Abstract

We demonstrate that a 2f-to-3f self-referencing interferometer (SRI) becomes a useful tool for stabilizing a carrier-envelope offset frequency of an Er-doped fiber laser. A dual-pitch periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) ridge waveguide, consisting of two monolithically integrated segments with different quasi-phase matching pitch sizes, allows us to generate third-harmonic light with high efficiency. By using this device, we obtain a 45-dB signal-to-noise ratio in 100-kHz bandwidth of a heterodyne beat signal and instability of the in-loop fCEO of 8 × 10−18 at 1 s of averaging time. This result is important for fCEO stabilization of a frequency comb, for which it is difficult to obtain a one-octave supercontinuum spectrum.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. M. J. Thorpe, D. Balslev-Clausen, M. S. Kirchner, J. Ye, “Cavity-enhanced optical frequency comb spectroscopy: application to human breath analysis,” Opt. Express 16(4), 2387–2397 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. C. B. Huang, Z. Jiang, D. E. Leaird, J. Caraquitena, A. M. Weiner, “Spectral line-by-line shaping for optical and microwave arbitrary waveform generations,” Laser and Photon. Rev. 2(4), 227–248 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  4. T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D’Odorico, M. T. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, T. Udem, “Laser frequency combs for astronomical observations,” Science 321(5894), 1335–1337 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. A. Bartels, D. Heinecke, S. A. Diddams, “10-GHz self-referenced optical frequency comb,” Science 326(5953), 681 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  7. A. Ishizawa, T. Nishikawa, A. Mizutori, H. Takara, H. Nakano, T. Sogawa, A. Takada, M. Koga, “Generation of 120-fs laser pulses at 1-GHz repetition rate derived from continuous wave laser diode,” Opt. Express 19(23), 22402–22409 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. A. Ishizawa, T. Nishikawa, A. Mizutori, H. Takara, A. Takada, T. Sogawa, M. Koga, “Phase-noise characteristics of a 25-GHz-spaced optical frequency comb based on a phase- and intensity-modulated laser,” Opt. Express 21(24), 29186–29194 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. P. Del’Haye, S. B. Papp, S. A. Diddams, “Hybrid electro-optically modulated microcombs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(26), 263901 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. C. R. Locke, E. N. Ivanov, P. S. Light, F. Benabid, A. N. Luiten, “Frequency stabilisation of a fibre-laser comb using a novel microstructured fibre,” Opt. Express 17(7), 5897–5904 (2009).
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  19. B. R. Washburn, S. A. Diddams, N. R. Newbury, J. W. Nicholson, M. F. Yan, C. G. Jørgensen, “Phase-locked, erbium-fiber-laser-based frequency comb in the near infrared,” Opt. Lett. 29(3), 250–252 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. K. Hitachi, A. Ishizawa, T. Nishikawa, M. Asobe, T. Sogawa, “Periodically poled lithium niobate ridge waveguides with high conversion efficiency for 2f-to-3f self-referencing interferometer,” Elec. Lett. 49(2), 145–146 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  21. Y. Nishida, H. Miyazawa, M. Asobe, O. Tadanaga, H. Suzuki, “Direct-bonded QPM-LN ridge waveguide with high damage resistance at room temperature,” Elec. Lett. 39(7), 609–610 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  22. A. Ishizawa, T. Nishikawa, S. Aozasa, A. Mori, O. Tadanaga, M. Asobe, H. Nakano, “Demonstration of carrier envelope offset locking with low pulse energy,” Opt. Express 16(7), 4706–4712 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2013 (2)

K. Hitachi, A. Ishizawa, T. Nishikawa, M. Asobe, T. Sogawa, “Periodically poled lithium niobate ridge waveguides with high conversion efficiency for 2f-to-3f self-referencing interferometer,” Elec. Lett. 49(2), 145–146 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. Ishizawa, T. Nishikawa, A. Mizutori, H. Takara, A. Takada, T. Sogawa, M. Koga, “Phase-noise characteristics of a 25-GHz-spaced optical frequency comb based on a phase- and intensity-modulated laser,” Opt. Express 21(24), 29186–29194 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (1)

P. Del’Haye, S. B. Papp, S. A. Diddams, “Hybrid electro-optically modulated microcombs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(26), 263901 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (2)

2010 (1)

A. Ishizawa, T. Nishikawa, A. Mizutori, H. Takara, S. Aozasa, A. Mori, H. Nakano, A. Takada, M. Koga, “Octave-spanning frequency comb generated by 250 fs pulse train emitted from 25 GHz externally phase-modulated laser diode for carrier-envelope-offset-locking,” Electron. Lett. 46(19), 1343–1344 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

2008 (4)

C. B. Huang, Z. Jiang, D. E. Leaird, J. Caraquitena, A. M. Weiner, “Spectral line-by-line shaping for optical and microwave arbitrary waveform generations,” Laser and Photon. Rev. 2(4), 227–248 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D’Odorico, M. T. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, T. Udem, “Laser frequency combs for astronomical observations,” Science 321(5894), 1335–1337 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Thorpe, D. Balslev-Clausen, M. S. Kirchner, J. Ye, “Cavity-enhanced optical frequency comb spectroscopy: application to human breath analysis,” Opt. Express 16(4), 2387–2397 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ishizawa, T. Nishikawa, S. Aozasa, A. Mori, O. Tadanaga, M. Asobe, H. Nakano, “Demonstration of carrier envelope offset locking with low pulse energy,” Opt. Express 16(7), 4706–4712 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, T. J. Kippenberg, “Optical frequency comb generation from a monolithic microresonator,” Nature 450(7173), 1214–1217 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, I. Hartl, M. E. Fermann, “Generation of octave-spanning spectra inside reverse-photon-exchanged periodically poled lithium niobate waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 32(17), 2478–2480 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

2003 (2)

2002 (2)

2001 (1)

U. Morgner, R. Ell, G. Metzler, T. R. Schibli, F. X. Kärtner, J. G. Fujimoto, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, “Nonlinear optics with phase-controlled pulses in the sub-two-cycle regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(24), 5462–5465 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

J. Reichert, R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, “Measuring the frequency of light with mode-locked lasers,” Opt. Commun. 172(1-6), 59–68 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Aozasa, S.

A. Ishizawa, T. Nishikawa, A. Mizutori, H. Takara, S. Aozasa, A. Mori, H. Nakano, A. Takada, M. Koga, “Octave-spanning frequency comb generated by 250 fs pulse train emitted from 25 GHz externally phase-modulated laser diode for carrier-envelope-offset-locking,” Electron. Lett. 46(19), 1343–1344 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Ishizawa, T. Nishikawa, S. Aozasa, A. Mori, O. Tadanaga, M. Asobe, H. Nakano, “Demonstration of carrier envelope offset locking with low pulse energy,” Opt. Express 16(7), 4706–4712 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Araujo-Hauck, C.

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D’Odorico, M. T. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, T. Udem, “Laser frequency combs for astronomical observations,” Science 321(5894), 1335–1337 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arcizet, O.

P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, T. J. Kippenberg, “Optical frequency comb generation from a monolithic microresonator,” Nature 450(7173), 1214–1217 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Asobe, M.

K. Hitachi, A. Ishizawa, T. Nishikawa, M. Asobe, T. Sogawa, “Periodically poled lithium niobate ridge waveguides with high conversion efficiency for 2f-to-3f self-referencing interferometer,” Elec. Lett. 49(2), 145–146 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. Ishizawa, T. Nishikawa, S. Aozasa, A. Mori, O. Tadanaga, M. Asobe, H. Nakano, “Demonstration of carrier envelope offset locking with low pulse energy,” Opt. Express 16(7), 4706–4712 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Nishida, H. Miyazawa, M. Asobe, O. Tadanaga, H. Suzuki, “Direct-bonded QPM-LN ridge waveguide with high damage resistance at room temperature,” Elec. Lett. 39(7), 609–610 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Balslev-Clausen, D.

Bartels, A.

Benabid, F.

Caraquitena, J.

C. B. Huang, Z. Jiang, D. E. Leaird, J. Caraquitena, A. M. Weiner, “Spectral line-by-line shaping for optical and microwave arbitrary waveform generations,” Laser and Photon. Rev. 2(4), 227–248 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D’Odorico, S.

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D’Odorico, M. T. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, T. Udem, “Laser frequency combs for astronomical observations,” Science 321(5894), 1335–1337 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Del’Haye, P.

P. Del’Haye, S. B. Papp, S. A. Diddams, “Hybrid electro-optically modulated microcombs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(26), 263901 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, T. J. Kippenberg, “Optical frequency comb generation from a monolithic microresonator,” Nature 450(7173), 1214–1217 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Diddams, S. A.

P. Del’Haye, S. B. Papp, S. A. Diddams, “Hybrid electro-optically modulated microcombs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(26), 263901 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Kippenberg, R. Holzwarth, S. A. Diddams, “Microresonator-based optical frequency combs,” Science 332(6029), 555–559 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Bartels, D. Heinecke, S. A. Diddams, “10-GHz self-referenced optical frequency comb,” Science 326(5953), 681 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. R. Washburn, S. A. Diddams, N. R. Newbury, J. W. Nicholson, M. F. Yan, C. G. Jørgensen, “Phase-locked, erbium-fiber-laser-based frequency comb in the near infrared,” Opt. Lett. 29(3), 250–252 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. M. Ramond, S. A. Diddams, L. Hollberg, A. Bartels, “Phase-coherent link from optical to microwave frequencies by means of the broadband continuum from a 1-GHz Ti:sapphire femtosecondoscillator,” Opt. Lett. 27(20), 1842–1844 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ell, R.

U. Morgner, R. Ell, G. Metzler, T. R. Schibli, F. X. Kärtner, J. G. Fujimoto, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, “Nonlinear optics with phase-controlled pulses in the sub-two-cycle regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(24), 5462–5465 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fejer, M. M.

Fermann, M. E.

Fujimoto, J. G.

U. Morgner, R. Ell, G. Metzler, T. R. Schibli, F. X. Kärtner, J. G. Fujimoto, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, “Nonlinear optics with phase-controlled pulses in the sub-two-cycle regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(24), 5462–5465 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hänsch, T. W.

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D’Odorico, M. T. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, T. Udem, “Laser frequency combs for astronomical observations,” Science 321(5894), 1335–1337 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, “Optical frequency metrology,” Nature 416(6877), 233–237 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Reichert, R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, “Measuring the frequency of light with mode-locked lasers,” Opt. Commun. 172(1-6), 59–68 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hartl, I.

Haus, H. A.

U. Morgner, R. Ell, G. Metzler, T. R. Schibli, F. X. Kärtner, J. G. Fujimoto, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, “Nonlinear optics with phase-controlled pulses in the sub-two-cycle regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(24), 5462–5465 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heinecke, D.

A. Bartels, D. Heinecke, S. A. Diddams, “10-GHz self-referenced optical frequency comb,” Science 326(5953), 681 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hirai, A.

Hitachi, K.

K. Hitachi, A. Ishizawa, T. Nishikawa, M. Asobe, T. Sogawa, “Periodically poled lithium niobate ridge waveguides with high conversion efficiency for 2f-to-3f self-referencing interferometer,” Elec. Lett. 49(2), 145–146 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Hollberg, L.

Holzwarth, R.

T. J. Kippenberg, R. Holzwarth, S. A. Diddams, “Microresonator-based optical frequency combs,” Science 332(6029), 555–559 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D’Odorico, M. T. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, T. Udem, “Laser frequency combs for astronomical observations,” Science 321(5894), 1335–1337 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, T. J. Kippenberg, “Optical frequency comb generation from a monolithic microresonator,” Nature 450(7173), 1214–1217 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, “Optical frequency metrology,” Nature 416(6877), 233–237 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Reichert, R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, “Measuring the frequency of light with mode-locked lasers,” Opt. Commun. 172(1-6), 59–68 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hong, F. L.

Huang, C. B.

C. B. Huang, Z. Jiang, D. E. Leaird, J. Caraquitena, A. M. Weiner, “Spectral line-by-line shaping for optical and microwave arbitrary waveform generations,” Laser and Photon. Rev. 2(4), 227–248 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Inaba, H.

Ippen, E. P.

U. Morgner, R. Ell, G. Metzler, T. R. Schibli, F. X. Kärtner, J. G. Fujimoto, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, “Nonlinear optics with phase-controlled pulses in the sub-two-cycle regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(24), 5462–5465 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ishizawa, A.

K. Hitachi, A. Ishizawa, T. Nishikawa, M. Asobe, T. Sogawa, “Periodically poled lithium niobate ridge waveguides with high conversion efficiency for 2f-to-3f self-referencing interferometer,” Elec. Lett. 49(2), 145–146 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. Ishizawa, T. Nishikawa, A. Mizutori, H. Takara, A. Takada, T. Sogawa, M. Koga, “Phase-noise characteristics of a 25-GHz-spaced optical frequency comb based on a phase- and intensity-modulated laser,” Opt. Express 21(24), 29186–29194 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. Ishizawa, T. Nishikawa, A. Mizutori, H. Takara, H. Nakano, T. Sogawa, A. Takada, M. Koga, “Generation of 120-fs laser pulses at 1-GHz repetition rate derived from continuous wave laser diode,” Opt. Express 19(23), 22402–22409 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ishizawa, T. Nishikawa, A. Mizutori, H. Takara, S. Aozasa, A. Mori, H. Nakano, A. Takada, M. Koga, “Octave-spanning frequency comb generated by 250 fs pulse train emitted from 25 GHz externally phase-modulated laser diode for carrier-envelope-offset-locking,” Electron. Lett. 46(19), 1343–1344 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Ishizawa, T. Nishikawa, S. Aozasa, A. Mori, O. Tadanaga, M. Asobe, H. Nakano, “Demonstration of carrier envelope offset locking with low pulse energy,” Opt. Express 16(7), 4706–4712 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ivanov, E. N.

Jiang, Z.

C. B. Huang, Z. Jiang, D. E. Leaird, J. Caraquitena, A. M. Weiner, “Spectral line-by-line shaping for optical and microwave arbitrary waveform generations,” Laser and Photon. Rev. 2(4), 227–248 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jørgensen, C. G.

Kärtner, F. X.

U. Morgner, R. Ell, G. Metzler, T. R. Schibli, F. X. Kärtner, J. G. Fujimoto, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, “Nonlinear optics with phase-controlled pulses in the sub-two-cycle regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(24), 5462–5465 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kentischer, T.

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D’Odorico, M. T. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, T. Udem, “Laser frequency combs for astronomical observations,” Science 321(5894), 1335–1337 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kippenberg, T. J.

T. J. Kippenberg, R. Holzwarth, S. A. Diddams, “Microresonator-based optical frequency combs,” Science 332(6029), 555–559 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, T. J. Kippenberg, “Optical frequency comb generation from a monolithic microresonator,” Nature 450(7173), 1214–1217 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kirchner, M. S.

Koga, M.

Langrock, C.

Leaird, D. E.

C. B. Huang, Z. Jiang, D. E. Leaird, J. Caraquitena, A. M. Weiner, “Spectral line-by-line shaping for optical and microwave arbitrary waveform generations,” Laser and Photon. Rev. 2(4), 227–248 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Light, P. S.

Locke, C. R.

Luiten, A. N.

Manescau, A.

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D’Odorico, M. T. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, T. Udem, “Laser frequency combs for astronomical observations,” Science 321(5894), 1335–1337 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Matsumoto, H.

Metzler, G.

U. Morgner, R. Ell, G. Metzler, T. R. Schibli, F. X. Kärtner, J. G. Fujimoto, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, “Nonlinear optics with phase-controlled pulses in the sub-two-cycle regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(24), 5462–5465 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Minoshima, K.

Miyazawa, H.

Y. Nishida, H. Miyazawa, M. Asobe, O. Tadanaga, H. Suzuki, “Direct-bonded QPM-LN ridge waveguide with high damage resistance at room temperature,” Elec. Lett. 39(7), 609–610 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mizutori, A.

Morgner, U.

U. Morgner, R. Ell, G. Metzler, T. R. Schibli, F. X. Kärtner, J. G. Fujimoto, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, “Nonlinear optics with phase-controlled pulses in the sub-two-cycle regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(24), 5462–5465 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mori, A.

A. Ishizawa, T. Nishikawa, A. Mizutori, H. Takara, S. Aozasa, A. Mori, H. Nakano, A. Takada, M. Koga, “Octave-spanning frequency comb generated by 250 fs pulse train emitted from 25 GHz externally phase-modulated laser diode for carrier-envelope-offset-locking,” Electron. Lett. 46(19), 1343–1344 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Ishizawa, T. Nishikawa, S. Aozasa, A. Mori, O. Tadanaga, M. Asobe, H. Nakano, “Demonstration of carrier envelope offset locking with low pulse energy,” Opt. Express 16(7), 4706–4712 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Murphy, M. T.

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D’Odorico, M. T. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, T. Udem, “Laser frequency combs for astronomical observations,” Science 321(5894), 1335–1337 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nakano, H.

Newbury, N. R.

Nicholson, J. W.

Nishida, Y.

Y. Nishida, H. Miyazawa, M. Asobe, O. Tadanaga, H. Suzuki, “Direct-bonded QPM-LN ridge waveguide with high damage resistance at room temperature,” Elec. Lett. 39(7), 609–610 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nishikawa, T.

A. Ishizawa, T. Nishikawa, A. Mizutori, H. Takara, A. Takada, T. Sogawa, M. Koga, “Phase-noise characteristics of a 25-GHz-spaced optical frequency comb based on a phase- and intensity-modulated laser,” Opt. Express 21(24), 29186–29194 (2013).
[CrossRef]

K. Hitachi, A. Ishizawa, T. Nishikawa, M. Asobe, T. Sogawa, “Periodically poled lithium niobate ridge waveguides with high conversion efficiency for 2f-to-3f self-referencing interferometer,” Elec. Lett. 49(2), 145–146 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. Ishizawa, T. Nishikawa, A. Mizutori, H. Takara, H. Nakano, T. Sogawa, A. Takada, M. Koga, “Generation of 120-fs laser pulses at 1-GHz repetition rate derived from continuous wave laser diode,” Opt. Express 19(23), 22402–22409 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ishizawa, T. Nishikawa, A. Mizutori, H. Takara, S. Aozasa, A. Mori, H. Nakano, A. Takada, M. Koga, “Octave-spanning frequency comb generated by 250 fs pulse train emitted from 25 GHz externally phase-modulated laser diode for carrier-envelope-offset-locking,” Electron. Lett. 46(19), 1343–1344 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Ishizawa, T. Nishikawa, S. Aozasa, A. Mori, O. Tadanaga, M. Asobe, H. Nakano, “Demonstration of carrier envelope offset locking with low pulse energy,” Opt. Express 16(7), 4706–4712 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Onae, A.

Papp, S. B.

P. Del’Haye, S. B. Papp, S. A. Diddams, “Hybrid electro-optically modulated microcombs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(26), 263901 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pasquini, L.

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D’Odorico, M. T. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, T. Udem, “Laser frequency combs for astronomical observations,” Science 321(5894), 1335–1337 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ramond, T. M.

Reichert, J.

J. Reichert, R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, “Measuring the frequency of light with mode-locked lasers,” Opt. Commun. 172(1-6), 59–68 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schibli, T. R.

U. Morgner, R. Ell, G. Metzler, T. R. Schibli, F. X. Kärtner, J. G. Fujimoto, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, “Nonlinear optics with phase-controlled pulses in the sub-two-cycle regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(24), 5462–5465 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schliesser, A.

P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, T. J. Kippenberg, “Optical frequency comb generation from a monolithic microresonator,” Nature 450(7173), 1214–1217 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmidt, W.

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D’Odorico, M. T. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, T. Udem, “Laser frequency combs for astronomical observations,” Science 321(5894), 1335–1337 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sogawa, T.

Steinmetz, T.

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D’Odorico, M. T. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, T. Udem, “Laser frequency combs for astronomical observations,” Science 321(5894), 1335–1337 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sugiura, T.

Suzuki, H.

Y. Nishida, H. Miyazawa, M. Asobe, O. Tadanaga, H. Suzuki, “Direct-bonded QPM-LN ridge waveguide with high damage resistance at room temperature,” Elec. Lett. 39(7), 609–610 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tadanaga, O.

A. Ishizawa, T. Nishikawa, S. Aozasa, A. Mori, O. Tadanaga, M. Asobe, H. Nakano, “Demonstration of carrier envelope offset locking with low pulse energy,” Opt. Express 16(7), 4706–4712 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Nishida, H. Miyazawa, M. Asobe, O. Tadanaga, H. Suzuki, “Direct-bonded QPM-LN ridge waveguide with high damage resistance at room temperature,” Elec. Lett. 39(7), 609–610 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Takada, A.

Takada, H.

Takara, H.

Thorpe, M. J.

Udem, T.

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D’Odorico, M. T. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, T. Udem, “Laser frequency combs for astronomical observations,” Science 321(5894), 1335–1337 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, “Optical frequency metrology,” Nature 416(6877), 233–237 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Udem, Th.

J. Reichert, R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, “Measuring the frequency of light with mode-locked lasers,” Opt. Commun. 172(1-6), 59–68 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Washburn, B. R.

Weiner, A. M.

C. B. Huang, Z. Jiang, D. E. Leaird, J. Caraquitena, A. M. Weiner, “Spectral line-by-line shaping for optical and microwave arbitrary waveform generations,” Laser and Photon. Rev. 2(4), 227–248 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wilken, T.

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D’Odorico, M. T. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, T. Udem, “Laser frequency combs for astronomical observations,” Science 321(5894), 1335–1337 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, T. J. Kippenberg, “Optical frequency comb generation from a monolithic microresonator,” Nature 450(7173), 1214–1217 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yan, M. F.

Ye, J.

Yoshida, M.

Elec. Lett. (2)

K. Hitachi, A. Ishizawa, T. Nishikawa, M. Asobe, T. Sogawa, “Periodically poled lithium niobate ridge waveguides with high conversion efficiency for 2f-to-3f self-referencing interferometer,” Elec. Lett. 49(2), 145–146 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. Nishida, H. Miyazawa, M. Asobe, O. Tadanaga, H. Suzuki, “Direct-bonded QPM-LN ridge waveguide with high damage resistance at room temperature,” Elec. Lett. 39(7), 609–610 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

A. Ishizawa, T. Nishikawa, A. Mizutori, H. Takara, S. Aozasa, A. Mori, H. Nakano, A. Takada, M. Koga, “Octave-spanning frequency comb generated by 250 fs pulse train emitted from 25 GHz externally phase-modulated laser diode for carrier-envelope-offset-locking,” Electron. Lett. 46(19), 1343–1344 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Laser and Photon. Rev. (1)

C. B. Huang, Z. Jiang, D. E. Leaird, J. Caraquitena, A. M. Weiner, “Spectral line-by-line shaping for optical and microwave arbitrary waveform generations,” Laser and Photon. Rev. 2(4), 227–248 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nature (2)

P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, T. J. Kippenberg, “Optical frequency comb generation from a monolithic microresonator,” Nature 450(7173), 1214–1217 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, “Optical frequency metrology,” Nature 416(6877), 233–237 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (1)

J. Reichert, R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, “Measuring the frequency of light with mode-locked lasers,” Opt. Commun. 172(1-6), 59–68 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

U. Morgner, R. Ell, G. Metzler, T. R. Schibli, F. X. Kärtner, J. G. Fujimoto, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, “Nonlinear optics with phase-controlled pulses in the sub-two-cycle regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(24), 5462–5465 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Del’Haye, S. B. Papp, S. A. Diddams, “Hybrid electro-optically modulated microcombs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(26), 263901 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (3)

T. J. Kippenberg, R. Holzwarth, S. A. Diddams, “Microresonator-based optical frequency combs,” Science 332(6029), 555–559 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D’Odorico, M. T. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, T. Udem, “Laser frequency combs for astronomical observations,” Science 321(5894), 1335–1337 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Bartels, D. Heinecke, S. A. Diddams, “10-GHz self-referenced optical frequency comb,” Science 326(5953), 681 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

I. Hartl, M. E. Fermann, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, J. W. Nicholson, and D. J. DiGiovanni, “Integrated fiber-frequency comb using a PPLN waveguide for spectral broadening and CEO phase detection,” Conf. on Lasers and Electro-optics (CLEO), Long Beach, CA, USA, May 2006, paper CTuH5.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic illustration of a DP-PPLN ridge waveguide for generating TH light. (b) Experimental setup for detecting and stabilizing fCEO with a 2f-to-3f SRI.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) SC spectrum generated from the HNLF. (b) SH light generated from the SP-PPLN ridge waveguide. The observed peak at 605 nm (labeled with a triangle) satisfies the QPM condition. (c) Spectrum from the DP-PPLN device after bandpass filtering (center wavelength at 607 nm). Only TH light (at around 605 nm, labeled with a traingle) is transmitted through the filter. (Inset to b and c) The input power dependence of SH and TH light.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) RF signal from a heterodyne beat note observed with a spectrum analyzer at a 100-kHz bandwidth. The SNR of fCEO at 20 MHz is 45-dB at 100 kHz bandwidth. (b) Detailed observation of the beat signal with a 10-kHz bandwidth at around fCEO equal to 20 MHz.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Real-time observation of an output from a frequency counter at a 1-s gate time for a fCEO. (b) The measured Allan deviation for various gate time τ.

Equations (1)

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f CEO n = 1 τ nτ (n+1)τ f CEO (t)dt

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