Abstract

We investigate the two-photon absorption (TPA) and nonlinear refraction of a micrometer thick 3,4,9,10-perylentetracarboxyl–dianhydride (PTCDA) film using z-scans with tightly focused 100 fs laser pulses. The PTCDA film was grown by organic molecular beam deposition on a Pyrex substrate. To study the influence of sample heating, the pulse repetition rate was varied between 4 MHz and 50 kHz with an acousto-optic pulse selector. We find that thermal effects diminish for pulse repetition times longer than 5 and 0.75 µs when using a 10x or 20x microscope lens, respectively, resulting in a TPA coefficient of 6 cm/GW and a nonlinear refractive index of 1.2 x 10−13 cm2/W at a wavelength of 820 nm.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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2012 (1)

2010 (1)

V. R. Gangilenka, L. V. Titova, L. M. Smith, H. P. Wagner, L. A. A. DeSilva, L. Gisslén, and R. Scholz, “Selective excitation of exciton transitions in PTCDA crystals and films,” Phys. Rev. B 81(15), 155208 (2010).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

C. Fuentes-Hernandez, L. A. Padilha, D. Owens, S. Y. Tseng, S. Webster, J. Y. Cho, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, S. R. Marder, and B. Kippelen, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of highly transmissive one-dimensional metal-organic photonic bandgap structures,” Proc. SPIE 7049, 70490 (2008).
[Crossref]

V. R. Gangilenka, A. DeSilva, H. P. Wagner, R. E. Tallman, B. A. Weinstein, and R. Scholz, “Exciton emission in PTCDA thin films under uniaxial pressure,” Phys. Rev. B 77(11), 115206 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

J. Zhang, Q. Lin, G. Piredda, R. W. Boyd, G. P. Agrawal, and P. M. Fauchet, “Anisotropic nonlinear response of silicon in the near-infrared region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(7), 071113 (2007).
[Crossref]

Y. Sasaki, H. Takamo, and K. Kasatani, “Optical nonlinearities of perylene derivatives,” Proc. SPIE 6839, 683920 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

M. Stella, C. Voz, J. Puigdollers, F. Rojas, M. Fonrodona, J. Escarré, J. M. Asensi, J. Bertomeu, and J. Andreu, “Low level optical absorption measurements on organic semiconductors,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(9-20), 1663–1667 (2006).
[Crossref]

H. P. Wagner, A. DeSilva, V. R. Gangilenka, and T. U. Kampen, “Modified charge-transfer emission in perylene tetracarboxylic dianhydride-aluminum quinoline layer structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 99(2), 024501 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (3)

P. Innocenzi and B. Lebeau, “Organic–inorganic hybrid materials for non-linear optics,” J. Mater. Chem. 15(35-36), 3821–3831 (2005).
[Crossref]

A. Gnoli, L. Razzari, and M. Righini, “Z-scan measurements using high repetition rate lasers: how to manage thermal effects,” Opt. Express 13(20), 7976–7981 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. L. Oliveira, D. S. Corrêa, L. Misoguti, C. J. L. Constantino, R. F. Aroca, S. C. Zilio, and C. R. Mendonça, “Perylene derivatives with large two-photon-absorption cross-sections for application in optical limiting and upconversion lasing,” Adv. Mater. 17(15), 1890–1893 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (3)

R. A. Ganeev, I. A. Kulagin, A. I. Ryasnyansky, R. I. Tugushev, and T. Usmanov, “Characterization of nonlinear optical parameters of KDP, LiNbO3 and BBO crystals,” Opt. Commun. 229(1-6), 403–412 (2004).
[Crossref]

R. del Coso and J. Solis, “Relation between nonlinear refractive index and third-order susceptibility in absorbing media,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21(3), 640–644 (2004).
[Crossref]

H. P. Wagner, A. DeSilva, and T. Kampen, “Exciton emission in PTCDA films and PTCDA/Alq3 multilayers,” Phys. Rev. B 70(23), 235201 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (4)

K. Kamada, K. Matsunaga, A. Yoshino, and K. Ohta, “Two-photon-absorption-induced accumulated thermal effect on femtosecond Z-scan experiments studied with time-resolved thermal-lens spectrometry and its simulation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20(3), 529–537 (2003).
[Crossref]

L. De Boni, C. J. L. Constantino, L. Misoguti, R. F. Aroca, S. C. Zilio, and C. R. Mendonça, “Two-photon absorption in perylene derivatives,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 371(5-6), 744–749 (2003).
[Crossref]

A. Y. Kobitski, R. Scholz, D. R. T. Zahn, and H. P. Wagner, “Time-resolved photoluminescence study of excitons in α-PTCDA as a function of temperature,” Phys. Rev. B 68(15), 155201 (2003).
[Crossref]

I. Vragović and R. Scholz, “Frenkel exciton model of optical absorption and photoluminescence in α-PTCDA,” Phys. Rev. B 68(15), 155202 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (4)

M. Friedrich, T. Wagner, G. Salvan, S. Park, T. U. Kampen, and D. R. T. Zahn, “Optical constants of 3,4,9,10-perylenetetracarboxylic dianhydride films on silicon and gallium arsenide studied by spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 75(4), 501–506 (2002).
[Crossref]

R. De Nalda, R. Del Coso, J. Requejo-Isidro, J. Olivares, A. Suarez-Garcia, and J. Solis, “Limits to the determination of the nonlinear refractive index by the Z-scan method,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19(2), 289–296 (2002).
[Crossref]

S. M. Mian, S. B. McGee, and N. Melikechi, “Experimental and theoretical investigation of thermal lensing effects in mode-locked femtosecond Z-scan experiments,” Opt. Commun. 207(1-6), 339–345 (2002).
[Crossref]

A. Y. Kobitski, R. Scholz, I. Vragović, H. P. Wagner, and D. R. T. Zahn, “Low-temperature time-resolved photoluminescence characterization of 3,4,9,10-perylene tetracarboxylic dianhydride crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 66(15), 153204 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (3)

H. P. Li, C. H. Kam, Y. L. Lam, and W. Ji, “Femtosecond Z-scan measurements of nonlinear refraction in nonlinear optical crystals,” Opt. Mater. 15(4), 237–242 (2001).
[Crossref]

G. Battaglin, P. Calvelli, E. Cattaruzza, F. Gonella, R. Polloni, G. Mattei, and P. Mazzoldi, “Z-scan study on the nonlinear refractive index of copper nanocluster composite silica glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(25), 3953–3955 (2001).
[Crossref]

H. P. Li, C. H. Kam, Y. L. Lam, Y. X. Jie, W. Ji, A. T. S. Wee, and C. H. A. Huan, “Nonlinear optical response of Ge nanocrystals in silica matrix with excitation of femtosecond pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 72(5), 611–615 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (3)

W. F. Zhang, Y. B. Huang, M. S. Zhang, and Z. G. Liu, “Nonlinear optical absorption in undoped and cerium-doped BaTiO3 thin films using Z-scan technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(8), 1003–1005 (2000).
[Crossref]

C. K. Sun, J. C. Liang, J. C. Wang, F. J. Kao, S. Keller, M. P. Mack, U. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, “Two-photon absorption study of GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(4), 439–441 (2000).
[Crossref]

H. P. Li, B. Liu, C. H. Kam, Y. L. Lam, W. X. Que, L. M. Gan, C. H. Chew, and G. Q. Xu, “Femtosecond Z-scan investigation of nonlinear refraction in surface modified PbS nanoparticles,” Opt. Mater. 14(4), 321–327 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (3)

M. Falconieri and G. Salvetti, “Simultaneous measurement of pure-optical and thermo-optical nonlinearities induced by high-repetition-rate, femtosecond laser pulses: application to CS2,” Appl. Phys. B 69(2), 133–136 (1999).
[Crossref]

B. Cumpston, S. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I. Y. S. Lee, D. M. Maughon, J. Qin, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, “Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication,” Nature 398(6722), 51–54 (1999).

M. Falconieri, “Thermo-optical effects in Z-scan measurements using high-repetition-rate lasers,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 1(6), 662–667 (1999).
[Crossref]

1997 (3)

J. E. Ehrlich, X. L. Wu, I. Y. Lee, Z. Y. Hu, H. Röckel, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, “Two-photon absorption and broadband optical limiting with bis-donor stilbenes,” Opt. Lett. 22(24), 1843–1845 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. R. Forrest, “Ultrathin organic films grown by organic molecular beam deposition and related techniques,” Chem. Rev. 97(6), 1793–1896 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Yu, C. Zhu, and F. Gan, “Optical nonlinearity of Bi2O3 nanoparticles studied by Z-scan technique,” J. Appl. Phys. 82(9), 4532–4537 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

J. W. Perry, K. Mansour, I. Y. S. Lee, X. L. Wu, P. V. Bedworth, C. T. Chen, D. Ng, S. R. Marder, P. Miles, T. Wada, M. Tian, and H. Sasabe, “Organic optical limiter with a strong nonlinear absorptive response,” Science 273(5281), 1533–1536 (1996).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

1994 (2)

A. Said, C. Wamsley, D. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, B. A. Reinhardt, P. Roderer, and A. G. Dillard, “Third-and fifth-order optical nonlinearities in organic materials,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 228(6), 646–650 (1994).
[Crossref]

M. Ziari, S. Kalluri, and W. H. Steier, “Nonlinear optical effects in PTCDA crystalline organic thin films,” Proc. SPIE 2285, 84–91 (1994).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

M. Möbus, N. Karl, and T. Kobayashi, “Structure of perylene-tetracarboxylic-dianhydride thin films on alkali halide crystal substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth 116(3-4), 495–504 (1992).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

1990 (1)

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990).
[Crossref]

1989 (2)

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, and E. W. Van Stryland, “High-sensitivity, single-beam n2 measurements,” Opt. Lett. 14(17), 955–957 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Samoc and P. N. Prasad, “Dynamics of resonant third-order optical nonlinearity in perylene tetracarboxylic dianhydride studied by monitoring first- and second-order diffractions in subpicosecond degenerate four-wave mixing,” J. Chem. Phys. 91(11), 6643–6649 (1989).
[Crossref]

Agrawal, G. P.

J. Zhang, Q. Lin, G. Piredda, R. W. Boyd, G. P. Agrawal, and P. M. Fauchet, “Anisotropic nonlinear response of silicon in the near-infrared region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(7), 071113 (2007).
[Crossref]

Ananthavel, S.

B. Cumpston, S. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I. Y. S. Lee, D. M. Maughon, J. Qin, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, “Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication,” Nature 398(6722), 51–54 (1999).

Andreu, J.

M. Stella, C. Voz, J. Puigdollers, F. Rojas, M. Fonrodona, J. Escarré, J. M. Asensi, J. Bertomeu, and J. Andreu, “Low level optical absorption measurements on organic semiconductors,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(9-20), 1663–1667 (2006).
[Crossref]

Aroca, R. F.

S. L. Oliveira, D. S. Corrêa, L. Misoguti, C. J. L. Constantino, R. F. Aroca, S. C. Zilio, and C. R. Mendonça, “Perylene derivatives with large two-photon-absorption cross-sections for application in optical limiting and upconversion lasing,” Adv. Mater. 17(15), 1890–1893 (2005).
[Crossref]

L. De Boni, C. J. L. Constantino, L. Misoguti, R. F. Aroca, S. C. Zilio, and C. R. Mendonça, “Two-photon absorption in perylene derivatives,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 371(5-6), 744–749 (2003).
[Crossref]

Asensi, J. M.

M. Stella, C. Voz, J. Puigdollers, F. Rojas, M. Fonrodona, J. Escarré, J. M. Asensi, J. Bertomeu, and J. Andreu, “Low level optical absorption measurements on organic semiconductors,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(9-20), 1663–1667 (2006).
[Crossref]

Barlow, S.

B. Cumpston, S. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I. Y. S. Lee, D. M. Maughon, J. Qin, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, “Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication,” Nature 398(6722), 51–54 (1999).

Battaglin, G.

G. Battaglin, P. Calvelli, E. Cattaruzza, F. Gonella, R. Polloni, G. Mattei, and P. Mazzoldi, “Z-scan study on the nonlinear refractive index of copper nanocluster composite silica glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(25), 3953–3955 (2001).
[Crossref]

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M. Stella, C. Voz, J. Puigdollers, F. Rojas, M. Fonrodona, J. Escarré, J. M. Asensi, J. Bertomeu, and J. Andreu, “Low level optical absorption measurements on organic semiconductors,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(9-20), 1663–1667 (2006).
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R. A. Ganeev, I. A. Kulagin, A. I. Ryasnyansky, R. I. Tugushev, and T. Usmanov, “Characterization of nonlinear optical parameters of KDP, LiNbO3 and BBO crystals,” Opt. Commun. 229(1-6), 403–412 (2004).
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V. R. Gangilenka, L. V. Titova, L. M. Smith, H. P. Wagner, L. A. A. DeSilva, L. Gisslén, and R. Scholz, “Selective excitation of exciton transitions in PTCDA crystals and films,” Phys. Rev. B 81(15), 155208 (2010).
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Gonella, F.

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Hu, H.

Hu, Z. Y.

Huan, C. H. A.

H. P. Li, C. H. Kam, Y. L. Lam, Y. X. Jie, W. Ji, A. T. S. Wee, and C. H. A. Huan, “Nonlinear optical response of Ge nanocrystals in silica matrix with excitation of femtosecond pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 72(5), 611–615 (2001).
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W. F. Zhang, Y. B. Huang, M. S. Zhang, and Z. G. Liu, “Nonlinear optical absorption in undoped and cerium-doped BaTiO3 thin films using Z-scan technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(8), 1003–1005 (2000).
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H. P. Li, C. H. Kam, Y. L. Lam, Y. X. Jie, W. Ji, A. T. S. Wee, and C. H. A. Huan, “Nonlinear optical response of Ge nanocrystals in silica matrix with excitation of femtosecond pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 72(5), 611–615 (2001).
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H. P. Li, C. H. Kam, Y. L. Lam, and W. Ji, “Femtosecond Z-scan measurements of nonlinear refraction in nonlinear optical crystals,” Opt. Mater. 15(4), 237–242 (2001).
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H. P. Li, C. H. Kam, Y. L. Lam, Y. X. Jie, W. Ji, A. T. S. Wee, and C. H. A. Huan, “Nonlinear optical response of Ge nanocrystals in silica matrix with excitation of femtosecond pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 72(5), 611–615 (2001).
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H. P. Li, C. H. Kam, Y. L. Lam, and W. Ji, “Femtosecond Z-scan measurements of nonlinear refraction in nonlinear optical crystals,” Opt. Mater. 15(4), 237–242 (2001).
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H. P. Li, B. Liu, C. H. Kam, Y. L. Lam, W. X. Que, L. M. Gan, C. H. Chew, and G. Q. Xu, “Femtosecond Z-scan investigation of nonlinear refraction in surface modified PbS nanoparticles,” Opt. Mater. 14(4), 321–327 (2000).
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Kamada, K.

Kampen, T.

H. P. Wagner, A. DeSilva, and T. Kampen, “Exciton emission in PTCDA films and PTCDA/Alq3 multilayers,” Phys. Rev. B 70(23), 235201 (2004).
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Kampen, T. U.

H. P. Wagner, A. DeSilva, V. R. Gangilenka, and T. U. Kampen, “Modified charge-transfer emission in perylene tetracarboxylic dianhydride-aluminum quinoline layer structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 99(2), 024501 (2006).
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M. Friedrich, T. Wagner, G. Salvan, S. Park, T. U. Kampen, and D. R. T. Zahn, “Optical constants of 3,4,9,10-perylenetetracarboxylic dianhydride films on silicon and gallium arsenide studied by spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 75(4), 501–506 (2002).
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C. K. Sun, J. C. Liang, J. C. Wang, F. J. Kao, S. Keller, M. P. Mack, U. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, “Two-photon absorption study of GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(4), 439–441 (2000).
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C. Fuentes-Hernandez, L. A. Padilha, D. Owens, S. Y. Tseng, S. Webster, J. Y. Cho, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, S. R. Marder, and B. Kippelen, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of highly transmissive one-dimensional metal-organic photonic bandgap structures,” Proc. SPIE 7049, 70490 (2008).
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M. Möbus, N. Karl, and T. Kobayashi, “Structure of perylene-tetracarboxylic-dianhydride thin films on alkali halide crystal substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth 116(3-4), 495–504 (1992).
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Kulagin, I. A.

R. A. Ganeev, I. A. Kulagin, A. I. Ryasnyansky, R. I. Tugushev, and T. Usmanov, “Characterization of nonlinear optical parameters of KDP, LiNbO3 and BBO crystals,” Opt. Commun. 229(1-6), 403–412 (2004).
[Crossref]

Lam, Y. L.

H. P. Li, C. H. Kam, Y. L. Lam, and W. Ji, “Femtosecond Z-scan measurements of nonlinear refraction in nonlinear optical crystals,” Opt. Mater. 15(4), 237–242 (2001).
[Crossref]

H. P. Li, C. H. Kam, Y. L. Lam, Y. X. Jie, W. Ji, A. T. S. Wee, and C. H. A. Huan, “Nonlinear optical response of Ge nanocrystals in silica matrix with excitation of femtosecond pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 72(5), 611–615 (2001).
[Crossref]

H. P. Li, B. Liu, C. H. Kam, Y. L. Lam, W. X. Que, L. M. Gan, C. H. Chew, and G. Q. Xu, “Femtosecond Z-scan investigation of nonlinear refraction in surface modified PbS nanoparticles,” Opt. Mater. 14(4), 321–327 (2000).
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Lebeau, B.

P. Innocenzi and B. Lebeau, “Organic–inorganic hybrid materials for non-linear optics,” J. Mater. Chem. 15(35-36), 3821–3831 (2005).
[Crossref]

Lee, I. Y.

Lee, I. Y. S.

B. Cumpston, S. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I. Y. S. Lee, D. M. Maughon, J. Qin, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, “Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication,” Nature 398(6722), 51–54 (1999).

J. W. Perry, K. Mansour, I. Y. S. Lee, X. L. Wu, P. V. Bedworth, C. T. Chen, D. Ng, S. R. Marder, P. Miles, T. Wada, M. Tian, and H. Sasabe, “Organic optical limiter with a strong nonlinear absorptive response,” Science 273(5281), 1533–1536 (1996).
[Crossref]

Li, H. P.

H. P. Li, C. H. Kam, Y. L. Lam, Y. X. Jie, W. Ji, A. T. S. Wee, and C. H. A. Huan, “Nonlinear optical response of Ge nanocrystals in silica matrix with excitation of femtosecond pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 72(5), 611–615 (2001).
[Crossref]

H. P. Li, C. H. Kam, Y. L. Lam, and W. Ji, “Femtosecond Z-scan measurements of nonlinear refraction in nonlinear optical crystals,” Opt. Mater. 15(4), 237–242 (2001).
[Crossref]

H. P. Li, B. Liu, C. H. Kam, Y. L. Lam, W. X. Que, L. M. Gan, C. H. Chew, and G. Q. Xu, “Femtosecond Z-scan investigation of nonlinear refraction in surface modified PbS nanoparticles,” Opt. Mater. 14(4), 321–327 (2000).
[Crossref]

Liang, J. C.

C. K. Sun, J. C. Liang, J. C. Wang, F. J. Kao, S. Keller, M. P. Mack, U. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, “Two-photon absorption study of GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(4), 439–441 (2000).
[Crossref]

Lin, Q.

J. Zhang, Q. Lin, G. Piredda, R. W. Boyd, G. P. Agrawal, and P. M. Fauchet, “Anisotropic nonlinear response of silicon in the near-infrared region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(7), 071113 (2007).
[Crossref]

Liu, B.

H. P. Li, B. Liu, C. H. Kam, Y. L. Lam, W. X. Que, L. M. Gan, C. H. Chew, and G. Q. Xu, “Femtosecond Z-scan investigation of nonlinear refraction in surface modified PbS nanoparticles,” Opt. Mater. 14(4), 321–327 (2000).
[Crossref]

Liu, Z. G.

W. F. Zhang, Y. B. Huang, M. S. Zhang, and Z. G. Liu, “Nonlinear optical absorption in undoped and cerium-doped BaTiO3 thin films using Z-scan technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(8), 1003–1005 (2000).
[Crossref]

Mack, M. P.

C. K. Sun, J. C. Liang, J. C. Wang, F. J. Kao, S. Keller, M. P. Mack, U. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, “Two-photon absorption study of GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(4), 439–441 (2000).
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Mansour, K.

J. W. Perry, K. Mansour, I. Y. S. Lee, X. L. Wu, P. V. Bedworth, C. T. Chen, D. Ng, S. R. Marder, P. Miles, T. Wada, M. Tian, and H. Sasabe, “Organic optical limiter with a strong nonlinear absorptive response,” Science 273(5281), 1533–1536 (1996).
[Crossref]

Marder, S. R.

C. Fuentes-Hernandez, L. A. Padilha, D. Owens, S. Y. Tseng, S. Webster, J. Y. Cho, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, S. R. Marder, and B. Kippelen, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of highly transmissive one-dimensional metal-organic photonic bandgap structures,” Proc. SPIE 7049, 70490 (2008).
[Crossref]

B. Cumpston, S. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I. Y. S. Lee, D. M. Maughon, J. Qin, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, “Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication,” Nature 398(6722), 51–54 (1999).

J. E. Ehrlich, X. L. Wu, I. Y. Lee, Z. Y. Hu, H. Röckel, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, “Two-photon absorption and broadband optical limiting with bis-donor stilbenes,” Opt. Lett. 22(24), 1843–1845 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. W. Perry, K. Mansour, I. Y. S. Lee, X. L. Wu, P. V. Bedworth, C. T. Chen, D. Ng, S. R. Marder, P. Miles, T. Wada, M. Tian, and H. Sasabe, “Organic optical limiter with a strong nonlinear absorptive response,” Science 273(5281), 1533–1536 (1996).
[Crossref]

Matsunaga, K.

Mattei, G.

G. Battaglin, P. Calvelli, E. Cattaruzza, F. Gonella, R. Polloni, G. Mattei, and P. Mazzoldi, “Z-scan study on the nonlinear refractive index of copper nanocluster composite silica glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(25), 3953–3955 (2001).
[Crossref]

Maughon, D. M.

B. Cumpston, S. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I. Y. S. Lee, D. M. Maughon, J. Qin, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, “Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication,” Nature 398(6722), 51–54 (1999).

Mazzoldi, P.

G. Battaglin, P. Calvelli, E. Cattaruzza, F. Gonella, R. Polloni, G. Mattei, and P. Mazzoldi, “Z-scan study on the nonlinear refractive index of copper nanocluster composite silica glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(25), 3953–3955 (2001).
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S. M. Mian, S. B. McGee, and N. Melikechi, “Experimental and theoretical investigation of thermal lensing effects in mode-locked femtosecond Z-scan experiments,” Opt. Commun. 207(1-6), 339–345 (2002).
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Melikechi, N.

S. M. Mian, S. B. McGee, and N. Melikechi, “Experimental and theoretical investigation of thermal lensing effects in mode-locked femtosecond Z-scan experiments,” Opt. Commun. 207(1-6), 339–345 (2002).
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S. L. Oliveira, D. S. Corrêa, L. Misoguti, C. J. L. Constantino, R. F. Aroca, S. C. Zilio, and C. R. Mendonça, “Perylene derivatives with large two-photon-absorption cross-sections for application in optical limiting and upconversion lasing,” Adv. Mater. 17(15), 1890–1893 (2005).
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L. De Boni, C. J. L. Constantino, L. Misoguti, R. F. Aroca, S. C. Zilio, and C. R. Mendonça, “Two-photon absorption in perylene derivatives,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 371(5-6), 744–749 (2003).
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Mian, S. M.

S. M. Mian, S. B. McGee, and N. Melikechi, “Experimental and theoretical investigation of thermal lensing effects in mode-locked femtosecond Z-scan experiments,” Opt. Commun. 207(1-6), 339–345 (2002).
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Miles, P.

J. W. Perry, K. Mansour, I. Y. S. Lee, X. L. Wu, P. V. Bedworth, C. T. Chen, D. Ng, S. R. Marder, P. Miles, T. Wada, M. Tian, and H. Sasabe, “Organic optical limiter with a strong nonlinear absorptive response,” Science 273(5281), 1533–1536 (1996).
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Mishra, U.

C. K. Sun, J. C. Liang, J. C. Wang, F. J. Kao, S. Keller, M. P. Mack, U. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, “Two-photon absorption study of GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(4), 439–441 (2000).
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Misoguti, L.

S. L. Oliveira, D. S. Corrêa, L. Misoguti, C. J. L. Constantino, R. F. Aroca, S. C. Zilio, and C. R. Mendonça, “Perylene derivatives with large two-photon-absorption cross-sections for application in optical limiting and upconversion lasing,” Adv. Mater. 17(15), 1890–1893 (2005).
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L. De Boni, C. J. L. Constantino, L. Misoguti, R. F. Aroca, S. C. Zilio, and C. R. Mendonça, “Two-photon absorption in perylene derivatives,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 371(5-6), 744–749 (2003).
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M. Möbus, N. Karl, and T. Kobayashi, “Structure of perylene-tetracarboxylic-dianhydride thin films on alkali halide crystal substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth 116(3-4), 495–504 (1992).
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J. W. Perry, K. Mansour, I. Y. S. Lee, X. L. Wu, P. V. Bedworth, C. T. Chen, D. Ng, S. R. Marder, P. Miles, T. Wada, M. Tian, and H. Sasabe, “Organic optical limiter with a strong nonlinear absorptive response,” Science 273(5281), 1533–1536 (1996).
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Ohta, K.

Olivares, J.

Oliveira, S. L.

S. L. Oliveira, D. S. Corrêa, L. Misoguti, C. J. L. Constantino, R. F. Aroca, S. C. Zilio, and C. R. Mendonça, “Perylene derivatives with large two-photon-absorption cross-sections for application in optical limiting and upconversion lasing,” Adv. Mater. 17(15), 1890–1893 (2005).
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Owens, D.

C. Fuentes-Hernandez, L. A. Padilha, D. Owens, S. Y. Tseng, S. Webster, J. Y. Cho, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, S. R. Marder, and B. Kippelen, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of highly transmissive one-dimensional metal-organic photonic bandgap structures,” Proc. SPIE 7049, 70490 (2008).
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Padilha, L. A.

C. Fuentes-Hernandez, L. A. Padilha, D. Owens, S. Y. Tseng, S. Webster, J. Y. Cho, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, S. R. Marder, and B. Kippelen, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of highly transmissive one-dimensional metal-organic photonic bandgap structures,” Proc. SPIE 7049, 70490 (2008).
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Park, S.

M. Friedrich, T. Wagner, G. Salvan, S. Park, T. U. Kampen, and D. R. T. Zahn, “Optical constants of 3,4,9,10-perylenetetracarboxylic dianhydride films on silicon and gallium arsenide studied by spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 75(4), 501–506 (2002).
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Perry, J. W.

B. Cumpston, S. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I. Y. S. Lee, D. M. Maughon, J. Qin, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, “Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication,” Nature 398(6722), 51–54 (1999).

J. E. Ehrlich, X. L. Wu, I. Y. Lee, Z. Y. Hu, H. Röckel, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, “Two-photon absorption and broadband optical limiting with bis-donor stilbenes,” Opt. Lett. 22(24), 1843–1845 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. W. Perry, K. Mansour, I. Y. S. Lee, X. L. Wu, P. V. Bedworth, C. T. Chen, D. Ng, S. R. Marder, P. Miles, T. Wada, M. Tian, and H. Sasabe, “Organic optical limiter with a strong nonlinear absorptive response,” Science 273(5281), 1533–1536 (1996).
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Piredda, G.

J. Zhang, Q. Lin, G. Piredda, R. W. Boyd, G. P. Agrawal, and P. M. Fauchet, “Anisotropic nonlinear response of silicon in the near-infrared region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(7), 071113 (2007).
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Polloni, R.

G. Battaglin, P. Calvelli, E. Cattaruzza, F. Gonella, R. Polloni, G. Mattei, and P. Mazzoldi, “Z-scan study on the nonlinear refractive index of copper nanocluster composite silica glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(25), 3953–3955 (2001).
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Prasad, P. N.

G. S. He, G. C. Xu, P. N. Prasad, B. A. Reinhardt, J. C. Bhatt, and A. G. Dillard, “Two-photon absorption and optical-limiting properties of novel organic compounds,” Opt. Lett. 20(5), 435–437 (1995).
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M. Samoc and P. N. Prasad, “Dynamics of resonant third-order optical nonlinearity in perylene tetracarboxylic dianhydride studied by monitoring first- and second-order diffractions in subpicosecond degenerate four-wave mixing,” J. Chem. Phys. 91(11), 6643–6649 (1989).
[Crossref]

Puigdollers, J.

M. Stella, C. Voz, J. Puigdollers, F. Rojas, M. Fonrodona, J. Escarré, J. M. Asensi, J. Bertomeu, and J. Andreu, “Low level optical absorption measurements on organic semiconductors,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(9-20), 1663–1667 (2006).
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Qin, J.

B. Cumpston, S. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I. Y. S. Lee, D. M. Maughon, J. Qin, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, “Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication,” Nature 398(6722), 51–54 (1999).

Que, W. X.

H. P. Li, B. Liu, C. H. Kam, Y. L. Lam, W. X. Que, L. M. Gan, C. H. Chew, and G. Q. Xu, “Femtosecond Z-scan investigation of nonlinear refraction in surface modified PbS nanoparticles,” Opt. Mater. 14(4), 321–327 (2000).
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Razzari, L.

Reichert, M.

Reinhardt, B. A.

G. S. He, G. C. Xu, P. N. Prasad, B. A. Reinhardt, J. C. Bhatt, and A. G. Dillard, “Two-photon absorption and optical-limiting properties of novel organic compounds,” Opt. Lett. 20(5), 435–437 (1995).
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A. Said, C. Wamsley, D. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, B. A. Reinhardt, P. Roderer, and A. G. Dillard, “Third-and fifth-order optical nonlinearities in organic materials,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 228(6), 646–650 (1994).
[Crossref]

Requejo-Isidro, J.

Righini, M.

Rockel, H.

B. Cumpston, S. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I. Y. S. Lee, D. M. Maughon, J. Qin, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, “Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication,” Nature 398(6722), 51–54 (1999).

Röckel, H.

Roderer, P.

A. Said, C. Wamsley, D. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, B. A. Reinhardt, P. Roderer, and A. G. Dillard, “Third-and fifth-order optical nonlinearities in organic materials,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 228(6), 646–650 (1994).
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Rojas, F.

M. Stella, C. Voz, J. Puigdollers, F. Rojas, M. Fonrodona, J. Escarré, J. M. Asensi, J. Bertomeu, and J. Andreu, “Low level optical absorption measurements on organic semiconductors,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(9-20), 1663–1667 (2006).
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Rumi, M.

B. Cumpston, S. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I. Y. S. Lee, D. M. Maughon, J. Qin, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, “Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication,” Nature 398(6722), 51–54 (1999).

Ryasnyansky, A. I.

R. A. Ganeev, I. A. Kulagin, A. I. Ryasnyansky, R. I. Tugushev, and T. Usmanov, “Characterization of nonlinear optical parameters of KDP, LiNbO3 and BBO crystals,” Opt. Commun. 229(1-6), 403–412 (2004).
[Crossref]

Said, A.

A. Said, C. Wamsley, D. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, B. A. Reinhardt, P. Roderer, and A. G. Dillard, “Third-and fifth-order optical nonlinearities in organic materials,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 228(6), 646–650 (1994).
[Crossref]

Said, A. A.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990).
[Crossref]

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, and E. W. Van Stryland, “High-sensitivity, single-beam n2 measurements,” Opt. Lett. 14(17), 955–957 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Salvan, G.

M. Friedrich, T. Wagner, G. Salvan, S. Park, T. U. Kampen, and D. R. T. Zahn, “Optical constants of 3,4,9,10-perylenetetracarboxylic dianhydride films on silicon and gallium arsenide studied by spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 75(4), 501–506 (2002).
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Salvetti, G.

M. Falconieri and G. Salvetti, “Simultaneous measurement of pure-optical and thermo-optical nonlinearities induced by high-repetition-rate, femtosecond laser pulses: application to CS2,” Appl. Phys. B 69(2), 133–136 (1999).
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Samoc, M.

M. Samoc and P. N. Prasad, “Dynamics of resonant third-order optical nonlinearity in perylene tetracarboxylic dianhydride studied by monitoring first- and second-order diffractions in subpicosecond degenerate four-wave mixing,” J. Chem. Phys. 91(11), 6643–6649 (1989).
[Crossref]

Sasabe, H.

J. W. Perry, K. Mansour, I. Y. S. Lee, X. L. Wu, P. V. Bedworth, C. T. Chen, D. Ng, S. R. Marder, P. Miles, T. Wada, M. Tian, and H. Sasabe, “Organic optical limiter with a strong nonlinear absorptive response,” Science 273(5281), 1533–1536 (1996).
[Crossref]

Sasaki, Y.

Y. Sasaki, H. Takamo, and K. Kasatani, “Optical nonlinearities of perylene derivatives,” Proc. SPIE 6839, 683920 (2007).
[Crossref]

Scholz, R.

V. R. Gangilenka, L. V. Titova, L. M. Smith, H. P. Wagner, L. A. A. DeSilva, L. Gisslén, and R. Scholz, “Selective excitation of exciton transitions in PTCDA crystals and films,” Phys. Rev. B 81(15), 155208 (2010).
[Crossref]

V. R. Gangilenka, A. DeSilva, H. P. Wagner, R. E. Tallman, B. A. Weinstein, and R. Scholz, “Exciton emission in PTCDA thin films under uniaxial pressure,” Phys. Rev. B 77(11), 115206 (2008).
[Crossref]

I. Vragović and R. Scholz, “Frenkel exciton model of optical absorption and photoluminescence in α-PTCDA,” Phys. Rev. B 68(15), 155202 (2003).
[Crossref]

A. Y. Kobitski, R. Scholz, D. R. T. Zahn, and H. P. Wagner, “Time-resolved photoluminescence study of excitons in α-PTCDA as a function of temperature,” Phys. Rev. B 68(15), 155201 (2003).
[Crossref]

A. Y. Kobitski, R. Scholz, I. Vragović, H. P. Wagner, and D. R. T. Zahn, “Low-temperature time-resolved photoluminescence characterization of 3,4,9,10-perylene tetracarboxylic dianhydride crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 66(15), 153204 (2002).
[Crossref]

Sheik-Bahae, M.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990).
[Crossref]

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, and E. W. Van Stryland, “High-sensitivity, single-beam n2 measurements,” Opt. Lett. 14(17), 955–957 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Smith, L. M.

V. R. Gangilenka, L. V. Titova, L. M. Smith, H. P. Wagner, L. A. A. DeSilva, L. Gisslén, and R. Scholz, “Selective excitation of exciton transitions in PTCDA crystals and films,” Phys. Rev. B 81(15), 155208 (2010).
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Solis, J.

Steier, W. H.

M. Ziari, S. Kalluri, and W. H. Steier, “Nonlinear optical effects in PTCDA crystalline organic thin films,” Proc. SPIE 2285, 84–91 (1994).
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Stella, M.

M. Stella, C. Voz, J. Puigdollers, F. Rojas, M. Fonrodona, J. Escarré, J. M. Asensi, J. Bertomeu, and J. Andreu, “Low level optical absorption measurements on organic semiconductors,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(9-20), 1663–1667 (2006).
[Crossref]

Strickler, J. H.

Suarez-Garcia, A.

Sun, C. K.

C. K. Sun, J. C. Liang, J. C. Wang, F. J. Kao, S. Keller, M. P. Mack, U. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, “Two-photon absorption study of GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(4), 439–441 (2000).
[Crossref]

Takamo, H.

Y. Sasaki, H. Takamo, and K. Kasatani, “Optical nonlinearities of perylene derivatives,” Proc. SPIE 6839, 683920 (2007).
[Crossref]

Tallman, R. E.

V. R. Gangilenka, A. DeSilva, H. P. Wagner, R. E. Tallman, B. A. Weinstein, and R. Scholz, “Exciton emission in PTCDA thin films under uniaxial pressure,” Phys. Rev. B 77(11), 115206 (2008).
[Crossref]

Tian, M.

J. W. Perry, K. Mansour, I. Y. S. Lee, X. L. Wu, P. V. Bedworth, C. T. Chen, D. Ng, S. R. Marder, P. Miles, T. Wada, M. Tian, and H. Sasabe, “Organic optical limiter with a strong nonlinear absorptive response,” Science 273(5281), 1533–1536 (1996).
[Crossref]

Titova, L. V.

V. R. Gangilenka, L. V. Titova, L. M. Smith, H. P. Wagner, L. A. A. DeSilva, L. Gisslén, and R. Scholz, “Selective excitation of exciton transitions in PTCDA crystals and films,” Phys. Rev. B 81(15), 155208 (2010).
[Crossref]

Tseng, S. Y.

C. Fuentes-Hernandez, L. A. Padilha, D. Owens, S. Y. Tseng, S. Webster, J. Y. Cho, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, S. R. Marder, and B. Kippelen, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of highly transmissive one-dimensional metal-organic photonic bandgap structures,” Proc. SPIE 7049, 70490 (2008).
[Crossref]

Tugushev, R. I.

R. A. Ganeev, I. A. Kulagin, A. I. Ryasnyansky, R. I. Tugushev, and T. Usmanov, “Characterization of nonlinear optical parameters of KDP, LiNbO3 and BBO crystals,” Opt. Commun. 229(1-6), 403–412 (2004).
[Crossref]

Usmanov, T.

R. A. Ganeev, I. A. Kulagin, A. I. Ryasnyansky, R. I. Tugushev, and T. Usmanov, “Characterization of nonlinear optical parameters of KDP, LiNbO3 and BBO crystals,” Opt. Commun. 229(1-6), 403–412 (2004).
[Crossref]

Van Stryland, E. W.

M. R. Ferdinandus, M. Reichert, T. R. Ensley, H. Hu, D. A. Fishman, S. Webster, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Dual-arm Z-scan technique to extract dilute solute nonlinearities from solution measurements,” Opt. Mater. Express 2(12), 1776–1790 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. Fuentes-Hernandez, L. A. Padilha, D. Owens, S. Y. Tseng, S. Webster, J. Y. Cho, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, S. R. Marder, and B. Kippelen, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of highly transmissive one-dimensional metal-organic photonic bandgap structures,” Proc. SPIE 7049, 70490 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. Said, C. Wamsley, D. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, B. A. Reinhardt, P. Roderer, and A. G. Dillard, “Third-and fifth-order optical nonlinearities in organic materials,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 228(6), 646–650 (1994).
[Crossref]

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990).
[Crossref]

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, and E. W. Van Stryland, “High-sensitivity, single-beam n2 measurements,” Opt. Lett. 14(17), 955–957 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Voz, C.

M. Stella, C. Voz, J. Puigdollers, F. Rojas, M. Fonrodona, J. Escarré, J. M. Asensi, J. Bertomeu, and J. Andreu, “Low level optical absorption measurements on organic semiconductors,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(9-20), 1663–1667 (2006).
[Crossref]

Vragovic, I.

I. Vragović and R. Scholz, “Frenkel exciton model of optical absorption and photoluminescence in α-PTCDA,” Phys. Rev. B 68(15), 155202 (2003).
[Crossref]

A. Y. Kobitski, R. Scholz, I. Vragović, H. P. Wagner, and D. R. T. Zahn, “Low-temperature time-resolved photoluminescence characterization of 3,4,9,10-perylene tetracarboxylic dianhydride crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 66(15), 153204 (2002).
[Crossref]

Wada, T.

J. W. Perry, K. Mansour, I. Y. S. Lee, X. L. Wu, P. V. Bedworth, C. T. Chen, D. Ng, S. R. Marder, P. Miles, T. Wada, M. Tian, and H. Sasabe, “Organic optical limiter with a strong nonlinear absorptive response,” Science 273(5281), 1533–1536 (1996).
[Crossref]

Wagner, H. P.

V. R. Gangilenka, L. V. Titova, L. M. Smith, H. P. Wagner, L. A. A. DeSilva, L. Gisslén, and R. Scholz, “Selective excitation of exciton transitions in PTCDA crystals and films,” Phys. Rev. B 81(15), 155208 (2010).
[Crossref]

V. R. Gangilenka, A. DeSilva, H. P. Wagner, R. E. Tallman, B. A. Weinstein, and R. Scholz, “Exciton emission in PTCDA thin films under uniaxial pressure,” Phys. Rev. B 77(11), 115206 (2008).
[Crossref]

H. P. Wagner, A. DeSilva, V. R. Gangilenka, and T. U. Kampen, “Modified charge-transfer emission in perylene tetracarboxylic dianhydride-aluminum quinoline layer structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 99(2), 024501 (2006).
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H. P. Wagner, A. DeSilva, and T. Kampen, “Exciton emission in PTCDA films and PTCDA/Alq3 multilayers,” Phys. Rev. B 70(23), 235201 (2004).
[Crossref]

A. Y. Kobitski, R. Scholz, D. R. T. Zahn, and H. P. Wagner, “Time-resolved photoluminescence study of excitons in α-PTCDA as a function of temperature,” Phys. Rev. B 68(15), 155201 (2003).
[Crossref]

A. Y. Kobitski, R. Scholz, I. Vragović, H. P. Wagner, and D. R. T. Zahn, “Low-temperature time-resolved photoluminescence characterization of 3,4,9,10-perylene tetracarboxylic dianhydride crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 66(15), 153204 (2002).
[Crossref]

Wagner, T.

M. Friedrich, T. Wagner, G. Salvan, S. Park, T. U. Kampen, and D. R. T. Zahn, “Optical constants of 3,4,9,10-perylenetetracarboxylic dianhydride films on silicon and gallium arsenide studied by spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 75(4), 501–506 (2002).
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Wamsley, C.

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Wang, J. C.

C. K. Sun, J. C. Liang, J. C. Wang, F. J. Kao, S. Keller, M. P. Mack, U. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, “Two-photon absorption study of GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(4), 439–441 (2000).
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Webb, W. W.

Webster, S.

M. R. Ferdinandus, M. Reichert, T. R. Ensley, H. Hu, D. A. Fishman, S. Webster, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Dual-arm Z-scan technique to extract dilute solute nonlinearities from solution measurements,” Opt. Mater. Express 2(12), 1776–1790 (2012).
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C. Fuentes-Hernandez, L. A. Padilha, D. Owens, S. Y. Tseng, S. Webster, J. Y. Cho, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, S. R. Marder, and B. Kippelen, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of highly transmissive one-dimensional metal-organic photonic bandgap structures,” Proc. SPIE 7049, 70490 (2008).
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Wee, A. T. S.

H. P. Li, C. H. Kam, Y. L. Lam, Y. X. Jie, W. Ji, A. T. S. Wee, and C. H. A. Huan, “Nonlinear optical response of Ge nanocrystals in silica matrix with excitation of femtosecond pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 72(5), 611–615 (2001).
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Wei, T. H.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990).
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Weinstein, B. A.

V. R. Gangilenka, A. DeSilva, H. P. Wagner, R. E. Tallman, B. A. Weinstein, and R. Scholz, “Exciton emission in PTCDA thin films under uniaxial pressure,” Phys. Rev. B 77(11), 115206 (2008).
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J. E. Ehrlich, X. L. Wu, I. Y. Lee, Z. Y. Hu, H. Röckel, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, “Two-photon absorption and broadband optical limiting with bis-donor stilbenes,” Opt. Lett. 22(24), 1843–1845 (1997).
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J. W. Perry, K. Mansour, I. Y. S. Lee, X. L. Wu, P. V. Bedworth, C. T. Chen, D. Ng, S. R. Marder, P. Miles, T. Wada, M. Tian, and H. Sasabe, “Organic optical limiter with a strong nonlinear absorptive response,” Science 273(5281), 1533–1536 (1996).
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Xu, G. C.

Xu, G. Q.

H. P. Li, B. Liu, C. H. Kam, Y. L. Lam, W. X. Que, L. M. Gan, C. H. Chew, and G. Q. Xu, “Femtosecond Z-scan investigation of nonlinear refraction in surface modified PbS nanoparticles,” Opt. Mater. 14(4), 321–327 (2000).
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Yoshino, A.

Yu, B.

B. Yu, C. Zhu, and F. Gan, “Optical nonlinearity of Bi2O3 nanoparticles studied by Z-scan technique,” J. Appl. Phys. 82(9), 4532–4537 (1997).
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Zahn, D. R. T.

A. Y. Kobitski, R. Scholz, D. R. T. Zahn, and H. P. Wagner, “Time-resolved photoluminescence study of excitons in α-PTCDA as a function of temperature,” Phys. Rev. B 68(15), 155201 (2003).
[Crossref]

M. Friedrich, T. Wagner, G. Salvan, S. Park, T. U. Kampen, and D. R. T. Zahn, “Optical constants of 3,4,9,10-perylenetetracarboxylic dianhydride films on silicon and gallium arsenide studied by spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 75(4), 501–506 (2002).
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A. Y. Kobitski, R. Scholz, I. Vragović, H. P. Wagner, and D. R. T. Zahn, “Low-temperature time-resolved photoluminescence characterization of 3,4,9,10-perylene tetracarboxylic dianhydride crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 66(15), 153204 (2002).
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J. Zhang, Q. Lin, G. Piredda, R. W. Boyd, G. P. Agrawal, and P. M. Fauchet, “Anisotropic nonlinear response of silicon in the near-infrared region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(7), 071113 (2007).
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W. F. Zhang, Y. B. Huang, M. S. Zhang, and Z. G. Liu, “Nonlinear optical absorption in undoped and cerium-doped BaTiO3 thin films using Z-scan technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(8), 1003–1005 (2000).
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Zhang, W. F.

W. F. Zhang, Y. B. Huang, M. S. Zhang, and Z. G. Liu, “Nonlinear optical absorption in undoped and cerium-doped BaTiO3 thin films using Z-scan technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(8), 1003–1005 (2000).
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B. Yu, C. Zhu, and F. Gan, “Optical nonlinearity of Bi2O3 nanoparticles studied by Z-scan technique,” J. Appl. Phys. 82(9), 4532–4537 (1997).
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M. Ziari, S. Kalluri, and W. H. Steier, “Nonlinear optical effects in PTCDA crystalline organic thin films,” Proc. SPIE 2285, 84–91 (1994).
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S. L. Oliveira, D. S. Corrêa, L. Misoguti, C. J. L. Constantino, R. F. Aroca, S. C. Zilio, and C. R. Mendonça, “Perylene derivatives with large two-photon-absorption cross-sections for application in optical limiting and upconversion lasing,” Adv. Mater. 17(15), 1890–1893 (2005).
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L. De Boni, C. J. L. Constantino, L. Misoguti, R. F. Aroca, S. C. Zilio, and C. R. Mendonça, “Two-photon absorption in perylene derivatives,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 371(5-6), 744–749 (2003).
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Adv. Mater. (1)

S. L. Oliveira, D. S. Corrêa, L. Misoguti, C. J. L. Constantino, R. F. Aroca, S. C. Zilio, and C. R. Mendonça, “Perylene derivatives with large two-photon-absorption cross-sections for application in optical limiting and upconversion lasing,” Adv. Mater. 17(15), 1890–1893 (2005).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. B (2)

H. P. Li, C. H. Kam, Y. L. Lam, Y. X. Jie, W. Ji, A. T. S. Wee, and C. H. A. Huan, “Nonlinear optical response of Ge nanocrystals in silica matrix with excitation of femtosecond pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 72(5), 611–615 (2001).
[Crossref]

M. Falconieri and G. Salvetti, “Simultaneous measurement of pure-optical and thermo-optical nonlinearities induced by high-repetition-rate, femtosecond laser pulses: application to CS2,” Appl. Phys. B 69(2), 133–136 (1999).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

W. F. Zhang, Y. B. Huang, M. S. Zhang, and Z. G. Liu, “Nonlinear optical absorption in undoped and cerium-doped BaTiO3 thin films using Z-scan technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(8), 1003–1005 (2000).
[Crossref]

C. K. Sun, J. C. Liang, J. C. Wang, F. J. Kao, S. Keller, M. P. Mack, U. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, “Two-photon absorption study of GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(4), 439–441 (2000).
[Crossref]

G. Battaglin, P. Calvelli, E. Cattaruzza, F. Gonella, R. Polloni, G. Mattei, and P. Mazzoldi, “Z-scan study on the nonlinear refractive index of copper nanocluster composite silica glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(25), 3953–3955 (2001).
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J. Zhang, Q. Lin, G. Piredda, R. W. Boyd, G. P. Agrawal, and P. M. Fauchet, “Anisotropic nonlinear response of silicon in the near-infrared region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(7), 071113 (2007).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. (1)

M. Friedrich, T. Wagner, G. Salvan, S. Park, T. U. Kampen, and D. R. T. Zahn, “Optical constants of 3,4,9,10-perylenetetracarboxylic dianhydride films on silicon and gallium arsenide studied by spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 75(4), 501–506 (2002).
[Crossref]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (2)

A. Said, C. Wamsley, D. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, B. A. Reinhardt, P. Roderer, and A. G. Dillard, “Third-and fifth-order optical nonlinearities in organic materials,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 228(6), 646–650 (1994).
[Crossref]

L. De Boni, C. J. L. Constantino, L. Misoguti, R. F. Aroca, S. C. Zilio, and C. R. Mendonça, “Two-photon absorption in perylene derivatives,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 371(5-6), 744–749 (2003).
[Crossref]

Chem. Rev. (1)

S. R. Forrest, “Ultrathin organic films grown by organic molecular beam deposition and related techniques,” Chem. Rev. 97(6), 1793–1896 (1997).
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M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

B. Yu, C. Zhu, and F. Gan, “Optical nonlinearity of Bi2O3 nanoparticles studied by Z-scan technique,” J. Appl. Phys. 82(9), 4532–4537 (1997).
[Crossref]

H. P. Wagner, A. DeSilva, V. R. Gangilenka, and T. U. Kampen, “Modified charge-transfer emission in perylene tetracarboxylic dianhydride-aluminum quinoline layer structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 99(2), 024501 (2006).
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J. Chem. Phys. (1)

M. Samoc and P. N. Prasad, “Dynamics of resonant third-order optical nonlinearity in perylene tetracarboxylic dianhydride studied by monitoring first- and second-order diffractions in subpicosecond degenerate four-wave mixing,” J. Chem. Phys. 91(11), 6643–6649 (1989).
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M. Möbus, N. Karl, and T. Kobayashi, “Structure of perylene-tetracarboxylic-dianhydride thin films on alkali halide crystal substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth 116(3-4), 495–504 (1992).
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J. Mater. Chem. (1)

P. Innocenzi and B. Lebeau, “Organic–inorganic hybrid materials for non-linear optics,” J. Mater. Chem. 15(35-36), 3821–3831 (2005).
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J. Non-Cryst. Solids (1)

M. Stella, C. Voz, J. Puigdollers, F. Rojas, M. Fonrodona, J. Escarré, J. M. Asensi, J. Bertomeu, and J. Andreu, “Low level optical absorption measurements on organic semiconductors,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(9-20), 1663–1667 (2006).
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J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

M. Falconieri, “Thermo-optical effects in Z-scan measurements using high-repetition-rate lasers,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 1(6), 662–667 (1999).
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J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (3)

Nature (1)

B. Cumpston, S. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I. Y. S. Lee, D. M. Maughon, J. Qin, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, “Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication,” Nature 398(6722), 51–54 (1999).

Opt. Commun. (2)

R. A. Ganeev, I. A. Kulagin, A. I. Ryasnyansky, R. I. Tugushev, and T. Usmanov, “Characterization of nonlinear optical parameters of KDP, LiNbO3 and BBO crystals,” Opt. Commun. 229(1-6), 403–412 (2004).
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S. M. Mian, S. B. McGee, and N. Melikechi, “Experimental and theoretical investigation of thermal lensing effects in mode-locked femtosecond Z-scan experiments,” Opt. Commun. 207(1-6), 339–345 (2002).
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Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Opt. Mater. (2)

H. P. Li, B. Liu, C. H. Kam, Y. L. Lam, W. X. Que, L. M. Gan, C. H. Chew, and G. Q. Xu, “Femtosecond Z-scan investigation of nonlinear refraction in surface modified PbS nanoparticles,” Opt. Mater. 14(4), 321–327 (2000).
[Crossref]

H. P. Li, C. H. Kam, Y. L. Lam, and W. Ji, “Femtosecond Z-scan measurements of nonlinear refraction in nonlinear optical crystals,” Opt. Mater. 15(4), 237–242 (2001).
[Crossref]

Opt. Mater. Express (1)

Phys. Rev. B (6)

A. Y. Kobitski, R. Scholz, I. Vragović, H. P. Wagner, and D. R. T. Zahn, “Low-temperature time-resolved photoluminescence characterization of 3,4,9,10-perylene tetracarboxylic dianhydride crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 66(15), 153204 (2002).
[Crossref]

A. Y. Kobitski, R. Scholz, D. R. T. Zahn, and H. P. Wagner, “Time-resolved photoluminescence study of excitons in α-PTCDA as a function of temperature,” Phys. Rev. B 68(15), 155201 (2003).
[Crossref]

V. R. Gangilenka, L. V. Titova, L. M. Smith, H. P. Wagner, L. A. A. DeSilva, L. Gisslén, and R. Scholz, “Selective excitation of exciton transitions in PTCDA crystals and films,” Phys. Rev. B 81(15), 155208 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. P. Wagner, A. DeSilva, and T. Kampen, “Exciton emission in PTCDA films and PTCDA/Alq3 multilayers,” Phys. Rev. B 70(23), 235201 (2004).
[Crossref]

V. R. Gangilenka, A. DeSilva, H. P. Wagner, R. E. Tallman, B. A. Weinstein, and R. Scholz, “Exciton emission in PTCDA thin films under uniaxial pressure,” Phys. Rev. B 77(11), 115206 (2008).
[Crossref]

I. Vragović and R. Scholz, “Frenkel exciton model of optical absorption and photoluminescence in α-PTCDA,” Phys. Rev. B 68(15), 155202 (2003).
[Crossref]

Proc. SPIE (3)

M. Ziari, S. Kalluri, and W. H. Steier, “Nonlinear optical effects in PTCDA crystalline organic thin films,” Proc. SPIE 2285, 84–91 (1994).
[Crossref]

C. Fuentes-Hernandez, L. A. Padilha, D. Owens, S. Y. Tseng, S. Webster, J. Y. Cho, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, S. R. Marder, and B. Kippelen, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of highly transmissive one-dimensional metal-organic photonic bandgap structures,” Proc. SPIE 7049, 70490 (2008).
[Crossref]

Y. Sasaki, H. Takamo, and K. Kasatani, “Optical nonlinearities of perylene derivatives,” Proc. SPIE 6839, 683920 (2007).
[Crossref]

Science (1)

J. W. Perry, K. Mansour, I. Y. S. Lee, X. L. Wu, P. V. Bedworth, C. T. Chen, D. Ng, S. R. Marder, P. Miles, T. Wada, M. Tian, and H. Sasabe, “Organic optical limiter with a strong nonlinear absorptive response,” Science 273(5281), 1533–1536 (1996).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

P. N. Butcher and D. Cotter, The Element of Nonlinear Optics (Cambridge University, 1990).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Normalized open aperture transmittance of a PTCDA film as a function of z-axis displacement using a 10x microscope objective lens at different repetition times as labeled. The incident laser intensity was 37 GW/cm2. The solid line represents the theoretical fit using Eq. (1) as described in the text.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Experimentally determined TPA coefficient β for a PTCDA film using a 10x (red squares) and 20x (blue circles) microscope objective lens as a function of different repetition times as labeled. Inset: Invers of the transmittance dip as a function of incident intensity using a 20x objective lens at a pulse repetition time of 3.125 µs.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Normalized open aperture transmittance of a PTCDA film as a function of the z-axis displacement using a 20x microscope objective lens at different repetition times as labeled. The incident laser intensity was 26 GW/cm2. The solid line represents the theoretical fit using Eq. (1) as described in the text.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Normalized closed/open z-scans at the repetition time of 0.75 µs using a 20x microscope objective lens. The incident laser intensity was 22 GW/cm2. The solid line represents the theoretical fit using Eq. (4) as described in the text.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Normalized closed/open z-scans at the repetition time of 2.5 µs with 10x microscope objective lens. The incident laser intensity was 37 GW/cm2. The solid line represents the theoretical fit using Eq. (4) as described in the text.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Measured two-photon absorption coefficient β, nonlinear refractive index n2 and third order susceptibility values χ I ( 3 ) and χ R ( 3 ) of the PTCDA films at a wavelength of 820 nm.

Equations (5)

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T( z )= 0 [ q 0 ( z,0 ) ] m ( m+1 ) 3 2
t d = ω 0 2 4D
χ ( n ) ( SI ) / χ ( n ) ( cgs ) = 4π / ( 3× 10 4 ) n1
T( z,Δ φ 0 )=1+ 4Δ ϕ 0 x ( x 2 +9 )( x 2 +1 )
Δ ϕ 0 =k I 0 n 2 L eff .

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