Abstract

A diode-pumped, mechanically-flexible organic distributed-feedback laser that is fully encapsulated with ultra-thin glass is reported. The organic laser is excited by 450nm laser diode and emits at 537 nm with an oscillation threshold of 290 W/cm2. The encapsulation format of the device results in a photostability that is improved by two orders of magnitude compared to a non-encapsulated reference device while maintaining mechanical flexibility thanks to an overall device thickness below 105 µm. The laser is also wavelength-tunable between 535 nm and 545 nm by bending the ultra-thin glass structure.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  5. C. Vannahme, C. L. C. Smith, M. Brokner Christiansen, and A. Kristensen, “Emission wavelength of multilayer distributed feedback dye lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(15), 151123 (2012).
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  6. M. R. Weinberger, G. Langer, A. Pogantsch, A. Haase, E. Zojer, and W. Kern, “Continuously color-tunable rubber laser,” Adv. Mater. 16(2), 130–133 (2004).
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  10. Y. Yang, G. A. Turnbull, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Hybrid optoelectronics: A polymer laser pumped by a nitride light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(16), 163306 (2008).
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  11. T. Riedl, T. Rabe, H.-H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, J. Wang, T. Weimann, P. Hinze, B. Nehls, T. Farrell, and U. Scherf, “Tunable organic thin-film laser pumped by an inorganic violet diode laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(24), 241116 (2006).
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  19. Schott. “AF32” [Internet]. Available from: www.schott.com
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    [Crossref]
  21. J. Chilwell and I. Hodgkinson, “Thin-films field-transfer matrix theory of planar multilayer waveguides and reflection from prism-loaded waveguides Jn,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 1(7), 742–753 (1984).
    [Crossref]
  22. S. Döring, M. Kollosche, T. Rabe, J. Stumpe, and G. Kofod, “Electrically tunable polymer DFB laser,” Adv. Mater. 23(37), 4265–4269 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  23. A. Camposeo, P. Del Carro, L. Persano, and D. Pisignano, “Electrically tunable organic distributed feedback lasers embedding nonlinear optical molecules,” Adv. Mater. 24(35), OP221–OP225 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  24. A. Paint, C.H. Hare, and M.T. Section. “The degradation of coatings by ultraviolet light and electromagnetic radiation,” (May) (1992).
  25. L. Persano, A. Camposeo, P. Del Carro, P. Solaro, R. Cingolani, P. Boffi, and D. Pisignano, “Rapid prototyping encapsulation for polymer light-emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(12), 123305 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  26. G. Tsiminis, Y. Wang, A. L. Kanibolotsky, A. R. Inigo, P. J. Skabara, I. D. W. Samuel, and G. A. Turnbull, “Nanoimprinted organic semiconductor laser pumped by a light-emitting diode,” Adv. Mater. 25(20), 2826–2830 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  27. J. Herrnsorf, Y. Wang, J. J. D. McKendry, Z. Gong, D. Massoubre, B. Guilhabert, G. Tsiminis, G. A. Turnbull, I. D. W. Samuel, N. Laurand, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “Micro-LED pumped polymer laser: A discussion of future pump sources for organic lasers,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7(6), 1065–1078 (2013).

2014 (1)

C. Foucher, B. Guilhabert, N. Laurand, and M. D. Dawson, “Wavelength-tunable colloidal quantum dot laser on ultra-thin flexible glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(14), 141108 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

G. Tsiminis, Y. Wang, A. L. Kanibolotsky, A. R. Inigo, P. J. Skabara, I. D. W. Samuel, and G. A. Turnbull, “Nanoimprinted organic semiconductor laser pumped by a light-emitting diode,” Adv. Mater. 25(20), 2826–2830 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Herrnsorf, Y. Wang, J. J. D. McKendry, Z. Gong, D. Massoubre, B. Guilhabert, G. Tsiminis, G. A. Turnbull, I. D. W. Samuel, N. Laurand, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “Micro-LED pumped polymer laser: A discussion of future pump sources for organic lasers,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7(6), 1065–1078 (2013).

C. Foucher, B. Guilhabert, L. Kanibolotsky, P. J. Skabara, N. Laurand, and M. D. Dawson, “Highly-photostable and mechanically flexible all-organic semiconductor lasers,” Opt. Mater. Express 3(5), 584 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

A. Camposeo, P. Del Carro, L. Persano, and D. Pisignano, “Electrically tunable organic distributed feedback lasers embedding nonlinear optical molecules,” Adv. Mater. 24(35), OP221–OP225 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Vannahme, C. L. C. Smith, M. Brokner Christiansen, and A. Kristensen, “Emission wavelength of multilayer distributed feedback dye lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(15), 151123 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (3)

P. Görrn, M. Lehnhardt, W. Kowalsky, T. Riedl, and S. Wagner, “Elastically tunable self-organized organic lasers,” Adv. Mater. 23(7), 869–872 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Chen, J. Herrnsdorf, B. Guilhabert, A. L. Kanibolotsky, A. R. Mackintosh, Y. Wang, R. A. Pethrick, E. Gu, G. A. Turnbull, P. J. Skabara, I. D. W. Samuel, N. Laurand, and M. D. Dawson, “Laser action in a surface-structured free-standing membrane based on a π-conjugated polymer-composite,” Org. Electron Elsevier B. 12(1), 62–69 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Döring, M. Kollosche, T. Rabe, J. Stumpe, and G. Kofod, “Electrically tunable polymer DFB laser,” Adv. Mater. 23(37), 4265–4269 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

2009 (1)

L. Persano, A. Camposeo, P. Del Carro, P. Solaro, R. Cingolani, P. Boffi, and D. Pisignano, “Rapid prototyping encapsulation for polymer light-emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(12), 123305 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

Y. Yang, G. A. Turnbull, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Hybrid optoelectronics: A polymer laser pumped by a nitride light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(16), 163306 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

S. Richardson, O. P. M. Gaudin, G. A. Turnbull, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Improved operational lifetime of semiconducting polymer lasers by encapsulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(26), 261104 (2007).
[Crossref]

I. D. W. Samuel and G. A. Turnbull, “Organic semiconductor lasers,” Chem. Rev. 107(4), 1272–1295 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

T. Riedl, T. Rabe, H.-H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, J. Wang, T. Weimann, P. Hinze, B. Nehls, T. Farrell, and U. Scherf, “Tunable organic thin-film laser pumped by an inorganic violet diode laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(24), 241116 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (2)

A. Rose, Z. Zhu, C. F. Madigan, T. M. Swager, and V. Bulović, “Sensitivity gains in chemosensing by lasing action in organic polymers,” Nature 434(7035), 876–879 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Pflumm, C. Karnutsch, M. Gerken, and U. Lemmer, “Parametric study of modal gain and threshold power density in electrically pumped single-layer organic optical amplifier and laser diode structures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41(3), 316–336 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

M. R. Weinberger, G. Langer, A. Pogantsch, A. Haase, E. Zojer, and W. Kern, “Continuously color-tunable rubber laser,” Adv. Mater. 16(2), 130–133 (2004).
[Crossref]

W. Zhao, T. Cao, and J. M. White, “On the origin of green emission in polyfluorene polymers: The roles of thermal oxidation degradation and crosslinking,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 14(8), 783–790 (2004).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

2000 (2)

M. D. McGehee and A. J. Heeger, “Semiconducting (conjugated) polymers as materials for solid-state lasers,” Adv. Mater. 12(22), 1655–1668 (2000).
[Crossref]

S. Riechel, U. Lemmer, J. Feldmann, T. Benstem, W. Kowalsky, U. Scherf, A. Gombert, and V. Wittwer, “Rapid communication laser modes in organic solid-state distributed feedback lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 900(77), 897–900 (2000).

1999 (1)

N. Tessler, “Lasers based on semiconducting organic materials,” Adv. Mater. 11(5), 363–370 (1999).
[Crossref]

1984 (1)

J. Chilwell and I. Hodgkinson, “Thin-films field-transfer matrix theory of planar multilayer waveguides and reflection from prism-loaded waveguides Jn,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 1(7), 742–753 (1984).
[Crossref]

Benstem, T.

S. Riechel, U. Lemmer, J. Feldmann, T. Benstem, W. Kowalsky, U. Scherf, A. Gombert, and V. Wittwer, “Rapid communication laser modes in organic solid-state distributed feedback lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 900(77), 897–900 (2000).

Berleb, S.

Boffi, P.

L. Persano, A. Camposeo, P. Del Carro, P. Solaro, R. Cingolani, P. Boffi, and D. Pisignano, “Rapid prototyping encapsulation for polymer light-emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(12), 123305 (2009).
[Crossref]

Brokner Christiansen, M.

C. Vannahme, C. L. C. Smith, M. Brokner Christiansen, and A. Kristensen, “Emission wavelength of multilayer distributed feedback dye lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(15), 151123 (2012).
[Crossref]

Brütting, W.

Bulovic, V.

A. Rose, Z. Zhu, C. F. Madigan, T. M. Swager, and V. Bulović, “Sensitivity gains in chemosensing by lasing action in organic polymers,” Nature 434(7035), 876–879 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Camposeo, A.

A. Camposeo, P. Del Carro, L. Persano, and D. Pisignano, “Electrically tunable organic distributed feedback lasers embedding nonlinear optical molecules,” Adv. Mater. 24(35), OP221–OP225 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Persano, A. Camposeo, P. Del Carro, P. Solaro, R. Cingolani, P. Boffi, and D. Pisignano, “Rapid prototyping encapsulation for polymer light-emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(12), 123305 (2009).
[Crossref]

Cao, T.

W. Zhao, T. Cao, and J. M. White, “On the origin of green emission in polyfluorene polymers: The roles of thermal oxidation degradation and crosslinking,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 14(8), 783–790 (2004).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y.

Y. Chen, J. Herrnsdorf, B. Guilhabert, A. L. Kanibolotsky, A. R. Mackintosh, Y. Wang, R. A. Pethrick, E. Gu, G. A. Turnbull, P. J. Skabara, I. D. W. Samuel, N. Laurand, and M. D. Dawson, “Laser action in a surface-structured free-standing membrane based on a π-conjugated polymer-composite,” Org. Electron Elsevier B. 12(1), 62–69 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Herrnsdorf, B. Guilhabert, Y. Chen, A. Kanibolotsky, A. Mackintosh, R. Pethrick, P. J. Skabara, E. Gu, N. Laurand, and M. D. Dawson, “Flexible blue-emitting encapsulated organic semiconductor DFB laser,” Opt. Express 18(25), 25535–25545 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chilwell, J.

J. Chilwell and I. Hodgkinson, “Thin-films field-transfer matrix theory of planar multilayer waveguides and reflection from prism-loaded waveguides Jn,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 1(7), 742–753 (1984).
[Crossref]

Cingolani, R.

L. Persano, A. Camposeo, P. Del Carro, P. Solaro, R. Cingolani, P. Boffi, and D. Pisignano, “Rapid prototyping encapsulation for polymer light-emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(12), 123305 (2009).
[Crossref]

Dawson, M. D.

C. Foucher, B. Guilhabert, N. Laurand, and M. D. Dawson, “Wavelength-tunable colloidal quantum dot laser on ultra-thin flexible glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(14), 141108 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Herrnsorf, Y. Wang, J. J. D. McKendry, Z. Gong, D. Massoubre, B. Guilhabert, G. Tsiminis, G. A. Turnbull, I. D. W. Samuel, N. Laurand, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “Micro-LED pumped polymer laser: A discussion of future pump sources for organic lasers,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7(6), 1065–1078 (2013).

C. Foucher, B. Guilhabert, L. Kanibolotsky, P. J. Skabara, N. Laurand, and M. D. Dawson, “Highly-photostable and mechanically flexible all-organic semiconductor lasers,” Opt. Mater. Express 3(5), 584 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Chen, J. Herrnsdorf, B. Guilhabert, A. L. Kanibolotsky, A. R. Mackintosh, Y. Wang, R. A. Pethrick, E. Gu, G. A. Turnbull, P. J. Skabara, I. D. W. Samuel, N. Laurand, and M. D. Dawson, “Laser action in a surface-structured free-standing membrane based on a π-conjugated polymer-composite,” Org. Electron Elsevier B. 12(1), 62–69 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Herrnsdorf, B. Guilhabert, Y. Chen, A. Kanibolotsky, A. Mackintosh, R. Pethrick, P. J. Skabara, E. Gu, N. Laurand, and M. D. Dawson, “Flexible blue-emitting encapsulated organic semiconductor DFB laser,” Opt. Express 18(25), 25535–25545 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Del Carro, P.

A. Camposeo, P. Del Carro, L. Persano, and D. Pisignano, “Electrically tunable organic distributed feedback lasers embedding nonlinear optical molecules,” Adv. Mater. 24(35), OP221–OP225 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Persano, A. Camposeo, P. Del Carro, P. Solaro, R. Cingolani, P. Boffi, and D. Pisignano, “Rapid prototyping encapsulation for polymer light-emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(12), 123305 (2009).
[Crossref]

Döring, S.

S. Döring, M. Kollosche, T. Rabe, J. Stumpe, and G. Kofod, “Electrically tunable polymer DFB laser,” Adv. Mater. 23(37), 4265–4269 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Farrell, T.

T. Riedl, T. Rabe, H.-H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, J. Wang, T. Weimann, P. Hinze, B. Nehls, T. Farrell, and U. Scherf, “Tunable organic thin-film laser pumped by an inorganic violet diode laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(24), 241116 (2006).
[Crossref]

Feldmann, J.

S. Riechel, U. Lemmer, J. Feldmann, S. Berleb, A. G. Mückl, W. Brütting, A. Gombert, and V. Wittwer, “Very compact tunable solid-state laser utilizing a thin-film organic semiconductor,” Opt. Lett. 26(9), 593–595 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Riechel, U. Lemmer, J. Feldmann, T. Benstem, W. Kowalsky, U. Scherf, A. Gombert, and V. Wittwer, “Rapid communication laser modes in organic solid-state distributed feedback lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 900(77), 897–900 (2000).

Foucher, C.

C. Foucher, B. Guilhabert, N. Laurand, and M. D. Dawson, “Wavelength-tunable colloidal quantum dot laser on ultra-thin flexible glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(14), 141108 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Foucher, B. Guilhabert, L. Kanibolotsky, P. J. Skabara, N. Laurand, and M. D. Dawson, “Highly-photostable and mechanically flexible all-organic semiconductor lasers,” Opt. Mater. Express 3(5), 584 (2013).
[Crossref]

Friend, R. H.

B. Wenger, N. Tétreault, M. E. Welland, and R. H. Friend, “Mechanically tunable conjugated polymer distributed feedback lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(19), 193303 (2010).
[Crossref]

Gaudin, O. P. M.

S. Richardson, O. P. M. Gaudin, G. A. Turnbull, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Improved operational lifetime of semiconducting polymer lasers by encapsulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(26), 261104 (2007).
[Crossref]

Gerken, M.

C. Pflumm, C. Karnutsch, M. Gerken, and U. Lemmer, “Parametric study of modal gain and threshold power density in electrically pumped single-layer organic optical amplifier and laser diode structures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41(3), 316–336 (2005).
[Crossref]

Gombert, A.

S. Riechel, U. Lemmer, J. Feldmann, S. Berleb, A. G. Mückl, W. Brütting, A. Gombert, and V. Wittwer, “Very compact tunable solid-state laser utilizing a thin-film organic semiconductor,” Opt. Lett. 26(9), 593–595 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Riechel, U. Lemmer, J. Feldmann, T. Benstem, W. Kowalsky, U. Scherf, A. Gombert, and V. Wittwer, “Rapid communication laser modes in organic solid-state distributed feedback lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 900(77), 897–900 (2000).

Gong, Z.

J. Herrnsorf, Y. Wang, J. J. D. McKendry, Z. Gong, D. Massoubre, B. Guilhabert, G. Tsiminis, G. A. Turnbull, I. D. W. Samuel, N. Laurand, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “Micro-LED pumped polymer laser: A discussion of future pump sources for organic lasers,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7(6), 1065–1078 (2013).

Görrn, P.

P. Görrn, M. Lehnhardt, W. Kowalsky, T. Riedl, and S. Wagner, “Elastically tunable self-organized organic lasers,” Adv. Mater. 23(7), 869–872 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gu, E.

J. Herrnsorf, Y. Wang, J. J. D. McKendry, Z. Gong, D. Massoubre, B. Guilhabert, G. Tsiminis, G. A. Turnbull, I. D. W. Samuel, N. Laurand, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “Micro-LED pumped polymer laser: A discussion of future pump sources for organic lasers,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7(6), 1065–1078 (2013).

Y. Chen, J. Herrnsdorf, B. Guilhabert, A. L. Kanibolotsky, A. R. Mackintosh, Y. Wang, R. A. Pethrick, E. Gu, G. A. Turnbull, P. J. Skabara, I. D. W. Samuel, N. Laurand, and M. D. Dawson, “Laser action in a surface-structured free-standing membrane based on a π-conjugated polymer-composite,” Org. Electron Elsevier B. 12(1), 62–69 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Herrnsdorf, B. Guilhabert, Y. Chen, A. Kanibolotsky, A. Mackintosh, R. Pethrick, P. J. Skabara, E. Gu, N. Laurand, and M. D. Dawson, “Flexible blue-emitting encapsulated organic semiconductor DFB laser,” Opt. Express 18(25), 25535–25545 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guilhabert, B.

C. Foucher, B. Guilhabert, N. Laurand, and M. D. Dawson, “Wavelength-tunable colloidal quantum dot laser on ultra-thin flexible glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(14), 141108 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Herrnsorf, Y. Wang, J. J. D. McKendry, Z. Gong, D. Massoubre, B. Guilhabert, G. Tsiminis, G. A. Turnbull, I. D. W. Samuel, N. Laurand, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “Micro-LED pumped polymer laser: A discussion of future pump sources for organic lasers,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7(6), 1065–1078 (2013).

C. Foucher, B. Guilhabert, L. Kanibolotsky, P. J. Skabara, N. Laurand, and M. D. Dawson, “Highly-photostable and mechanically flexible all-organic semiconductor lasers,” Opt. Mater. Express 3(5), 584 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Chen, J. Herrnsdorf, B. Guilhabert, A. L. Kanibolotsky, A. R. Mackintosh, Y. Wang, R. A. Pethrick, E. Gu, G. A. Turnbull, P. J. Skabara, I. D. W. Samuel, N. Laurand, and M. D. Dawson, “Laser action in a surface-structured free-standing membrane based on a π-conjugated polymer-composite,” Org. Electron Elsevier B. 12(1), 62–69 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Herrnsdorf, B. Guilhabert, Y. Chen, A. Kanibolotsky, A. Mackintosh, R. Pethrick, P. J. Skabara, E. Gu, N. Laurand, and M. D. Dawson, “Flexible blue-emitting encapsulated organic semiconductor DFB laser,” Opt. Express 18(25), 25535–25545 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Haase, A.

M. R. Weinberger, G. Langer, A. Pogantsch, A. Haase, E. Zojer, and W. Kern, “Continuously color-tunable rubber laser,” Adv. Mater. 16(2), 130–133 (2004).
[Crossref]

Hare, C.H.

A. Paint, C.H. Hare, and M.T. Section. “The degradation of coatings by ultraviolet light and electromagnetic radiation,” (May) (1992).

Heeger, A. J.

M. D. McGehee and A. J. Heeger, “Semiconducting (conjugated) polymers as materials for solid-state lasers,” Adv. Mater. 12(22), 1655–1668 (2000).
[Crossref]

Herrnsdorf, J.

Y. Chen, J. Herrnsdorf, B. Guilhabert, A. L. Kanibolotsky, A. R. Mackintosh, Y. Wang, R. A. Pethrick, E. Gu, G. A. Turnbull, P. J. Skabara, I. D. W. Samuel, N. Laurand, and M. D. Dawson, “Laser action in a surface-structured free-standing membrane based on a π-conjugated polymer-composite,” Org. Electron Elsevier B. 12(1), 62–69 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Herrnsdorf, B. Guilhabert, Y. Chen, A. Kanibolotsky, A. Mackintosh, R. Pethrick, P. J. Skabara, E. Gu, N. Laurand, and M. D. Dawson, “Flexible blue-emitting encapsulated organic semiconductor DFB laser,” Opt. Express 18(25), 25535–25545 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Herrnsorf, J.

J. Herrnsorf, Y. Wang, J. J. D. McKendry, Z. Gong, D. Massoubre, B. Guilhabert, G. Tsiminis, G. A. Turnbull, I. D. W. Samuel, N. Laurand, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “Micro-LED pumped polymer laser: A discussion of future pump sources for organic lasers,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7(6), 1065–1078 (2013).

Hinze, P.

T. Riedl, T. Rabe, H.-H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, J. Wang, T. Weimann, P. Hinze, B. Nehls, T. Farrell, and U. Scherf, “Tunable organic thin-film laser pumped by an inorganic violet diode laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(24), 241116 (2006).
[Crossref]

Hodgkinson, I.

J. Chilwell and I. Hodgkinson, “Thin-films field-transfer matrix theory of planar multilayer waveguides and reflection from prism-loaded waveguides Jn,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 1(7), 742–753 (1984).
[Crossref]

Inigo, A. R.

G. Tsiminis, Y. Wang, A. L. Kanibolotsky, A. R. Inigo, P. J. Skabara, I. D. W. Samuel, and G. A. Turnbull, “Nanoimprinted organic semiconductor laser pumped by a light-emitting diode,” Adv. Mater. 25(20), 2826–2830 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Johannes, H.-H.

T. Riedl, T. Rabe, H.-H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, J. Wang, T. Weimann, P. Hinze, B. Nehls, T. Farrell, and U. Scherf, “Tunable organic thin-film laser pumped by an inorganic violet diode laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(24), 241116 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kanibolotsky, A.

Kanibolotsky, A. L.

G. Tsiminis, Y. Wang, A. L. Kanibolotsky, A. R. Inigo, P. J. Skabara, I. D. W. Samuel, and G. A. Turnbull, “Nanoimprinted organic semiconductor laser pumped by a light-emitting diode,” Adv. Mater. 25(20), 2826–2830 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Chen, J. Herrnsdorf, B. Guilhabert, A. L. Kanibolotsky, A. R. Mackintosh, Y. Wang, R. A. Pethrick, E. Gu, G. A. Turnbull, P. J. Skabara, I. D. W. Samuel, N. Laurand, and M. D. Dawson, “Laser action in a surface-structured free-standing membrane based on a π-conjugated polymer-composite,” Org. Electron Elsevier B. 12(1), 62–69 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kanibolotsky, L.

Karnutsch, C.

C. Pflumm, C. Karnutsch, M. Gerken, and U. Lemmer, “Parametric study of modal gain and threshold power density in electrically pumped single-layer organic optical amplifier and laser diode structures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41(3), 316–336 (2005).
[Crossref]

Kern, W.

M. R. Weinberger, G. Langer, A. Pogantsch, A. Haase, E. Zojer, and W. Kern, “Continuously color-tunable rubber laser,” Adv. Mater. 16(2), 130–133 (2004).
[Crossref]

Kofod, G.

S. Döring, M. Kollosche, T. Rabe, J. Stumpe, and G. Kofod, “Electrically tunable polymer DFB laser,” Adv. Mater. 23(37), 4265–4269 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kollosche, M.

S. Döring, M. Kollosche, T. Rabe, J. Stumpe, and G. Kofod, “Electrically tunable polymer DFB laser,” Adv. Mater. 23(37), 4265–4269 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kowalsky, W.

P. Görrn, M. Lehnhardt, W. Kowalsky, T. Riedl, and S. Wagner, “Elastically tunable self-organized organic lasers,” Adv. Mater. 23(7), 869–872 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Riedl, T. Rabe, H.-H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, J. Wang, T. Weimann, P. Hinze, B. Nehls, T. Farrell, and U. Scherf, “Tunable organic thin-film laser pumped by an inorganic violet diode laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(24), 241116 (2006).
[Crossref]

S. Riechel, U. Lemmer, J. Feldmann, T. Benstem, W. Kowalsky, U. Scherf, A. Gombert, and V. Wittwer, “Rapid communication laser modes in organic solid-state distributed feedback lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 900(77), 897–900 (2000).

Kristensen, A.

C. Vannahme, C. L. C. Smith, M. Brokner Christiansen, and A. Kristensen, “Emission wavelength of multilayer distributed feedback dye lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(15), 151123 (2012).
[Crossref]

Langer, G.

M. R. Weinberger, G. Langer, A. Pogantsch, A. Haase, E. Zojer, and W. Kern, “Continuously color-tunable rubber laser,” Adv. Mater. 16(2), 130–133 (2004).
[Crossref]

Laurand, N.

C. Foucher, B. Guilhabert, N. Laurand, and M. D. Dawson, “Wavelength-tunable colloidal quantum dot laser on ultra-thin flexible glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(14), 141108 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Herrnsorf, Y. Wang, J. J. D. McKendry, Z. Gong, D. Massoubre, B. Guilhabert, G. Tsiminis, G. A. Turnbull, I. D. W. Samuel, N. Laurand, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “Micro-LED pumped polymer laser: A discussion of future pump sources for organic lasers,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7(6), 1065–1078 (2013).

C. Foucher, B. Guilhabert, L. Kanibolotsky, P. J. Skabara, N. Laurand, and M. D. Dawson, “Highly-photostable and mechanically flexible all-organic semiconductor lasers,” Opt. Mater. Express 3(5), 584 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Chen, J. Herrnsdorf, B. Guilhabert, A. L. Kanibolotsky, A. R. Mackintosh, Y. Wang, R. A. Pethrick, E. Gu, G. A. Turnbull, P. J. Skabara, I. D. W. Samuel, N. Laurand, and M. D. Dawson, “Laser action in a surface-structured free-standing membrane based on a π-conjugated polymer-composite,” Org. Electron Elsevier B. 12(1), 62–69 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Herrnsdorf, B. Guilhabert, Y. Chen, A. Kanibolotsky, A. Mackintosh, R. Pethrick, P. J. Skabara, E. Gu, N. Laurand, and M. D. Dawson, “Flexible blue-emitting encapsulated organic semiconductor DFB laser,” Opt. Express 18(25), 25535–25545 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lehnhardt, M.

P. Görrn, M. Lehnhardt, W. Kowalsky, T. Riedl, and S. Wagner, “Elastically tunable self-organized organic lasers,” Adv. Mater. 23(7), 869–872 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lemmer, U.

C. Pflumm, C. Karnutsch, M. Gerken, and U. Lemmer, “Parametric study of modal gain and threshold power density in electrically pumped single-layer organic optical amplifier and laser diode structures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41(3), 316–336 (2005).
[Crossref]

S. Riechel, U. Lemmer, J. Feldmann, S. Berleb, A. G. Mückl, W. Brütting, A. Gombert, and V. Wittwer, “Very compact tunable solid-state laser utilizing a thin-film organic semiconductor,” Opt. Lett. 26(9), 593–595 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Riechel, U. Lemmer, J. Feldmann, T. Benstem, W. Kowalsky, U. Scherf, A. Gombert, and V. Wittwer, “Rapid communication laser modes in organic solid-state distributed feedback lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 900(77), 897–900 (2000).

Mackintosh, A.

Mackintosh, A. R.

Y. Chen, J. Herrnsdorf, B. Guilhabert, A. L. Kanibolotsky, A. R. Mackintosh, Y. Wang, R. A. Pethrick, E. Gu, G. A. Turnbull, P. J. Skabara, I. D. W. Samuel, N. Laurand, and M. D. Dawson, “Laser action in a surface-structured free-standing membrane based on a π-conjugated polymer-composite,” Org. Electron Elsevier B. 12(1), 62–69 (2011).
[Crossref]

Madigan, C. F.

A. Rose, Z. Zhu, C. F. Madigan, T. M. Swager, and V. Bulović, “Sensitivity gains in chemosensing by lasing action in organic polymers,” Nature 434(7035), 876–879 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Massoubre, D.

J. Herrnsorf, Y. Wang, J. J. D. McKendry, Z. Gong, D. Massoubre, B. Guilhabert, G. Tsiminis, G. A. Turnbull, I. D. W. Samuel, N. Laurand, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “Micro-LED pumped polymer laser: A discussion of future pump sources for organic lasers,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7(6), 1065–1078 (2013).

McGehee, M. D.

M. D. McGehee and A. J. Heeger, “Semiconducting (conjugated) polymers as materials for solid-state lasers,” Adv. Mater. 12(22), 1655–1668 (2000).
[Crossref]

McKendry, J. J. D.

J. Herrnsorf, Y. Wang, J. J. D. McKendry, Z. Gong, D. Massoubre, B. Guilhabert, G. Tsiminis, G. A. Turnbull, I. D. W. Samuel, N. Laurand, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “Micro-LED pumped polymer laser: A discussion of future pump sources for organic lasers,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7(6), 1065–1078 (2013).

Mückl, A. G.

Nehls, B.

T. Riedl, T. Rabe, H.-H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, J. Wang, T. Weimann, P. Hinze, B. Nehls, T. Farrell, and U. Scherf, “Tunable organic thin-film laser pumped by an inorganic violet diode laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(24), 241116 (2006).
[Crossref]

Paint, A.

A. Paint, C.H. Hare, and M.T. Section. “The degradation of coatings by ultraviolet light and electromagnetic radiation,” (May) (1992).

Persano, L.

A. Camposeo, P. Del Carro, L. Persano, and D. Pisignano, “Electrically tunable organic distributed feedback lasers embedding nonlinear optical molecules,” Adv. Mater. 24(35), OP221–OP225 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Persano, A. Camposeo, P. Del Carro, P. Solaro, R. Cingolani, P. Boffi, and D. Pisignano, “Rapid prototyping encapsulation for polymer light-emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(12), 123305 (2009).
[Crossref]

Pethrick, R.

Pethrick, R. A.

Y. Chen, J. Herrnsdorf, B. Guilhabert, A. L. Kanibolotsky, A. R. Mackintosh, Y. Wang, R. A. Pethrick, E. Gu, G. A. Turnbull, P. J. Skabara, I. D. W. Samuel, N. Laurand, and M. D. Dawson, “Laser action in a surface-structured free-standing membrane based on a π-conjugated polymer-composite,” Org. Electron Elsevier B. 12(1), 62–69 (2011).
[Crossref]

Pflumm, C.

C. Pflumm, C. Karnutsch, M. Gerken, and U. Lemmer, “Parametric study of modal gain and threshold power density in electrically pumped single-layer organic optical amplifier and laser diode structures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41(3), 316–336 (2005).
[Crossref]

Pisignano, D.

A. Camposeo, P. Del Carro, L. Persano, and D. Pisignano, “Electrically tunable organic distributed feedback lasers embedding nonlinear optical molecules,” Adv. Mater. 24(35), OP221–OP225 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Persano, A. Camposeo, P. Del Carro, P. Solaro, R. Cingolani, P. Boffi, and D. Pisignano, “Rapid prototyping encapsulation for polymer light-emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(12), 123305 (2009).
[Crossref]

Pogantsch, A.

M. R. Weinberger, G. Langer, A. Pogantsch, A. Haase, E. Zojer, and W. Kern, “Continuously color-tunable rubber laser,” Adv. Mater. 16(2), 130–133 (2004).
[Crossref]

Rabe, T.

S. Döring, M. Kollosche, T. Rabe, J. Stumpe, and G. Kofod, “Electrically tunable polymer DFB laser,” Adv. Mater. 23(37), 4265–4269 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Riedl, T. Rabe, H.-H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, J. Wang, T. Weimann, P. Hinze, B. Nehls, T. Farrell, and U. Scherf, “Tunable organic thin-film laser pumped by an inorganic violet diode laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(24), 241116 (2006).
[Crossref]

Richardson, S.

S. Richardson, O. P. M. Gaudin, G. A. Turnbull, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Improved operational lifetime of semiconducting polymer lasers by encapsulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(26), 261104 (2007).
[Crossref]

Riechel, S.

S. Riechel, U. Lemmer, J. Feldmann, S. Berleb, A. G. Mückl, W. Brütting, A. Gombert, and V. Wittwer, “Very compact tunable solid-state laser utilizing a thin-film organic semiconductor,” Opt. Lett. 26(9), 593–595 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Riechel, U. Lemmer, J. Feldmann, T. Benstem, W. Kowalsky, U. Scherf, A. Gombert, and V. Wittwer, “Rapid communication laser modes in organic solid-state distributed feedback lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 900(77), 897–900 (2000).

Riedl, T.

P. Görrn, M. Lehnhardt, W. Kowalsky, T. Riedl, and S. Wagner, “Elastically tunable self-organized organic lasers,” Adv. Mater. 23(7), 869–872 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Riedl, T. Rabe, H.-H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, J. Wang, T. Weimann, P. Hinze, B. Nehls, T. Farrell, and U. Scherf, “Tunable organic thin-film laser pumped by an inorganic violet diode laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(24), 241116 (2006).
[Crossref]

Rose, A.

A. Rose, Z. Zhu, C. F. Madigan, T. M. Swager, and V. Bulović, “Sensitivity gains in chemosensing by lasing action in organic polymers,” Nature 434(7035), 876–879 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Samuel, I. D. W.

J. Herrnsorf, Y. Wang, J. J. D. McKendry, Z. Gong, D. Massoubre, B. Guilhabert, G. Tsiminis, G. A. Turnbull, I. D. W. Samuel, N. Laurand, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “Micro-LED pumped polymer laser: A discussion of future pump sources for organic lasers,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7(6), 1065–1078 (2013).

G. Tsiminis, Y. Wang, A. L. Kanibolotsky, A. R. Inigo, P. J. Skabara, I. D. W. Samuel, and G. A. Turnbull, “Nanoimprinted organic semiconductor laser pumped by a light-emitting diode,” Adv. Mater. 25(20), 2826–2830 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Chen, J. Herrnsdorf, B. Guilhabert, A. L. Kanibolotsky, A. R. Mackintosh, Y. Wang, R. A. Pethrick, E. Gu, G. A. Turnbull, P. J. Skabara, I. D. W. Samuel, N. Laurand, and M. D. Dawson, “Laser action in a surface-structured free-standing membrane based on a π-conjugated polymer-composite,” Org. Electron Elsevier B. 12(1), 62–69 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. Yang, G. A. Turnbull, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Hybrid optoelectronics: A polymer laser pumped by a nitride light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(16), 163306 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. Richardson, O. P. M. Gaudin, G. A. Turnbull, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Improved operational lifetime of semiconducting polymer lasers by encapsulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(26), 261104 (2007).
[Crossref]

I. D. W. Samuel and G. A. Turnbull, “Organic semiconductor lasers,” Chem. Rev. 107(4), 1272–1295 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Scherf, U.

T. Riedl, T. Rabe, H.-H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, J. Wang, T. Weimann, P. Hinze, B. Nehls, T. Farrell, and U. Scherf, “Tunable organic thin-film laser pumped by an inorganic violet diode laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(24), 241116 (2006).
[Crossref]

S. Riechel, U. Lemmer, J. Feldmann, T. Benstem, W. Kowalsky, U. Scherf, A. Gombert, and V. Wittwer, “Rapid communication laser modes in organic solid-state distributed feedback lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 900(77), 897–900 (2000).

Section, M.T.

A. Paint, C.H. Hare, and M.T. Section. “The degradation of coatings by ultraviolet light and electromagnetic radiation,” (May) (1992).

Skabara, P. J.

G. Tsiminis, Y. Wang, A. L. Kanibolotsky, A. R. Inigo, P. J. Skabara, I. D. W. Samuel, and G. A. Turnbull, “Nanoimprinted organic semiconductor laser pumped by a light-emitting diode,” Adv. Mater. 25(20), 2826–2830 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Foucher, B. Guilhabert, L. Kanibolotsky, P. J. Skabara, N. Laurand, and M. D. Dawson, “Highly-photostable and mechanically flexible all-organic semiconductor lasers,” Opt. Mater. Express 3(5), 584 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Chen, J. Herrnsdorf, B. Guilhabert, A. L. Kanibolotsky, A. R. Mackintosh, Y. Wang, R. A. Pethrick, E. Gu, G. A. Turnbull, P. J. Skabara, I. D. W. Samuel, N. Laurand, and M. D. Dawson, “Laser action in a surface-structured free-standing membrane based on a π-conjugated polymer-composite,” Org. Electron Elsevier B. 12(1), 62–69 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Herrnsdorf, B. Guilhabert, Y. Chen, A. Kanibolotsky, A. Mackintosh, R. Pethrick, P. J. Skabara, E. Gu, N. Laurand, and M. D. Dawson, “Flexible blue-emitting encapsulated organic semiconductor DFB laser,” Opt. Express 18(25), 25535–25545 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Smith, C. L. C.

C. Vannahme, C. L. C. Smith, M. Brokner Christiansen, and A. Kristensen, “Emission wavelength of multilayer distributed feedback dye lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(15), 151123 (2012).
[Crossref]

Solaro, P.

L. Persano, A. Camposeo, P. Del Carro, P. Solaro, R. Cingolani, P. Boffi, and D. Pisignano, “Rapid prototyping encapsulation for polymer light-emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(12), 123305 (2009).
[Crossref]

Stumpe, J.

S. Döring, M. Kollosche, T. Rabe, J. Stumpe, and G. Kofod, “Electrically tunable polymer DFB laser,” Adv. Mater. 23(37), 4265–4269 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Swager, T. M.

A. Rose, Z. Zhu, C. F. Madigan, T. M. Swager, and V. Bulović, “Sensitivity gains in chemosensing by lasing action in organic polymers,” Nature 434(7035), 876–879 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tessler, N.

N. Tessler, “Lasers based on semiconducting organic materials,” Adv. Mater. 11(5), 363–370 (1999).
[Crossref]

Tétreault, N.

B. Wenger, N. Tétreault, M. E. Welland, and R. H. Friend, “Mechanically tunable conjugated polymer distributed feedback lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(19), 193303 (2010).
[Crossref]

Tsiminis, G.

G. Tsiminis, Y. Wang, A. L. Kanibolotsky, A. R. Inigo, P. J. Skabara, I. D. W. Samuel, and G. A. Turnbull, “Nanoimprinted organic semiconductor laser pumped by a light-emitting diode,” Adv. Mater. 25(20), 2826–2830 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Herrnsorf, Y. Wang, J. J. D. McKendry, Z. Gong, D. Massoubre, B. Guilhabert, G. Tsiminis, G. A. Turnbull, I. D. W. Samuel, N. Laurand, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “Micro-LED pumped polymer laser: A discussion of future pump sources for organic lasers,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7(6), 1065–1078 (2013).

Turnbull, G. A.

J. Herrnsorf, Y. Wang, J. J. D. McKendry, Z. Gong, D. Massoubre, B. Guilhabert, G. Tsiminis, G. A. Turnbull, I. D. W. Samuel, N. Laurand, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “Micro-LED pumped polymer laser: A discussion of future pump sources for organic lasers,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7(6), 1065–1078 (2013).

G. Tsiminis, Y. Wang, A. L. Kanibolotsky, A. R. Inigo, P. J. Skabara, I. D. W. Samuel, and G. A. Turnbull, “Nanoimprinted organic semiconductor laser pumped by a light-emitting diode,” Adv. Mater. 25(20), 2826–2830 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Chen, J. Herrnsdorf, B. Guilhabert, A. L. Kanibolotsky, A. R. Mackintosh, Y. Wang, R. A. Pethrick, E. Gu, G. A. Turnbull, P. J. Skabara, I. D. W. Samuel, N. Laurand, and M. D. Dawson, “Laser action in a surface-structured free-standing membrane based on a π-conjugated polymer-composite,” Org. Electron Elsevier B. 12(1), 62–69 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. Yang, G. A. Turnbull, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Hybrid optoelectronics: A polymer laser pumped by a nitride light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(16), 163306 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. Richardson, O. P. M. Gaudin, G. A. Turnbull, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Improved operational lifetime of semiconducting polymer lasers by encapsulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(26), 261104 (2007).
[Crossref]

I. D. W. Samuel and G. A. Turnbull, “Organic semiconductor lasers,” Chem. Rev. 107(4), 1272–1295 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vannahme, C.

C. Vannahme, C. L. C. Smith, M. Brokner Christiansen, and A. Kristensen, “Emission wavelength of multilayer distributed feedback dye lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(15), 151123 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wagner, S.

P. Görrn, M. Lehnhardt, W. Kowalsky, T. Riedl, and S. Wagner, “Elastically tunable self-organized organic lasers,” Adv. Mater. 23(7), 869–872 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, J.

T. Riedl, T. Rabe, H.-H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, J. Wang, T. Weimann, P. Hinze, B. Nehls, T. Farrell, and U. Scherf, “Tunable organic thin-film laser pumped by an inorganic violet diode laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(24), 241116 (2006).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y.

J. Herrnsorf, Y. Wang, J. J. D. McKendry, Z. Gong, D. Massoubre, B. Guilhabert, G. Tsiminis, G. A. Turnbull, I. D. W. Samuel, N. Laurand, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “Micro-LED pumped polymer laser: A discussion of future pump sources for organic lasers,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7(6), 1065–1078 (2013).

G. Tsiminis, Y. Wang, A. L. Kanibolotsky, A. R. Inigo, P. J. Skabara, I. D. W. Samuel, and G. A. Turnbull, “Nanoimprinted organic semiconductor laser pumped by a light-emitting diode,” Adv. Mater. 25(20), 2826–2830 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Chen, J. Herrnsdorf, B. Guilhabert, A. L. Kanibolotsky, A. R. Mackintosh, Y. Wang, R. A. Pethrick, E. Gu, G. A. Turnbull, P. J. Skabara, I. D. W. Samuel, N. Laurand, and M. D. Dawson, “Laser action in a surface-structured free-standing membrane based on a π-conjugated polymer-composite,” Org. Electron Elsevier B. 12(1), 62–69 (2011).
[Crossref]

Weimann, T.

T. Riedl, T. Rabe, H.-H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, J. Wang, T. Weimann, P. Hinze, B. Nehls, T. Farrell, and U. Scherf, “Tunable organic thin-film laser pumped by an inorganic violet diode laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(24), 241116 (2006).
[Crossref]

Weinberger, M. R.

M. R. Weinberger, G. Langer, A. Pogantsch, A. Haase, E. Zojer, and W. Kern, “Continuously color-tunable rubber laser,” Adv. Mater. 16(2), 130–133 (2004).
[Crossref]

Welland, M. E.

B. Wenger, N. Tétreault, M. E. Welland, and R. H. Friend, “Mechanically tunable conjugated polymer distributed feedback lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(19), 193303 (2010).
[Crossref]

Wenger, B.

B. Wenger, N. Tétreault, M. E. Welland, and R. H. Friend, “Mechanically tunable conjugated polymer distributed feedback lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(19), 193303 (2010).
[Crossref]

White, J. M.

W. Zhao, T. Cao, and J. M. White, “On the origin of green emission in polyfluorene polymers: The roles of thermal oxidation degradation and crosslinking,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 14(8), 783–790 (2004).
[Crossref]

Wittwer, V.

S. Riechel, U. Lemmer, J. Feldmann, S. Berleb, A. G. Mückl, W. Brütting, A. Gombert, and V. Wittwer, “Very compact tunable solid-state laser utilizing a thin-film organic semiconductor,” Opt. Lett. 26(9), 593–595 (2001).
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Yang, Y.

Y. Yang, G. A. Turnbull, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Hybrid optoelectronics: A polymer laser pumped by a nitride light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(16), 163306 (2008).
[Crossref]

Zhao, W.

W. Zhao, T. Cao, and J. M. White, “On the origin of green emission in polyfluorene polymers: The roles of thermal oxidation degradation and crosslinking,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 14(8), 783–790 (2004).
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M. R. Weinberger, G. Langer, A. Pogantsch, A. Haase, E. Zojer, and W. Kern, “Continuously color-tunable rubber laser,” Adv. Mater. 16(2), 130–133 (2004).
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Adv. Funct. Mater. (1)

W. Zhao, T. Cao, and J. M. White, “On the origin of green emission in polyfluorene polymers: The roles of thermal oxidation degradation and crosslinking,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 14(8), 783–790 (2004).
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P. Görrn, M. Lehnhardt, W. Kowalsky, T. Riedl, and S. Wagner, “Elastically tunable self-organized organic lasers,” Adv. Mater. 23(7), 869–872 (2011).
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G. Tsiminis, Y. Wang, A. L. Kanibolotsky, A. R. Inigo, P. J. Skabara, I. D. W. Samuel, and G. A. Turnbull, “Nanoimprinted organic semiconductor laser pumped by a light-emitting diode,” Adv. Mater. 25(20), 2826–2830 (2013).
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Appl. Phys. Lett. (8)

L. Persano, A. Camposeo, P. Del Carro, P. Solaro, R. Cingolani, P. Boffi, and D. Pisignano, “Rapid prototyping encapsulation for polymer light-emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(12), 123305 (2009).
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C. Foucher, B. Guilhabert, N. Laurand, and M. D. Dawson, “Wavelength-tunable colloidal quantum dot laser on ultra-thin flexible glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(14), 141108 (2014).
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B. Wenger, N. Tétreault, M. E. Welland, and R. H. Friend, “Mechanically tunable conjugated polymer distributed feedback lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(19), 193303 (2010).
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Y. Yang, G. A. Turnbull, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Hybrid optoelectronics: A polymer laser pumped by a nitride light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(16), 163306 (2008).
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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematics of the device structures: (a) encapsulated laser overcoated with a 180nm thick layer of PVA and sandwiched between two ultra-thin flexible glass membranes, (b) neat BBEHP-PPV laser and (c) encapsulated laser with a layer of PVA (180nm). (d) a photo of a BBEHP-PPV laser encapsulated with glass and PVA under UV exposure showing bendability

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

LD optical pulse fluence and duration plotted against the driving peak current

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Mode profile superposed onto the refractive index profile of the multilayer structure for (a) a neat laser and (b) a laser encapsulated with a 180nm PVA layer. The region of overlap with the gain layer is highlighted.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) shows the emission spectra and (b) represents the power transfer functions of each laser when pumped at 355 nm

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Schematics of the set-up for testing mechanical bending of ultrathin glass laser with 180nm PVA overcoat, (b) the two ways the laser can be bent, increasing or reducing the grating period for, respectively, red shifting or blue shifting the laser emission wavelength and (c) shift in the emission wavelength of the flexible encapsulated DFB laser with glass for different radii of curvature.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) spectrum and power transfer function of the 180nm PVA encapsulated BBEHP-PPV laser and b) its intensity decay caused by photodegradation when pumped at 355 nm (black squares) and at 450 nm (blue triangles) (the x axis has a logarithm scale)

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) spectrum and power transfer functions of the encapsulated BBEHP-PPV lasers with a layer of PVA of 180 nm and glass and (b) its intensity decay when pumped at 355 nm (black squares) and at 450 nm (blue triangles) (the x axis has a logarithm scale)

Tables (2)

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Table 1 Values of the overlap and effective refractive index for each laser

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Table 2 Summary of the results on neat and encapsulated lasers

Equations (1)

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active_region I(z).dz + I(z).dz

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