optical Response in Solution Dispersions of Graphene Sheets,” Nano Lett. 11(12), 5159–5164 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, Y.

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. H. Ni, Y. L. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-Layer Graphene as a Saturable Absorber for Ultrafast Pulsed Lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y. Y.

Y. F. Hao, Y. Y. Wang, L. Wang, Z. H. Ni, Z. Q. Wang, R. Wang, C. K. Koo, Z. X. Shen, and J. T. L. Thong, “Probing Layer Number and Stacking Order of Few-Layer Graphene by Raman Spectroscopy,” Small 6(2), 195–200 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, Z. Q.

Y. F. Hao, Y. Y. Wang, L. Wang, Z. H. Ni, Z. Q. Wang, R. Wang, C. K. Koo, Z. X. Shen, and J. T. L. Thong, “Probing Layer Number and Stacking Order of Few-Layer Graphene by Raman Spectroscopy,” Small 6(2), 195–200 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Weber, E.

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Q. Yan, Y. Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. D. Yang, “Room-Temperature Ultraviolet Nanowire Nanolasers,” Science 292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wee, A. T. S.

H. Z. Yang, X. B. Feng, Q. Wang, H. Huang, W. Chen, A. T. S. Wee, and W. Ji, “Giant Two-Photon Absorption in Bilayer Graphene,” Nano Lett. 11(7), 2622–2627 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wei, X. D.

C. G. Lee, X. D. Wei, J. W. Kysar, and J. Hone, “Measurement of the Elastic Properties and Intrinsic Strength of Monolayer Graphene,” Science 321(5887), 385–388 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wernersson, L. E.

J. Svensson, N. Anttu, N. Vainorius, B. M. Borg, and L. E. Wernersson, “Diameter-Dependent Photocurrent in InAsSb Nanowire Infrared Photodetectors,” Nano Lett. 13(4), 1380–1385 (2013).
[PubMed]

Wu, R.

R. Wu, Y. L. Zhang, S. C. Yan, F. Bian, W. L. Wang, X. D. Bai, X. H. Lu, J. M. Zhao, and E. G. Wang, “Purely Coherent Nonlinear Optical Response in Solution Dispersions of Graphene Sheets,” Nano Lett. 11(12), 5159–5164 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, X. Q.

Wu, Y. Y.

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Q. Yan, Y. Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. D. Yang, “Room-Temperature Ultraviolet Nanowire Nanolasers,” Science 292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, Z. K.

D. Sun, Z. K. Wu, C. Divin, X. B. Li, C. Berger, W. A. de Heer, P. N. First, and T. B. Norris, “Ultrafast Relaxation of Excited Dirac Fermions in Epitaxial Graphene Using Optical Differential Transmission Spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(15), 157402 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xiao, Y.

W. Li, B. G. Chen, C. Meng, W. Fang, Y. Xiao, X. Y. Li, Z. F. Hu, Y. X. Xu, L. M. Tong, H. Q. Wang, W. T. Liu, J. M. Bao, and Y. R. Shen, “Ultrafast All-Optical Graphene Modulator,” Nano Lett. 14(2), 955–959 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xin, W.

Z. B. Liu, M. Feng, W. S. Jiang, W. Xin, P. Wang, Q. W. Sheng, Y. G. Liu, D. N. Wang, W. Y. Zhou, and J. G. Tian, “Broadband all-optical modulation using a graphene-covered-microfiber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(6), 065901 (2013).
[Crossref]

Xing, F.

Q. Ye, J. Wang, Z. B. Liu, Z. C. Deng, X. T. Kong, F. Xing, X.-D. Chen, W.-Y. Zhou, C.-P. Zhang, and J.-G. Tian, “Polarization-dependent optical absorption of graphene under total internal reflection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(2), 021912 (2013).
[Crossref]

Xu, X. J.

B. Yan, L. Liao, Y. M. You, X. J. Xu, Z. Zheng, Z. X. Shen, J. Ma, L. M. Tong, and T. Yu, “Single-Crystalline V2O5 Ultralong Nanoribbon Waveguides,” Adv. Mater. 21(23), 2436–2440 (2009).
[Crossref]

Xu, Y. X.

W. Li, B. G. Chen, C. Meng, W. Fang, Y. Xiao, X. Y. Li, Z. F. Hu, Y. X. Xu, L. M. Tong, H. Q. Wang, W. T. Liu, J. M. Bao, and Y. R. Shen, “Ultrafast All-Optical Graphene Modulator,” Nano Lett. 14(2), 955–959 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yan, B.

B. Yan, L. Liao, Y. M. You, X. J. Xu, Z. Zheng, Z. X. Shen, J. Ma, L. M. Tong, and T. Yu, “Single-Crystalline V2O5 Ultralong Nanoribbon Waveguides,” Adv. Mater. 21(23), 2436–2440 (2009).
[Crossref]

Yan, H. Q.

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Q. Yan, Y. Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. D. Yang, “Room-Temperature Ultraviolet Nanowire Nanolasers,” Science 292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yan, R. X.

R. X. Yan, D. Gargas, and P. D. Yang, “Nanowire photonics,” Nat. Photonics 3(10), 569–576 (2009).
[Crossref]

Yan, S. C.

R. Wu, Y. L. Zhang, S. C. Yan, F. Bian, W. L. Wang, X. D. Bai, X. H. Lu, J. M. Zhao, and E. G. Wang, “Purely Coherent Nonlinear Optical Response in Solution Dispersions of Graphene Sheets,” Nano Lett. 11(12), 5159–5164 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yan, Y. L.

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. H. Ni, Y. L. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-Layer Graphene as a Saturable Absorber for Ultrafast Pulsed Lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[Crossref]

Yang, H. Z.

H. Z. Yang, X. B. Feng, Q. Wang, H. Huang, W. Chen, A. T. S. Wee, and W. Ji, “Giant Two-Photon Absorption in Bilayer Graphene,” Nano Lett. 11(7), 2622–2627 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, P. D.

R. X. Yan, D. Gargas, and P. D. Yang, “Nanowire photonics,” Nat. Photonics 3(10), 569–576 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Q. Yan, Y. Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. D. Yang, “Room-Temperature Ultraviolet Nanowire Nanolasers,” Science 292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, Q.

Ye, Q.

Q. Ye, J. Wang, Z. B. Liu, Z. C. Deng, X. T. Kong, F. Xing, X.-D. Chen, W.-Y. Zhou, C.-P. Zhang, and J.-G. Tian, “Polarization-dependent optical absorption of graphene under total internal reflection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(2), 021912 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yin, X. B.

M. Liu, X. B. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. S. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

You, Y. M.

B. Yan, L. Liao, Y. M. You, X. J. Xu, Z. Zheng, Z. X. Shen, J. Ma, L. M. Tong, and T. Yu, “Single-Crystalline V2O5 Ultralong Nanoribbon Waveguides,” Adv. Mater. 21(23), 2436–2440 (2009).
[Crossref]

Yu, H. K.

Yu, T.

B. Yan, L. Liao, Y. M. You, X. J. Xu, Z. Zheng, Z. X. Shen, J. Ma, L. M. Tong, and T. Yu, “Single-Crystalline V2O5 Ultralong Nanoribbon Waveguides,” Adv. Mater. 21(23), 2436–2440 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zentgraf, T.

M. Liu, X. B. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. S. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, C.-P.

Q. Ye, J. Wang, Z. B. Liu, Z. C. Deng, X. T. Kong, F. Xing, X.-D. Chen, W.-Y. Zhou, C.-P. Zhang, and J.-G. Tian, “Polarization-dependent optical absorption of graphene under total internal reflection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(2), 021912 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhang, H.

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. H. Ni, Y. L. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-Layer Graphene as a Saturable Absorber for Ultrafast Pulsed Lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X.

M. Liu, X. B. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. S. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, Y. L.

R. Wu, Y. L. Zhang, S. C. Yan, F. Bian, W. L. Wang, X. D. Bai, X. H. Lu, J. M. Zhao, and E. G. Wang, “Purely Coherent Nonlinear Optical Response in Solution Dispersions of Graphene Sheets,” Nano Lett. 11(12), 5159–5164 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao, J. M.

R. Wu, Y. L. Zhang, S. C. Yan, F. Bian, W. L. Wang, X. D. Bai, X. H. Lu, J. M. Zhao, and E. G. Wang, “Purely Coherent Nonlinear Optical Response in Solution Dispersions of Graphene Sheets,” Nano Lett. 11(12), 5159–5164 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao, Y.

K. S. Kim, Y. Zhao, H. Jang, S. Y. Lee, J. M. Kim, K. S. Kim, J. H. Ahn, P. Kim, J. Y. Choi, and B. H. Hong, “Large-scale pattern growth of graphene films for stretchable transparent electrodes,” Nature 457(7230), 706–710 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zheng, Z.

B. Yan, L. Liao, Y. M. You, X. J. Xu, Z. Zheng, Z. X. Shen, J. Ma, L. M. Tong, and T. Yu, “Single-Crystalline V2O5 Ultralong Nanoribbon Waveguides,” Adv. Mater. 21(23), 2436–2440 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zhou, W. Y.

Z. B. Liu, M. Feng, W. S. Jiang, W. Xin, P. Wang, Q. W. Sheng, Y. G. Liu, D. N. Wang, W. Y. Zhou, and J. G. Tian, “Broadband all-optical modulation using a graphene-covered-microfiber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(6), 065901 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhou, W.-Y.

Q. Ye, J. Wang, Z. B. Liu, Z. C. Deng, X. T. Kong, F. Xing, X.-D. Chen, W.-Y. Zhou, C.-P. Zhang, and J.-G. Tian, “Polarization-dependent optical absorption of graphene under total internal reflection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(2), 021912 (2013).
[Crossref]

ACS Nano (1)

Q. L. Bao and K. P. Loh, “Graphene Photonics, Plasmonics, and Broadband Optoelectronic Devices,” ACS Nano 6(5), 3677–3694 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adv. Funct. Mater. (1)

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. H. Ni, Y. L. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-Layer Graphene as a Saturable Absorber for Ultrafast Pulsed Lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[Crossref]

Adv. Mater. (1)

B. Yan, L. Liao, Y. M. You, X. J. Xu, Z. Zheng, Z. X. Shen, J. Ma, L. M. Tong, and T. Yu, “Single-Crystalline V2O5 Ultralong Nanoribbon Waveguides,” Adv. Mater. 21(23), 2436–2440 (2009).
[Crossref]

Adv. Opt. Photon. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

Q. Ye, J. Wang, Z. B. Liu, Z. C. Deng, X. T. Kong, F. Xing, X.-D. Chen, W.-Y. Zhou, C.-P. Zhang, and J.-G. Tian, “Polarization-dependent optical absorption of graphene under total internal reflection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(2), 021912 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. B. Greytak, C. J. Barrelet, Y. Li, and C. M. Lieber, “Semiconductor nanowire laser and nanowire waveguide electro-optic modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(15), 151103 (2005).
[Crossref]

T. L. Koch and R. A. Linke, “Effect of nonlinear gain reduction on semiconductor laser wavelength chirping,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48(10), 613–615 (1986).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

G. P. Agrawal and N. A. Olsson, “Self-Phase Modulation and Spectral Broadening of Optical Pulses in Semiconductor Laser Amplifiers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25(11), 2297–2306 (1989).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

D. Van Thourhout, C. R. Doerr, C. H. Joyner, and J. L. Pleumeekers, “Observation of WDM Crosstalk in Passive Semiconductor Waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13(5), 457–459 (2001).
[Crossref]

Laser Phys. Lett. (1)

Z. B. Liu, M. Feng, W. S. Jiang, W. Xin, P. Wang, Q. W. Sheng, Y. G. Liu, D. N. Wang, W. Y. Zhou, and J. G. Tian, “Broadband all-optical modulation using a graphene-covered-microfiber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(6), 065901 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nano Lett. (5)

J. Svensson, N. Anttu, N. Vainorius, B. M. Borg, and L. E. Wernersson, “Diameter-Dependent Photocurrent in InAsSb Nanowire Infrared Photodetectors,” Nano Lett. 13(4), 1380–1385 (2013).
[PubMed]

H. Z. Yang, X. B. Feng, Q. Wang, H. Huang, W. Chen, A. T. S. Wee, and W. Ji, “Giant Two-Photon Absorption in Bilayer Graphene,” Nano Lett. 11(7), 2622–2627 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. J. Barrelet, H. S. Ee, S. H. Kwon, and H. G. Park, “Nonlinear Mixing in Nanowire Subwavelength Waveguides,” Nano Lett. 11(7), 3022–3025 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Wu, Y. L. Zhang, S. C. Yan, F. Bian, W. L. Wang, X. D. Bai, X. H. Lu, J. M. Zhao, and E. G. Wang, “Purely Coherent Nonlinear Optical Response in Solution Dispersions of Graphene Sheets,” Nano Lett. 11(12), 5159–5164 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Li, B. G. Chen, C. Meng, W. Fang, Y. Xiao, X. Y. Li, Z. F. Hu, Y. X. Xu, L. M. Tong, H. Q. Wang, W. T. Liu, J. M. Bao, and Y. R. Shen, “Ultrafast All-Optical Graphene Modulator,” Nano Lett. 14(2), 955–959 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (2)

R. Salem, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, D. F. Geraghty, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Signal regeneration using low-power four-wave mixing on silicon chip,” Nat. Photonics 2(1), 35–38 (2008).
[Crossref]

R. X. Yan, D. Gargas, and P. D. Yang, “Nanowire photonics,” Nat. Photonics 3(10), 569–576 (2009).
[Crossref]

Nature (4)

K. S. Kim, Y. Zhao, H. Jang, S. Y. Lee, J. M. Kim, K. S. Kim, J. H. Ahn, P. Kim, J. Y. Choi, and B. H. Hong, “Large-scale pattern growth of graphene films for stretchable transparent electrodes,” Nature 457(7230), 706–710 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, M. I. Katsnelson, I. V. Grigorieva, S. V. Dubonos, and A. A. Firsov, “Two-dimensional gas of massless Dirac fermions in graphene,” Nature 438(7065), 197–200 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. M. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. L. He, J. Y. Lou, M. Y. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature 426(6968), 816–819 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Liu, X. B. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. S. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

A. C. Ferrari, J. C. Meyer, V. Scardaci, C. Casiraghi, M. Lazzeri, F. Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth, and A. K. Geim, “Raman Spectrum of Graphene and Graphene Layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(18), 187401 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Sun, Z. K. Wu, C. Divin, X. B. Li, C. Berger, W. A. de Heer, P. N. First, and T. B. Norris, “Ultrafast Relaxation of Excited Dirac Fermions in Epitaxial Graphene Using Optical Differential Transmission Spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(15), 157402 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Hendry, P. J. Hale, J. Moger, A. K. Savchenko, and S. A. Mikhailov, “Coherent Nonlinear Optical Response of Graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(9), 097401 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Science (3)

C. G. Lee, X. D. Wei, J. W. Kysar, and J. Hone, “Measurement of the Elastic Properties and Intrinsic Strength of Monolayer Graphene,” Science 321(5887), 385–388 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Q. Yan, Y. Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. D. Yang, “Room-Temperature Ultraviolet Nanowire Nanolasers,” Science 292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine Structure Constant Defines Visual Transparency of Graphene,” Science 320(5881), 1308 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Small (1)

Y. F. Hao, Y. Y. Wang, L. Wang, Z. H. Ni, Z. Q. Wang, R. Wang, C. K. Koo, Z. X. Shen, and J. T. L. Thong, “Probing Layer Number and Stacking Order of Few-Layer Graphene by Raman Spectroscopy,” Small 6(2), 195–200 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (1)

R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics (Academic, 2008), Chap. 4.

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagrams and corresponding optical micrographs of the GZN fabrication. (a) A ZnO NW was placed across a few-layer graphene flake attached on a scotch tape via micromanipulation. (b) The tape with the graphene and the NW was pasted on a Si/SiO2 wafer. (c) After the tape was dissolved in a 4-methyl-2-pentanone solution, the graphene-covered NW was left on the wafer. (d) The graphene on the wafer was cut along the NW by nano-second laser pulses introduced by a fiber taper. (e) The NW was lifted up with the graphene by the fiber taper. f) An as-fabricated GZN with the ZnO NW of about 600 nm in diameter and 80 µm in length. The scale bar in (a) is also applicable to (b-e).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Electron microscope and Raman spectrum characterizations of GZNs. (a-c) SEM images of a 540-nm-diameter GZN. (b) and (c) show the close-up views of the two grey dashed boxes in (a) with the scale bars of 1µm. (d) TEM image of a sidewall area on the GZN. (e) Raman spectra of two GZNs coated by bilayer and trilayer graphene. (f-g) Optical micrograph of three GZNs and the corresponding Raman mapping for the intensity ratios of G peaks to 2D peaks. The dotted boxes in (g) correspond to the outlines of the GZNs. The upper left of the images show two graphene flakes on the substrate.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Propagation loss characterization of a 606-nm-diameter GZN and calculated power density distribution on the cross-section of a ZnO NW at 1550-nm wavelength. (a-b) Schematic diagram and optical micrograph of the experimental setup for propagation loss measurement of the GZN. (c) Propagation-distance-dependent output intensity of the GZN. The solid and dash lines are the linear fits for the experimental data of the coated section and uncoated section on the GZN respectively. (d) Power density distribution on the cross-section of an air-clad 600-nm-diameter ZnO NW calculated by COMSOL. Here the diameter is defined as the distance between two opposite vertices of the hexagonal cross-section. (e) Power density dependence along the dotted line in (d) on the radial position with 1-W CW input.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Input-power-dependent transmission measurement of a 475-nm-diameter GZN. (a) Schematic diagram of the measurement setup. (b) Input-power-dependent transmissions of the GZN at 1064- and 1550-nm wavelengths, respectively. A transmission of a 490-nm-diameter ZnO is also given for comparison. (c) Output spectra of the GZN.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Optical modulation based on a 590-nm-diameter GZN. (a) Schematic diagram of the modulation setup. (b) Pulses switched out from a 1550-nm CW beam in the GZN by an 8-ns 1064-nm pump pulse train (red curve). When the CW beam was removed from the setup, the modulated signal disappeared (black curve). The modulated signal curve was moved up vertically for demonstration clarity. (c) Schematic describes pump and probe of carriers in the valence and conduction bands of few-layer graphene. Excited carriers can lead to the band-filling effect that reduces the absorption of the CW signal light.

Metrics