Abstract

We propose a novel configuration of optical receivers for intensity-modulation direct-detection (IM·DD) systems, which can cope with dual-polarization (DP) optical signals electrically. Using a Stokes analyzer and a newly-developed digital signal-processing (DSP) algorithm, we can achieve polarization tracking and demultiplexing in the digital domain after direct detection. Simulation results show that the power penalty stemming from digital polarization manipulations is negligibly small.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  1. E. Yamazaki, S. Yamanaka, Y. Kisaka, T. Nakagawa, K. Murata, E. Yoshida, T. Sakano, M. Tomizawa, Y. Miyamoto, S. Matsuoka, J. Matsui, A. Shibayama, J. Abe, Y. Nakamura, H. Noguchi, K. Fukuchi, H. Onaka, K. Fukumitsu, K. Komaki, O. Takeuchi, Y. Sakamoto, H. Nakashima, T. Mizuochi, K. Kubo, Y. Miyata, H. Nishimoto, S. Hirano, K. Onohara, “Fast optical channel recovery in field demonstration of 100-Gbit/s Ethernet over OTN using real-time DSP, ” Opt. Express 19, 13139–13184 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  2. K. Kikuchi, “Performance analyses of polarization demultiplexing based on constant-modulus algorithm in digital coherent optical receivers,” Opt. Express 19, 9868–9880 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. K. Kikuchi, “Digital coherent optical communication systems: Fundamentals and future prospects,” IEICE Electron. Express 8, 1642–1662 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  4. C. Brosseau, Fundamentals of Polarized Light (John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 1998).
  5. T. Okoshi, K. Kikuchi, Coherent Optical Communication Systems (KTK/Kluwer, 1988), Chap. 6.
  6. K. Kikuchi, “Characterization of semiconductor-laser phase noise and estimation of bit-error rate performance with low-speed offline digital coherent receivers,” Opt. Express 20, 5291–5302 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. P. M. Krummrich, K. Kotten, “Extremly fast (microsecond timescale) polarization changes in high speed long haul WDM transmission systems,” in 2004 OSA Technical Digest of Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2004), FI3.

2012

2011

E. Yamazaki, S. Yamanaka, Y. Kisaka, T. Nakagawa, K. Murata, E. Yoshida, T. Sakano, M. Tomizawa, Y. Miyamoto, S. Matsuoka, J. Matsui, A. Shibayama, J. Abe, Y. Nakamura, H. Noguchi, K. Fukuchi, H. Onaka, K. Fukumitsu, K. Komaki, O. Takeuchi, Y. Sakamoto, H. Nakashima, T. Mizuochi, K. Kubo, Y. Miyata, H. Nishimoto, S. Hirano, K. Onohara, “Fast optical channel recovery in field demonstration of 100-Gbit/s Ethernet over OTN using real-time DSP, ” Opt. Express 19, 13139–13184 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. Kikuchi, “Performance analyses of polarization demultiplexing based on constant-modulus algorithm in digital coherent optical receivers,” Opt. Express 19, 9868–9880 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Kikuchi, “Digital coherent optical communication systems: Fundamentals and future prospects,” IEICE Electron. Express 8, 1642–1662 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Abe, J.

E. Yamazaki, S. Yamanaka, Y. Kisaka, T. Nakagawa, K. Murata, E. Yoshida, T. Sakano, M. Tomizawa, Y. Miyamoto, S. Matsuoka, J. Matsui, A. Shibayama, J. Abe, Y. Nakamura, H. Noguchi, K. Fukuchi, H. Onaka, K. Fukumitsu, K. Komaki, O. Takeuchi, Y. Sakamoto, H. Nakashima, T. Mizuochi, K. Kubo, Y. Miyata, H. Nishimoto, S. Hirano, K. Onohara, “Fast optical channel recovery in field demonstration of 100-Gbit/s Ethernet over OTN using real-time DSP, ” Opt. Express 19, 13139–13184 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Brosseau, C.

C. Brosseau, Fundamentals of Polarized Light (John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 1998).

Fukuchi, K.

E. Yamazaki, S. Yamanaka, Y. Kisaka, T. Nakagawa, K. Murata, E. Yoshida, T. Sakano, M. Tomizawa, Y. Miyamoto, S. Matsuoka, J. Matsui, A. Shibayama, J. Abe, Y. Nakamura, H. Noguchi, K. Fukuchi, H. Onaka, K. Fukumitsu, K. Komaki, O. Takeuchi, Y. Sakamoto, H. Nakashima, T. Mizuochi, K. Kubo, Y. Miyata, H. Nishimoto, S. Hirano, K. Onohara, “Fast optical channel recovery in field demonstration of 100-Gbit/s Ethernet over OTN using real-time DSP, ” Opt. Express 19, 13139–13184 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Fukumitsu, K.

E. Yamazaki, S. Yamanaka, Y. Kisaka, T. Nakagawa, K. Murata, E. Yoshida, T. Sakano, M. Tomizawa, Y. Miyamoto, S. Matsuoka, J. Matsui, A. Shibayama, J. Abe, Y. Nakamura, H. Noguchi, K. Fukuchi, H. Onaka, K. Fukumitsu, K. Komaki, O. Takeuchi, Y. Sakamoto, H. Nakashima, T. Mizuochi, K. Kubo, Y. Miyata, H. Nishimoto, S. Hirano, K. Onohara, “Fast optical channel recovery in field demonstration of 100-Gbit/s Ethernet over OTN using real-time DSP, ” Opt. Express 19, 13139–13184 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hirano, S.

E. Yamazaki, S. Yamanaka, Y. Kisaka, T. Nakagawa, K. Murata, E. Yoshida, T. Sakano, M. Tomizawa, Y. Miyamoto, S. Matsuoka, J. Matsui, A. Shibayama, J. Abe, Y. Nakamura, H. Noguchi, K. Fukuchi, H. Onaka, K. Fukumitsu, K. Komaki, O. Takeuchi, Y. Sakamoto, H. Nakashima, T. Mizuochi, K. Kubo, Y. Miyata, H. Nishimoto, S. Hirano, K. Onohara, “Fast optical channel recovery in field demonstration of 100-Gbit/s Ethernet over OTN using real-time DSP, ” Opt. Express 19, 13139–13184 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kikuchi, K.

Kisaka, Y.

E. Yamazaki, S. Yamanaka, Y. Kisaka, T. Nakagawa, K. Murata, E. Yoshida, T. Sakano, M. Tomizawa, Y. Miyamoto, S. Matsuoka, J. Matsui, A. Shibayama, J. Abe, Y. Nakamura, H. Noguchi, K. Fukuchi, H. Onaka, K. Fukumitsu, K. Komaki, O. Takeuchi, Y. Sakamoto, H. Nakashima, T. Mizuochi, K. Kubo, Y. Miyata, H. Nishimoto, S. Hirano, K. Onohara, “Fast optical channel recovery in field demonstration of 100-Gbit/s Ethernet over OTN using real-time DSP, ” Opt. Express 19, 13139–13184 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Komaki, K.

E. Yamazaki, S. Yamanaka, Y. Kisaka, T. Nakagawa, K. Murata, E. Yoshida, T. Sakano, M. Tomizawa, Y. Miyamoto, S. Matsuoka, J. Matsui, A. Shibayama, J. Abe, Y. Nakamura, H. Noguchi, K. Fukuchi, H. Onaka, K. Fukumitsu, K. Komaki, O. Takeuchi, Y. Sakamoto, H. Nakashima, T. Mizuochi, K. Kubo, Y. Miyata, H. Nishimoto, S. Hirano, K. Onohara, “Fast optical channel recovery in field demonstration of 100-Gbit/s Ethernet over OTN using real-time DSP, ” Opt. Express 19, 13139–13184 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kotten, K.

P. M. Krummrich, K. Kotten, “Extremly fast (microsecond timescale) polarization changes in high speed long haul WDM transmission systems,” in 2004 OSA Technical Digest of Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2004), FI3.

Krummrich, P. M.

P. M. Krummrich, K. Kotten, “Extremly fast (microsecond timescale) polarization changes in high speed long haul WDM transmission systems,” in 2004 OSA Technical Digest of Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2004), FI3.

Kubo, K.

E. Yamazaki, S. Yamanaka, Y. Kisaka, T. Nakagawa, K. Murata, E. Yoshida, T. Sakano, M. Tomizawa, Y. Miyamoto, S. Matsuoka, J. Matsui, A. Shibayama, J. Abe, Y. Nakamura, H. Noguchi, K. Fukuchi, H. Onaka, K. Fukumitsu, K. Komaki, O. Takeuchi, Y. Sakamoto, H. Nakashima, T. Mizuochi, K. Kubo, Y. Miyata, H. Nishimoto, S. Hirano, K. Onohara, “Fast optical channel recovery in field demonstration of 100-Gbit/s Ethernet over OTN using real-time DSP, ” Opt. Express 19, 13139–13184 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Matsui, J.

E. Yamazaki, S. Yamanaka, Y. Kisaka, T. Nakagawa, K. Murata, E. Yoshida, T. Sakano, M. Tomizawa, Y. Miyamoto, S. Matsuoka, J. Matsui, A. Shibayama, J. Abe, Y. Nakamura, H. Noguchi, K. Fukuchi, H. Onaka, K. Fukumitsu, K. Komaki, O. Takeuchi, Y. Sakamoto, H. Nakashima, T. Mizuochi, K. Kubo, Y. Miyata, H. Nishimoto, S. Hirano, K. Onohara, “Fast optical channel recovery in field demonstration of 100-Gbit/s Ethernet over OTN using real-time DSP, ” Opt. Express 19, 13139–13184 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Matsuoka, S.

E. Yamazaki, S. Yamanaka, Y. Kisaka, T. Nakagawa, K. Murata, E. Yoshida, T. Sakano, M. Tomizawa, Y. Miyamoto, S. Matsuoka, J. Matsui, A. Shibayama, J. Abe, Y. Nakamura, H. Noguchi, K. Fukuchi, H. Onaka, K. Fukumitsu, K. Komaki, O. Takeuchi, Y. Sakamoto, H. Nakashima, T. Mizuochi, K. Kubo, Y. Miyata, H. Nishimoto, S. Hirano, K. Onohara, “Fast optical channel recovery in field demonstration of 100-Gbit/s Ethernet over OTN using real-time DSP, ” Opt. Express 19, 13139–13184 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Miyamoto, Y.

E. Yamazaki, S. Yamanaka, Y. Kisaka, T. Nakagawa, K. Murata, E. Yoshida, T. Sakano, M. Tomizawa, Y. Miyamoto, S. Matsuoka, J. Matsui, A. Shibayama, J. Abe, Y. Nakamura, H. Noguchi, K. Fukuchi, H. Onaka, K. Fukumitsu, K. Komaki, O. Takeuchi, Y. Sakamoto, H. Nakashima, T. Mizuochi, K. Kubo, Y. Miyata, H. Nishimoto, S. Hirano, K. Onohara, “Fast optical channel recovery in field demonstration of 100-Gbit/s Ethernet over OTN using real-time DSP, ” Opt. Express 19, 13139–13184 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Miyata, Y.

E. Yamazaki, S. Yamanaka, Y. Kisaka, T. Nakagawa, K. Murata, E. Yoshida, T. Sakano, M. Tomizawa, Y. Miyamoto, S. Matsuoka, J. Matsui, A. Shibayama, J. Abe, Y. Nakamura, H. Noguchi, K. Fukuchi, H. Onaka, K. Fukumitsu, K. Komaki, O. Takeuchi, Y. Sakamoto, H. Nakashima, T. Mizuochi, K. Kubo, Y. Miyata, H. Nishimoto, S. Hirano, K. Onohara, “Fast optical channel recovery in field demonstration of 100-Gbit/s Ethernet over OTN using real-time DSP, ” Opt. Express 19, 13139–13184 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Mizuochi, T.

E. Yamazaki, S. Yamanaka, Y. Kisaka, T. Nakagawa, K. Murata, E. Yoshida, T. Sakano, M. Tomizawa, Y. Miyamoto, S. Matsuoka, J. Matsui, A. Shibayama, J. Abe, Y. Nakamura, H. Noguchi, K. Fukuchi, H. Onaka, K. Fukumitsu, K. Komaki, O. Takeuchi, Y. Sakamoto, H. Nakashima, T. Mizuochi, K. Kubo, Y. Miyata, H. Nishimoto, S. Hirano, K. Onohara, “Fast optical channel recovery in field demonstration of 100-Gbit/s Ethernet over OTN using real-time DSP, ” Opt. Express 19, 13139–13184 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Murata, K.

E. Yamazaki, S. Yamanaka, Y. Kisaka, T. Nakagawa, K. Murata, E. Yoshida, T. Sakano, M. Tomizawa, Y. Miyamoto, S. Matsuoka, J. Matsui, A. Shibayama, J. Abe, Y. Nakamura, H. Noguchi, K. Fukuchi, H. Onaka, K. Fukumitsu, K. Komaki, O. Takeuchi, Y. Sakamoto, H. Nakashima, T. Mizuochi, K. Kubo, Y. Miyata, H. Nishimoto, S. Hirano, K. Onohara, “Fast optical channel recovery in field demonstration of 100-Gbit/s Ethernet over OTN using real-time DSP, ” Opt. Express 19, 13139–13184 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nakagawa, T.

E. Yamazaki, S. Yamanaka, Y. Kisaka, T. Nakagawa, K. Murata, E. Yoshida, T. Sakano, M. Tomizawa, Y. Miyamoto, S. Matsuoka, J. Matsui, A. Shibayama, J. Abe, Y. Nakamura, H. Noguchi, K. Fukuchi, H. Onaka, K. Fukumitsu, K. Komaki, O. Takeuchi, Y. Sakamoto, H. Nakashima, T. Mizuochi, K. Kubo, Y. Miyata, H. Nishimoto, S. Hirano, K. Onohara, “Fast optical channel recovery in field demonstration of 100-Gbit/s Ethernet over OTN using real-time DSP, ” Opt. Express 19, 13139–13184 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, Y.

E. Yamazaki, S. Yamanaka, Y. Kisaka, T. Nakagawa, K. Murata, E. Yoshida, T. Sakano, M. Tomizawa, Y. Miyamoto, S. Matsuoka, J. Matsui, A. Shibayama, J. Abe, Y. Nakamura, H. Noguchi, K. Fukuchi, H. Onaka, K. Fukumitsu, K. Komaki, O. Takeuchi, Y. Sakamoto, H. Nakashima, T. Mizuochi, K. Kubo, Y. Miyata, H. Nishimoto, S. Hirano, K. Onohara, “Fast optical channel recovery in field demonstration of 100-Gbit/s Ethernet over OTN using real-time DSP, ” Opt. Express 19, 13139–13184 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nakashima, H.

E. Yamazaki, S. Yamanaka, Y. Kisaka, T. Nakagawa, K. Murata, E. Yoshida, T. Sakano, M. Tomizawa, Y. Miyamoto, S. Matsuoka, J. Matsui, A. Shibayama, J. Abe, Y. Nakamura, H. Noguchi, K. Fukuchi, H. Onaka, K. Fukumitsu, K. Komaki, O. Takeuchi, Y. Sakamoto, H. Nakashima, T. Mizuochi, K. Kubo, Y. Miyata, H. Nishimoto, S. Hirano, K. Onohara, “Fast optical channel recovery in field demonstration of 100-Gbit/s Ethernet over OTN using real-time DSP, ” Opt. Express 19, 13139–13184 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nishimoto, H.

E. Yamazaki, S. Yamanaka, Y. Kisaka, T. Nakagawa, K. Murata, E. Yoshida, T. Sakano, M. Tomizawa, Y. Miyamoto, S. Matsuoka, J. Matsui, A. Shibayama, J. Abe, Y. Nakamura, H. Noguchi, K. Fukuchi, H. Onaka, K. Fukumitsu, K. Komaki, O. Takeuchi, Y. Sakamoto, H. Nakashima, T. Mizuochi, K. Kubo, Y. Miyata, H. Nishimoto, S. Hirano, K. Onohara, “Fast optical channel recovery in field demonstration of 100-Gbit/s Ethernet over OTN using real-time DSP, ” Opt. Express 19, 13139–13184 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Noguchi, H.

E. Yamazaki, S. Yamanaka, Y. Kisaka, T. Nakagawa, K. Murata, E. Yoshida, T. Sakano, M. Tomizawa, Y. Miyamoto, S. Matsuoka, J. Matsui, A. Shibayama, J. Abe, Y. Nakamura, H. Noguchi, K. Fukuchi, H. Onaka, K. Fukumitsu, K. Komaki, O. Takeuchi, Y. Sakamoto, H. Nakashima, T. Mizuochi, K. Kubo, Y. Miyata, H. Nishimoto, S. Hirano, K. Onohara, “Fast optical channel recovery in field demonstration of 100-Gbit/s Ethernet over OTN using real-time DSP, ” Opt. Express 19, 13139–13184 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Okoshi, T.

T. Okoshi, K. Kikuchi, Coherent Optical Communication Systems (KTK/Kluwer, 1988), Chap. 6.

Onaka, H.

E. Yamazaki, S. Yamanaka, Y. Kisaka, T. Nakagawa, K. Murata, E. Yoshida, T. Sakano, M. Tomizawa, Y. Miyamoto, S. Matsuoka, J. Matsui, A. Shibayama, J. Abe, Y. Nakamura, H. Noguchi, K. Fukuchi, H. Onaka, K. Fukumitsu, K. Komaki, O. Takeuchi, Y. Sakamoto, H. Nakashima, T. Mizuochi, K. Kubo, Y. Miyata, H. Nishimoto, S. Hirano, K. Onohara, “Fast optical channel recovery in field demonstration of 100-Gbit/s Ethernet over OTN using real-time DSP, ” Opt. Express 19, 13139–13184 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Onohara, K.

E. Yamazaki, S. Yamanaka, Y. Kisaka, T. Nakagawa, K. Murata, E. Yoshida, T. Sakano, M. Tomizawa, Y. Miyamoto, S. Matsuoka, J. Matsui, A. Shibayama, J. Abe, Y. Nakamura, H. Noguchi, K. Fukuchi, H. Onaka, K. Fukumitsu, K. Komaki, O. Takeuchi, Y. Sakamoto, H. Nakashima, T. Mizuochi, K. Kubo, Y. Miyata, H. Nishimoto, S. Hirano, K. Onohara, “Fast optical channel recovery in field demonstration of 100-Gbit/s Ethernet over OTN using real-time DSP, ” Opt. Express 19, 13139–13184 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sakamoto, Y.

E. Yamazaki, S. Yamanaka, Y. Kisaka, T. Nakagawa, K. Murata, E. Yoshida, T. Sakano, M. Tomizawa, Y. Miyamoto, S. Matsuoka, J. Matsui, A. Shibayama, J. Abe, Y. Nakamura, H. Noguchi, K. Fukuchi, H. Onaka, K. Fukumitsu, K. Komaki, O. Takeuchi, Y. Sakamoto, H. Nakashima, T. Mizuochi, K. Kubo, Y. Miyata, H. Nishimoto, S. Hirano, K. Onohara, “Fast optical channel recovery in field demonstration of 100-Gbit/s Ethernet over OTN using real-time DSP, ” Opt. Express 19, 13139–13184 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sakano, T.

E. Yamazaki, S. Yamanaka, Y. Kisaka, T. Nakagawa, K. Murata, E. Yoshida, T. Sakano, M. Tomizawa, Y. Miyamoto, S. Matsuoka, J. Matsui, A. Shibayama, J. Abe, Y. Nakamura, H. Noguchi, K. Fukuchi, H. Onaka, K. Fukumitsu, K. Komaki, O. Takeuchi, Y. Sakamoto, H. Nakashima, T. Mizuochi, K. Kubo, Y. Miyata, H. Nishimoto, S. Hirano, K. Onohara, “Fast optical channel recovery in field demonstration of 100-Gbit/s Ethernet over OTN using real-time DSP, ” Opt. Express 19, 13139–13184 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Shibayama, A.

E. Yamazaki, S. Yamanaka, Y. Kisaka, T. Nakagawa, K. Murata, E. Yoshida, T. Sakano, M. Tomizawa, Y. Miyamoto, S. Matsuoka, J. Matsui, A. Shibayama, J. Abe, Y. Nakamura, H. Noguchi, K. Fukuchi, H. Onaka, K. Fukumitsu, K. Komaki, O. Takeuchi, Y. Sakamoto, H. Nakashima, T. Mizuochi, K. Kubo, Y. Miyata, H. Nishimoto, S. Hirano, K. Onohara, “Fast optical channel recovery in field demonstration of 100-Gbit/s Ethernet over OTN using real-time DSP, ” Opt. Express 19, 13139–13184 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Takeuchi, O.

E. Yamazaki, S. Yamanaka, Y. Kisaka, T. Nakagawa, K. Murata, E. Yoshida, T. Sakano, M. Tomizawa, Y. Miyamoto, S. Matsuoka, J. Matsui, A. Shibayama, J. Abe, Y. Nakamura, H. Noguchi, K. Fukuchi, H. Onaka, K. Fukumitsu, K. Komaki, O. Takeuchi, Y. Sakamoto, H. Nakashima, T. Mizuochi, K. Kubo, Y. Miyata, H. Nishimoto, S. Hirano, K. Onohara, “Fast optical channel recovery in field demonstration of 100-Gbit/s Ethernet over OTN using real-time DSP, ” Opt. Express 19, 13139–13184 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tomizawa, M.

E. Yamazaki, S. Yamanaka, Y. Kisaka, T. Nakagawa, K. Murata, E. Yoshida, T. Sakano, M. Tomizawa, Y. Miyamoto, S. Matsuoka, J. Matsui, A. Shibayama, J. Abe, Y. Nakamura, H. Noguchi, K. Fukuchi, H. Onaka, K. Fukumitsu, K. Komaki, O. Takeuchi, Y. Sakamoto, H. Nakashima, T. Mizuochi, K. Kubo, Y. Miyata, H. Nishimoto, S. Hirano, K. Onohara, “Fast optical channel recovery in field demonstration of 100-Gbit/s Ethernet over OTN using real-time DSP, ” Opt. Express 19, 13139–13184 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yamanaka, S.

E. Yamazaki, S. Yamanaka, Y. Kisaka, T. Nakagawa, K. Murata, E. Yoshida, T. Sakano, M. Tomizawa, Y. Miyamoto, S. Matsuoka, J. Matsui, A. Shibayama, J. Abe, Y. Nakamura, H. Noguchi, K. Fukuchi, H. Onaka, K. Fukumitsu, K. Komaki, O. Takeuchi, Y. Sakamoto, H. Nakashima, T. Mizuochi, K. Kubo, Y. Miyata, H. Nishimoto, S. Hirano, K. Onohara, “Fast optical channel recovery in field demonstration of 100-Gbit/s Ethernet over OTN using real-time DSP, ” Opt. Express 19, 13139–13184 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yamazaki, E.

E. Yamazaki, S. Yamanaka, Y. Kisaka, T. Nakagawa, K. Murata, E. Yoshida, T. Sakano, M. Tomizawa, Y. Miyamoto, S. Matsuoka, J. Matsui, A. Shibayama, J. Abe, Y. Nakamura, H. Noguchi, K. Fukuchi, H. Onaka, K. Fukumitsu, K. Komaki, O. Takeuchi, Y. Sakamoto, H. Nakashima, T. Mizuochi, K. Kubo, Y. Miyata, H. Nishimoto, S. Hirano, K. Onohara, “Fast optical channel recovery in field demonstration of 100-Gbit/s Ethernet over OTN using real-time DSP, ” Opt. Express 19, 13139–13184 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yoshida, E.

E. Yamazaki, S. Yamanaka, Y. Kisaka, T. Nakagawa, K. Murata, E. Yoshida, T. Sakano, M. Tomizawa, Y. Miyamoto, S. Matsuoka, J. Matsui, A. Shibayama, J. Abe, Y. Nakamura, H. Noguchi, K. Fukuchi, H. Onaka, K. Fukumitsu, K. Komaki, O. Takeuchi, Y. Sakamoto, H. Nakashima, T. Mizuochi, K. Kubo, Y. Miyata, H. Nishimoto, S. Hirano, K. Onohara, “Fast optical channel recovery in field demonstration of 100-Gbit/s Ethernet over OTN using real-time DSP, ” Opt. Express 19, 13139–13184 (2011).
[CrossRef]

IEICE Electron. Express

K. Kikuchi, “Digital coherent optical communication systems: Fundamentals and future prospects,” IEICE Electron. Express 8, 1642–1662 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

E. Yamazaki, S. Yamanaka, Y. Kisaka, T. Nakagawa, K. Murata, E. Yoshida, T. Sakano, M. Tomizawa, Y. Miyamoto, S. Matsuoka, J. Matsui, A. Shibayama, J. Abe, Y. Nakamura, H. Noguchi, K. Fukuchi, H. Onaka, K. Fukumitsu, K. Komaki, O. Takeuchi, Y. Sakamoto, H. Nakashima, T. Mizuochi, K. Kubo, Y. Miyata, H. Nishimoto, S. Hirano, K. Onohara, “Fast optical channel recovery in field demonstration of 100-Gbit/s Ethernet over OTN using real-time DSP, ” Opt. Express 19, 13139–13184 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. Kikuchi, “Performance analyses of polarization demultiplexing based on constant-modulus algorithm in digital coherent optical receivers,” Opt. Express 19, 9868–9880 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Kikuchi, “Characterization of semiconductor-laser phase noise and estimation of bit-error rate performance with low-speed offline digital coherent receivers,” Opt. Express 20, 5291–5302 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

P. M. Krummrich, K. Kotten, “Extremly fast (microsecond timescale) polarization changes in high speed long haul WDM transmission systems,” in 2004 OSA Technical Digest of Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2004), FI3.

C. Brosseau, Fundamentals of Polarized Light (John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 1998).

T. Okoshi, K. Kikuchi, Coherent Optical Communication Systems (KTK/Kluwer, 1988), Chap. 6.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Configuration of the DP-IM transmitter. Intensities of two independent laser diodes (LDs) are modulated either by direct modulation or by external modulation with the same clock. The two signals are polarization-multiplexed by a half-wave plate (λ/2) and a polarization beam combiner (PBC).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Relation among normalized Stokes vectors in cases (II)(a), (II)(b), and (III). Normalized Stokes vectors in cases (II)(a) and (II)(b) are pointed to opposite directions, whereas the normalized Stokes vector in the case (III) is orthogonal to these vectors. The vector v(n) denotes the reference Stokes vector discussed in Sec. 4.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Receiver configuration for polarization-division demultiplexing the DP-IM signal. The part surrounded by broken lines represents the Stokes analyzer. Four outputs from photodiodes (PDs) are sent to the DSP circuit.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

DSP circuit for polarization-division demultiplexing the DP-IM signal. The intensity discriminator determines the case (I) shown in Table 1. Cases (II)(a), (II)(b), and (III) in Table 1 are separated through discrimination of the Stokes-vector amplitude along the reference Stokes-vector direction.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Probability-density function of the intensity of the DP-IM signal. The cases (I) and (II) are discriminated by the solid line; on the other hand, the intensity discrimination shown by the broken line cannot be applied to separate (II) and (III).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Probability-density function of u(n), which represents the normalized Stokes-vector amplitude along the reference-vector direction. The three cases (II)(a), (II)(b), and (III) are discriminated by solid lines.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Convergence property of the error magnitude updating the reference Stokes vector. Since the SOP tracking process is stabilized within 1,000-sample periods, bit errors are counted after the convergence of the error magnitude.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

BERs as a function of CNR/pol for the DP-IM signal which is demodulated with our proposed method. The BER curve of the single-polarization signal is also shown for comparison.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

BERs as a function of CNR/pol for the DP-IM signal with and without chromatic dispersion. BERs of the single-polarization signal are also shown for comparison.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Classification of the state of the DP-IM signal based on the total peak intensity.

Equations (24)

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S 0 = I t ,
S 1 = 2 I x S 0 ,
S 2 = 2 I 45 ° S 0 ,
S 3 = 2 I R S 0 .
u ( n ) = [ S ( n ) S 0 ( n ) ] v ( n ) ,
v ( n + 1 ) = v ( n ) + μ [ S ( n ) S 0 ( n ) v ( n ) ] v ( n ) + μ [ S ( n ) S 0 ( n ) v ( n ) ] ,
v ( n + 1 ) = v ( n ) + μ [ S ( n ) S 0 ( n ) v ( n ) ] v ( n ) + μ [ S ( n ) S 0 ( n ) v ( n ) ] ,
E in ( n ) = [ E i n , x ( n ) E i n , y ( n ) ] .
E i n , x ( n ) = s x ( n ) exp [ i ϕ x ( n ) ] + n x ( n ) ,
E i n , y ( n ) = s y ( n ) exp [ i ϕ y ( n ) ] + n y ( n ) .
CNR / pol = 1 2 σ s 2 .
ϕ x ( n + 1 ) = ϕ x ( n ) + Δ ϕ x ( n ) ,
ϕ y ( n + 1 ) = ϕ y ( n ) + Δ ϕ y ( n ) ,
σ p 2 = 2 π δ f T ,
E out ( n ) = J ( n ) E in ( n ) ,
S 0 ( n ) = | E out , x ( n ) | 2 + | E out , y ( n ) | 2 ,
S 1 ( n ) = | E out , x ( n ) | 2 | E out , y ( n ) | 2 ,
S 2 ( n ) = 2 | E out , x ( n ) | | E out , y ( n ) | cos [ δ ( n ) ] ,
S 3 ( n ) = 2 | E out , x ( n ) | | E out , y ( n ) | sin [ δ ( n ) ] ,
J ( n ) = [ exp [ i ϕ r ( n ) 2 ] cos [ θ r ( n ) 2 ] sin [ θ r ( n ) 2 ] sin [ θ r ( n ) 2 ] exp [ i ϕ r ( n ) 2 ] cos [ θ r ( n ) 2 ] ] .
ϕ r ( n + 1 ) = ϕ r ( n ) + Δ ϕ r ( n ) ,
θ r ( n + 1 ) = θ r ( n ) + Δ θ r ( n ) ,
σ 0 2 = A T .
σ f ( N ) 2 = σ 0 2 N = A N T .

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