Abstract

We propose a dictionary-based dense light field acquisition technique. This technique captures light field successfully from a sparse camera array with no mask or any other optical modifications on cameras. Light rays in wider field are captured by our system to achieve larger disparity and higher angular resolution. We also accelerate the reconstruction of light field significantly by a local sliding window which applies median filter only in disaster areas and acquire satisfactory quality. In our experiments, light field with 7x7 views at resolution of 384x512 is restored from 5 cameras with PSNR of 33.0192dB with a computing time of 1.85 hours on a consumer-grade desktop computer.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
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References

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2014 (1)

Q. Yao, K. Takahashi, and T. Fujii, “Compressed sensing of ray space for free viewpoint image (FVI) generation,” ITE Trans. Media Tech. and App. 2(1), 23–32 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (4)

K. Marwah, G. Wetzstein, Y. Bando, and R. Raskar, “Compressive light field photography using overcomplete dictionaries and optimized projections,” ACM Trans. Graph. 32(4), 46 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Geng, “Three-dimensional display technologies,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 5(4), 456–535 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. Venkataraman, D. Lelescu, J. Duparre, A. McMahon, G. Molina, P. Chatterjee, R. Mullis, and S. Nayar, “PiCam: An ultra-thin high performance monolithic camera array,” ACM Trans. Graph. 32(6), 166 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Y. Yang, Z. H. Zhou, A. G. Balasubramanian, S. S. Sastry, and Y. Ma, “Fast l(1)-minimization algorithms for robust face recognition,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 22(8), 3234–3246 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (1)

S. D. Babacan, R. Ansorge, M. Luessi, P. R. Matarán, R. Molina, and A. K. Katsaggelos, “Compressive light field sensing,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 21(12), 4746–4757 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

2010 (1)

J. Mairal, F. Bach, J. Ponce, and G. Sapiro, “Online learning for matrix factorization and sparse coding,” J. Mach. Learn. Res. 11, 19–60 (2010).

2009 (1)

A. Cohen, W. Dahmen, and R. Devore, “Compressed sensing and best k-term approximation,” J. Am. Math. Soc. 22(1), 211–231 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

2007 (1)

J. A. Tropp and A. C. Gilbert, “Signal recovery from random measurements via orthogonal matching pursuit,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 53(12), 4655–4666 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (3)

M. Elad and M. Aharon, “Image denoising via sparse and redundant representations over learned dictionaries,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 15(12), 3736–3745 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Candes, J. Romberg, and T. Tao, “Robust uncertainty principles: Exact signal reconstruction from highly incomplete frequency information,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 52(2), 489–509 (2006).
[Crossref]

M. Levoy, R. Ng, A. Adams, M. Footer, and M. Horowitz, “Light field microscopy,” ACM Trans. Graph. 25(3), 924–934 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (3)

E. J. Candes and T. Tao, “Decoding by linear programming,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 51(12), 4203–4215 (2005).
[Crossref]

B. Wilburn, N. Joshi, V. Vaish, E. Talvala, E. Antunez, A. Barth, A. Adams, M. Horowitz, and M. Levoy, “High performance imaging using large camera arrays,” ACM Trans. Graph. 24(3), 765–776 (2005).
[Crossref]

R. Ng, “Fourier slice photography,” ACM Trans. Graph. 24(3), 735–744 (2005).
[Crossref]

Adams, A.

M. Levoy, R. Ng, A. Adams, M. Footer, and M. Horowitz, “Light field microscopy,” ACM Trans. Graph. 25(3), 924–934 (2006).
[Crossref]

B. Wilburn, N. Joshi, V. Vaish, E. Talvala, E. Antunez, A. Barth, A. Adams, M. Horowitz, and M. Levoy, “High performance imaging using large camera arrays,” ACM Trans. Graph. 24(3), 765–776 (2005).
[Crossref]

Aharon, M.

M. Elad and M. Aharon, “Image denoising via sparse and redundant representations over learned dictionaries,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 15(12), 3736–3745 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ansorge, R.

S. D. Babacan, R. Ansorge, M. Luessi, P. R. Matarán, R. Molina, and A. K. Katsaggelos, “Compressive light field sensing,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 21(12), 4746–4757 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Antunez, E.

B. Wilburn, N. Joshi, V. Vaish, E. Talvala, E. Antunez, A. Barth, A. Adams, M. Horowitz, and M. Levoy, “High performance imaging using large camera arrays,” ACM Trans. Graph. 24(3), 765–776 (2005).
[Crossref]

Babacan, S. D.

S. D. Babacan, R. Ansorge, M. Luessi, P. R. Matarán, R. Molina, and A. K. Katsaggelos, “Compressive light field sensing,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 21(12), 4746–4757 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bach, F.

J. Mairal, F. Bach, J. Ponce, and G. Sapiro, “Online learning for matrix factorization and sparse coding,” J. Mach. Learn. Res. 11, 19–60 (2010).

J. Mairal, F. Bach, J. Ponce, and G. Sapiro, “On-line dictionary learning for sparse coding,” in Proceedings of the 26th Annual International Conference on Machine Learning, (Montreal, Canada, 2009), pp. 689–696.

Balasubramanian, A. G.

A. Y. Yang, Z. H. Zhou, A. G. Balasubramanian, S. S. Sastry, and Y. Ma, “Fast l(1)-minimization algorithms for robust face recognition,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 22(8), 3234–3246 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bando, Y.

K. Marwah, G. Wetzstein, Y. Bando, and R. Raskar, “Compressive light field photography using overcomplete dictionaries and optimized projections,” ACM Trans. Graph. 32(4), 46 (2013).
[Crossref]

Barth, A.

B. Wilburn, N. Joshi, V. Vaish, E. Talvala, E. Antunez, A. Barth, A. Adams, M. Horowitz, and M. Levoy, “High performance imaging using large camera arrays,” ACM Trans. Graph. 24(3), 765–776 (2005).
[Crossref]

Candes, E.

E. Candes, J. Romberg, and T. Tao, “Robust uncertainty principles: Exact signal reconstruction from highly incomplete frequency information,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 52(2), 489–509 (2006).
[Crossref]

Candes, E. J.

E. J. Candes and T. Tao, “Decoding by linear programming,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 51(12), 4203–4215 (2005).
[Crossref]

Chatterjee, P.

K. Venkataraman, D. Lelescu, J. Duparre, A. McMahon, G. Molina, P. Chatterjee, R. Mullis, and S. Nayar, “PiCam: An ultra-thin high performance monolithic camera array,” ACM Trans. Graph. 32(6), 166 (2013).
[Crossref]

Cohen, A.

A. Cohen, W. Dahmen, and R. Devore, “Compressed sensing and best k-term approximation,” J. Am. Math. Soc. 22(1), 211–231 (2009).
[Crossref]

Dahmen, W.

A. Cohen, W. Dahmen, and R. Devore, “Compressed sensing and best k-term approximation,” J. Am. Math. Soc. 22(1), 211–231 (2009).
[Crossref]

DaneshPanah, M.

Devore, R.

A. Cohen, W. Dahmen, and R. Devore, “Compressed sensing and best k-term approximation,” J. Am. Math. Soc. 22(1), 211–231 (2009).
[Crossref]

Duparre, J.

K. Venkataraman, D. Lelescu, J. Duparre, A. McMahon, G. Molina, P. Chatterjee, R. Mullis, and S. Nayar, “PiCam: An ultra-thin high performance monolithic camera array,” ACM Trans. Graph. 32(6), 166 (2013).
[Crossref]

Elad, M.

M. Elad and M. Aharon, “Image denoising via sparse and redundant representations over learned dictionaries,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 15(12), 3736–3745 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Footer, M.

M. Levoy, R. Ng, A. Adams, M. Footer, and M. Horowitz, “Light field microscopy,” ACM Trans. Graph. 25(3), 924–934 (2006).
[Crossref]

Fujii, T.

Q. Yao, K. Takahashi, and T. Fujii, “Compressed sensing of ray space for free viewpoint image (FVI) generation,” ITE Trans. Media Tech. and App. 2(1), 23–32 (2014).
[Crossref]

Geng, J.

J. Geng, “Three-dimensional display technologies,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 5(4), 456–535 (2013).
[Crossref]

Gilbert, A. C.

J. A. Tropp and A. C. Gilbert, “Signal recovery from random measurements via orthogonal matching pursuit,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 53(12), 4655–4666 (2007).
[Crossref]

Hanrahan, P.

M. Levoy and P. Hanrahan, “Light field rendering,” in Proceedings of ACM SIGGRAPH, 31–42. (1996).

Horowitz, M.

M. Levoy, R. Ng, A. Adams, M. Footer, and M. Horowitz, “Light field microscopy,” ACM Trans. Graph. 25(3), 924–934 (2006).
[Crossref]

B. Wilburn, N. Joshi, V. Vaish, E. Talvala, E. Antunez, A. Barth, A. Adams, M. Horowitz, and M. Levoy, “High performance imaging using large camera arrays,” ACM Trans. Graph. 24(3), 765–776 (2005).
[Crossref]

Javidi, B.

Joshi, N.

B. Wilburn, N. Joshi, V. Vaish, E. Talvala, E. Antunez, A. Barth, A. Adams, M. Horowitz, and M. Levoy, “High performance imaging using large camera arrays,” ACM Trans. Graph. 24(3), 765–776 (2005).
[Crossref]

Katsaggelos, A. K.

S. D. Babacan, R. Ansorge, M. Luessi, P. R. Matarán, R. Molina, and A. K. Katsaggelos, “Compressive light field sensing,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 21(12), 4746–4757 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lelescu, D.

K. Venkataraman, D. Lelescu, J. Duparre, A. McMahon, G. Molina, P. Chatterjee, R. Mullis, and S. Nayar, “PiCam: An ultra-thin high performance monolithic camera array,” ACM Trans. Graph. 32(6), 166 (2013).
[Crossref]

Levoy, M.

M. Levoy, R. Ng, A. Adams, M. Footer, and M. Horowitz, “Light field microscopy,” ACM Trans. Graph. 25(3), 924–934 (2006).
[Crossref]

B. Wilburn, N. Joshi, V. Vaish, E. Talvala, E. Antunez, A. Barth, A. Adams, M. Horowitz, and M. Levoy, “High performance imaging using large camera arrays,” ACM Trans. Graph. 24(3), 765–776 (2005).
[Crossref]

M. Levoy and P. Hanrahan, “Light field rendering,” in Proceedings of ACM SIGGRAPH, 31–42. (1996).

Luessi, M.

S. D. Babacan, R. Ansorge, M. Luessi, P. R. Matarán, R. Molina, and A. K. Katsaggelos, “Compressive light field sensing,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 21(12), 4746–4757 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ma, Y.

A. Y. Yang, Z. H. Zhou, A. G. Balasubramanian, S. S. Sastry, and Y. Ma, “Fast l(1)-minimization algorithms for robust face recognition,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 22(8), 3234–3246 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mairal, J.

J. Mairal, F. Bach, J. Ponce, and G. Sapiro, “Online learning for matrix factorization and sparse coding,” J. Mach. Learn. Res. 11, 19–60 (2010).

J. Mairal, F. Bach, J. Ponce, and G. Sapiro, “On-line dictionary learning for sparse coding,” in Proceedings of the 26th Annual International Conference on Machine Learning, (Montreal, Canada, 2009), pp. 689–696.

Marwah, K.

K. Marwah, G. Wetzstein, Y. Bando, and R. Raskar, “Compressive light field photography using overcomplete dictionaries and optimized projections,” ACM Trans. Graph. 32(4), 46 (2013).
[Crossref]

Matarán, P. R.

S. D. Babacan, R. Ansorge, M. Luessi, P. R. Matarán, R. Molina, and A. K. Katsaggelos, “Compressive light field sensing,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 21(12), 4746–4757 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McMahon, A.

K. Venkataraman, D. Lelescu, J. Duparre, A. McMahon, G. Molina, P. Chatterjee, R. Mullis, and S. Nayar, “PiCam: An ultra-thin high performance monolithic camera array,” ACM Trans. Graph. 32(6), 166 (2013).
[Crossref]

Molina, G.

K. Venkataraman, D. Lelescu, J. Duparre, A. McMahon, G. Molina, P. Chatterjee, R. Mullis, and S. Nayar, “PiCam: An ultra-thin high performance monolithic camera array,” ACM Trans. Graph. 32(6), 166 (2013).
[Crossref]

Molina, R.

S. D. Babacan, R. Ansorge, M. Luessi, P. R. Matarán, R. Molina, and A. K. Katsaggelos, “Compressive light field sensing,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 21(12), 4746–4757 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mullis, R.

K. Venkataraman, D. Lelescu, J. Duparre, A. McMahon, G. Molina, P. Chatterjee, R. Mullis, and S. Nayar, “PiCam: An ultra-thin high performance monolithic camera array,” ACM Trans. Graph. 32(6), 166 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nayar, S.

K. Venkataraman, D. Lelescu, J. Duparre, A. McMahon, G. Molina, P. Chatterjee, R. Mullis, and S. Nayar, “PiCam: An ultra-thin high performance monolithic camera array,” ACM Trans. Graph. 32(6), 166 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ng, R.

M. Levoy, R. Ng, A. Adams, M. Footer, and M. Horowitz, “Light field microscopy,” ACM Trans. Graph. 25(3), 924–934 (2006).
[Crossref]

R. Ng, “Fourier slice photography,” ACM Trans. Graph. 24(3), 735–744 (2005).
[Crossref]

Ponce, J.

J. Mairal, F. Bach, J. Ponce, and G. Sapiro, “Online learning for matrix factorization and sparse coding,” J. Mach. Learn. Res. 11, 19–60 (2010).

J. Mairal, F. Bach, J. Ponce, and G. Sapiro, “On-line dictionary learning for sparse coding,” in Proceedings of the 26th Annual International Conference on Machine Learning, (Montreal, Canada, 2009), pp. 689–696.

Raskar, R.

K. Marwah, G. Wetzstein, Y. Bando, and R. Raskar, “Compressive light field photography using overcomplete dictionaries and optimized projections,” ACM Trans. Graph. 32(4), 46 (2013).
[Crossref]

Rivenson, Y.

Romberg, J.

E. Candes, J. Romberg, and T. Tao, “Robust uncertainty principles: Exact signal reconstruction from highly incomplete frequency information,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 52(2), 489–509 (2006).
[Crossref]

Rosen, J.

Sapiro, G.

J. Mairal, F. Bach, J. Ponce, and G. Sapiro, “Online learning for matrix factorization and sparse coding,” J. Mach. Learn. Res. 11, 19–60 (2010).

J. Mairal, F. Bach, J. Ponce, and G. Sapiro, “On-line dictionary learning for sparse coding,” in Proceedings of the 26th Annual International Conference on Machine Learning, (Montreal, Canada, 2009), pp. 689–696.

Sastry, S. S.

A. Y. Yang, Z. H. Zhou, A. G. Balasubramanian, S. S. Sastry, and Y. Ma, “Fast l(1)-minimization algorithms for robust face recognition,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 22(8), 3234–3246 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stern, A.

Takahashi, K.

Q. Yao, K. Takahashi, and T. Fujii, “Compressed sensing of ray space for free viewpoint image (FVI) generation,” ITE Trans. Media Tech. and App. 2(1), 23–32 (2014).
[Crossref]

Talvala, E.

B. Wilburn, N. Joshi, V. Vaish, E. Talvala, E. Antunez, A. Barth, A. Adams, M. Horowitz, and M. Levoy, “High performance imaging using large camera arrays,” ACM Trans. Graph. 24(3), 765–776 (2005).
[Crossref]

Tao, T.

E. Candes, J. Romberg, and T. Tao, “Robust uncertainty principles: Exact signal reconstruction from highly incomplete frequency information,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 52(2), 489–509 (2006).
[Crossref]

E. J. Candes and T. Tao, “Decoding by linear programming,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 51(12), 4203–4215 (2005).
[Crossref]

Tropp, J. A.

J. A. Tropp and A. C. Gilbert, “Signal recovery from random measurements via orthogonal matching pursuit,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 53(12), 4655–4666 (2007).
[Crossref]

Vaish, V.

B. Wilburn, N. Joshi, V. Vaish, E. Talvala, E. Antunez, A. Barth, A. Adams, M. Horowitz, and M. Levoy, “High performance imaging using large camera arrays,” ACM Trans. Graph. 24(3), 765–776 (2005).
[Crossref]

Venkataraman, K.

K. Venkataraman, D. Lelescu, J. Duparre, A. McMahon, G. Molina, P. Chatterjee, R. Mullis, and S. Nayar, “PiCam: An ultra-thin high performance monolithic camera array,” ACM Trans. Graph. 32(6), 166 (2013).
[Crossref]

Watson, E. A.

Wetzstein, G.

K. Marwah, G. Wetzstein, Y. Bando, and R. Raskar, “Compressive light field photography using overcomplete dictionaries and optimized projections,” ACM Trans. Graph. 32(4), 46 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wilburn, B.

B. Wilburn, N. Joshi, V. Vaish, E. Talvala, E. Antunez, A. Barth, A. Adams, M. Horowitz, and M. Levoy, “High performance imaging using large camera arrays,” ACM Trans. Graph. 24(3), 765–776 (2005).
[Crossref]

Yang, A. Y.

A. Y. Yang, Z. H. Zhou, A. G. Balasubramanian, S. S. Sastry, and Y. Ma, “Fast l(1)-minimization algorithms for robust face recognition,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 22(8), 3234–3246 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yao, Q.

Q. Yao, K. Takahashi, and T. Fujii, “Compressed sensing of ray space for free viewpoint image (FVI) generation,” ITE Trans. Media Tech. and App. 2(1), 23–32 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhou, Z. H.

A. Y. Yang, Z. H. Zhou, A. G. Balasubramanian, S. S. Sastry, and Y. Ma, “Fast l(1)-minimization algorithms for robust face recognition,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 22(8), 3234–3246 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

ACM Trans. Graph. (5)

B. Wilburn, N. Joshi, V. Vaish, E. Talvala, E. Antunez, A. Barth, A. Adams, M. Horowitz, and M. Levoy, “High performance imaging using large camera arrays,” ACM Trans. Graph. 24(3), 765–776 (2005).
[Crossref]

R. Ng, “Fourier slice photography,” ACM Trans. Graph. 24(3), 735–744 (2005).
[Crossref]

M. Levoy, R. Ng, A. Adams, M. Footer, and M. Horowitz, “Light field microscopy,” ACM Trans. Graph. 25(3), 924–934 (2006).
[Crossref]

K. Venkataraman, D. Lelescu, J. Duparre, A. McMahon, G. Molina, P. Chatterjee, R. Mullis, and S. Nayar, “PiCam: An ultra-thin high performance monolithic camera array,” ACM Trans. Graph. 32(6), 166 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. Marwah, G. Wetzstein, Y. Bando, and R. Raskar, “Compressive light field photography using overcomplete dictionaries and optimized projections,” ACM Trans. Graph. 32(4), 46 (2013).
[Crossref]

Adv. Opt. Photonics (1)

J. Geng, “Three-dimensional display technologies,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 5(4), 456–535 (2013).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Image Process. (3)

A. Y. Yang, Z. H. Zhou, A. G. Balasubramanian, S. S. Sastry, and Y. Ma, “Fast l(1)-minimization algorithms for robust face recognition,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 22(8), 3234–3246 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. D. Babacan, R. Ansorge, M. Luessi, P. R. Matarán, R. Molina, and A. K. Katsaggelos, “Compressive light field sensing,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 21(12), 4746–4757 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Elad and M. Aharon, “Image denoising via sparse and redundant representations over learned dictionaries,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 15(12), 3736–3745 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory (3)

E. Candes, J. Romberg, and T. Tao, “Robust uncertainty principles: Exact signal reconstruction from highly incomplete frequency information,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 52(2), 489–509 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. A. Tropp and A. C. Gilbert, “Signal recovery from random measurements via orthogonal matching pursuit,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 53(12), 4655–4666 (2007).
[Crossref]

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic diagram of our architecture.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Comparison between single camera with mask and camera array.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Matrix representation of light field photograph from sparse camera array.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Distribution of cameras.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Visualization of trained dictionary.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Reconstruction of light field under distinct window and visualization of disaster areas.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Statistic data of reconstruction quality under distinct pixels block *The red, green and blue histograms represent the statistic PSNR of reconstructed patches in RGB color channels, respectively.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Relationship among PSNR of reconstruction, PSNR of measurement and sparse level *The vertical axis on left side is for the PSNR of reconstruction and measurement in dB. The vertical axis on right side is for the number of non-zero terms. The actual number of non-zero terms is four times than that plotted in Fig. 8.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Distribution of 5 camera array and the reconstruction of light field
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 Reconstruction of light field in other scene

Tables (3)

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Table 1 Reconstruction PSNR(dB) under different λ

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Table 2 Disaster improving under different steps and thresholds

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Table 3 Performance comparing

Equations (9)

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( 1 δ k )||x| | 2 2 ||Φx| | 2 2 ( 1+ δ k )||x| | 2 2
mC×k×log( n k )
minimize {D,A} DA F ,s.t.j, α j 0 k
{ min α mΦDα 2 +λ α 0 P r =Dα
{ { min α (i) { m (i) ΦD α (i) 2 +λ α (i) 0 } P r(i) =D α (i) PSNR P r(i) =10 log 10 ( n j=1 n ( P r (i)j P (i)j ) 2 )
{ { min α (i) { m (i) ΦD α (i) 2 +λ α (i) 0 } m r(i) =ΦD α (i) PSNR m r(i) =10 log 10 ( n j=1 l ( m r (i)j m (i)j ) 2 )
S α (i) = α (i) 0
{ I m ={ i| PSNR m r ( i ) < μ m × 1 T i=1 T PSNR m r ( i ) } I α ={ i| S α ( i ) > μ α × 1 T i=1 T S α ( i ) } I disaster = I m I α
minimize {D,A} DA F ,s.t.j, α j 0 1

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