Abstract

Silica aerogels are materials well suited for high power nonlinear optical applications. In such regime, the non-trivial thermal properties may give rise to the generation of optical shock waves, which are also affected by the structural disorder due to the porous solid-state gel. Here we report on an experimental investigation in terms of beam waist and input power, and identify various regimes of the generation of wave-breaking phenomena in silica aerogels.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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2013 (1)

S. Gentilini, N. Gofraniha, E. DelRe, C. Conti, “Shock waves in thermal lensing,” Phys. Rev. A 87,053811 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (4)

N. Ghofraniha, L. Amato Santamaria, V. Folli, S. Trillo, E. DelRe, C. Conti, “Measurement of scaling laws for shock waves in thermal nonlocal media,” Opt. Lett. 37, 2325–2327 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Ghofraniha, S. Gentilini, V. Folli, E. DelRe, C. Conti, “Measurement of scaling laws for shock waves in thermal nonlocal media,” Phys.Rev.Lett. 109,243902 (2012).

S. Gentilini, N. Ghofraniha, E. DelRe, C. Conti, “Shock wave far-field in ordered and disordered nonlocal media,” Opt.Expr. 20, 27369–27375 (2012).

M. Anyfantakis, A. Koniger, S. Pispas, W. Kohler, H. Buth, B. Loppinet, G. Fytas, “Versatile light actuated matter manipulation in transparent non-dilute polymer solutions,” Soft Matter 8, 2382–2384 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (1)

E. DelRe, E. Spinozzi, R. Agranat, C. Conti, “Scale free optics and diffractionless waves in nano-disordered ferroelectrics,” Nature Photonics 5, 39–42 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

2009 (4)

C. Conti, A. Fratalocchi, M. Peccianti, G. Ruocco, “Observation of a gradient catastrophe generating solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102,083902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Armaroli, S. Trillo, A. Fratalocchi, “Suppression of transverse instabilities of dark solitons and their dispersive shock waves,” Phys. Rev. A 80,053803 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Ghofraniha, C. Conti, G. Ruocco, F. Zamponi, “Time-dependent nonlinear optical susceptibility of an out-of-equilibrium soft material,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102,038303 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W.M. Lee, R. El-Ganainy, D.N. Christodoulides, K. Dholakia, E.M. Wright, “Nonlinear optical response of colloidal suspensions,” Opt. Exp. 17, 10277–10289 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007 (4)

N. Ghofraniha, C. Conti, G. Ruocco, “Aging of the nonlinear optical susceptibility in doped colloidal suspensions,” Phys. Rev. B 75,038303 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. Wan, S. Jia, J.W. Fleischer, “Dispersive superfluid-like shock waves in nonlinear optics,” Nature Physics 3, 46–51 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Barsi, W. Wan, C. Sun, J.W. Fleischer, “Dispersive shock waves with nonlocal nonlinearity,” Opt. Lett. 32, 2930–2932 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Ghofraniha, C. Conti, R. Ruocco, S. Trillo, “Shocks in nonlocal media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99,043903 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (3)

M.A. Hoefer, M.J. Ablowitz, I. Coddington, E.A. Cornell, P. Engels, V. Schweikhard, “Dispersive and classical shock waves in Bose-Einstein condensates and gas dynamics,” Phys. Rev. A 74,023623 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Conti, N. Ghofraniha, G. Ruocco, S. Trillo, “Laser beam filamentation in fractal aggregates,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97,123903 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. T. Seo, S. M. Mao, Q. Yang, L. Creekmore, H. Brown, R. Battle, K. Lee, A. Jackson, T. Skyles, B. Tabibi, K. P. Yoo, S. Y. Kim, S. S. Jung, M. Namkung, “Large optical nonlinearity of highly porous silica nanoaerogels in the nanosecond time domain,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 48, 1395–1399 (2006).

2003 (1)

J.T. Seo, Q. Yang, S. Creekmore, B. Tabibi, D. Temple, S.Y. Kim, K. Yoo, A. Mott, M. Namkung, S.S. Yung, “Large pure refractive nonlinearity of nanostructure silica aerogel,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4444–4446 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

C. N. Likos, “Effective interactions in soft condensed matter physics,” Phys. Rep. 348, 267–439 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

A. Venkateswara Rao, P.B. Wagh, “Preparation and characterization of hydrophobic silica aerogels,” Mat. Chem. and Phys. 53, 13–18 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

Ablowitz, M.J.

M.A. Hoefer, M.J. Ablowitz, I. Coddington, E.A. Cornell, P. Engels, V. Schweikhard, “Dispersive and classical shock waves in Bose-Einstein condensates and gas dynamics,” Phys. Rev. A 74,023623 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Aegerter, M.A.

M.A. Aegerter, N. Leventis, M.M. Koebel, Advances in Sol-gel Derived Materials and Technologies (Springer, 2011).

Agranat, R.

E. DelRe, E. Spinozzi, R. Agranat, C. Conti, “Scale free optics and diffractionless waves in nano-disordered ferroelectrics,” Nature Photonics 5, 39–42 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Amato Santamaria, L.

Anyfantakis, M.

M. Anyfantakis, A. Koniger, S. Pispas, W. Kohler, H. Buth, B. Loppinet, G. Fytas, “Versatile light actuated matter manipulation in transparent non-dilute polymer solutions,” Soft Matter 8, 2382–2384 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Armaroli, A.

A. Armaroli, S. Trillo, A. Fratalocchi, “Suppression of transverse instabilities of dark solitons and their dispersive shock waves,” Phys. Rev. A 80,053803 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ashkin, A.

Barsi, C.

Battle, R.

J. T. Seo, S. M. Mao, Q. Yang, L. Creekmore, H. Brown, R. Battle, K. Lee, A. Jackson, T. Skyles, B. Tabibi, K. P. Yoo, S. Y. Kim, S. S. Jung, M. Namkung, “Large optical nonlinearity of highly porous silica nanoaerogels in the nanosecond time domain,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 48, 1395–1399 (2006).

Boyd, R.W.

R.W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics (Academic Press, 2002).

Bronsky, J.C.

J.C. Bronsky, D. McLaughlin, Singular Limits of Dispersive Waves (Plenum, 1994).

Brown, H.

J. T. Seo, S. M. Mao, Q. Yang, L. Creekmore, H. Brown, R. Battle, K. Lee, A. Jackson, T. Skyles, B. Tabibi, K. P. Yoo, S. Y. Kim, S. S. Jung, M. Namkung, “Large optical nonlinearity of highly porous silica nanoaerogels in the nanosecond time domain,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 48, 1395–1399 (2006).

Buth, H.

M. Anyfantakis, A. Koniger, S. Pispas, W. Kohler, H. Buth, B. Loppinet, G. Fytas, “Versatile light actuated matter manipulation in transparent non-dilute polymer solutions,” Soft Matter 8, 2382–2384 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Christodoulides, D.N.

W.M. Lee, R. El-Ganainy, D.N. Christodoulides, K. Dholakia, E.M. Wright, “Nonlinear optical response of colloidal suspensions,” Opt. Exp. 17, 10277–10289 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Coddington, I.

M.A. Hoefer, M.J. Ablowitz, I. Coddington, E.A. Cornell, P. Engels, V. Schweikhard, “Dispersive and classical shock waves in Bose-Einstein condensates and gas dynamics,” Phys. Rev. A 74,023623 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Conti, C.

S. Gentilini, N. Gofraniha, E. DelRe, C. Conti, “Shock waves in thermal lensing,” Phys. Rev. A 87,053811 (2013).
[CrossRef]

N. Ghofraniha, L. Amato Santamaria, V. Folli, S. Trillo, E. DelRe, C. Conti, “Measurement of scaling laws for shock waves in thermal nonlocal media,” Opt. Lett. 37, 2325–2327 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Gentilini, N. Ghofraniha, E. DelRe, C. Conti, “Shock wave far-field in ordered and disordered nonlocal media,” Opt.Expr. 20, 27369–27375 (2012).

N. Ghofraniha, S. Gentilini, V. Folli, E. DelRe, C. Conti, “Measurement of scaling laws for shock waves in thermal nonlocal media,” Phys.Rev.Lett. 109,243902 (2012).

E. DelRe, E. Spinozzi, R. Agranat, C. Conti, “Scale free optics and diffractionless waves in nano-disordered ferroelectrics,” Nature Photonics 5, 39–42 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Conti, E. DelRe, “Optical supercavitation in soft matter,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105,118301 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Ghofraniha, C. Conti, G. Ruocco, F. Zamponi, “Time-dependent nonlinear optical susceptibility of an out-of-equilibrium soft material,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102,038303 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Conti, A. Fratalocchi, M. Peccianti, G. Ruocco, “Observation of a gradient catastrophe generating solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102,083902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Ghofraniha, C. Conti, R. Ruocco, S. Trillo, “Shocks in nonlocal media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99,043903 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Ghofraniha, C. Conti, G. Ruocco, “Aging of the nonlinear optical susceptibility in doped colloidal suspensions,” Phys. Rev. B 75,038303 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Conti, N. Ghofraniha, G. Ruocco, S. Trillo, “Laser beam filamentation in fractal aggregates,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97,123903 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cornell, E.A.

M.A. Hoefer, M.J. Ablowitz, I. Coddington, E.A. Cornell, P. Engels, V. Schweikhard, “Dispersive and classical shock waves in Bose-Einstein condensates and gas dynamics,” Phys. Rev. A 74,023623 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Creekmore, L.

J. T. Seo, S. M. Mao, Q. Yang, L. Creekmore, H. Brown, R. Battle, K. Lee, A. Jackson, T. Skyles, B. Tabibi, K. P. Yoo, S. Y. Kim, S. S. Jung, M. Namkung, “Large optical nonlinearity of highly porous silica nanoaerogels in the nanosecond time domain,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 48, 1395–1399 (2006).

Creekmore, S.

J.T. Seo, Q. Yang, S. Creekmore, B. Tabibi, D. Temple, S.Y. Kim, K. Yoo, A. Mott, M. Namkung, S.S. Yung, “Large pure refractive nonlinearity of nanostructure silica aerogel,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4444–4446 (2003).
[CrossRef]

DelRe, E.

S. Gentilini, N. Gofraniha, E. DelRe, C. Conti, “Shock waves in thermal lensing,” Phys. Rev. A 87,053811 (2013).
[CrossRef]

N. Ghofraniha, L. Amato Santamaria, V. Folli, S. Trillo, E. DelRe, C. Conti, “Measurement of scaling laws for shock waves in thermal nonlocal media,” Opt. Lett. 37, 2325–2327 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Ghofraniha, S. Gentilini, V. Folli, E. DelRe, C. Conti, “Measurement of scaling laws for shock waves in thermal nonlocal media,” Phys.Rev.Lett. 109,243902 (2012).

S. Gentilini, N. Ghofraniha, E. DelRe, C. Conti, “Shock wave far-field in ordered and disordered nonlocal media,” Opt.Expr. 20, 27369–27375 (2012).

E. DelRe, E. Spinozzi, R. Agranat, C. Conti, “Scale free optics and diffractionless waves in nano-disordered ferroelectrics,” Nature Photonics 5, 39–42 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Conti, E. DelRe, “Optical supercavitation in soft matter,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105,118301 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dholakia, K.

W.M. Lee, R. El-Ganainy, D.N. Christodoulides, K. Dholakia, E.M. Wright, “Nonlinear optical response of colloidal suspensions,” Opt. Exp. 17, 10277–10289 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dylov, V.

Dziedzic, J.M.

El-Ganainy, R.

W.M. Lee, R. El-Ganainy, D.N. Christodoulides, K. Dholakia, E.M. Wright, “Nonlinear optical response of colloidal suspensions,” Opt. Exp. 17, 10277–10289 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Engels, P.

M.A. Hoefer, M.J. Ablowitz, I. Coddington, E.A. Cornell, P. Engels, V. Schweikhard, “Dispersive and classical shock waves in Bose-Einstein condensates and gas dynamics,” Phys. Rev. A 74,023623 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fleischer, J.W.

Folli, V.

N. Ghofraniha, L. Amato Santamaria, V. Folli, S. Trillo, E. DelRe, C. Conti, “Measurement of scaling laws for shock waves in thermal nonlocal media,” Opt. Lett. 37, 2325–2327 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Ghofraniha, S. Gentilini, V. Folli, E. DelRe, C. Conti, “Measurement of scaling laws for shock waves in thermal nonlocal media,” Phys.Rev.Lett. 109,243902 (2012).

Fratalocchi, A.

C. Conti, A. Fratalocchi, M. Peccianti, G. Ruocco, “Observation of a gradient catastrophe generating solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102,083902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Armaroli, S. Trillo, A. Fratalocchi, “Suppression of transverse instabilities of dark solitons and their dispersive shock waves,” Phys. Rev. A 80,053803 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fytas, G.

M. Anyfantakis, A. Koniger, S. Pispas, W. Kohler, H. Buth, B. Loppinet, G. Fytas, “Versatile light actuated matter manipulation in transparent non-dilute polymer solutions,” Soft Matter 8, 2382–2384 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Gentilini, S.

S. Gentilini, N. Gofraniha, E. DelRe, C. Conti, “Shock waves in thermal lensing,” Phys. Rev. A 87,053811 (2013).
[CrossRef]

N. Ghofraniha, S. Gentilini, V. Folli, E. DelRe, C. Conti, “Measurement of scaling laws for shock waves in thermal nonlocal media,” Phys.Rev.Lett. 109,243902 (2012).

S. Gentilini, N. Ghofraniha, E. DelRe, C. Conti, “Shock wave far-field in ordered and disordered nonlocal media,” Opt.Expr. 20, 27369–27375 (2012).

Ghofraniha, N.

S. Gentilini, N. Ghofraniha, E. DelRe, C. Conti, “Shock wave far-field in ordered and disordered nonlocal media,” Opt.Expr. 20, 27369–27375 (2012).

N. Ghofraniha, S. Gentilini, V. Folli, E. DelRe, C. Conti, “Measurement of scaling laws for shock waves in thermal nonlocal media,” Phys.Rev.Lett. 109,243902 (2012).

N. Ghofraniha, L. Amato Santamaria, V. Folli, S. Trillo, E. DelRe, C. Conti, “Measurement of scaling laws for shock waves in thermal nonlocal media,” Opt. Lett. 37, 2325–2327 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Ghofraniha, C. Conti, G. Ruocco, F. Zamponi, “Time-dependent nonlinear optical susceptibility of an out-of-equilibrium soft material,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102,038303 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Ghofraniha, C. Conti, G. Ruocco, “Aging of the nonlinear optical susceptibility in doped colloidal suspensions,” Phys. Rev. B 75,038303 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. Ghofraniha, C. Conti, R. Ruocco, S. Trillo, “Shocks in nonlocal media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99,043903 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Conti, N. Ghofraniha, G. Ruocco, S. Trillo, “Laser beam filamentation in fractal aggregates,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97,123903 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gofraniha, N.

S. Gentilini, N. Gofraniha, E. DelRe, C. Conti, “Shock waves in thermal lensing,” Phys. Rev. A 87,053811 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Hoefer, M.A.

M.A. Hoefer, M.J. Ablowitz, I. Coddington, E.A. Cornell, P. Engels, V. Schweikhard, “Dispersive and classical shock waves in Bose-Einstein condensates and gas dynamics,” Phys. Rev. A 74,023623 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jackson, A.

J. T. Seo, S. M. Mao, Q. Yang, L. Creekmore, H. Brown, R. Battle, K. Lee, A. Jackson, T. Skyles, B. Tabibi, K. P. Yoo, S. Y. Kim, S. S. Jung, M. Namkung, “Large optical nonlinearity of highly porous silica nanoaerogels in the nanosecond time domain,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 48, 1395–1399 (2006).

Jia, S.

W. Wan, S. Jia, J.W. Fleischer, “Dispersive superfluid-like shock waves in nonlinear optics,” Nature Physics 3, 46–51 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jung, S. S.

J. T. Seo, S. M. Mao, Q. Yang, L. Creekmore, H. Brown, R. Battle, K. Lee, A. Jackson, T. Skyles, B. Tabibi, K. P. Yoo, S. Y. Kim, S. S. Jung, M. Namkung, “Large optical nonlinearity of highly porous silica nanoaerogels in the nanosecond time domain,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 48, 1395–1399 (2006).

Khoo, I.C.

I.C. Khoo, Liquid Crystals: Physical Properties and Nonlinear Optical Phenomena (Wiley, 1995).

Kim, S. Y.

J. T. Seo, S. M. Mao, Q. Yang, L. Creekmore, H. Brown, R. Battle, K. Lee, A. Jackson, T. Skyles, B. Tabibi, K. P. Yoo, S. Y. Kim, S. S. Jung, M. Namkung, “Large optical nonlinearity of highly porous silica nanoaerogels in the nanosecond time domain,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 48, 1395–1399 (2006).

Kim, S.Y.

J.T. Seo, Q. Yang, S. Creekmore, B. Tabibi, D. Temple, S.Y. Kim, K. Yoo, A. Mott, M. Namkung, S.S. Yung, “Large pure refractive nonlinearity of nanostructure silica aerogel,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4444–4446 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Koebel, M.M.

M.A. Aegerter, N. Leventis, M.M. Koebel, Advances in Sol-gel Derived Materials and Technologies (Springer, 2011).

Kohler, W.

M. Anyfantakis, A. Koniger, S. Pispas, W. Kohler, H. Buth, B. Loppinet, G. Fytas, “Versatile light actuated matter manipulation in transparent non-dilute polymer solutions,” Soft Matter 8, 2382–2384 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Koniger, A.

M. Anyfantakis, A. Koniger, S. Pispas, W. Kohler, H. Buth, B. Loppinet, G. Fytas, “Versatile light actuated matter manipulation in transparent non-dilute polymer solutions,” Soft Matter 8, 2382–2384 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K.

J. T. Seo, S. M. Mao, Q. Yang, L. Creekmore, H. Brown, R. Battle, K. Lee, A. Jackson, T. Skyles, B. Tabibi, K. P. Yoo, S. Y. Kim, S. S. Jung, M. Namkung, “Large optical nonlinearity of highly porous silica nanoaerogels in the nanosecond time domain,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 48, 1395–1399 (2006).

Lee, W.M.

W.M. Lee, R. El-Ganainy, D.N. Christodoulides, K. Dholakia, E.M. Wright, “Nonlinear optical response of colloidal suspensions,” Opt. Exp. 17, 10277–10289 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Leventis, N.

M.A. Aegerter, N. Leventis, M.M. Koebel, Advances in Sol-gel Derived Materials and Technologies (Springer, 2011).

Likos, C. N.

C. N. Likos, “Effective interactions in soft condensed matter physics,” Phys. Rep. 348, 267–439 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Loppinet, B.

M. Anyfantakis, A. Koniger, S. Pispas, W. Kohler, H. Buth, B. Loppinet, G. Fytas, “Versatile light actuated matter manipulation in transparent non-dilute polymer solutions,” Soft Matter 8, 2382–2384 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Mao, S. M.

J. T. Seo, S. M. Mao, Q. Yang, L. Creekmore, H. Brown, R. Battle, K. Lee, A. Jackson, T. Skyles, B. Tabibi, K. P. Yoo, S. Y. Kim, S. S. Jung, M. Namkung, “Large optical nonlinearity of highly porous silica nanoaerogels in the nanosecond time domain,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 48, 1395–1399 (2006).

McLaughlin, D.

J.C. Bronsky, D. McLaughlin, Singular Limits of Dispersive Waves (Plenum, 1994).

Mott, A.

J.T. Seo, Q. Yang, S. Creekmore, B. Tabibi, D. Temple, S.Y. Kim, K. Yoo, A. Mott, M. Namkung, S.S. Yung, “Large pure refractive nonlinearity of nanostructure silica aerogel,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4444–4446 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Namkung, M.

J. T. Seo, S. M. Mao, Q. Yang, L. Creekmore, H. Brown, R. Battle, K. Lee, A. Jackson, T. Skyles, B. Tabibi, K. P. Yoo, S. Y. Kim, S. S. Jung, M. Namkung, “Large optical nonlinearity of highly porous silica nanoaerogels in the nanosecond time domain,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 48, 1395–1399 (2006).

J.T. Seo, Q. Yang, S. Creekmore, B. Tabibi, D. Temple, S.Y. Kim, K. Yoo, A. Mott, M. Namkung, S.S. Yung, “Large pure refractive nonlinearity of nanostructure silica aerogel,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4444–4446 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Peccianti, M.

C. Conti, A. Fratalocchi, M. Peccianti, G. Ruocco, “Observation of a gradient catastrophe generating solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102,083902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pispas, S.

M. Anyfantakis, A. Koniger, S. Pispas, W. Kohler, H. Buth, B. Loppinet, G. Fytas, “Versatile light actuated matter manipulation in transparent non-dilute polymer solutions,” Soft Matter 8, 2382–2384 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ruocco, G.

N. Ghofraniha, C. Conti, G. Ruocco, F. Zamponi, “Time-dependent nonlinear optical susceptibility of an out-of-equilibrium soft material,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102,038303 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Conti, A. Fratalocchi, M. Peccianti, G. Ruocco, “Observation of a gradient catastrophe generating solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102,083902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Ghofraniha, C. Conti, G. Ruocco, “Aging of the nonlinear optical susceptibility in doped colloidal suspensions,” Phys. Rev. B 75,038303 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Conti, N. Ghofraniha, G. Ruocco, S. Trillo, “Laser beam filamentation in fractal aggregates,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97,123903 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ruocco, R.

N. Ghofraniha, C. Conti, R. Ruocco, S. Trillo, “Shocks in nonlocal media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99,043903 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schweikhard, V.

M.A. Hoefer, M.J. Ablowitz, I. Coddington, E.A. Cornell, P. Engels, V. Schweikhard, “Dispersive and classical shock waves in Bose-Einstein condensates and gas dynamics,” Phys. Rev. A 74,023623 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Seo, J. T.

J. T. Seo, S. M. Mao, Q. Yang, L. Creekmore, H. Brown, R. Battle, K. Lee, A. Jackson, T. Skyles, B. Tabibi, K. P. Yoo, S. Y. Kim, S. S. Jung, M. Namkung, “Large optical nonlinearity of highly porous silica nanoaerogels in the nanosecond time domain,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 48, 1395–1399 (2006).

Seo, J.T.

J.T. Seo, Q. Yang, S. Creekmore, B. Tabibi, D. Temple, S.Y. Kim, K. Yoo, A. Mott, M. Namkung, S.S. Yung, “Large pure refractive nonlinearity of nanostructure silica aerogel,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4444–4446 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Skyles, T.

J. T. Seo, S. M. Mao, Q. Yang, L. Creekmore, H. Brown, R. Battle, K. Lee, A. Jackson, T. Skyles, B. Tabibi, K. P. Yoo, S. Y. Kim, S. S. Jung, M. Namkung, “Large optical nonlinearity of highly porous silica nanoaerogels in the nanosecond time domain,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 48, 1395–1399 (2006).

Smith, P.W.

Spinozzi, E.

E. DelRe, E. Spinozzi, R. Agranat, C. Conti, “Scale free optics and diffractionless waves in nano-disordered ferroelectrics,” Nature Photonics 5, 39–42 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sun, C.

Tabibi, B.

J. T. Seo, S. M. Mao, Q. Yang, L. Creekmore, H. Brown, R. Battle, K. Lee, A. Jackson, T. Skyles, B. Tabibi, K. P. Yoo, S. Y. Kim, S. S. Jung, M. Namkung, “Large optical nonlinearity of highly porous silica nanoaerogels in the nanosecond time domain,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 48, 1395–1399 (2006).

J.T. Seo, Q. Yang, S. Creekmore, B. Tabibi, D. Temple, S.Y. Kim, K. Yoo, A. Mott, M. Namkung, S.S. Yung, “Large pure refractive nonlinearity of nanostructure silica aerogel,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4444–4446 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Temple, D.

J.T. Seo, Q. Yang, S. Creekmore, B. Tabibi, D. Temple, S.Y. Kim, K. Yoo, A. Mott, M. Namkung, S.S. Yung, “Large pure refractive nonlinearity of nanostructure silica aerogel,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4444–4446 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Trillo, S.

N. Ghofraniha, L. Amato Santamaria, V. Folli, S. Trillo, E. DelRe, C. Conti, “Measurement of scaling laws for shock waves in thermal nonlocal media,” Opt. Lett. 37, 2325–2327 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Armaroli, S. Trillo, A. Fratalocchi, “Suppression of transverse instabilities of dark solitons and their dispersive shock waves,” Phys. Rev. A 80,053803 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Ghofraniha, C. Conti, R. Ruocco, S. Trillo, “Shocks in nonlocal media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99,043903 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Conti, N. Ghofraniha, G. Ruocco, S. Trillo, “Laser beam filamentation in fractal aggregates,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97,123903 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Venkateswara Rao, A.

A. Venkateswara Rao, P.B. Wagh, “Preparation and characterization of hydrophobic silica aerogels,” Mat. Chem. and Phys. 53, 13–18 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wagh, P.B.

A. Venkateswara Rao, P.B. Wagh, “Preparation and characterization of hydrophobic silica aerogels,” Mat. Chem. and Phys. 53, 13–18 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wan, W.

Wright, E.M.

W.M. Lee, R. El-Ganainy, D.N. Christodoulides, K. Dholakia, E.M. Wright, “Nonlinear optical response of colloidal suspensions,” Opt. Exp. 17, 10277–10289 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Q.

J. T. Seo, S. M. Mao, Q. Yang, L. Creekmore, H. Brown, R. Battle, K. Lee, A. Jackson, T. Skyles, B. Tabibi, K. P. Yoo, S. Y. Kim, S. S. Jung, M. Namkung, “Large optical nonlinearity of highly porous silica nanoaerogels in the nanosecond time domain,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 48, 1395–1399 (2006).

J.T. Seo, Q. Yang, S. Creekmore, B. Tabibi, D. Temple, S.Y. Kim, K. Yoo, A. Mott, M. Namkung, S.S. Yung, “Large pure refractive nonlinearity of nanostructure silica aerogel,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4444–4446 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yoo, K.

J.T. Seo, Q. Yang, S. Creekmore, B. Tabibi, D. Temple, S.Y. Kim, K. Yoo, A. Mott, M. Namkung, S.S. Yung, “Large pure refractive nonlinearity of nanostructure silica aerogel,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4444–4446 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yoo, K. P.

J. T. Seo, S. M. Mao, Q. Yang, L. Creekmore, H. Brown, R. Battle, K. Lee, A. Jackson, T. Skyles, B. Tabibi, K. P. Yoo, S. Y. Kim, S. S. Jung, M. Namkung, “Large optical nonlinearity of highly porous silica nanoaerogels in the nanosecond time domain,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 48, 1395–1399 (2006).

Yung, S.S.

J.T. Seo, Q. Yang, S. Creekmore, B. Tabibi, D. Temple, S.Y. Kim, K. Yoo, A. Mott, M. Namkung, S.S. Yung, “Large pure refractive nonlinearity of nanostructure silica aerogel,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4444–4446 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zamponi, F.

N. Ghofraniha, C. Conti, G. Ruocco, F. Zamponi, “Time-dependent nonlinear optical susceptibility of an out-of-equilibrium soft material,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102,038303 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

J.T. Seo, Q. Yang, S. Creekmore, B. Tabibi, D. Temple, S.Y. Kim, K. Yoo, A. Mott, M. Namkung, S.S. Yung, “Large pure refractive nonlinearity of nanostructure silica aerogel,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4444–4446 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Korean Phys. Soc. (1)

J. T. Seo, S. M. Mao, Q. Yang, L. Creekmore, H. Brown, R. Battle, K. Lee, A. Jackson, T. Skyles, B. Tabibi, K. P. Yoo, S. Y. Kim, S. S. Jung, M. Namkung, “Large optical nonlinearity of highly porous silica nanoaerogels in the nanosecond time domain,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 48, 1395–1399 (2006).

Mat. Chem. and Phys. (1)

A. Venkateswara Rao, P.B. Wagh, “Preparation and characterization of hydrophobic silica aerogels,” Mat. Chem. and Phys. 53, 13–18 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nature Photonics (1)

E. DelRe, E. Spinozzi, R. Agranat, C. Conti, “Scale free optics and diffractionless waves in nano-disordered ferroelectrics,” Nature Photonics 5, 39–42 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nature Physics (1)

W. Wan, S. Jia, J.W. Fleischer, “Dispersive superfluid-like shock waves in nonlinear optics,” Nature Physics 3, 46–51 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Exp. (1)

W.M. Lee, R. El-Ganainy, D.N. Christodoulides, K. Dholakia, E.M. Wright, “Nonlinear optical response of colloidal suspensions,” Opt. Exp. 17, 10277–10289 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (4)

Opt.Expr. (1)

S. Gentilini, N. Ghofraniha, E. DelRe, C. Conti, “Shock wave far-field in ordered and disordered nonlocal media,” Opt.Expr. 20, 27369–27375 (2012).

Phys. Rep. (1)

C. N. Likos, “Effective interactions in soft condensed matter physics,” Phys. Rep. 348, 267–439 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (3)

S. Gentilini, N. Gofraniha, E. DelRe, C. Conti, “Shock waves in thermal lensing,” Phys. Rev. A 87,053811 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M.A. Hoefer, M.J. Ablowitz, I. Coddington, E.A. Cornell, P. Engels, V. Schweikhard, “Dispersive and classical shock waves in Bose-Einstein condensates and gas dynamics,” Phys. Rev. A 74,023623 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Armaroli, S. Trillo, A. Fratalocchi, “Suppression of transverse instabilities of dark solitons and their dispersive shock waves,” Phys. Rev. A 80,053803 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

N. Ghofraniha, C. Conti, G. Ruocco, “Aging of the nonlinear optical susceptibility in doped colloidal suspensions,” Phys. Rev. B 75,038303 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (5)

N. Ghofraniha, C. Conti, G. Ruocco, F. Zamponi, “Time-dependent nonlinear optical susceptibility of an out-of-equilibrium soft material,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102,038303 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Conti, N. Ghofraniha, G. Ruocco, S. Trillo, “Laser beam filamentation in fractal aggregates,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97,123903 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Conti, E. DelRe, “Optical supercavitation in soft matter,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105,118301 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Ghofraniha, C. Conti, R. Ruocco, S. Trillo, “Shocks in nonlocal media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99,043903 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Conti, A. Fratalocchi, M. Peccianti, G. Ruocco, “Observation of a gradient catastrophe generating solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102,083902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys.Rev.Lett. (1)

N. Ghofraniha, S. Gentilini, V. Folli, E. DelRe, C. Conti, “Measurement of scaling laws for shock waves in thermal nonlocal media,” Phys.Rev.Lett. 109,243902 (2012).

Soft Matter (1)

M. Anyfantakis, A. Koniger, S. Pispas, W. Kohler, H. Buth, B. Loppinet, G. Fytas, “Versatile light actuated matter manipulation in transparent non-dilute polymer solutions,” Soft Matter 8, 2382–2384 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

I.C. Khoo, Liquid Crystals: Physical Properties and Nonlinear Optical Phenomena (Wiley, 1995).

R.W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics (Academic Press, 2002).

M.A. Aegerter, N. Leventis, M.M. Koebel, Advances in Sol-gel Derived Materials and Technologies (Springer, 2011).

J.C. Bronsky, D. McLaughlin, Singular Limits of Dispersive Waves (Plenum, 1994).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Picture of a typical aerogel sample. a) Sketch of the experimental setup. b) Measured optical transmission versus input power, Pin, obtained by impinging on the SA sample with different laser beam diameter.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Far field intensity profiles at the output of the SA for various input conditions: laser power Pin ranging from 1 mW to 1 W, and input beam waists w0 as indicated over the images of the first column, where are reported the far field intensity profiles of the input beam. Note that the images in the second and third rows correspond to the same experimental conditions (in term of incident laser power and beam size), for different positions of the incident laser beam.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Angular aperture of the transmitted pulse at the exit face of the sample after impinging with an input laser waist w0 = 0.4mm in different points of the sample.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Time resolved dynamics of the shock waves: (a–c) different intensity profiles at given instants; (d) time dynamics of the far-field width for Pin = 200 mW and two different input beam waists.

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