Abstract

In this paper we report the experimental demonstration of racetrack resonators in silicon-on-insulator technology platform operating in the mid-infrared wavelength range of 3.7-3.8 μm. Insertion loss lower than 1 dB and extinction ratio up to 30 dB were measured for single resonators. The experimental characterization of directional couplers and bending losses in silicon rib waveguides are also reported. Furthermore, we present the design and fabrication of cascade-coupled racetrack resonators based on the Vernier effect. Experimental spectra of Vernier architectures were demonstrated for the first time in the mid-infrared with insertion loss lower than 1 dB and maximum interstitial peak suppression of 10 dB.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2014 (9)

M. Nedeljkovic, S. Stanković, C. J. Mitchell, A. Z. Khokhar, S. A. Reynolds, D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, C. G. Littlejohns, G. T. Reed, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Mid-infrared thermo-optic modulators in SOI,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26(13), 1352–1355 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. Jiang, N. Duan, H. Lin, L. Li, J. Hu, L. Bi, H. Lu, X. Weng, J. Xie, and L. Deng, “ZrO2-TiO2 thin films and resonators for mid-infrared integrated photonics,” Proc. SPIE 8988, 89880S (2014).

C.-S. Deng, H.-G. Peng, Y.-S. Gao, and J.-X. Zhong, “Ultrahigh-Q photonic crystal nanobeam cavities with H-shaped holes,” Physica E 63, 8–13 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. La Notte, B. Troia, T. Muciaccia, C. E. Campanella, F. De Leonardis, and V. M. N. Passaro, “Recent advances in gas and chemical detection by Vernier effect-based photonic sensors,” Sensors (Basel) 14(3), 4831–4855 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Troia and V. M. N. Passaro, “Investigation of a novel silicon-on-insulator rib-slot photonic sensor based on the Vernier effect and operating at 3.8 µm,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Rapid Publ. 9, 14005 (2014).
[Crossref]

B. Troia, F. De Leonardis, and V. M. N. Passaro, “Generalized modelling for the design of guided-wave optical directional couplers,” Opt. Lett. 39(5), 1161–1164 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Hu, T. Li, D. J. Thomson, X. Chen, J. S. Penades, A. Z. Khokhar, C. J. Mitchell, G. T. Reed, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Mid-infrared wavelength division (de)multiplexer using an interleaved angled multimode interferometer on the silicon-on-insulator platform,” Opt. Lett. 39(6), 1406–1409 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. H. Lee, I. Shubin, J. Yao, J. Bickford, Y. Luo, S. Lin, S. S. Djordjevic, H. D. Thacker, J. E. Cunningham, K. Raj, X. Zheng, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “High power and widely tunable Si hybrid external-cavity laser for power efficient Si photonics WDM links,” Opt. Express 22(7), 7678–7685 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. J. Thomson, L. Shen, J. J. Ackert, E. Huante-Ceron, A. P. Knights, M. Nedeljkovic, A. C. Peacock, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Optical detection and modulation at 2µm-2.5µm in silicon,” Opt. Express 22(9), 10825–10830 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (17)

P. B. Deotare, L. C. Kogos, I. Bulu, and M. Loncar, “Photonic crystal nanobeam cavities for tunable filter and router applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(2), 3600210 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. La Notte and V. M. N. Passaro, “Ultra high sensitivity chemical photonic sensing by Mach-Zehnder interferometer enhanced Vernier-effect,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 176, 994–1007 (2013).
[Crossref]

W. S. Fegadolli, J. E. B. Oliveira, V. R. Almeida, and A. Scherer, “Compact and low power consumption tunable photonic crystal nanobeam cavity,” Opt. Express 21(3), 3861–3871 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Xia, C. Qiu, X. Zhang, W. Gao, J. Shu, and Q. Xu, “Suspended Si ring resonator for mid-IR application,” Opt. Lett. 38(7), 1122–1124 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Boeck, J. Flueckiger, L. Chrostowski, and N. A. F. Jaeger, “Experimental performance of DWDM quadruple Vernier racetrack resonators,” Opt. Express 21(7), 9103–9112 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Jiang, J. Ye, J. Zou, M. Li, and J.-J. He, “Cascaded silicon-on-insulator double-ring sensors operating in high-sensitivity transverse-magnetic mode,” Opt. Lett. 38(8), 1349–1351 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Lin, L. Li, Y. Zou, S. Danto, J. D. Musgraves, K. Richardson, S. Kozacik, M. Murakowski, D. Prather, P. T. Lin, V. Singh, A. Agarwal, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Hu, “Demonstration of high-Q mid-infrared chalcogenide glass-on-silicon resonators,” Opt. Lett. 38(9), 1470–1472 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Muneeb, X. Chen, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, S. Pathak, E. Ryckeboer, A. Malik, B. Kuyken, M. Nedeljkovic, J. Van Campenhout, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. Roelkens, “Demonstration of Silicon-on-insulator mid-infrared spectrometers operating at 3.8 μm,” Opt. Express 21(10), 11659–11669 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Nedeljkovic, A. Z. Khokhar, Y. Hu, X. Chen, J. Soler Penades, S. Stankovic, H. M. H. Chong, D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, G. T. Reed, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Silicon photonic devices and platforms for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Mater. Express 3(9), 1205–1214 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. C. Hulme, J. K. Doylend, and J. E. Bowers, “Widely tunable Vernier ring laser on hybrid silicon,” Opt. Express 21(17), 19718–19722 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Zamora, P. Lützow, M. Weiland, and D. Pergande, “Investigation of cascaded SiN microring resonators at 1.3 µm and 1.5 µm,” Opt. Express 21(23), 27550–27557 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Seidler, K. Lister, U. Drechsler, J. Hofrichter, and T. Stöferle, “Slotted photonic crystal nanobeam cavity with an ultrahigh quality factor-to-mode volume ratio,” Opt. Express 21(26), 32468–32483 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Shankar, I. Bulu, and M. Lončar, “Integrated high-quality factor silicon-on-sapphire ring resonators for the mid-infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(5), 051108 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. Zhou, X. Zhang, L. Lu, and J. Chen, “Tunable Vernier microring optical filters with p-i-p type microheaters,” IEEE Photon. J. 5(4), 6601211 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. Boeck, W. Shi, L. Chrostowski, and N. A. F. Jaeger, “FSR-eliminated Vernier racetrack resonators using grating-assisted couplers,” IEEE Photon. J. 5(5), 2202511 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. T. Lin, V. Singh, L. Kimerling, and A. M. Agarwal, “Planar silicon nitride mid-infrared devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(25), 251121 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Y. Wang, T. Herr, P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, J. Hofer, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, N. Picqué, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Mid-infrared optical frequency combs at 2.5 μm based on crystalline microresonators,” Nat. Commun. 4(1354), 1–7 (2013).

2012 (11)

M. M. Milošević, M. Nedeljkovic, T. M. Ben Masaud, E. Jaberansary, H. M. H. Chong, N. G. Emerson, G. T. Reed, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Silicon waveguides and devices for the mid-infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(12), 121105 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. Y. Wong, Z. Cheng, X. Chen, K. Xu, C. K. Y. Fung, Y. M. Chen, and H. K. Tsang, “Characterization of mid-infrared silicon-on-sapphire microring resonators with thermal tuning,” IEEE Photon. J. 4(4), 1095–1102 (2012).
[Crossref]

V. M. N. Passaro, B. Troia, M. La Notte, and F. De Leonardis, “Photonic resonant microcavities for chemical and biochemical sensing,” RSC Adv. 3(1), 25–44 (2012).
[Crossref]

Z. Cheng, X. Chen, C. Y. Wong, K. Xu, and H. K. Tsang, “Mid-infrared suspended membrane waveguide and ring resonator on silicon-on-insulator,” IEEE Photon. J. 4(5), 1510–1519 (2012).
[Crossref]

P. B. Deotare, I. Bulu, I. W. Frank, Q. Quan, Y. Zhang, R. Ilic, and M. Loncar, “All optical reconfiguration of optomechanical filters,” Nat Commun 3, 846 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. M. N. Passaro, B. Troia, and F. De Leonardis, “A generalized approach for design of photonic gas sensors based on Vernier-effect in mid-IR,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 168, 402–420 (2012).
[Crossref]

X. Tu, J. Song, T.-Y. Liow, M. K. Park, J. Q. Yiying, J. S. Kee, M. Yu, and G.-Q. Lo, “Thermal independent Silicon-Nitride slot waveguide biosensor with high sensitivity,” Opt. Express 20(3), 2640–2648 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. S. Fegadolli, G. Vargas, X. Wang, F. Valini, L. A. M. Barea, J. E. B. Oliveira, N. Frateschi, A. Scherer, V. R. Almeida, and R. R. Panepucci, “Reconfigurable silicon thermo-optical ring resonator switch based on Vernier effect control,” Opt. Express 20(13), 14722–14733 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Ren, X. Wu, M. Li, X. Zhang, L. Liu, and L. Xu, “Ultrasensitive label-free coupled optofluidic ring laser sensor,” Opt. Lett. 37(18), 3873–3875 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Boeck, J. Flueckiger, H. Yun, L. Chrostowski, and N. A. F. Jaeger, “High performance Vernier racetrack resonators,” Opt. Lett. 37(24), 5199–5201 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Reimer, M. Nedeljkovic, D. J. M. Stothard, M. O. S. Esnault, C. Reardon, L. O’Faolain, M. Dunn, G. Z. Mashanovich, and T. F. Krauss, “Mid-infrared photonic crystal waveguides in silicon,” Opt. Express 20(28), 29361–29368 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (4)

G. Z. Mashanovich, M. M. Milošević, M. Nedeljkovic, N. Owens, B. Xiong, E. J. Teo, and Y. Hu, “Low loss silicon waveguides for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Express 19(8), 7112–7119 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Claes, W. Bogaerts, and P. Bienstman, “Vernier-cascade label-free biosensor with integrated arrayed waveguide grating for wavelength interrogation with low-cost broadband source,” Opt. Lett. 36(17), 3320–3322 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Jin, M. Li, and J.-J. He, “Highly-sensitive silicon-on-insulator sensor based on two cascade micro-ring resonators with Vernier effect,” Opt. Commun. 284(1), 156–159 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Hu and D. Dai, “Cascaded-ring optical sensor with enhanced sensitivity by using suspended Si-nanowires,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(13), 842–844 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (3)

A. Spott, Y. Liu, T. Baehr-Jones, R. Ilic, and M. Hochberg, “Silicon waveguides and ring resonators at 5.5.µm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(21), 213501 (2010).
[Crossref]

R. Soref, “Mid-infrared photonics in silicon and germanium,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 495–497 (2010).
[Crossref]

R. Boeck, N. A. F. Jaeger, N. Rouger, and L. Chrostowski, “Series-coupled silicon racetrack resonators and the Vernier effect: theory and measurement,” Opt. Express 18(24), 25151–25157 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

Ackert, J. J.

Agarwal, A.

Agarwal, A. M.

P. T. Lin, V. Singh, L. Kimerling, and A. M. Agarwal, “Planar silicon nitride mid-infrared devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(25), 251121 (2013).
[Crossref]

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M. M. Milošević, M. Nedeljkovic, T. M. Ben Masaud, E. Jaberansary, H. M. H. Chong, N. G. Emerson, G. T. Reed, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Silicon waveguides and devices for the mid-infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(12), 121105 (2012).
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Hochberg, M.

A. Spott, Y. Liu, T. Baehr-Jones, R. Ilic, and M. Hochberg, “Silicon waveguides and ring resonators at 5.5.µm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(21), 213501 (2010).
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C. Y. Wang, T. Herr, P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, J. Hofer, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, N. Picqué, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Mid-infrared optical frequency combs at 2.5 μm based on crystalline microresonators,” Nat. Commun. 4(1354), 1–7 (2013).

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Holzwarth, R.

C. Y. Wang, T. Herr, P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, J. Hofer, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, N. Picqué, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Mid-infrared optical frequency combs at 2.5 μm based on crystalline microresonators,” Nat. Commun. 4(1354), 1–7 (2013).

Hu, J.

F. Jiang, N. Duan, H. Lin, L. Li, J. Hu, L. Bi, H. Lu, X. Weng, J. Xie, and L. Deng, “ZrO2-TiO2 thin films and resonators for mid-infrared integrated photonics,” Proc. SPIE 8988, 89880S (2014).

H. Lin, L. Li, Y. Zou, S. Danto, J. D. Musgraves, K. Richardson, S. Kozacik, M. Murakowski, D. Prather, P. T. Lin, V. Singh, A. Agarwal, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Hu, “Demonstration of high-Q mid-infrared chalcogenide glass-on-silicon resonators,” Opt. Lett. 38(9), 1470–1472 (2013).
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J. Hu and D. Dai, “Cascaded-ring optical sensor with enhanced sensitivity by using suspended Si-nanowires,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(13), 842–844 (2011).
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Huante-Ceron, E.

Hulme, J. C.

Ilic, R.

P. B. Deotare, I. Bulu, I. W. Frank, Q. Quan, Y. Zhang, R. Ilic, and M. Loncar, “All optical reconfiguration of optomechanical filters,” Nat Commun 3, 846 (2012).
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A. Spott, Y. Liu, T. Baehr-Jones, R. Ilic, and M. Hochberg, “Silicon waveguides and ring resonators at 5.5.µm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(21), 213501 (2010).
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M. M. Milošević, M. Nedeljkovic, T. M. Ben Masaud, E. Jaberansary, H. M. H. Chong, N. G. Emerson, G. T. Reed, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Silicon waveguides and devices for the mid-infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(12), 121105 (2012).
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Jiang, F.

F. Jiang, N. Duan, H. Lin, L. Li, J. Hu, L. Bi, H. Lu, X. Weng, J. Xie, and L. Deng, “ZrO2-TiO2 thin films and resonators for mid-infrared integrated photonics,” Proc. SPIE 8988, 89880S (2014).

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Jin, L.

L. Jin, M. Li, and J.-J. He, “Highly-sensitive silicon-on-insulator sensor based on two cascade micro-ring resonators with Vernier effect,” Opt. Commun. 284(1), 156–159 (2011).
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Khokhar, A. Z.

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Kippenberg, T. J.

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Kogos, L. C.

P. B. Deotare, L. C. Kogos, I. Bulu, and M. Loncar, “Photonic crystal nanobeam cavities for tunable filter and router applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(2), 3600210 (2013).
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Krauss, T. F.

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M. La Notte, B. Troia, T. Muciaccia, C. E. Campanella, F. De Leonardis, and V. M. N. Passaro, “Recent advances in gas and chemical detection by Vernier effect-based photonic sensors,” Sensors (Basel) 14(3), 4831–4855 (2014).
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Lepage, G.

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Li, M.

Li, T.

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Lin, S.

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Lister, K.

Littlejohns, C. G.

M. Nedeljkovic, S. Stanković, C. J. Mitchell, A. Z. Khokhar, S. A. Reynolds, D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, C. G. Littlejohns, G. T. Reed, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Mid-infrared thermo-optic modulators in SOI,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26(13), 1352–1355 (2014).
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Liu, Y.

A. Spott, Y. Liu, T. Baehr-Jones, R. Ilic, and M. Hochberg, “Silicon waveguides and ring resonators at 5.5.µm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(21), 213501 (2010).
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Loncar, M.

P. B. Deotare, L. C. Kogos, I. Bulu, and M. Loncar, “Photonic crystal nanobeam cavities for tunable filter and router applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(2), 3600210 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. Shankar, I. Bulu, and M. Lončar, “Integrated high-quality factor silicon-on-sapphire ring resonators for the mid-infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(5), 051108 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. B. Deotare, I. Bulu, I. W. Frank, Q. Quan, Y. Zhang, R. Ilic, and M. Loncar, “All optical reconfiguration of optomechanical filters,” Nat Commun 3, 846 (2012).
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F. Jiang, N. Duan, H. Lin, L. Li, J. Hu, L. Bi, H. Lu, X. Weng, J. Xie, and L. Deng, “ZrO2-TiO2 thin films and resonators for mid-infrared integrated photonics,” Proc. SPIE 8988, 89880S (2014).

Lu, L.

L. Zhou, X. Zhang, L. Lu, and J. Chen, “Tunable Vernier microring optical filters with p-i-p type microheaters,” IEEE Photon. J. 5(4), 6601211 (2013).
[Crossref]

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Lützow, P.

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A. Malik, M. Muneeb, Y. Shimura, J. Van Campenhout, R. Loo, and G. Roelkens, “Germanium-on-silicon mid-infrared waveguides and Mach-Zehnder interferometers,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Photonics (IEEE, 2013), pp. 104–105.

Mashanovich, G. Z.

Y. Hu, T. Li, D. J. Thomson, X. Chen, J. S. Penades, A. Z. Khokhar, C. J. Mitchell, G. T. Reed, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Mid-infrared wavelength division (de)multiplexer using an interleaved angled multimode interferometer on the silicon-on-insulator platform,” Opt. Lett. 39(6), 1406–1409 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. J. Thomson, L. Shen, J. J. Ackert, E. Huante-Ceron, A. P. Knights, M. Nedeljkovic, A. C. Peacock, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Optical detection and modulation at 2µm-2.5µm in silicon,” Opt. Express 22(9), 10825–10830 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Nedeljkovic, S. Stanković, C. J. Mitchell, A. Z. Khokhar, S. A. Reynolds, D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, C. G. Littlejohns, G. T. Reed, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Mid-infrared thermo-optic modulators in SOI,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26(13), 1352–1355 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Nedeljkovic, A. Z. Khokhar, Y. Hu, X. Chen, J. Soler Penades, S. Stankovic, H. M. H. Chong, D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, G. T. Reed, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Silicon photonic devices and platforms for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Mater. Express 3(9), 1205–1214 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Muneeb, X. Chen, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, S. Pathak, E. Ryckeboer, A. Malik, B. Kuyken, M. Nedeljkovic, J. Van Campenhout, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. Roelkens, “Demonstration of Silicon-on-insulator mid-infrared spectrometers operating at 3.8 μm,” Opt. Express 21(10), 11659–11669 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Reimer, M. Nedeljkovic, D. J. M. Stothard, M. O. S. Esnault, C. Reardon, L. O’Faolain, M. Dunn, G. Z. Mashanovich, and T. F. Krauss, “Mid-infrared photonic crystal waveguides in silicon,” Opt. Express 20(28), 29361–29368 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. M. Milošević, M. Nedeljkovic, T. M. Ben Masaud, E. Jaberansary, H. M. H. Chong, N. G. Emerson, G. T. Reed, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Silicon waveguides and devices for the mid-infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(12), 121105 (2012).
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G. Z. Mashanovich, M. M. Milošević, M. Nedeljkovic, N. Owens, B. Xiong, E. J. Teo, and Y. Hu, “Low loss silicon waveguides for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Express 19(8), 7112–7119 (2011).
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M. M. Milošević, M. Nedeljkovic, T. M. Ben Masaud, E. Jaberansary, H. M. H. Chong, N. G. Emerson, G. T. Reed, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Silicon waveguides and devices for the mid-infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(12), 121105 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. Z. Mashanovich, M. M. Milošević, M. Nedeljkovic, N. Owens, B. Xiong, E. J. Teo, and Y. Hu, “Low loss silicon waveguides for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Express 19(8), 7112–7119 (2011).
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M. Nedeljkovic, S. Stanković, C. J. Mitchell, A. Z. Khokhar, S. A. Reynolds, D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, C. G. Littlejohns, G. T. Reed, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Mid-infrared thermo-optic modulators in SOI,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26(13), 1352–1355 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Hu, T. Li, D. J. Thomson, X. Chen, J. S. Penades, A. Z. Khokhar, C. J. Mitchell, G. T. Reed, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Mid-infrared wavelength division (de)multiplexer using an interleaved angled multimode interferometer on the silicon-on-insulator platform,” Opt. Lett. 39(6), 1406–1409 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Muciaccia, T.

M. La Notte, B. Troia, T. Muciaccia, C. E. Campanella, F. De Leonardis, and V. M. N. Passaro, “Recent advances in gas and chemical detection by Vernier effect-based photonic sensors,” Sensors (Basel) 14(3), 4831–4855 (2014).
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M. Muneeb, X. Chen, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, S. Pathak, E. Ryckeboer, A. Malik, B. Kuyken, M. Nedeljkovic, J. Van Campenhout, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. Roelkens, “Demonstration of Silicon-on-insulator mid-infrared spectrometers operating at 3.8 μm,” Opt. Express 21(10), 11659–11669 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Malik, M. Muneeb, Y. Shimura, J. Van Campenhout, R. Loo, and G. Roelkens, “Germanium-on-silicon mid-infrared waveguides and Mach-Zehnder interferometers,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Photonics (IEEE, 2013), pp. 104–105.

Murakowski, M.

Musgraves, J. D.

Nedeljkovic, M.

D. J. Thomson, L. Shen, J. J. Ackert, E. Huante-Ceron, A. P. Knights, M. Nedeljkovic, A. C. Peacock, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Optical detection and modulation at 2µm-2.5µm in silicon,” Opt. Express 22(9), 10825–10830 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Nedeljkovic, S. Stanković, C. J. Mitchell, A. Z. Khokhar, S. A. Reynolds, D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, C. G. Littlejohns, G. T. Reed, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Mid-infrared thermo-optic modulators in SOI,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26(13), 1352–1355 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Muneeb, X. Chen, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, S. Pathak, E. Ryckeboer, A. Malik, B. Kuyken, M. Nedeljkovic, J. Van Campenhout, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. Roelkens, “Demonstration of Silicon-on-insulator mid-infrared spectrometers operating at 3.8 μm,” Opt. Express 21(10), 11659–11669 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Nedeljkovic, A. Z. Khokhar, Y. Hu, X. Chen, J. Soler Penades, S. Stankovic, H. M. H. Chong, D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, G. T. Reed, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Silicon photonic devices and platforms for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Mater. Express 3(9), 1205–1214 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Reimer, M. Nedeljkovic, D. J. M. Stothard, M. O. S. Esnault, C. Reardon, L. O’Faolain, M. Dunn, G. Z. Mashanovich, and T. F. Krauss, “Mid-infrared photonic crystal waveguides in silicon,” Opt. Express 20(28), 29361–29368 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. M. Milošević, M. Nedeljkovic, T. M. Ben Masaud, E. Jaberansary, H. M. H. Chong, N. G. Emerson, G. T. Reed, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Silicon waveguides and devices for the mid-infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(12), 121105 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. Z. Mashanovich, M. M. Milošević, M. Nedeljkovic, N. Owens, B. Xiong, E. J. Teo, and Y. Hu, “Low loss silicon waveguides for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Express 19(8), 7112–7119 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O’Faolain, L.

Oliveira, J. E. B.

Owens, N.

Panepucci, R. R.

Park, M. K.

Passaro, V. M. N.

M. La Notte, B. Troia, T. Muciaccia, C. E. Campanella, F. De Leonardis, and V. M. N. Passaro, “Recent advances in gas and chemical detection by Vernier effect-based photonic sensors,” Sensors (Basel) 14(3), 4831–4855 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Troia and V. M. N. Passaro, “Investigation of a novel silicon-on-insulator rib-slot photonic sensor based on the Vernier effect and operating at 3.8 µm,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Rapid Publ. 9, 14005 (2014).
[Crossref]

B. Troia, F. De Leonardis, and V. M. N. Passaro, “Generalized modelling for the design of guided-wave optical directional couplers,” Opt. Lett. 39(5), 1161–1164 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. La Notte and V. M. N. Passaro, “Ultra high sensitivity chemical photonic sensing by Mach-Zehnder interferometer enhanced Vernier-effect,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 176, 994–1007 (2013).
[Crossref]

V. M. N. Passaro, B. Troia, and F. De Leonardis, “A generalized approach for design of photonic gas sensors based on Vernier-effect in mid-IR,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 168, 402–420 (2012).
[Crossref]

V. M. N. Passaro, B. Troia, M. La Notte, and F. De Leonardis, “Photonic resonant microcavities for chemical and biochemical sensing,” RSC Adv. 3(1), 25–44 (2012).
[Crossref]

Pathak, S.

Peacock, A. C.

Penades, J. S.

Peng, H.-G.

C.-S. Deng, H.-G. Peng, Y.-S. Gao, and J.-X. Zhong, “Ultrahigh-Q photonic crystal nanobeam cavities with H-shaped holes,” Physica E 63, 8–13 (2014).
[Crossref]

Pergande, D.

Picqué, N.

C. Y. Wang, T. Herr, P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, J. Hofer, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, N. Picqué, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Mid-infrared optical frequency combs at 2.5 μm based on crystalline microresonators,” Nat. Commun. 4(1354), 1–7 (2013).

Prather, D.

Qiu, C.

Quan, Q.

P. B. Deotare, I. Bulu, I. W. Frank, Q. Quan, Y. Zhang, R. Ilic, and M. Loncar, “All optical reconfiguration of optomechanical filters,” Nat Commun 3, 846 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Raj, K.

Reardon, C.

Reed, G. T.

M. Nedeljkovic, S. Stanković, C. J. Mitchell, A. Z. Khokhar, S. A. Reynolds, D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, C. G. Littlejohns, G. T. Reed, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Mid-infrared thermo-optic modulators in SOI,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26(13), 1352–1355 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Hu, T. Li, D. J. Thomson, X. Chen, J. S. Penades, A. Z. Khokhar, C. J. Mitchell, G. T. Reed, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Mid-infrared wavelength division (de)multiplexer using an interleaved angled multimode interferometer on the silicon-on-insulator platform,” Opt. Lett. 39(6), 1406–1409 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Nedeljkovic, A. Z. Khokhar, Y. Hu, X. Chen, J. Soler Penades, S. Stankovic, H. M. H. Chong, D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, G. T. Reed, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Silicon photonic devices and platforms for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Mater. Express 3(9), 1205–1214 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. M. Milošević, M. Nedeljkovic, T. M. Ben Masaud, E. Jaberansary, H. M. H. Chong, N. G. Emerson, G. T. Reed, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Silicon waveguides and devices for the mid-infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(12), 121105 (2012).
[Crossref]

Reimer, C.

Ren, L.

Reynolds, S. A.

M. Nedeljkovic, S. Stanković, C. J. Mitchell, A. Z. Khokhar, S. A. Reynolds, D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, C. G. Littlejohns, G. T. Reed, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Mid-infrared thermo-optic modulators in SOI,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26(13), 1352–1355 (2014).
[Crossref]

Richardson, K.

Roelkens, G.

M. Muneeb, X. Chen, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, S. Pathak, E. Ryckeboer, A. Malik, B. Kuyken, M. Nedeljkovic, J. Van Campenhout, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. Roelkens, “Demonstration of Silicon-on-insulator mid-infrared spectrometers operating at 3.8 μm,” Opt. Express 21(10), 11659–11669 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Malik, M. Muneeb, Y. Shimura, J. Van Campenhout, R. Loo, and G. Roelkens, “Germanium-on-silicon mid-infrared waveguides and Mach-Zehnder interferometers,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Photonics (IEEE, 2013), pp. 104–105.

Rouger, N.

Ryckeboer, E.

Scherer, A.

Schliesser, A.

C. Y. Wang, T. Herr, P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, J. Hofer, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, N. Picqué, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Mid-infrared optical frequency combs at 2.5 μm based on crystalline microresonators,” Nat. Commun. 4(1354), 1–7 (2013).

Seidler, P.

Shankar, R.

R. Shankar, I. Bulu, and M. Lončar, “Integrated high-quality factor silicon-on-sapphire ring resonators for the mid-infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(5), 051108 (2013).
[Crossref]

Shen, L.

Shi, W.

R. Boeck, W. Shi, L. Chrostowski, and N. A. F. Jaeger, “FSR-eliminated Vernier racetrack resonators using grating-assisted couplers,” IEEE Photon. J. 5(5), 2202511 (2013).
[Crossref]

Shimura, Y.

A. Malik, M. Muneeb, Y. Shimura, J. Van Campenhout, R. Loo, and G. Roelkens, “Germanium-on-silicon mid-infrared waveguides and Mach-Zehnder interferometers,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Photonics (IEEE, 2013), pp. 104–105.

Shu, J.

Shubin, I.

Singh, V.

Soler Penades, J.

Song, J.

Soref, R.

R. Soref, “Mid-infrared photonics in silicon and germanium,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 495–497 (2010).
[Crossref]

Spott, A.

A. Spott, Y. Liu, T. Baehr-Jones, R. Ilic, and M. Hochberg, “Silicon waveguides and ring resonators at 5.5.µm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(21), 213501 (2010).
[Crossref]

Stankovic, S.

M. Nedeljkovic, S. Stanković, C. J. Mitchell, A. Z. Khokhar, S. A. Reynolds, D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, C. G. Littlejohns, G. T. Reed, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Mid-infrared thermo-optic modulators in SOI,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26(13), 1352–1355 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Nedeljkovic, A. Z. Khokhar, Y. Hu, X. Chen, J. Soler Penades, S. Stankovic, H. M. H. Chong, D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, G. T. Reed, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Silicon photonic devices and platforms for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Mater. Express 3(9), 1205–1214 (2013).
[Crossref]

Stöferle, T.

Stothard, D. J. M.

Teo, E. J.

Thacker, H. D.

Thomson, D. J.

Troia, B.

B. Troia, F. De Leonardis, and V. M. N. Passaro, “Generalized modelling for the design of guided-wave optical directional couplers,” Opt. Lett. 39(5), 1161–1164 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Troia and V. M. N. Passaro, “Investigation of a novel silicon-on-insulator rib-slot photonic sensor based on the Vernier effect and operating at 3.8 µm,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Rapid Publ. 9, 14005 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. La Notte, B. Troia, T. Muciaccia, C. E. Campanella, F. De Leonardis, and V. M. N. Passaro, “Recent advances in gas and chemical detection by Vernier effect-based photonic sensors,” Sensors (Basel) 14(3), 4831–4855 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. M. N. Passaro, B. Troia, and F. De Leonardis, “A generalized approach for design of photonic gas sensors based on Vernier-effect in mid-IR,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 168, 402–420 (2012).
[Crossref]

V. M. N. Passaro, B. Troia, M. La Notte, and F. De Leonardis, “Photonic resonant microcavities for chemical and biochemical sensing,” RSC Adv. 3(1), 25–44 (2012).
[Crossref]

Tsang, H. K.

Z. Cheng, X. Chen, C. Y. Wong, K. Xu, and H. K. Tsang, “Mid-infrared suspended membrane waveguide and ring resonator on silicon-on-insulator,” IEEE Photon. J. 4(5), 1510–1519 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. Y. Wong, Z. Cheng, X. Chen, K. Xu, C. K. Y. Fung, Y. M. Chen, and H. K. Tsang, “Characterization of mid-infrared silicon-on-sapphire microring resonators with thermal tuning,” IEEE Photon. J. 4(4), 1095–1102 (2012).
[Crossref]

Tu, X.

Valini, F.

Van Campenhout, J.

M. Muneeb, X. Chen, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, S. Pathak, E. Ryckeboer, A. Malik, B. Kuyken, M. Nedeljkovic, J. Van Campenhout, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. Roelkens, “Demonstration of Silicon-on-insulator mid-infrared spectrometers operating at 3.8 μm,” Opt. Express 21(10), 11659–11669 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Malik, M. Muneeb, Y. Shimura, J. Van Campenhout, R. Loo, and G. Roelkens, “Germanium-on-silicon mid-infrared waveguides and Mach-Zehnder interferometers,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Photonics (IEEE, 2013), pp. 104–105.

Vargas, G.

Verheyen, P.

Wang, C. Y.

C. Y. Wang, T. Herr, P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, J. Hofer, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, N. Picqué, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Mid-infrared optical frequency combs at 2.5 μm based on crystalline microresonators,” Nat. Commun. 4(1354), 1–7 (2013).

Wang, X.

Weiland, M.

Weng, X.

F. Jiang, N. Duan, H. Lin, L. Li, J. Hu, L. Bi, H. Lu, X. Weng, J. Xie, and L. Deng, “ZrO2-TiO2 thin films and resonators for mid-infrared integrated photonics,” Proc. SPIE 8988, 89880S (2014).

Wong, C. Y.

C. Y. Wong, Z. Cheng, X. Chen, K. Xu, C. K. Y. Fung, Y. M. Chen, and H. K. Tsang, “Characterization of mid-infrared silicon-on-sapphire microring resonators with thermal tuning,” IEEE Photon. J. 4(4), 1095–1102 (2012).
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Z. Cheng, X. Chen, C. Y. Wong, K. Xu, and H. K. Tsang, “Mid-infrared suspended membrane waveguide and ring resonator on silicon-on-insulator,” IEEE Photon. J. 4(5), 1510–1519 (2012).
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Wu, X.

Xia, Y.

Xie, J.

F. Jiang, N. Duan, H. Lin, L. Li, J. Hu, L. Bi, H. Lu, X. Weng, J. Xie, and L. Deng, “ZrO2-TiO2 thin films and resonators for mid-infrared integrated photonics,” Proc. SPIE 8988, 89880S (2014).

Xiong, B.

Xu, K.

Z. Cheng, X. Chen, C. Y. Wong, K. Xu, and H. K. Tsang, “Mid-infrared suspended membrane waveguide and ring resonator on silicon-on-insulator,” IEEE Photon. J. 4(5), 1510–1519 (2012).
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C. Y. Wong, Z. Cheng, X. Chen, K. Xu, C. K. Y. Fung, Y. M. Chen, and H. K. Tsang, “Characterization of mid-infrared silicon-on-sapphire microring resonators with thermal tuning,” IEEE Photon. J. 4(4), 1095–1102 (2012).
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Xu, L.

Xu, Q.

Yao, J.

Ye, J.

Yiying, J. Q.

Yu, M.

Yun, H.

Zamora, V.

Zhang, X.

Zhang, Y.

P. B. Deotare, I. Bulu, I. W. Frank, Q. Quan, Y. Zhang, R. Ilic, and M. Loncar, “All optical reconfiguration of optomechanical filters,” Nat Commun 3, 846 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zheng, X.

Zhong, J.-X.

C.-S. Deng, H.-G. Peng, Y.-S. Gao, and J.-X. Zhong, “Ultrahigh-Q photonic crystal nanobeam cavities with H-shaped holes,” Physica E 63, 8–13 (2014).
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Zhou, L.

L. Zhou, X. Zhang, L. Lu, and J. Chen, “Tunable Vernier microring optical filters with p-i-p type microheaters,” IEEE Photon. J. 5(4), 6601211 (2013).
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Zou, J.

Zou, Y.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

M. M. Milošević, M. Nedeljkovic, T. M. Ben Masaud, E. Jaberansary, H. M. H. Chong, N. G. Emerson, G. T. Reed, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Silicon waveguides and devices for the mid-infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(12), 121105 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. Shankar, I. Bulu, and M. Lončar, “Integrated high-quality factor silicon-on-sapphire ring resonators for the mid-infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(5), 051108 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Spott, Y. Liu, T. Baehr-Jones, R. Ilic, and M. Hochberg, “Silicon waveguides and ring resonators at 5.5.µm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(21), 213501 (2010).
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P. T. Lin, V. Singh, L. Kimerling, and A. M. Agarwal, “Planar silicon nitride mid-infrared devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(25), 251121 (2013).
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IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

P. B. Deotare, L. C. Kogos, I. Bulu, and M. Loncar, “Photonic crystal nanobeam cavities for tunable filter and router applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(2), 3600210 (2013).
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IEEE Photon. J. (4)

L. Zhou, X. Zhang, L. Lu, and J. Chen, “Tunable Vernier microring optical filters with p-i-p type microheaters,” IEEE Photon. J. 5(4), 6601211 (2013).
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R. Boeck, W. Shi, L. Chrostowski, and N. A. F. Jaeger, “FSR-eliminated Vernier racetrack resonators using grating-assisted couplers,” IEEE Photon. J. 5(5), 2202511 (2013).
[Crossref]

Z. Cheng, X. Chen, C. Y. Wong, K. Xu, and H. K. Tsang, “Mid-infrared suspended membrane waveguide and ring resonator on silicon-on-insulator,” IEEE Photon. J. 4(5), 1510–1519 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. Y. Wong, Z. Cheng, X. Chen, K. Xu, C. K. Y. Fung, Y. M. Chen, and H. K. Tsang, “Characterization of mid-infrared silicon-on-sapphire microring resonators with thermal tuning,” IEEE Photon. J. 4(4), 1095–1102 (2012).
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IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

M. Nedeljkovic, S. Stanković, C. J. Mitchell, A. Z. Khokhar, S. A. Reynolds, D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, C. G. Littlejohns, G. T. Reed, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Mid-infrared thermo-optic modulators in SOI,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26(13), 1352–1355 (2014).
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J. Hu and D. Dai, “Cascaded-ring optical sensor with enhanced sensitivity by using suspended Si-nanowires,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(13), 842–844 (2011).
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J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Rapid Publ. (1)

B. Troia and V. M. N. Passaro, “Investigation of a novel silicon-on-insulator rib-slot photonic sensor based on the Vernier effect and operating at 3.8 µm,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Rapid Publ. 9, 14005 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nat Commun (1)

P. B. Deotare, I. Bulu, I. W. Frank, Q. Quan, Y. Zhang, R. Ilic, and M. Loncar, “All optical reconfiguration of optomechanical filters,” Nat Commun 3, 846 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Commun. (1)

C. Y. Wang, T. Herr, P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, J. Hofer, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, N. Picqué, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Mid-infrared optical frequency combs at 2.5 μm based on crystalline microresonators,” Nat. Commun. 4(1354), 1–7 (2013).

Nat. Photonics (1)

R. Soref, “Mid-infrared photonics in silicon and germanium,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 495–497 (2010).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (1)

L. Jin, M. Li, and J.-J. He, “Highly-sensitive silicon-on-insulator sensor based on two cascade micro-ring resonators with Vernier effect,” Opt. Commun. 284(1), 156–159 (2011).
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Opt. Express (14)

D. Dai, “Highly sensitive digital optical sensor based on cascaded high-Q ring-resonators,” Opt. Express 17(26), 23817–23822 (2009).
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V. Zamora, P. Lützow, M. Weiland, and D. Pergande, “Investigation of cascaded SiN microring resonators at 1.3 µm and 1.5 µm,” Opt. Express 21(23), 27550–27557 (2013).
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X. Tu, J. Song, T.-Y. Liow, M. K. Park, J. Q. Yiying, J. S. Kee, M. Yu, and G.-Q. Lo, “Thermal independent Silicon-Nitride slot waveguide biosensor with high sensitivity,” Opt. Express 20(3), 2640–2648 (2012).
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R. Boeck, J. Flueckiger, L. Chrostowski, and N. A. F. Jaeger, “Experimental performance of DWDM quadruple Vernier racetrack resonators,” Opt. Express 21(7), 9103–9112 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Z. Mashanovich, M. M. Milošević, M. Nedeljkovic, N. Owens, B. Xiong, E. J. Teo, and Y. Hu, “Low loss silicon waveguides for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Express 19(8), 7112–7119 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Reimer, M. Nedeljkovic, D. J. M. Stothard, M. O. S. Esnault, C. Reardon, L. O’Faolain, M. Dunn, G. Z. Mashanovich, and T. F. Krauss, “Mid-infrared photonic crystal waveguides in silicon,” Opt. Express 20(28), 29361–29368 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. J. Thomson, L. Shen, J. J. Ackert, E. Huante-Ceron, A. P. Knights, M. Nedeljkovic, A. C. Peacock, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Optical detection and modulation at 2µm-2.5µm in silicon,” Opt. Express 22(9), 10825–10830 (2014).
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M. Muneeb, X. Chen, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, S. Pathak, E. Ryckeboer, A. Malik, B. Kuyken, M. Nedeljkovic, J. Van Campenhout, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. Roelkens, “Demonstration of Silicon-on-insulator mid-infrared spectrometers operating at 3.8 μm,” Opt. Express 21(10), 11659–11669 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. S. Fegadolli, G. Vargas, X. Wang, F. Valini, L. A. M. Barea, J. E. B. Oliveira, N. Frateschi, A. Scherer, V. R. Almeida, and R. R. Panepucci, “Reconfigurable silicon thermo-optical ring resonator switch based on Vernier effect control,” Opt. Express 20(13), 14722–14733 (2012).
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J. C. Hulme, J. K. Doylend, and J. E. Bowers, “Widely tunable Vernier ring laser on hybrid silicon,” Opt. Express 21(17), 19718–19722 (2013).
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J. H. Lee, I. Shubin, J. Yao, J. Bickford, Y. Luo, S. Lin, S. S. Djordjevic, H. D. Thacker, J. E. Cunningham, K. Raj, X. Zheng, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “High power and widely tunable Si hybrid external-cavity laser for power efficient Si photonics WDM links,” Opt. Express 22(7), 7678–7685 (2014).
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R. Boeck, N. A. F. Jaeger, N. Rouger, and L. Chrostowski, “Series-coupled silicon racetrack resonators and the Vernier effect: theory and measurement,” Opt. Express 18(24), 25151–25157 (2010).
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W. S. Fegadolli, J. E. B. Oliveira, V. R. Almeida, and A. Scherer, “Compact and low power consumption tunable photonic crystal nanobeam cavity,” Opt. Express 21(3), 3861–3871 (2013).
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P. Seidler, K. Lister, U. Drechsler, J. Hofrichter, and T. Stöferle, “Slotted photonic crystal nanobeam cavity with an ultrahigh quality factor-to-mode volume ratio,” Opt. Express 21(26), 32468–32483 (2013).
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Opt. Lett. (8)

X. Jiang, J. Ye, J. Zou, M. Li, and J.-J. He, “Cascaded silicon-on-insulator double-ring sensors operating in high-sensitivity transverse-magnetic mode,” Opt. Lett. 38(8), 1349–1351 (2013).
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T. Claes, W. Bogaerts, and P. Bienstman, “Vernier-cascade label-free biosensor with integrated arrayed waveguide grating for wavelength interrogation with low-cost broadband source,” Opt. Lett. 36(17), 3320–3322 (2011).
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L. Ren, X. Wu, M. Li, X. Zhang, L. Liu, and L. Xu, “Ultrasensitive label-free coupled optofluidic ring laser sensor,” Opt. Lett. 37(18), 3873–3875 (2012).
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R. Boeck, J. Flueckiger, H. Yun, L. Chrostowski, and N. A. F. Jaeger, “High performance Vernier racetrack resonators,” Opt. Lett. 37(24), 5199–5201 (2012).
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Y. Hu, T. Li, D. J. Thomson, X. Chen, J. S. Penades, A. Z. Khokhar, C. J. Mitchell, G. T. Reed, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Mid-infrared wavelength division (de)multiplexer using an interleaved angled multimode interferometer on the silicon-on-insulator platform,” Opt. Lett. 39(6), 1406–1409 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Xia, C. Qiu, X. Zhang, W. Gao, J. Shu, and Q. Xu, “Suspended Si ring resonator for mid-IR application,” Opt. Lett. 38(7), 1122–1124 (2013).
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H. Lin, L. Li, Y. Zou, S. Danto, J. D. Musgraves, K. Richardson, S. Kozacik, M. Murakowski, D. Prather, P. T. Lin, V. Singh, A. Agarwal, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Hu, “Demonstration of high-Q mid-infrared chalcogenide glass-on-silicon resonators,” Opt. Lett. 38(9), 1470–1472 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Troia, F. De Leonardis, and V. M. N. Passaro, “Generalized modelling for the design of guided-wave optical directional couplers,” Opt. Lett. 39(5), 1161–1164 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Mater. Express (1)

Physica E (1)

C.-S. Deng, H.-G. Peng, Y.-S. Gao, and J.-X. Zhong, “Ultrahigh-Q photonic crystal nanobeam cavities with H-shaped holes,” Physica E 63, 8–13 (2014).
[Crossref]

Proc. SPIE (1)

F. Jiang, N. Duan, H. Lin, L. Li, J. Hu, L. Bi, H. Lu, X. Weng, J. Xie, and L. Deng, “ZrO2-TiO2 thin films and resonators for mid-infrared integrated photonics,” Proc. SPIE 8988, 89880S (2014).

RSC Adv. (1)

V. M. N. Passaro, B. Troia, M. La Notte, and F. De Leonardis, “Photonic resonant microcavities for chemical and biochemical sensing,” RSC Adv. 3(1), 25–44 (2012).
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Sens. Actuators B Chem. (2)

M. La Notte and V. M. N. Passaro, “Ultra high sensitivity chemical photonic sensing by Mach-Zehnder interferometer enhanced Vernier-effect,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 176, 994–1007 (2013).
[Crossref]

V. M. N. Passaro, B. Troia, and F. De Leonardis, “A generalized approach for design of photonic gas sensors based on Vernier-effect in mid-IR,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 168, 402–420 (2012).
[Crossref]

Sensors (Basel) (1)

M. La Notte, B. Troia, T. Muciaccia, C. E. Campanella, F. De Leonardis, and V. M. N. Passaro, “Recent advances in gas and chemical detection by Vernier effect-based photonic sensors,” Sensors (Basel) 14(3), 4831–4855 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (3)

A. Malik, M. Muneeb, Y. Shimura, J. Van Campenhout, R. Loo, and G. Roelkens, “Germanium-on-silicon mid-infrared waveguides and Mach-Zehnder interferometers,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Photonics (IEEE, 2013), pp. 104–105.

G. T. Reed, Silicon Photonics: The State of the Art (John Wiley, 2008), Chap. 7.

Comsol Multiphysics by COMSOL©, ver. 3.2, single license, 2005.

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Spatial distribution of the fundamental quasi-TE polarized optical mode into the SOI rib waveguide (W = 1350 nm, H = 400, and E = 220 nm). (b) Effective index of the fundamental (circle) and first order (dot) modes as a function of different values of the waveguide width W and etch depth E (i.e., 170 nm, 220 nm, and 270 nm). The operating wavelength is λ = 3.75 μm.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Δneff and (b) Δng as a function of fabrication tolerances at the operating wavelength of λ = 3.75 μm.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Mid-infrared racetrack spectrum and (b) Δλres as a function of fabrication tolerances.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Bend losses in SOI rib waveguide at λ = 3.75 μm as a function of different bend radii R.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Experimental characterization of directional couplers in the mid-infrared. (b) Optical image of a representative device with the scanning electron microscope (SEM) image of the coupling region at the bottom.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Power coupling coefficient as a function of fabrication tolerances in case of similar directional couplers with g0 = 500 nm, Ltr = 150 μm, D = 50 μm, (a) Li = 10 μm, and (b) Li = 30 μm. The operating wavelength is λ = 3.75 μm.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Optical images of the Vernier architectures: (a) Vernier #A, (b) Vernier #B.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Qualitative transmission spectra of Vernier architectures operating in the (a) first and (b) second regimes.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Normalized spectra of racetrack resonators (i.e., Ring #1, Ring #2) of each Vernier architecture, Vernier #A and Vernier #B. A Q-factor of ~2.5 × 103 with an extinction ratio of 29 dB can be seen at the bottom.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 Mid-infrared spectra of Vernier architectures Vernier #A and Vernier #B.

Tables (3)

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Table 1 Optical and geometrical experimental parameters of racetrack resonators operating in the mid-infrared

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Table 2 Optical and geometrical experimental parameters of cascade-coupled racetrack resonators operating in the mid-infrared

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Table 3 Optical experimental parameters of Vernier architectures operating in the mid-infrared

Equations (2)

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FS R Vernier = FS R Ring#1 FS R Ring#2 | ΔFSR |
FSR= λ res 2 (2πR+2 L i ) n g

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