Abstract

The effect of cavity dispersion on the dynamics of bound soliton states in a fiber laser has been studied both experimentally and numerically. The mode-locking mechanism in a laser was provided by the frequency-shifted feedback to avoid the influence of soliton attraction that could be induced by saturable absorption. It was found that phase-locked bound solitons are stable for dispersion below the “threshold” value of 0.2 ps/nm which depends on the other cavity parameters. For higher dispersion the bound states collapse resulting in the multiple weakly-interacting soliton regime, circulating randomly within the cavity.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. D. Y. Tang, B. Zhao, D. Y. Shen, C. Lu, W. S. Man, H. Y. Tam, “Compound pulse solitons in a fiber ring laser,” Phys. Rev. A 68(1), 013816 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  2. B. Ortaç, A. Hideur, T. Chartier, M. Brunel, P. Grelu, H. Leblond, F. Sanchez, “Generation of bound states of three ultrashort pulses with a passively mode-locked high-power Yb-doped double-clad fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(5), 1274–1276 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  3. D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, B. Zhao, “Multipulse bound solitons with fixed pulse separations formed by direct soliton interaction,” Appl. Phys. B 80(2), 239–242 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  4. L. M. Zhao, D. Y. Tang, T. H. Cheng, H. Y. Tam, C. Lu, “Bound states of dispersion-managed solitons in a fiber laser at near zero dispersion,” Appl. Opt. 46(21), 4768–4773 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. R. Gumenyuk, O. G. Okhotnikov, “Polarization control of bound state of vector soliton,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(5), 055111 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  6. L. Gui, X. Xiao, C. Yang, “Observation of various bound solitons in a carbon-nanotube-based erbium fiber laser,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 30(1), 158–164 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Y. Gong, P. Shum, T. H. Cheng, Q. Wen, D. Tang, “Bound soliton pulses in passively mode-locked fiber laser,” Opt. Commun. 200(1-6), 389–399 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  8. P. Grelu, F. Belhache, F. Gutty, J. M. Soto-Crespo, “Relative phase locking of pulses in a passively mode-locked fiber laser,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20(5), 863–870 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  9. X. Wu, D. Y. Tang, X. N. Luan, Q. Zhang, “Bound states of solitons in a fiber laser mode-locked with carbon nanotubes saturable absorber,” Opt. Commun. 284(14), 3615–3618 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  10. R. Gumenyuk, O. G. Okhotnikov, “Temporal control of vector soliton bunching by slow/fast saturable absorption,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 29(1), 1–7 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  11. R. Gumenyuk, O. G. Okhotnikov, “Impact of gain medium dispersion on stability of soliton bound states in fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(2), 133–135 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  12. R. Gumenyuk, O. G. Okhotnikov, “Multiple solitons grouping in fiber lasers by dispersion management and nonlinearity control,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 30(4), 776–781 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  13. S. U. Alam, A. B. Grudinin, “Tunable picoseconds frequency-shifted feedback fiber laser at 1550 nm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(9), 2012–2014 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. M. Sousa, O. G. Okhotnikov, “Short pulse generation and control in Er-doped frequency-shifted-feedback fibre lasers,” Opt. Commun. 183(1-4), 227–241 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  15. Y. Kodama, S. Wabnitz, “Reduction and suppression of soliton interactions by bandpass filter,” Opt. Lett. 18, 1311–1313 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2013

R. Gumenyuk, O. G. Okhotnikov, “Polarization control of bound state of vector soliton,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(5), 055111 (2013).
[CrossRef]

R. Gumenyuk, O. G. Okhotnikov, “Impact of gain medium dispersion on stability of soliton bound states in fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(2), 133–135 (2013).
[CrossRef]

L. Gui, X. Xiao, C. Yang, “Observation of various bound solitons in a carbon-nanotube-based erbium fiber laser,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 30(1), 158–164 (2013).
[CrossRef]

R. Gumenyuk, O. G. Okhotnikov, “Multiple solitons grouping in fiber lasers by dispersion management and nonlinearity control,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 30(4), 776–781 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012

2011

X. Wu, D. Y. Tang, X. N. Luan, Q. Zhang, “Bound states of solitons in a fiber laser mode-locked with carbon nanotubes saturable absorber,” Opt. Commun. 284(14), 3615–3618 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2007

2005

D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, B. Zhao, “Multipulse bound solitons with fixed pulse separations formed by direct soliton interaction,” Appl. Phys. B 80(2), 239–242 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

S. U. Alam, A. B. Grudinin, “Tunable picoseconds frequency-shifted feedback fiber laser at 1550 nm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(9), 2012–2014 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. Ortaç, A. Hideur, T. Chartier, M. Brunel, P. Grelu, H. Leblond, F. Sanchez, “Generation of bound states of three ultrashort pulses with a passively mode-locked high-power Yb-doped double-clad fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(5), 1274–1276 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

D. Y. Tang, B. Zhao, D. Y. Shen, C. Lu, W. S. Man, H. Y. Tam, “Compound pulse solitons in a fiber ring laser,” Phys. Rev. A 68(1), 013816 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Grelu, F. Belhache, F. Gutty, J. M. Soto-Crespo, “Relative phase locking of pulses in a passively mode-locked fiber laser,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20(5), 863–870 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001

Y. Gong, P. Shum, T. H. Cheng, Q. Wen, D. Tang, “Bound soliton pulses in passively mode-locked fiber laser,” Opt. Commun. 200(1-6), 389–399 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

J. M. Sousa, O. G. Okhotnikov, “Short pulse generation and control in Er-doped frequency-shifted-feedback fibre lasers,” Opt. Commun. 183(1-4), 227–241 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1993

Alam, S. U.

S. U. Alam, A. B. Grudinin, “Tunable picoseconds frequency-shifted feedback fiber laser at 1550 nm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(9), 2012–2014 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Belhache, F.

Brunel, M.

B. Ortaç, A. Hideur, T. Chartier, M. Brunel, P. Grelu, H. Leblond, F. Sanchez, “Generation of bound states of three ultrashort pulses with a passively mode-locked high-power Yb-doped double-clad fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(5), 1274–1276 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chartier, T.

B. Ortaç, A. Hideur, T. Chartier, M. Brunel, P. Grelu, H. Leblond, F. Sanchez, “Generation of bound states of three ultrashort pulses with a passively mode-locked high-power Yb-doped double-clad fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(5), 1274–1276 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, T. H.

L. M. Zhao, D. Y. Tang, T. H. Cheng, H. Y. Tam, C. Lu, “Bound states of dispersion-managed solitons in a fiber laser at near zero dispersion,” Appl. Opt. 46(21), 4768–4773 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Gong, P. Shum, T. H. Cheng, Q. Wen, D. Tang, “Bound soliton pulses in passively mode-locked fiber laser,” Opt. Commun. 200(1-6), 389–399 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gong, Y.

Y. Gong, P. Shum, T. H. Cheng, Q. Wen, D. Tang, “Bound soliton pulses in passively mode-locked fiber laser,” Opt. Commun. 200(1-6), 389–399 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Grelu, P.

B. Ortaç, A. Hideur, T. Chartier, M. Brunel, P. Grelu, H. Leblond, F. Sanchez, “Generation of bound states of three ultrashort pulses with a passively mode-locked high-power Yb-doped double-clad fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(5), 1274–1276 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. Grelu, F. Belhache, F. Gutty, J. M. Soto-Crespo, “Relative phase locking of pulses in a passively mode-locked fiber laser,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20(5), 863–870 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Grudinin, A. B.

S. U. Alam, A. B. Grudinin, “Tunable picoseconds frequency-shifted feedback fiber laser at 1550 nm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(9), 2012–2014 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gui, L.

Gumenyuk, R.

R. Gumenyuk, O. G. Okhotnikov, “Multiple solitons grouping in fiber lasers by dispersion management and nonlinearity control,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 30(4), 776–781 (2013).
[CrossRef]

R. Gumenyuk, O. G. Okhotnikov, “Impact of gain medium dispersion on stability of soliton bound states in fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(2), 133–135 (2013).
[CrossRef]

R. Gumenyuk, O. G. Okhotnikov, “Polarization control of bound state of vector soliton,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(5), 055111 (2013).
[CrossRef]

R. Gumenyuk, O. G. Okhotnikov, “Temporal control of vector soliton bunching by slow/fast saturable absorption,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 29(1), 1–7 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Gutty, F.

Hideur, A.

B. Ortaç, A. Hideur, T. Chartier, M. Brunel, P. Grelu, H. Leblond, F. Sanchez, “Generation of bound states of three ultrashort pulses with a passively mode-locked high-power Yb-doped double-clad fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(5), 1274–1276 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kodama, Y.

Leblond, H.

B. Ortaç, A. Hideur, T. Chartier, M. Brunel, P. Grelu, H. Leblond, F. Sanchez, “Generation of bound states of three ultrashort pulses with a passively mode-locked high-power Yb-doped double-clad fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(5), 1274–1276 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lu, C.

L. M. Zhao, D. Y. Tang, T. H. Cheng, H. Y. Tam, C. Lu, “Bound states of dispersion-managed solitons in a fiber laser at near zero dispersion,” Appl. Opt. 46(21), 4768–4773 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Y. Tang, B. Zhao, D. Y. Shen, C. Lu, W. S. Man, H. Y. Tam, “Compound pulse solitons in a fiber ring laser,” Phys. Rev. A 68(1), 013816 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Luan, X. N.

X. Wu, D. Y. Tang, X. N. Luan, Q. Zhang, “Bound states of solitons in a fiber laser mode-locked with carbon nanotubes saturable absorber,” Opt. Commun. 284(14), 3615–3618 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Man, W. S.

D. Y. Tang, B. Zhao, D. Y. Shen, C. Lu, W. S. Man, H. Y. Tam, “Compound pulse solitons in a fiber ring laser,” Phys. Rev. A 68(1), 013816 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Okhotnikov, O. G.

R. Gumenyuk, O. G. Okhotnikov, “Multiple solitons grouping in fiber lasers by dispersion management and nonlinearity control,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 30(4), 776–781 (2013).
[CrossRef]

R. Gumenyuk, O. G. Okhotnikov, “Impact of gain medium dispersion on stability of soliton bound states in fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(2), 133–135 (2013).
[CrossRef]

R. Gumenyuk, O. G. Okhotnikov, “Polarization control of bound state of vector soliton,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(5), 055111 (2013).
[CrossRef]

R. Gumenyuk, O. G. Okhotnikov, “Temporal control of vector soliton bunching by slow/fast saturable absorption,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 29(1), 1–7 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Sousa, O. G. Okhotnikov, “Short pulse generation and control in Er-doped frequency-shifted-feedback fibre lasers,” Opt. Commun. 183(1-4), 227–241 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ortaç, B.

B. Ortaç, A. Hideur, T. Chartier, M. Brunel, P. Grelu, H. Leblond, F. Sanchez, “Generation of bound states of three ultrashort pulses with a passively mode-locked high-power Yb-doped double-clad fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(5), 1274–1276 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sanchez, F.

B. Ortaç, A. Hideur, T. Chartier, M. Brunel, P. Grelu, H. Leblond, F. Sanchez, “Generation of bound states of three ultrashort pulses with a passively mode-locked high-power Yb-doped double-clad fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(5), 1274–1276 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shen, D. Y.

D. Y. Tang, B. Zhao, D. Y. Shen, C. Lu, W. S. Man, H. Y. Tam, “Compound pulse solitons in a fiber ring laser,” Phys. Rev. A 68(1), 013816 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shum, P.

Y. Gong, P. Shum, T. H. Cheng, Q. Wen, D. Tang, “Bound soliton pulses in passively mode-locked fiber laser,” Opt. Commun. 200(1-6), 389–399 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Soto-Crespo, J. M.

Sousa, J. M.

J. M. Sousa, O. G. Okhotnikov, “Short pulse generation and control in Er-doped frequency-shifted-feedback fibre lasers,” Opt. Commun. 183(1-4), 227–241 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tam, H. Y.

L. M. Zhao, D. Y. Tang, T. H. Cheng, H. Y. Tam, C. Lu, “Bound states of dispersion-managed solitons in a fiber laser at near zero dispersion,” Appl. Opt. 46(21), 4768–4773 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Y. Tang, B. Zhao, D. Y. Shen, C. Lu, W. S. Man, H. Y. Tam, “Compound pulse solitons in a fiber ring laser,” Phys. Rev. A 68(1), 013816 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tang, D.

Y. Gong, P. Shum, T. H. Cheng, Q. Wen, D. Tang, “Bound soliton pulses in passively mode-locked fiber laser,” Opt. Commun. 200(1-6), 389–399 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tang, D. Y.

X. Wu, D. Y. Tang, X. N. Luan, Q. Zhang, “Bound states of solitons in a fiber laser mode-locked with carbon nanotubes saturable absorber,” Opt. Commun. 284(14), 3615–3618 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. M. Zhao, D. Y. Tang, T. H. Cheng, H. Y. Tam, C. Lu, “Bound states of dispersion-managed solitons in a fiber laser at near zero dispersion,” Appl. Opt. 46(21), 4768–4773 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, B. Zhao, “Multipulse bound solitons with fixed pulse separations formed by direct soliton interaction,” Appl. Phys. B 80(2), 239–242 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Y. Tang, B. Zhao, D. Y. Shen, C. Lu, W. S. Man, H. Y. Tam, “Compound pulse solitons in a fiber ring laser,” Phys. Rev. A 68(1), 013816 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wabnitz, S.

Wen, Q.

Y. Gong, P. Shum, T. H. Cheng, Q. Wen, D. Tang, “Bound soliton pulses in passively mode-locked fiber laser,” Opt. Commun. 200(1-6), 389–399 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wu, X.

X. Wu, D. Y. Tang, X. N. Luan, Q. Zhang, “Bound states of solitons in a fiber laser mode-locked with carbon nanotubes saturable absorber,” Opt. Commun. 284(14), 3615–3618 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Xiao, X.

Yang, C.

Zhang, Q.

X. Wu, D. Y. Tang, X. N. Luan, Q. Zhang, “Bound states of solitons in a fiber laser mode-locked with carbon nanotubes saturable absorber,” Opt. Commun. 284(14), 3615–3618 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, B.

D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, B. Zhao, “Multipulse bound solitons with fixed pulse separations formed by direct soliton interaction,” Appl. Phys. B 80(2), 239–242 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Y. Tang, B. Zhao, D. Y. Shen, C. Lu, W. S. Man, H. Y. Tam, “Compound pulse solitons in a fiber ring laser,” Phys. Rev. A 68(1), 013816 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, L. M.

L. M. Zhao, D. Y. Tang, T. H. Cheng, H. Y. Tam, C. Lu, “Bound states of dispersion-managed solitons in a fiber laser at near zero dispersion,” Appl. Opt. 46(21), 4768–4773 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, B. Zhao, “Multipulse bound solitons with fixed pulse separations formed by direct soliton interaction,” Appl. Phys. B 80(2), 239–242 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. B

D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, B. Zhao, “Multipulse bound solitons with fixed pulse separations formed by direct soliton interaction,” Appl. Phys. B 80(2), 239–242 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

R. Gumenyuk, O. G. Okhotnikov, “Impact of gain medium dispersion on stability of soliton bound states in fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(2), 133–135 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. U. Alam, A. B. Grudinin, “Tunable picoseconds frequency-shifted feedback fiber laser at 1550 nm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(9), 2012–2014 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. Ortaç, A. Hideur, T. Chartier, M. Brunel, P. Grelu, H. Leblond, F. Sanchez, “Generation of bound states of three ultrashort pulses with a passively mode-locked high-power Yb-doped double-clad fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(5), 1274–1276 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Laser Phys. Lett.

R. Gumenyuk, O. G. Okhotnikov, “Polarization control of bound state of vector soliton,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(5), 055111 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

Y. Gong, P. Shum, T. H. Cheng, Q. Wen, D. Tang, “Bound soliton pulses in passively mode-locked fiber laser,” Opt. Commun. 200(1-6), 389–399 (2001).
[CrossRef]

X. Wu, D. Y. Tang, X. N. Luan, Q. Zhang, “Bound states of solitons in a fiber laser mode-locked with carbon nanotubes saturable absorber,” Opt. Commun. 284(14), 3615–3618 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Sousa, O. G. Okhotnikov, “Short pulse generation and control in Er-doped frequency-shifted-feedback fibre lasers,” Opt. Commun. 183(1-4), 227–241 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. A

D. Y. Tang, B. Zhao, D. Y. Shen, C. Lu, W. S. Man, H. Y. Tam, “Compound pulse solitons in a fiber ring laser,” Phys. Rev. A 68(1), 013816 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Yb-doped fiber laser setup.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Laser output characteristics depending on the net cavity dispersion. a – autocorrelations, b – optical spectra, c – oscilloscope pictures of the pulse train.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Two-soliton bound state formation in the cavity with dispersion β = −0.08 ps2 or DΣ = 0.15 ps/nm. (a) Pulse evolution on the phase plane. (b) The frequency of the first (red) and second (blue) solitons when the bound state development. (c) Formation of a bound state, n - number of passes through the cavity.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Unstable state dynamics in a cavity with dispersion β = −0.105 ps2 or DΣ = 0.2 ps/nm. (a) Evolution on the phase plane. (b) The frequency disparity of the first (red) and the second weak (blue) pulses. (c) Unstable two-pulse state, n - number of passages through the laser cavity.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Single soliton pulse with cavity dispersion β = −0.2 ps2 or DΣ = 0.39 ps/nm . (a) The evolution of single soliton frequency (red) in comparison with frequency of soliton in bound state shown in Fig. 3(b) (blue). (b) Transients in the generation of the individual soliton, n – the number of passes through the laser cavity.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

The autocorrelation traces of the bound states obtained from experiments (a) and numerical simulation (b) for dispersion values DΣ = 0.11, 0.15, 0.19 ps/nm.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

The phase and instantaneous frequency distribution of soliton bound states within laser cavity with dispersion of (a) β = −0.102 ps2 or DΣ = 0.19 ps/nm and (b) β = −0.08 ps2 or DΣ = 0.15 ps/nm. (c) Intensity shapes of the bound state for β = −0.102 ps2 or DΣ = 0.19 ps/nm (red) and β = −0.08 ps2 or DΣ = 0.15 ps/nm (blue).

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Laser parameters are used in simulations

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

A z +i β 2 2 2 A t 2 iγ | A | 2 A=( gl )A β 2f 2 2 A t 2 ,
g(z,t)=g(z)= g 0 1+ 0 T R | A(z,t) | 2 dt / E sat
A out =J× A in

Metrics