Abstract

We propose a method to dynamically control the Fano resonance of a ring/crescent-ring gold nanostructure by spatially changing the phase distribution of a probe Bessel beam. We demonstrate that a highly tunable Fano interference between the quadrupole and bright dipole modes can be realized in the near-infrared range. Even though a complex interference between a broad resonance and a narrower resonance lead to these observations, we show that a simple coupled oscillator model can accurately describe the behavior, providing valuable insights into the dynamics of the system. A further analysis of this structure uncovers a series of interesting phenomena such as anticrossing, sign changing of coupling and the spectral inversion of quadrupole and bright dipole modes. We further show that near field enhancement at Fano resonance can be actively controlled by modulating the phase distribution of the exciting incident Bessel beam.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. Aizpurua, G. W. Bryant, L. J. Richter, F. J. García de Abajo, B. K. Kelley, T. Mallouk, “Optical properties of coupled metallic nanorods for field-enhanced spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 71(23), 235420 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  2. S. Zhang, D. A. Genov, Y. Wang, M. Liu, X. Zhang, “Plasmon-induced transparency in metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(4), 047401 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. P. Vasa, W. Wang, R. Pomraenke, M. Lammers, M. Maiuri, C. Manzoni, G. Cerullo, C. Lienau, “Real-time observation of ultrafast Rabi oscillations between excitons and plasmons in metal nanostructures with J-aggregates,” Nat. Photonics 7(2), 128–132 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R.-M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, X. Zhang, “Sub-diffraction-limited optical imaging with a silver superlens,” Science 308(5721), 534–537 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. X. Chen, L. Huang, H. Mühlenbernd, G. Li, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, C.-W. Qiu, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, “Dual-polarity plasmonic metalens for visible light,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1198 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. S. B. Raghunathan, H. F. Schouten, W. Ubachs, B. E. Kim, C. H. Gan, T. D. Visser, “Dynamic beam steering from a subwavelength slit by selective excitation of guided modes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(15), 153901 (2013).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. M. Rang, A. C. Jones, F. Zhou, Z.-Y. Li, B. J. Wiley, Y. Xia, M. B. Raschke, “Optical near-field mapping of plasmonic nanoprisms,” Nano Lett. 8(10), 3357–3363 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. S. Peng, J. M. McMahon, G. C. Schatz, S. K. Gray, Y. Sun, “Reversing the size-dependence of surface plasmon resonances,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(33), 14530–14534 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. K. L. Wustholz, A.-I. Henry, J. M. McMahon, R. G. Freeman, N. Valley, M. E. Piotti, M. J. Natan, G. C. Schatz, R. P. Van Duyne, “Structure-activity relationships in gold nanoparticle dimers and trimers for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132(31), 10903–10910 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. F. Tam, G. P. Goodrich, B. R. Johnson, N. J. Halas, “Plasmonic enhancement of molecular fluorescence,” Nano Lett. 7(2), 496–501 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. M. E. Stewart, C. R. Anderton, L. B. Thompson, J. Maria, S. K. Gray, J. A. Rogers, R. G. Nuzzo, “Nanostructured plasmonic sensors,” Chem. Rev. 108(2), 494–521 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. J. Zhao, X. Zhang, C. R. Yonzon, A. J. Haes, R. P. Van Duyne, “Localized surface plasmon resonance biosensors,” Nanomedicine 1(2), 219–228 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. T. B. Huff, L. Tong, Y. Zhao, M. N. Hansen, J.-X. Cheng, A. Wei, “Hyperthermic effects of gold nanorods on tumor cells,” Nanomedicine 2(1), 125–132 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. B. Luk’yanchuk, N. I. Zheludev, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, P. Nordlander, H. Giessen, C. T. Chong, “The Fano resonance in plasmonic nanostructures and metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 9(9), 707–715 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. U. Becker, T. Prescher, E. Schmidt, B. Sonntag, H.-E. Wetzel, “Decay channels of the discrete and continuum Xe 4d resonances,” Phys. Rev. A 33(6), 3891–3899 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. U. Fano, “Effects of configuration interaction on intensities and phase shifts,” Phys. Rev. 124(6), 1866–1878 (1961).
    [CrossRef]
  19. J. A. Fan, C. Wu, K. Bao, J. Bao, R. Bardhan, N. J. Halas, V. N. Manoharan, P. Nordlander, G. Shvets, F. Capasso, “Self-assembled plasmonic nanoparticle clusters,” Science 328(5982), 1135–1138 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. F. Shafiei, F. Monticone, K. Q. Le, X.-X. Liu, T. Hartsfield, A. Alù, X. Li, “A subwavelength plasmonic metamolecule exhibiting magnetic-based optical Fano resonance,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 8(2), 95–99 (2013).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. N. Verellen, Y. Sonnefraud, H. Sobhani, F. Hao, V. V. Moshchalkov, P. Van Dorpe, P. Nordlander, S. A. Maier, “Fano resonances in individual coherent plasmonic nanocavities,” Nano Lett. 9(4), 1663–1667 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. F. Hao, Y. Sonnefraud, P. Van Dorpe, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, P. Nordlander, “Symmetry breaking in plasmonic nanocavities: subradiant LSPR sensing and a tunable Fano resonance,” Nano Lett. 8(11), 3983–3988 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. V. A. Fedotov, M. Rose, S. L. Prosvirnin, N. Papasimakis, N. I. Zheludev, “Sharp trapped-mode resonances in planar metamaterials with a broken structural symmetry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(14), 147401 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. R. Singh, I. A. Al-Naib, M. Koch, W. Zhang, “Sharp Fano resonances in THz metamaterials,” Opt. Express 19(7), 6312–6319 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. E. J. Osley, C. G. Biris, P. G. Thompson, R. R. Jahromi, P. A. Warburton, N. C. Panoiu, “Fano resonance resulting from a tunable interaction between molecular vibrational modes and a double continuum of a plasmonic metamolecule,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(8), 087402 (2013).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. V. Giannini, Y. Francescato, H. Amrania, C. C. Phillips, S. A. Maier, “Fano resonances in nanoscale plasmonic systems: a parameter-free modeling approach,” Nano Lett. 11(7), 2835–2840 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. N. Verellen, P. Van Dorpe, C. Huang, K. Lodewijks, G. A. Vandenbosch, L. Lagae, V. V. Moshchalkov, “Plasmon line shaping using nanocrosses for high sensitivity localized surface plasmon resonance sensing,” Nano Lett. 11(2), 391–397 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. C. Wu, A. B. Khanikaev, R. Adato, N. Arju, A. A. Yanik, H. Altug, G. Shvets, “Fano-resonant asymmetric metamaterials for ultrasensitive spectroscopy and identification of molecular monolayers,” Nat. Mater. 11(1), 69–75 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. J. B. Lassiter, H. Sobhani, J. A. Fan, J. Kundu, F. Capasso, P. Nordlander, N. J. Halas, “Fano resonances in plasmonic nanoclusters: geometrical and chemical tunability,” Nano Lett. 10(8), 3184–3189 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. A. Lovera, B. Gallinet, P. Nordlander, O. J. Martin, “Mechanisms of Fano resonances in coupled plasmonic systems,” ACS Nano 7(5), 4527–4536 (2013).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. N. Verellen, P. Van Dorpe, D. Vercruysse, G. A. Vandenbosch, V. V. Moshchalkov, “Dark and bright localized surface plasmons in nanocrosses,” Opt. Express 19(12), 11034–11051 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  32. P. B. Johnson, R.-W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  33. E. Prodan, P. Nordlander, “Plasmon hybridization in spherical nanoparticles,” J. Chem. Phys. 120(11), 5444–5454 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  34. E. Prodan, C. Radloff, N. J. Halas, P. Nordlander, “A hybridization model for the plasmon response of complex nanostructures,” Science 302(5644), 419–422 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  35. R. Singh, I. A. Al-Naib, Y. Yang, D. Roy Chowdhury, W. Cao, C. Rockstuhl, T. Ozaki, R. Morandotti, W. Zhang, “Observing metamaterial induced transparency in individual Fano resonators with broken symmetry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(20), 201107 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  36. M. A. Kats, N. Yu, P. Genevet, Z. Gaburro, F. Capasso, “Effect of radiation damping on the spectral response of plasmonic components,” Opt. Express 19(22), 21748–21753 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  37. L. Novotny, “Strong coupling, energy splitting, and level crossings: A classical perspective,” Am. J. Phys. 78(11), 1199–1202 (2010).
    [CrossRef]

2013 (5)

P. Vasa, W. Wang, R. Pomraenke, M. Lammers, M. Maiuri, C. Manzoni, G. Cerullo, C. Lienau, “Real-time observation of ultrafast Rabi oscillations between excitons and plasmons in metal nanostructures with J-aggregates,” Nat. Photonics 7(2), 128–132 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. B. Raghunathan, H. F. Schouten, W. Ubachs, B. E. Kim, C. H. Gan, T. D. Visser, “Dynamic beam steering from a subwavelength slit by selective excitation of guided modes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(15), 153901 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Shafiei, F. Monticone, K. Q. Le, X.-X. Liu, T. Hartsfield, A. Alù, X. Li, “A subwavelength plasmonic metamolecule exhibiting magnetic-based optical Fano resonance,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 8(2), 95–99 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. J. Osley, C. G. Biris, P. G. Thompson, R. R. Jahromi, P. A. Warburton, N. C. Panoiu, “Fano resonance resulting from a tunable interaction between molecular vibrational modes and a double continuum of a plasmonic metamolecule,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(8), 087402 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Lovera, B. Gallinet, P. Nordlander, O. J. Martin, “Mechanisms of Fano resonances in coupled plasmonic systems,” ACS Nano 7(5), 4527–4536 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012 (2)

C. Wu, A. B. Khanikaev, R. Adato, N. Arju, A. A. Yanik, H. Altug, G. Shvets, “Fano-resonant asymmetric metamaterials for ultrasensitive spectroscopy and identification of molecular monolayers,” Nat. Mater. 11(1), 69–75 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Chen, L. Huang, H. Mühlenbernd, G. Li, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, C.-W. Qiu, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, “Dual-polarity plasmonic metalens for visible light,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1198 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (6)

V. Giannini, Y. Francescato, H. Amrania, C. C. Phillips, S. A. Maier, “Fano resonances in nanoscale plasmonic systems: a parameter-free modeling approach,” Nano Lett. 11(7), 2835–2840 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Verellen, P. Van Dorpe, C. Huang, K. Lodewijks, G. A. Vandenbosch, L. Lagae, V. V. Moshchalkov, “Plasmon line shaping using nanocrosses for high sensitivity localized surface plasmon resonance sensing,” Nano Lett. 11(2), 391–397 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Singh, I. A. Al-Naib, Y. Yang, D. Roy Chowdhury, W. Cao, C. Rockstuhl, T. Ozaki, R. Morandotti, W. Zhang, “Observing metamaterial induced transparency in individual Fano resonators with broken symmetry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(20), 201107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Singh, I. A. Al-Naib, M. Koch, W. Zhang, “Sharp Fano resonances in THz metamaterials,” Opt. Express 19(7), 6312–6319 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Verellen, P. Van Dorpe, D. Vercruysse, G. A. Vandenbosch, V. V. Moshchalkov, “Dark and bright localized surface plasmons in nanocrosses,” Opt. Express 19(12), 11034–11051 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Kats, N. Yu, P. Genevet, Z. Gaburro, F. Capasso, “Effect of radiation damping on the spectral response of plasmonic components,” Opt. Express 19(22), 21748–21753 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (6)

J. A. Fan, C. Wu, K. Bao, J. Bao, R. Bardhan, N. J. Halas, V. N. Manoharan, P. Nordlander, G. Shvets, F. Capasso, “Self-assembled plasmonic nanoparticle clusters,” Science 328(5982), 1135–1138 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Novotny, “Strong coupling, energy splitting, and level crossings: A classical perspective,” Am. J. Phys. 78(11), 1199–1202 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Luk’yanchuk, N. I. Zheludev, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, P. Nordlander, H. Giessen, C. T. Chong, “The Fano resonance in plasmonic nanostructures and metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 9(9), 707–715 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Lassiter, H. Sobhani, J. A. Fan, J. Kundu, F. Capasso, P. Nordlander, N. J. Halas, “Fano resonances in plasmonic nanoclusters: geometrical and chemical tunability,” Nano Lett. 10(8), 3184–3189 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Peng, J. M. McMahon, G. C. Schatz, S. K. Gray, Y. Sun, “Reversing the size-dependence of surface plasmon resonances,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(33), 14530–14534 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. L. Wustholz, A.-I. Henry, J. M. McMahon, R. G. Freeman, N. Valley, M. E. Piotti, M. J. Natan, G. C. Schatz, R. P. Van Duyne, “Structure-activity relationships in gold nanoparticle dimers and trimers for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132(31), 10903–10910 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R.-M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Verellen, Y. Sonnefraud, H. Sobhani, F. Hao, V. V. Moshchalkov, P. Van Dorpe, P. Nordlander, S. A. Maier, “Fano resonances in individual coherent plasmonic nanocavities,” Nano Lett. 9(4), 1663–1667 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (5)

F. Hao, Y. Sonnefraud, P. Van Dorpe, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, P. Nordlander, “Symmetry breaking in plasmonic nanocavities: subradiant LSPR sensing and a tunable Fano resonance,” Nano Lett. 8(11), 3983–3988 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. E. Stewart, C. R. Anderton, L. B. Thompson, J. Maria, S. K. Gray, J. A. Rogers, R. G. Nuzzo, “Nanostructured plasmonic sensors,” Chem. Rev. 108(2), 494–521 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Zhang, D. A. Genov, Y. Wang, M. Liu, X. Zhang, “Plasmon-induced transparency in metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(4), 047401 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Rang, A. C. Jones, F. Zhou, Z.-Y. Li, B. J. Wiley, Y. Xia, M. B. Raschke, “Optical near-field mapping of plasmonic nanoprisms,” Nano Lett. 8(10), 3357–3363 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (3)

F. Tam, G. P. Goodrich, B. R. Johnson, N. J. Halas, “Plasmonic enhancement of molecular fluorescence,” Nano Lett. 7(2), 496–501 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. B. Huff, L. Tong, Y. Zhao, M. N. Hansen, J.-X. Cheng, A. Wei, “Hyperthermic effects of gold nanorods on tumor cells,” Nanomedicine 2(1), 125–132 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. A. Fedotov, M. Rose, S. L. Prosvirnin, N. Papasimakis, N. I. Zheludev, “Sharp trapped-mode resonances in planar metamaterials with a broken structural symmetry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(14), 147401 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

J. Zhao, X. Zhang, C. R. Yonzon, A. J. Haes, R. P. Van Duyne, “Localized surface plasmon resonance biosensors,” Nanomedicine 1(2), 219–228 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

J. Aizpurua, G. W. Bryant, L. J. Richter, F. J. García de Abajo, B. K. Kelley, T. Mallouk, “Optical properties of coupled metallic nanorods for field-enhanced spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 71(23), 235420 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, X. Zhang, “Sub-diffraction-limited optical imaging with a silver superlens,” Science 308(5721), 534–537 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

E. Prodan, P. Nordlander, “Plasmon hybridization in spherical nanoparticles,” J. Chem. Phys. 120(11), 5444–5454 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

E. Prodan, C. Radloff, N. J. Halas, P. Nordlander, “A hybridization model for the plasmon response of complex nanostructures,” Science 302(5644), 419–422 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986 (1)

U. Becker, T. Prescher, E. Schmidt, B. Sonntag, H.-E. Wetzel, “Decay channels of the discrete and continuum Xe 4d resonances,” Phys. Rev. A 33(6), 3891–3899 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1972 (1)

P. B. Johnson, R.-W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1961 (1)

U. Fano, “Effects of configuration interaction on intensities and phase shifts,” Phys. Rev. 124(6), 1866–1878 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Adato, R.

C. Wu, A. B. Khanikaev, R. Adato, N. Arju, A. A. Yanik, H. Altug, G. Shvets, “Fano-resonant asymmetric metamaterials for ultrasensitive spectroscopy and identification of molecular monolayers,” Nat. Mater. 11(1), 69–75 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aizpurua, J.

J. Aizpurua, G. W. Bryant, L. J. Richter, F. J. García de Abajo, B. K. Kelley, T. Mallouk, “Optical properties of coupled metallic nanorods for field-enhanced spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 71(23), 235420 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Al-Naib, I. A.

R. Singh, I. A. Al-Naib, Y. Yang, D. Roy Chowdhury, W. Cao, C. Rockstuhl, T. Ozaki, R. Morandotti, W. Zhang, “Observing metamaterial induced transparency in individual Fano resonators with broken symmetry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(20), 201107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Singh, I. A. Al-Naib, M. Koch, W. Zhang, “Sharp Fano resonances in THz metamaterials,” Opt. Express 19(7), 6312–6319 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Altug, H.

C. Wu, A. B. Khanikaev, R. Adato, N. Arju, A. A. Yanik, H. Altug, G. Shvets, “Fano-resonant asymmetric metamaterials for ultrasensitive spectroscopy and identification of molecular monolayers,” Nat. Mater. 11(1), 69–75 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alù, A.

F. Shafiei, F. Monticone, K. Q. Le, X.-X. Liu, T. Hartsfield, A. Alù, X. Li, “A subwavelength plasmonic metamolecule exhibiting magnetic-based optical Fano resonance,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 8(2), 95–99 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Amrania, H.

V. Giannini, Y. Francescato, H. Amrania, C. C. Phillips, S. A. Maier, “Fano resonances in nanoscale plasmonic systems: a parameter-free modeling approach,” Nano Lett. 11(7), 2835–2840 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anderton, C. R.

M. E. Stewart, C. R. Anderton, L. B. Thompson, J. Maria, S. K. Gray, J. A. Rogers, R. G. Nuzzo, “Nanostructured plasmonic sensors,” Chem. Rev. 108(2), 494–521 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anker, J. N.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arju, N.

C. Wu, A. B. Khanikaev, R. Adato, N. Arju, A. A. Yanik, H. Altug, G. Shvets, “Fano-resonant asymmetric metamaterials for ultrasensitive spectroscopy and identification of molecular monolayers,” Nat. Mater. 11(1), 69–75 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bai, B.

X. Chen, L. Huang, H. Mühlenbernd, G. Li, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, C.-W. Qiu, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, “Dual-polarity plasmonic metalens for visible light,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1198 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bao, J.

J. A. Fan, C. Wu, K. Bao, J. Bao, R. Bardhan, N. J. Halas, V. N. Manoharan, P. Nordlander, G. Shvets, F. Capasso, “Self-assembled plasmonic nanoparticle clusters,” Science 328(5982), 1135–1138 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bao, K.

J. A. Fan, C. Wu, K. Bao, J. Bao, R. Bardhan, N. J. Halas, V. N. Manoharan, P. Nordlander, G. Shvets, F. Capasso, “Self-assembled plasmonic nanoparticle clusters,” Science 328(5982), 1135–1138 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bardhan, R.

J. A. Fan, C. Wu, K. Bao, J. Bao, R. Bardhan, N. J. Halas, V. N. Manoharan, P. Nordlander, G. Shvets, F. Capasso, “Self-assembled plasmonic nanoparticle clusters,” Science 328(5982), 1135–1138 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bartal, G.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R.-M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Becker, U.

U. Becker, T. Prescher, E. Schmidt, B. Sonntag, H.-E. Wetzel, “Decay channels of the discrete and continuum Xe 4d resonances,” Phys. Rev. A 33(6), 3891–3899 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biris, C. G.

E. J. Osley, C. G. Biris, P. G. Thompson, R. R. Jahromi, P. A. Warburton, N. C. Panoiu, “Fano resonance resulting from a tunable interaction between molecular vibrational modes and a double continuum of a plasmonic metamolecule,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(8), 087402 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bryant, G. W.

J. Aizpurua, G. W. Bryant, L. J. Richter, F. J. García de Abajo, B. K. Kelley, T. Mallouk, “Optical properties of coupled metallic nanorods for field-enhanced spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 71(23), 235420 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cao, W.

R. Singh, I. A. Al-Naib, Y. Yang, D. Roy Chowdhury, W. Cao, C. Rockstuhl, T. Ozaki, R. Morandotti, W. Zhang, “Observing metamaterial induced transparency in individual Fano resonators with broken symmetry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(20), 201107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Capasso, F.

M. A. Kats, N. Yu, P. Genevet, Z. Gaburro, F. Capasso, “Effect of radiation damping on the spectral response of plasmonic components,” Opt. Express 19(22), 21748–21753 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Fan, C. Wu, K. Bao, J. Bao, R. Bardhan, N. J. Halas, V. N. Manoharan, P. Nordlander, G. Shvets, F. Capasso, “Self-assembled plasmonic nanoparticle clusters,” Science 328(5982), 1135–1138 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Lassiter, H. Sobhani, J. A. Fan, J. Kundu, F. Capasso, P. Nordlander, N. J. Halas, “Fano resonances in plasmonic nanoclusters: geometrical and chemical tunability,” Nano Lett. 10(8), 3184–3189 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cerullo, G.

P. Vasa, W. Wang, R. Pomraenke, M. Lammers, M. Maiuri, C. Manzoni, G. Cerullo, C. Lienau, “Real-time observation of ultrafast Rabi oscillations between excitons and plasmons in metal nanostructures with J-aggregates,” Nat. Photonics 7(2), 128–132 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Chen, X.

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F. Tam, G. P. Goodrich, B. R. Johnson, N. J. Halas, “Plasmonic enhancement of molecular fluorescence,” Nano Lett. 7(2), 496–501 (2007).
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J. B. Lassiter, H. Sobhani, J. A. Fan, J. Kundu, F. Capasso, P. Nordlander, N. J. Halas, “Fano resonances in plasmonic nanoclusters: geometrical and chemical tunability,” Nano Lett. 10(8), 3184–3189 (2010).
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F. Shafiei, F. Monticone, K. Q. Le, X.-X. Liu, T. Hartsfield, A. Alù, X. Li, “A subwavelength plasmonic metamolecule exhibiting magnetic-based optical Fano resonance,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 8(2), 95–99 (2013).
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N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, X. Zhang, “Sub-diffraction-limited optical imaging with a silver superlens,” Science 308(5721), 534–537 (2005).
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X. Chen, L. Huang, H. Mühlenbernd, G. Li, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, C.-W. Qiu, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, “Dual-polarity plasmonic metalens for visible light,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1198 (2012).
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F. Shafiei, F. Monticone, K. Q. Le, X.-X. Liu, T. Hartsfield, A. Alù, X. Li, “A subwavelength plasmonic metamolecule exhibiting magnetic-based optical Fano resonance,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 8(2), 95–99 (2013).
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B. Luk’yanchuk, N. I. Zheludev, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, P. Nordlander, H. Giessen, C. T. Chong, “The Fano resonance in plasmonic nanostructures and metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 9(9), 707–715 (2010).
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J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
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R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R.-M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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V. Giannini, Y. Francescato, H. Amrania, C. C. Phillips, S. A. Maier, “Fano resonances in nanoscale plasmonic systems: a parameter-free modeling approach,” Nano Lett. 11(7), 2835–2840 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Luk’yanchuk, N. I. Zheludev, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, P. Nordlander, H. Giessen, C. T. Chong, “The Fano resonance in plasmonic nanostructures and metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 9(9), 707–715 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Verellen, Y. Sonnefraud, H. Sobhani, F. Hao, V. V. Moshchalkov, P. Van Dorpe, P. Nordlander, S. A. Maier, “Fano resonances in individual coherent plasmonic nanocavities,” Nano Lett. 9(4), 1663–1667 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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P. Vasa, W. Wang, R. Pomraenke, M. Lammers, M. Maiuri, C. Manzoni, G. Cerullo, C. Lienau, “Real-time observation of ultrafast Rabi oscillations between excitons and plasmons in metal nanostructures with J-aggregates,” Nat. Photonics 7(2), 128–132 (2013).
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J. Aizpurua, G. W. Bryant, L. J. Richter, F. J. García de Abajo, B. K. Kelley, T. Mallouk, “Optical properties of coupled metallic nanorods for field-enhanced spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 71(23), 235420 (2005).
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J. A. Fan, C. Wu, K. Bao, J. Bao, R. Bardhan, N. J. Halas, V. N. Manoharan, P. Nordlander, G. Shvets, F. Capasso, “Self-assembled plasmonic nanoparticle clusters,” Science 328(5982), 1135–1138 (2010).
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P. Vasa, W. Wang, R. Pomraenke, M. Lammers, M. Maiuri, C. Manzoni, G. Cerullo, C. Lienau, “Real-time observation of ultrafast Rabi oscillations between excitons and plasmons in metal nanostructures with J-aggregates,” Nat. Photonics 7(2), 128–132 (2013).
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M. E. Stewart, C. R. Anderton, L. B. Thompson, J. Maria, S. K. Gray, J. A. Rogers, R. G. Nuzzo, “Nanostructured plasmonic sensors,” Chem. Rev. 108(2), 494–521 (2008).
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A. Lovera, B. Gallinet, P. Nordlander, O. J. Martin, “Mechanisms of Fano resonances in coupled plasmonic systems,” ACS Nano 7(5), 4527–4536 (2013).
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K. L. Wustholz, A.-I. Henry, J. M. McMahon, R. G. Freeman, N. Valley, M. E. Piotti, M. J. Natan, G. C. Schatz, R. P. Van Duyne, “Structure-activity relationships in gold nanoparticle dimers and trimers for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132(31), 10903–10910 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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F. Shafiei, F. Monticone, K. Q. Le, X.-X. Liu, T. Hartsfield, A. Alù, X. Li, “A subwavelength plasmonic metamolecule exhibiting magnetic-based optical Fano resonance,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 8(2), 95–99 (2013).
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X. Chen, L. Huang, H. Mühlenbernd, G. Li, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, C.-W. Qiu, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, “Dual-polarity plasmonic metalens for visible light,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1198 (2012).
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K. L. Wustholz, A.-I. Henry, J. M. McMahon, R. G. Freeman, N. Valley, M. E. Piotti, M. J. Natan, G. C. Schatz, R. P. Van Duyne, “Structure-activity relationships in gold nanoparticle dimers and trimers for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132(31), 10903–10910 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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A. Lovera, B. Gallinet, P. Nordlander, O. J. Martin, “Mechanisms of Fano resonances in coupled plasmonic systems,” ACS Nano 7(5), 4527–4536 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Fan, C. Wu, K. Bao, J. Bao, R. Bardhan, N. J. Halas, V. N. Manoharan, P. Nordlander, G. Shvets, F. Capasso, “Self-assembled plasmonic nanoparticle clusters,” Science 328(5982), 1135–1138 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Lassiter, H. Sobhani, J. A. Fan, J. Kundu, F. Capasso, P. Nordlander, N. J. Halas, “Fano resonances in plasmonic nanoclusters: geometrical and chemical tunability,” Nano Lett. 10(8), 3184–3189 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Luk’yanchuk, N. I. Zheludev, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, P. Nordlander, H. Giessen, C. T. Chong, “The Fano resonance in plasmonic nanostructures and metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 9(9), 707–715 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Verellen, Y. Sonnefraud, H. Sobhani, F. Hao, V. V. Moshchalkov, P. Van Dorpe, P. Nordlander, S. A. Maier, “Fano resonances in individual coherent plasmonic nanocavities,” Nano Lett. 9(4), 1663–1667 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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E. J. Osley, C. G. Biris, P. G. Thompson, R. R. Jahromi, P. A. Warburton, N. C. Panoiu, “Fano resonance resulting from a tunable interaction between molecular vibrational modes and a double continuum of a plasmonic metamolecule,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(8), 087402 (2013).
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R. Singh, I. A. Al-Naib, Y. Yang, D. Roy Chowdhury, W. Cao, C. Rockstuhl, T. Ozaki, R. Morandotti, W. Zhang, “Observing metamaterial induced transparency in individual Fano resonators with broken symmetry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(20), 201107 (2011).
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V. A. Fedotov, M. Rose, S. L. Prosvirnin, N. Papasimakis, N. I. Zheludev, “Sharp trapped-mode resonances in planar metamaterials with a broken structural symmetry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(14), 147401 (2007).
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X. Chen, L. Huang, H. Mühlenbernd, G. Li, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, C.-W. Qiu, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, “Dual-polarity plasmonic metalens for visible light,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1198 (2012).
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M. Rang, A. C. Jones, F. Zhou, Z.-Y. Li, B. J. Wiley, Y. Xia, M. B. Raschke, “Optical near-field mapping of plasmonic nanoprisms,” Nano Lett. 8(10), 3357–3363 (2008).
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M. E. Stewart, C. R. Anderton, L. B. Thompson, J. Maria, S. K. Gray, J. A. Rogers, R. G. Nuzzo, “Nanostructured plasmonic sensors,” Chem. Rev. 108(2), 494–521 (2008).
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V. A. Fedotov, M. Rose, S. L. Prosvirnin, N. Papasimakis, N. I. Zheludev, “Sharp trapped-mode resonances in planar metamaterials with a broken structural symmetry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(14), 147401 (2007).
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R. Singh, I. A. Al-Naib, Y. Yang, D. Roy Chowdhury, W. Cao, C. Rockstuhl, T. Ozaki, R. Morandotti, W. Zhang, “Observing metamaterial induced transparency in individual Fano resonators with broken symmetry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(20), 201107 (2011).
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S. Peng, J. M. McMahon, G. C. Schatz, S. K. Gray, Y. Sun, “Reversing the size-dependence of surface plasmon resonances,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(33), 14530–14534 (2010).
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U. Becker, T. Prescher, E. Schmidt, B. Sonntag, H.-E. Wetzel, “Decay channels of the discrete and continuum Xe 4d resonances,” Phys. Rev. A 33(6), 3891–3899 (1986).
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C. Wu, A. B. Khanikaev, R. Adato, N. Arju, A. A. Yanik, H. Altug, G. Shvets, “Fano-resonant asymmetric metamaterials for ultrasensitive spectroscopy and identification of molecular monolayers,” Nat. Mater. 11(1), 69–75 (2012).
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J. A. Fan, C. Wu, K. Bao, J. Bao, R. Bardhan, N. J. Halas, V. N. Manoharan, P. Nordlander, G. Shvets, F. Capasso, “Self-assembled plasmonic nanoparticle clusters,” Science 328(5982), 1135–1138 (2010).
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F. Hao, Y. Sonnefraud, P. Van Dorpe, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, P. Nordlander, “Symmetry breaking in plasmonic nanocavities: subradiant LSPR sensing and a tunable Fano resonance,” Nano Lett. 8(11), 3983–3988 (2008).
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U. Becker, T. Prescher, E. Schmidt, B. Sonntag, H.-E. Wetzel, “Decay channels of the discrete and continuum Xe 4d resonances,” Phys. Rev. A 33(6), 3891–3899 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R.-M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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M. E. Stewart, C. R. Anderton, L. B. Thompson, J. Maria, S. K. Gray, J. A. Rogers, R. G. Nuzzo, “Nanostructured plasmonic sensors,” Chem. Rev. 108(2), 494–521 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, X. Zhang, “Sub-diffraction-limited optical imaging with a silver superlens,” Science 308(5721), 534–537 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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S. Peng, J. M. McMahon, G. C. Schatz, S. K. Gray, Y. Sun, “Reversing the size-dependence of surface plasmon resonances,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(33), 14530–14534 (2010).
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M. E. Stewart, C. R. Anderton, L. B. Thompson, J. Maria, S. K. Gray, J. A. Rogers, R. G. Nuzzo, “Nanostructured plasmonic sensors,” Chem. Rev. 108(2), 494–521 (2008).
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T. B. Huff, L. Tong, Y. Zhao, M. N. Hansen, J.-X. Cheng, A. Wei, “Hyperthermic effects of gold nanorods on tumor cells,” Nanomedicine 2(1), 125–132 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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N. Verellen, Y. Sonnefraud, H. Sobhani, F. Hao, V. V. Moshchalkov, P. Van Dorpe, P. Nordlander, S. A. Maier, “Fano resonances in individual coherent plasmonic nanocavities,” Nano Lett. 9(4), 1663–1667 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Hao, Y. Sonnefraud, P. Van Dorpe, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, P. Nordlander, “Symmetry breaking in plasmonic nanocavities: subradiant LSPR sensing and a tunable Fano resonance,” Nano Lett. 8(11), 3983–3988 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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K. L. Wustholz, A.-I. Henry, J. M. McMahon, R. G. Freeman, N. Valley, M. E. Piotti, M. J. Natan, G. C. Schatz, R. P. Van Duyne, “Structure-activity relationships in gold nanoparticle dimers and trimers for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132(31), 10903–10910 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zhao, X. Zhang, C. R. Yonzon, A. J. Haes, R. P. Van Duyne, “Localized surface plasmon resonance biosensors,” Nanomedicine 1(2), 219–228 (2006).
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N. Verellen, P. Van Dorpe, D. Vercruysse, G. A. Vandenbosch, V. V. Moshchalkov, “Dark and bright localized surface plasmons in nanocrosses,” Opt. Express 19(12), 11034–11051 (2011).
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N. Verellen, P. Van Dorpe, C. Huang, K. Lodewijks, G. A. Vandenbosch, L. Lagae, V. V. Moshchalkov, “Plasmon line shaping using nanocrosses for high sensitivity localized surface plasmon resonance sensing,” Nano Lett. 11(2), 391–397 (2011).
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P. Vasa, W. Wang, R. Pomraenke, M. Lammers, M. Maiuri, C. Manzoni, G. Cerullo, C. Lienau, “Real-time observation of ultrafast Rabi oscillations between excitons and plasmons in metal nanostructures with J-aggregates,” Nat. Photonics 7(2), 128–132 (2013).
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Verellen, N.

N. Verellen, P. Van Dorpe, D. Vercruysse, G. A. Vandenbosch, V. V. Moshchalkov, “Dark and bright localized surface plasmons in nanocrosses,” Opt. Express 19(12), 11034–11051 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Verellen, P. Van Dorpe, C. Huang, K. Lodewijks, G. A. Vandenbosch, L. Lagae, V. V. Moshchalkov, “Plasmon line shaping using nanocrosses for high sensitivity localized surface plasmon resonance sensing,” Nano Lett. 11(2), 391–397 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Verellen, Y. Sonnefraud, H. Sobhani, F. Hao, V. V. Moshchalkov, P. Van Dorpe, P. Nordlander, S. A. Maier, “Fano resonances in individual coherent plasmonic nanocavities,” Nano Lett. 9(4), 1663–1667 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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S. B. Raghunathan, H. F. Schouten, W. Ubachs, B. E. Kim, C. H. Gan, T. D. Visser, “Dynamic beam steering from a subwavelength slit by selective excitation of guided modes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(15), 153901 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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P. Vasa, W. Wang, R. Pomraenke, M. Lammers, M. Maiuri, C. Manzoni, G. Cerullo, C. Lienau, “Real-time observation of ultrafast Rabi oscillations between excitons and plasmons in metal nanostructures with J-aggregates,” Nat. Photonics 7(2), 128–132 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y.

S. Zhang, D. A. Genov, Y. Wang, M. Liu, X. Zhang, “Plasmon-induced transparency in metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(4), 047401 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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E. J. Osley, C. G. Biris, P. G. Thompson, R. R. Jahromi, P. A. Warburton, N. C. Panoiu, “Fano resonance resulting from a tunable interaction between molecular vibrational modes and a double continuum of a plasmonic metamolecule,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(8), 087402 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wei, A.

T. B. Huff, L. Tong, Y. Zhao, M. N. Hansen, J.-X. Cheng, A. Wei, “Hyperthermic effects of gold nanorods on tumor cells,” Nanomedicine 2(1), 125–132 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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U. Becker, T. Prescher, E. Schmidt, B. Sonntag, H.-E. Wetzel, “Decay channels of the discrete and continuum Xe 4d resonances,” Phys. Rev. A 33(6), 3891–3899 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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M. Rang, A. C. Jones, F. Zhou, Z.-Y. Li, B. J. Wiley, Y. Xia, M. B. Raschke, “Optical near-field mapping of plasmonic nanoprisms,” Nano Lett. 8(10), 3357–3363 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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C. Wu, A. B. Khanikaev, R. Adato, N. Arju, A. A. Yanik, H. Altug, G. Shvets, “Fano-resonant asymmetric metamaterials for ultrasensitive spectroscopy and identification of molecular monolayers,” Nat. Mater. 11(1), 69–75 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Fan, C. Wu, K. Bao, J. Bao, R. Bardhan, N. J. Halas, V. N. Manoharan, P. Nordlander, G. Shvets, F. Capasso, “Self-assembled plasmonic nanoparticle clusters,” Science 328(5982), 1135–1138 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wustholz, K. L.

K. L. Wustholz, A.-I. Henry, J. M. McMahon, R. G. Freeman, N. Valley, M. E. Piotti, M. J. Natan, G. C. Schatz, R. P. Van Duyne, “Structure-activity relationships in gold nanoparticle dimers and trimers for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132(31), 10903–10910 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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M. Rang, A. C. Jones, F. Zhou, Z.-Y. Li, B. J. Wiley, Y. Xia, M. B. Raschke, “Optical near-field mapping of plasmonic nanoprisms,” Nano Lett. 8(10), 3357–3363 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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R. Singh, I. A. Al-Naib, Y. Yang, D. Roy Chowdhury, W. Cao, C. Rockstuhl, T. Ozaki, R. Morandotti, W. Zhang, “Observing metamaterial induced transparency in individual Fano resonators with broken symmetry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(20), 201107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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C. Wu, A. B. Khanikaev, R. Adato, N. Arju, A. A. Yanik, H. Altug, G. Shvets, “Fano-resonant asymmetric metamaterials for ultrasensitive spectroscopy and identification of molecular monolayers,” Nat. Mater. 11(1), 69–75 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yonzon, C. R.

J. Zhao, X. Zhang, C. R. Yonzon, A. J. Haes, R. P. Van Duyne, “Localized surface plasmon resonance biosensors,” Nanomedicine 1(2), 219–228 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, N.

Zentgraf, T.

X. Chen, L. Huang, H. Mühlenbernd, G. Li, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, C.-W. Qiu, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, “Dual-polarity plasmonic metalens for visible light,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1198 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R.-M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, S.

X. Chen, L. Huang, H. Mühlenbernd, G. Li, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, C.-W. Qiu, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, “Dual-polarity plasmonic metalens for visible light,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1198 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Zhang, D. A. Genov, Y. Wang, M. Liu, X. Zhang, “Plasmon-induced transparency in metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(4), 047401 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, W.

R. Singh, I. A. Al-Naib, M. Koch, W. Zhang, “Sharp Fano resonances in THz metamaterials,” Opt. Express 19(7), 6312–6319 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Singh, I. A. Al-Naib, Y. Yang, D. Roy Chowdhury, W. Cao, C. Rockstuhl, T. Ozaki, R. Morandotti, W. Zhang, “Observing metamaterial induced transparency in individual Fano resonators with broken symmetry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(20), 201107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R.-M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Zhang, D. A. Genov, Y. Wang, M. Liu, X. Zhang, “Plasmon-induced transparency in metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(4), 047401 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zhao, X. Zhang, C. R. Yonzon, A. J. Haes, R. P. Van Duyne, “Localized surface plasmon resonance biosensors,” Nanomedicine 1(2), 219–228 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, X. Zhang, “Sub-diffraction-limited optical imaging with a silver superlens,” Science 308(5721), 534–537 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhao, J.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zhao, X. Zhang, C. R. Yonzon, A. J. Haes, R. P. Van Duyne, “Localized surface plasmon resonance biosensors,” Nanomedicine 1(2), 219–228 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhao, Y.

T. B. Huff, L. Tong, Y. Zhao, M. N. Hansen, J.-X. Cheng, A. Wei, “Hyperthermic effects of gold nanorods on tumor cells,” Nanomedicine 2(1), 125–132 (2007).
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B. Luk’yanchuk, N. I. Zheludev, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, P. Nordlander, H. Giessen, C. T. Chong, “The Fano resonance in plasmonic nanostructures and metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 9(9), 707–715 (2010).
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V. A. Fedotov, M. Rose, S. L. Prosvirnin, N. Papasimakis, N. I. Zheludev, “Sharp trapped-mode resonances in planar metamaterials with a broken structural symmetry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(14), 147401 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhou, F.

M. Rang, A. C. Jones, F. Zhou, Z.-Y. Li, B. J. Wiley, Y. Xia, M. B. Raschke, “Optical near-field mapping of plasmonic nanoprisms,” Nano Lett. 8(10), 3357–3363 (2008).
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ACS Nano (1)

A. Lovera, B. Gallinet, P. Nordlander, O. J. Martin, “Mechanisms of Fano resonances in coupled plasmonic systems,” ACS Nano 7(5), 4527–4536 (2013).
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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic view of the ring/crescent-ring nanostructure (RCRN). The geometry parameters r1, r2, Δ, r3, r4, and H are 260, 300, 30, 160, 200 and 50 nm, respectively. (b) Hybridization diagram for horizontal polarized plane wave excited Fano resonance of the RCRN. Insets: near field intensity distributions at resonance energies. (c) Comparison between the scattering spectrum of RCRN excited by a horizontal (blue) and vertical (red) polarized plane wave.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Complex amplitude (top) and phase (middle) distribution of Bessel beam as well as its field distribution illuminating on the RCRN (bottom). (b) Scattering spectrum of RCRN excited by a Bessel beam. The insets correspond to the associated near field intensity distributions at Fano (green) and dark dipole (red) resonances.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Bessel beams with varying central spot diameter (CSD) from 535 to 325 nm. (b) Normalized absorption spectra of individual outer and (c) inner rings with decreasing of the CSD of Bessel beam. (d) Controlling Fano resonance with the CSD of Bessel beam.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Schematic of the coupled oscillator model proposed for the fitting. The two oscillators correspond to the dipole and quadrupole modes, with frequency of ωd, ωq and nonradiative damping γq, γd. (b)-(d) Fano resonance of RCRN excited by Bessel beams with CSD of 535, 360 and 325 nm, respectively. The dotted and solid lines correspond to the simulation and fitting results, respectively.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Dipole (red) and quadrupole (blue) resonance frequencies extracted from the coupled oscillator model versus CSD. (b) Coupling constant g varying with the CSD. (c) Dependence of relative phase Δφ on the CSD.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a)-(f) Near field amplitude distributions (normalized to the average incident amplitude over the structure surface) at Fano resonance with the CSD decreasing from 535 to 325 nm. (g) Dependence of near field enhancement Eloc/ Ein on the CSD.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Extracted fitting parameters from coupled oscillator model for varying central spot diameter (CSD) of Bessel beam

Equations (3)

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d 2 x d d t 2 + γ d d x d dt + ω d 2 x d +g x q =Γ d 3 x d d t 3 +ηE, d 2 x q d t 2 + γ q d x q dt + ω q 2 x q +g x d =0,
A d = η( ω q 2 - ω 2 +i γ q ω ) ( ω d 2 - ω 2 +i γ d ω+iΓ ω 3 )( ω q 2 - ω 2 +i γ q ω ) g 2 E 0 , A q = ηg ( ω d 2 - ω 2 +i γ d ω+iΓ ω 3 )( ω q 2 - ω 2 +i γ q ω ) g 2 E 0 .
Δφ= φ d φ q = π 2 + π 2 sign( g )tan( γ q ω ω q 2 ω 2 ).

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