Abstract

Quantum Key Distribution (QKD) is maturing quickly. However, the current approaches to its application in optical networks make it an expensive technology. QKD networks deployed to date are designed as a collection of point-to-point, dedicated QKD links where non-neighboring nodes communicate using the trusted repeater paradigm. We propose a novel optical network model in which QKD systems share the communication infrastructure by wavelength multiplexing their quantum and classical signals. The routing is done using optical components within a metropolitan area which allows for a dynamically any-to-any communication scheme. Moreover, it resembles a commercial telecom network, takes advantage of existing infrastructure and utilizes commercial components, allowing for an easy, cost-effective and reliable deployment.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2013 (2)

P. Jouguet, S. Kunz-Jacques, A. Leverrier, P. Grangier, E. Diamanti, “Experimental demonstration of long-distance continuous-variable quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photon. 7, 378–381 (2013).
[CrossRef]

B. Korzh, N. Walenta, R. Houlmann, H. Zbinden, “A high-speed multi-protocol quantum key distribution transmitter based on a dual-drive modulator,” Opt. Express 21, 19579–19592 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012 (5)

C. I. Osorio, N. Bruno, N. Sangouard, H. Zbinden, N. Gisin, R. T. Thew, “Heralded photon amplification for quantum communication,” Phys. Rev. A 86, 023815 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Patel, J. F. Dynes, I. Choi, A. W. Sharpe, A. R. Dixon, Z. L. Yuan, R. V. Penty, A. J. Shields, “Coexistence of high-bit-rate quantum key distribution and data on optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. X 2, 041010 (2012).

M. Razavi, “Multiple-access quantum key distribution networks,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 60, 3071–3079 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Wang, W. Chen, J.-F. Guo, Z.-Q. Yin, H.-W. Li, Z. Zhou, G.-C. Guo, Z.-F. Han, “2 GHz clock quantum key distribution over 260 km of standard telecom fiber,” Opt. Lett. 37, 1008–1010 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Jouguet, S. Kunz-Jacques, T. Debuisschert, S. Fossier, E. Diamanti, R. Alléaume, R. Tualle-Brouri, P. Grangier, A. Leverrier, P. Pache, P. Painchault, “Field test of classical symmetric encryption with continuous variables quantum key distribution,” Opt. Express 20, 14030–14041 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (5)

D. Stucki, M. Legré, F. Buntschu, B. Clausen, N. Felber, N. Gisin, L. Henzen, P. Junod, G. Litzistorf, P. Monbaron, L. Monat, J.-B. Page, D. Perroud, G. Ribordy, A. Rochas, S. Robyr, J. Tavares, R. Thew, P. Trinkler, S. Ventura, R. Voirol, N. Walenta, H. Zbinden, “Long-term performance of the SwissQuantum quantum key distribution network in a field environment,” New J. Phys. 13, 123001 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Sasaki, M. Fujiwara, H. Ishizuka, W. Klaus, K. Wakui, M. Takeoka, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, Z. Wang, A. Tanaka, K. Yoshino, Y. Nambu, S. Takahashi, A. Tajima, A. Tomita, T. Domeki, T. Hasegawa, Y. Sakai, H. Kobayashi, T. Asai, K. Shimizu, T. Tokura, T. Tsurumaru, M. Matsui, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, H. Takesue, Y. Tokura, J. F. Dynes, A. R. Dixon, A. W. Sharpe, Z. L. Yuan, A. J. Shields, S. Uchikoga, M. Legré, S. Robyr, P. Trinkler, L. Monat, J.-B. Page, G. Ribordy, A. Poppe, A. Allacher, O. Maurhart, T. Länger, M. Peev, A. Zeilinger, “Field test of quantum key distribution in the Tokyo QKD Network,” Opt. Express 19, 10387–10409 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Kitayama, M. Sasaki, S. Araki, M. Tsubokawa, A. Tomita, K. Inoue, K. Harasawa, Y. Nagasako, A. Takada, “Security in photonic networks: threats and security enhancement,” J. Lightwave Technol. 29, 3210–3222 (2011).
[CrossRef]

N. Namekata, H. Takesue, T. Honjo, Y. Tokura, S. Inoue, “High-rate quantum key distribution over 100 km using ultra-low-noise, 2-GHz sinusoidally gated InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiodes,” Opt. Express 19, 10632–10639 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Choi, R. J. Young, P. D. Townsend, “Quantum information to the home,” New J. Phys. 13, 063039 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (7)

I. Choi, R. J. Young, P. D. Townsend, “Quantum key distribution on a 10Gb/s WDM-PON,” Opt. Express 18, 9600–9612 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Capmany, C. Fernández-Pousa, “Analysis of passive optical networks for subcarrier multiplexed quantum key distribution,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 58, 3220–3228 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Mirza, P. Petruccione, “Realizing long-term quantum cryptography,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27, A185–A188 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Eraerds, N. Walenta, M. Legré, N. Gisin, H. Zbinden, “Quantum key distribution and 1 Gbps data encryption over a single fibre,” New J. Phys. 12, 063027 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Tian, H. Wang, “Optical wavelength conversion of quantum states with optomechanics,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 053806 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Qi, W. Zhu, L. Qian, H.-K. Lo, “Feasibility of quantum key distribution through dense wavelength division multiplexing network,” New J. Phys. 12, 18 (2010).

J. Zhang, P. Eraerds, N. Walenta, C. Barreiro, R. Thew, H. Zbinden, “2.23 GHz gating InGaAs/InP single-photon avalanche diode for quantum key distribution,” Proc. SPIE 7681, 76810Z (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (8)

N. A. Peters, P. Toliver, T. E. Chapuran, R. J. Runser, S. R. McNown, C. G. Peterson, D. Rosenberg, N. Dallmann, R. J. Hughes, K. P. McCabe, J. E. Nordholt, K. T. Tyagi, “Dense wavelength multiplexing of 1550 nm QKD with strong classical channels in reconfigurable networking environments,” New J. Phys. 11, 045012 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Stucki, C. Barreiro, S. Fasel, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, R. Thew, Y. Thoma, P. Trinkler, F. Vannel, H. Zbinden, “Continuous high speed coherent one-way quantum key distribution,” Opt. Express 17, 13326–13334 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys. 11, 075001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. Maeda, A. Tanaka, S. Takahashi, A. Tajima, A. Tomita, “Technologies for quantum key distribution networks integrated with optical communication networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 1591–1601 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Stucki, N. Walenta, F. Vannel, R. T. Thew, N. Gisin, H. Zbinden, S. Gray, C. R. Towery, S. Ten, “High rate, long-distance quantum key distribution over 250 km of ultra low loss fibres,” New J. Phys. 11, 075003 (2009).
[CrossRef]

V. Scarani, H. Bechmann-Pasquinucci, N. J. Cerf, M. Dusek, N. Lütkenhaus, M. Peev, “The security of practical quantum key distribution,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81, 1301–1350 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Treiber, A. Poppe, M. Hentschel, D. Ferrini, T. Lorünser, E. Querasser, T. Matyus, H. Hübel, A. Zeilinger, “Fully automated entanglement-based quantum cryptography system for telecom fiber networks,” New J. Phys. 11, 045013 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. E. Chapuran, P. Toliver, N. A. Peters, J. Jackel, M. S. Goodman, R. J. Runser, S. R. McNown, N. Dallmann, R. J. Hughes, K. P. McCabe, J. E. Nordholt, C. G. Peterson, K. T. Tyagi, L. Mercer, H. Dardy, “Optical networking for quantum key distribution and quantum communications,” New J. Phys. 11, 105001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

A. R. Dixon, Z. L. Yuan, J. F. Dynes, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, “Gigahertz decoy quantum key distribution with 1 Mbit/s secure key rate,” Opt. Express 16, 18790–18979 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. Scarani, R. Renner, “Quantum cryptography with finite resources: Unconditional security bound for discrete-variable protocols with one-way postprocessing,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 200501 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

H. Takesue, S. W. Nam, Q. Zhang, R. H. Hadfield, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, Y. Yamamoto, “Quantum key distribution over a 40-dB channel loss using superconducting single-photon detectors,” Nat. Photon. 1, 1749–4885 (2007).

V. Fernandez, R. J. Collins, K. J. Gordon, P. D. Townsend, G. S. Buller, “Passive optical network approach to gigahertz-clocked multiuser quantum key distribution,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43, 130–138 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

2005 (2)

D. Kumavor, C. Beal, S. Yelin, E. Donkor, C. Wang, “Comparison of four multi-user quantum key distribution schemes over passive optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 268–276 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Subacius, A. Zavriyev, A. Trifonov, “Backscattering limitation for fiber-optic quantum key distribution systems,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 011103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

2002 (2)

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, “Quantum cryptography,” Rev. Mod. Phys 74, 145–195 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. Elliot, “Building the quantum network,” New J. Phys. 4, 46 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

Y. Chen, M. T. Fatehi, H. J. La Roche, J. Z. Larsen, B. L. Nelson, “Metro optical networking,” Bell Labs Tech. J. 4, 163–186 (1999).
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Abe, M.

Ahn, J.-G.

Allacher, A.

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P. Jouguet, S. Kunz-Jacques, T. Debuisschert, S. Fossier, E. Diamanti, R. Alléaume, R. Tualle-Brouri, P. Grangier, A. Leverrier, P. Pache, P. Painchault, “Field test of classical symmetric encryption with continuous variables quantum key distribution,” Opt. Express 20, 14030–14041 (2012).
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M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys. 11, 075001 (2009).
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T. E. Chapuran, P. Toliver, N. A. Peters, J. Jackel, M. S. Goodman, R. J. Runser, S. R. McNown, N. Dallmann, R. J. Hughes, K. P. McCabe, J. E. Nordholt, C. G. Peterson, K. T. Tyagi, L. Mercer, H. Dardy, “Optical networking for quantum key distribution and quantum communications,” New J. Phys. 11, 105001 (2009).
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Domeki, T.

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H.-J. Briegel, W. Dür, J. I. Cirac, P. Zoller, “Quantum repeaters: the role of imperfect local operations in quantum communication,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5932–5935 (1998).
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V. Scarani, H. Bechmann-Pasquinucci, N. J. Cerf, M. Dusek, N. Lütkenhaus, M. Peev, “The security of practical quantum key distribution,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81, 1301–1350 (2009).
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K. A. Patel, J. F. Dynes, I. Choi, A. W. Sharpe, A. R. Dixon, Z. L. Yuan, R. V. Penty, A. J. Shields, “Coexistence of high-bit-rate quantum key distribution and data on optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. X 2, 041010 (2012).

M. Sasaki, M. Fujiwara, H. Ishizuka, W. Klaus, K. Wakui, M. Takeoka, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, Z. Wang, A. Tanaka, K. Yoshino, Y. Nambu, S. Takahashi, A. Tajima, A. Tomita, T. Domeki, T. Hasegawa, Y. Sakai, H. Kobayashi, T. Asai, K. Shimizu, T. Tokura, T. Tsurumaru, M. Matsui, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, H. Takesue, Y. Tokura, J. F. Dynes, A. R. Dixon, A. W. Sharpe, Z. L. Yuan, A. J. Shields, S. Uchikoga, M. Legré, S. Robyr, P. Trinkler, L. Monat, J.-B. Page, G. Ribordy, A. Poppe, A. Allacher, O. Maurhart, T. Länger, M. Peev, A. Zeilinger, “Field test of quantum key distribution in the Tokyo QKD Network,” Opt. Express 19, 10387–10409 (2011).
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J. Zhang, P. Eraerds, N. Walenta, C. Barreiro, R. Thew, H. Zbinden, “2.23 GHz gating InGaAs/InP single-photon avalanche diode for quantum key distribution,” Proc. SPIE 7681, 76810Z (2010).
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P. Eraerds, N. Walenta, M. Legré, N. Gisin, H. Zbinden, “Quantum key distribution and 1 Gbps data encryption over a single fibre,” New J. Phys. 12, 063027 (2010).
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D. Stucki, C. Barreiro, S. Fasel, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, R. Thew, Y. Thoma, P. Trinkler, F. Vannel, H. Zbinden, “Continuous high speed coherent one-way quantum key distribution,” Opt. Express 17, 13326–13334 (2009).
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M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys. 11, 075001 (2009).
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P. Toliver, R. Runser, T. Chapuran, S. McNown, M. Goodman, J. Jackel, R. Hughes, C. Peterson, K. McCabe, J. Nordholt, K. Tyagi, P. Hiskett, N. Dallmann, “Impact of spontaneous anti-Stokes Raman scattering on QKD+DWDM networking,” in 17th Annual Meeting of the IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society (IEEE, 2004), pp. 491–492.

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P. Toliver, R. Runser, T. Chapuran, S. McNown, M. Goodman, J. Jackel, R. Hughes, C. Peterson, K. McCabe, J. Nordholt, K. Tyagi, P. Hiskett, N. Dallmann, “Impact of spontaneous anti-Stokes Raman scattering on QKD+DWDM networking,” in 17th Annual Meeting of the IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society (IEEE, 2004), pp. 491–492.

Nordholt, J. E.

T. E. Chapuran, P. Toliver, N. A. Peters, J. Jackel, M. S. Goodman, R. J. Runser, S. R. McNown, N. Dallmann, R. J. Hughes, K. P. McCabe, J. E. Nordholt, C. G. Peterson, K. T. Tyagi, L. Mercer, H. Dardy, “Optical networking for quantum key distribution and quantum communications,” New J. Phys. 11, 105001 (2009).
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N. A. Peters, P. Toliver, T. E. Chapuran, R. J. Runser, S. R. McNown, C. G. Peterson, D. Rosenberg, N. Dallmann, R. J. Hughes, K. P. McCabe, J. E. Nordholt, K. T. Tyagi, “Dense wavelength multiplexing of 1550 nm QKD with strong classical channels in reconfigurable networking environments,” New J. Phys. 11, 045012 (2009).
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M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys. 11, 075001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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D. Stucki, M. Legré, F. Buntschu, B. Clausen, N. Felber, N. Gisin, L. Henzen, P. Junod, G. Litzistorf, P. Monbaron, L. Monat, J.-B. Page, D. Perroud, G. Ribordy, A. Rochas, S. Robyr, J. Tavares, R. Thew, P. Trinkler, S. Ventura, R. Voirol, N. Walenta, H. Zbinden, “Long-term performance of the SwissQuantum quantum key distribution network in a field environment,” New J. Phys. 13, 123001 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Sasaki, M. Fujiwara, H. Ishizuka, W. Klaus, K. Wakui, M. Takeoka, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, Z. Wang, A. Tanaka, K. Yoshino, Y. Nambu, S. Takahashi, A. Tajima, A. Tomita, T. Domeki, T. Hasegawa, Y. Sakai, H. Kobayashi, T. Asai, K. Shimizu, T. Tokura, T. Tsurumaru, M. Matsui, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, H. Takesue, Y. Tokura, J. F. Dynes, A. R. Dixon, A. W. Sharpe, Z. L. Yuan, A. J. Shields, S. Uchikoga, M. Legré, S. Robyr, P. Trinkler, L. Monat, J.-B. Page, G. Ribordy, A. Poppe, A. Allacher, O. Maurhart, T. Länger, M. Peev, A. Zeilinger, “Field test of quantum key distribution in the Tokyo QKD Network,” Opt. Express 19, 10387–10409 (2011).
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M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys. 11, 075001 (2009).
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Park, H.-J.

Park, S.-J.

Patel, K. A.

K. A. Patel, J. F. Dynes, I. Choi, A. W. Sharpe, A. R. Dixon, Z. L. Yuan, R. V. Penty, A. J. Shields, “Coexistence of high-bit-rate quantum key distribution and data on optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. X 2, 041010 (2012).

Peev, M.

M. Sasaki, M. Fujiwara, H. Ishizuka, W. Klaus, K. Wakui, M. Takeoka, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, Z. Wang, A. Tanaka, K. Yoshino, Y. Nambu, S. Takahashi, A. Tajima, A. Tomita, T. Domeki, T. Hasegawa, Y. Sakai, H. Kobayashi, T. Asai, K. Shimizu, T. Tokura, T. Tsurumaru, M. Matsui, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, H. Takesue, Y. Tokura, J. F. Dynes, A. R. Dixon, A. W. Sharpe, Z. L. Yuan, A. J. Shields, S. Uchikoga, M. Legré, S. Robyr, P. Trinkler, L. Monat, J.-B. Page, G. Ribordy, A. Poppe, A. Allacher, O. Maurhart, T. Länger, M. Peev, A. Zeilinger, “Field test of quantum key distribution in the Tokyo QKD Network,” Opt. Express 19, 10387–10409 (2011).
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M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys. 11, 075001 (2009).
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K. A. Patel, J. F. Dynes, I. Choi, A. W. Sharpe, A. R. Dixon, Z. L. Yuan, R. V. Penty, A. J. Shields, “Coexistence of high-bit-rate quantum key distribution and data on optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. X 2, 041010 (2012).

Perroud, D.

D. Stucki, M. Legré, F. Buntschu, B. Clausen, N. Felber, N. Gisin, L. Henzen, P. Junod, G. Litzistorf, P. Monbaron, L. Monat, J.-B. Page, D. Perroud, G. Ribordy, A. Rochas, S. Robyr, J. Tavares, R. Thew, P. Trinkler, S. Ventura, R. Voirol, N. Walenta, H. Zbinden, “Long-term performance of the SwissQuantum quantum key distribution network in a field environment,” New J. Phys. 13, 123001 (2011).
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T. E. Chapuran, P. Toliver, N. A. Peters, J. Jackel, M. S. Goodman, R. J. Runser, S. R. McNown, N. Dallmann, R. J. Hughes, K. P. McCabe, J. E. Nordholt, C. G. Peterson, K. T. Tyagi, L. Mercer, H. Dardy, “Optical networking for quantum key distribution and quantum communications,” New J. Phys. 11, 105001 (2009).
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N. A. Peters, P. Toliver, T. E. Chapuran, R. J. Runser, S. R. McNown, C. G. Peterson, D. Rosenberg, N. Dallmann, R. J. Hughes, K. P. McCabe, J. E. Nordholt, K. T. Tyagi, “Dense wavelength multiplexing of 1550 nm QKD with strong classical channels in reconfigurable networking environments,” New J. Phys. 11, 045012 (2009).
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Peterson, C.

P. Toliver, R. Runser, T. Chapuran, S. McNown, M. Goodman, J. Jackel, R. Hughes, C. Peterson, K. McCabe, J. Nordholt, K. Tyagi, P. Hiskett, N. Dallmann, “Impact of spontaneous anti-Stokes Raman scattering on QKD+DWDM networking,” in 17th Annual Meeting of the IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society (IEEE, 2004), pp. 491–492.

Peterson, C. G.

T. E. Chapuran, P. Toliver, N. A. Peters, J. Jackel, M. S. Goodman, R. J. Runser, S. R. McNown, N. Dallmann, R. J. Hughes, K. P. McCabe, J. E. Nordholt, C. G. Peterson, K. T. Tyagi, L. Mercer, H. Dardy, “Optical networking for quantum key distribution and quantum communications,” New J. Phys. 11, 105001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. A. Peters, P. Toliver, T. E. Chapuran, R. J. Runser, S. R. McNown, C. G. Peterson, D. Rosenberg, N. Dallmann, R. J. Hughes, K. P. McCabe, J. E. Nordholt, K. T. Tyagi, “Dense wavelength multiplexing of 1550 nm QKD with strong classical channels in reconfigurable networking environments,” New J. Phys. 11, 045012 (2009).
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Phoenix, S.

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Poppe, A.

M. Sasaki, M. Fujiwara, H. Ishizuka, W. Klaus, K. Wakui, M. Takeoka, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, Z. Wang, A. Tanaka, K. Yoshino, Y. Nambu, S. Takahashi, A. Tajima, A. Tomita, T. Domeki, T. Hasegawa, Y. Sakai, H. Kobayashi, T. Asai, K. Shimizu, T. Tokura, T. Tsurumaru, M. Matsui, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, H. Takesue, Y. Tokura, J. F. Dynes, A. R. Dixon, A. W. Sharpe, Z. L. Yuan, A. J. Shields, S. Uchikoga, M. Legré, S. Robyr, P. Trinkler, L. Monat, J.-B. Page, G. Ribordy, A. Poppe, A. Allacher, O. Maurhart, T. Länger, M. Peev, A. Zeilinger, “Field test of quantum key distribution in the Tokyo QKD Network,” Opt. Express 19, 10387–10409 (2011).
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A. Treiber, A. Poppe, M. Hentschel, D. Ferrini, T. Lorünser, E. Querasser, T. Matyus, H. Hübel, A. Zeilinger, “Fully automated entanglement-based quantum cryptography system for telecom fiber networks,” New J. Phys. 11, 045013 (2009).
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M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys. 11, 075001 (2009).
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Querasser, E.

A. Treiber, A. Poppe, M. Hentschel, D. Ferrini, T. Lorünser, E. Querasser, T. Matyus, H. Hübel, A. Zeilinger, “Fully automated entanglement-based quantum cryptography system for telecom fiber networks,” New J. Phys. 11, 045013 (2009).
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M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys. 11, 075001 (2009).
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M. Razavi, “Multiple-access quantum key distribution networks,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 60, 3071–3079 (2012).
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V. Scarani, R. Renner, “Quantum cryptography with finite resources: Unconditional security bound for discrete-variable protocols with one-way postprocessing,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 200501 (2008).
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Ribordy, G.

D. Stucki, M. Legré, F. Buntschu, B. Clausen, N. Felber, N. Gisin, L. Henzen, P. Junod, G. Litzistorf, P. Monbaron, L. Monat, J.-B. Page, D. Perroud, G. Ribordy, A. Rochas, S. Robyr, J. Tavares, R. Thew, P. Trinkler, S. Ventura, R. Voirol, N. Walenta, H. Zbinden, “Long-term performance of the SwissQuantum quantum key distribution network in a field environment,” New J. Phys. 13, 123001 (2011).
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M. Sasaki, M. Fujiwara, H. Ishizuka, W. Klaus, K. Wakui, M. Takeoka, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, Z. Wang, A. Tanaka, K. Yoshino, Y. Nambu, S. Takahashi, A. Tajima, A. Tomita, T. Domeki, T. Hasegawa, Y. Sakai, H. Kobayashi, T. Asai, K. Shimizu, T. Tokura, T. Tsurumaru, M. Matsui, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, H. Takesue, Y. Tokura, J. F. Dynes, A. R. Dixon, A. W. Sharpe, Z. L. Yuan, A. J. Shields, S. Uchikoga, M. Legré, S. Robyr, P. Trinkler, L. Monat, J.-B. Page, G. Ribordy, A. Poppe, A. Allacher, O. Maurhart, T. Länger, M. Peev, A. Zeilinger, “Field test of quantum key distribution in the Tokyo QKD Network,” Opt. Express 19, 10387–10409 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys. 11, 075001 (2009).
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N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, “Quantum cryptography,” Rev. Mod. Phys 74, 145–195 (2002).
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D. Stucki, M. Legré, F. Buntschu, B. Clausen, N. Felber, N. Gisin, L. Henzen, P. Junod, G. Litzistorf, P. Monbaron, L. Monat, J.-B. Page, D. Perroud, G. Ribordy, A. Rochas, S. Robyr, J. Tavares, R. Thew, P. Trinkler, S. Ventura, R. Voirol, N. Walenta, H. Zbinden, “Long-term performance of the SwissQuantum quantum key distribution network in a field environment,” New J. Phys. 13, 123001 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Sasaki, M. Fujiwara, H. Ishizuka, W. Klaus, K. Wakui, M. Takeoka, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, Z. Wang, A. Tanaka, K. Yoshino, Y. Nambu, S. Takahashi, A. Tajima, A. Tomita, T. Domeki, T. Hasegawa, Y. Sakai, H. Kobayashi, T. Asai, K. Shimizu, T. Tokura, T. Tsurumaru, M. Matsui, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, H. Takesue, Y. Tokura, J. F. Dynes, A. R. Dixon, A. W. Sharpe, Z. L. Yuan, A. J. Shields, S. Uchikoga, M. Legré, S. Robyr, P. Trinkler, L. Monat, J.-B. Page, G. Ribordy, A. Poppe, A. Allacher, O. Maurhart, T. Länger, M. Peev, A. Zeilinger, “Field test of quantum key distribution in the Tokyo QKD Network,” Opt. Express 19, 10387–10409 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys. 11, 075001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rochas, A.

D. Stucki, M. Legré, F. Buntschu, B. Clausen, N. Felber, N. Gisin, L. Henzen, P. Junod, G. Litzistorf, P. Monbaron, L. Monat, J.-B. Page, D. Perroud, G. Ribordy, A. Rochas, S. Robyr, J. Tavares, R. Thew, P. Trinkler, S. Ventura, R. Voirol, N. Walenta, H. Zbinden, “Long-term performance of the SwissQuantum quantum key distribution network in a field environment,” New J. Phys. 13, 123001 (2011).
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Rohde, H.

H. Rohde, S. Smolorz, A. Poppe, H. Huebel, “Quantum key distribution integrated into commercial WDM systems,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (IEEE, 2008), pp. 1–3.

Rosenberg, D.

N. A. Peters, P. Toliver, T. E. Chapuran, R. J. Runser, S. R. McNown, C. G. Peterson, D. Rosenberg, N. Dallmann, R. J. Hughes, K. P. McCabe, J. E. Nordholt, K. T. Tyagi, “Dense wavelength multiplexing of 1550 nm QKD with strong classical channels in reconfigurable networking environments,” New J. Phys. 11, 045012 (2009).
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Runser, R.

R. Runser, T. Chapuran, P. Toliver, M. Goodman, J. Jackel, “Demonstration of 1.3 μm quantum key distribution (QKD) compatibility with 1.5 μm metropolitan wavelength division multiplexed (WDM) systems,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (IEEE, 2005), p. 3.

P. Toliver, R. Runser, T. Chapuran, S. McNown, M. Goodman, J. Jackel, R. Hughes, C. Peterson, K. McCabe, J. Nordholt, K. Tyagi, P. Hiskett, N. Dallmann, “Impact of spontaneous anti-Stokes Raman scattering on QKD+DWDM networking,” in 17th Annual Meeting of the IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society (IEEE, 2004), pp. 491–492.

Runser, R. J.

N. A. Peters, P. Toliver, T. E. Chapuran, R. J. Runser, S. R. McNown, C. G. Peterson, D. Rosenberg, N. Dallmann, R. J. Hughes, K. P. McCabe, J. E. Nordholt, K. T. Tyagi, “Dense wavelength multiplexing of 1550 nm QKD with strong classical channels in reconfigurable networking environments,” New J. Phys. 11, 045012 (2009).
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T. E. Chapuran, P. Toliver, N. A. Peters, J. Jackel, M. S. Goodman, R. J. Runser, S. R. McNown, N. Dallmann, R. J. Hughes, K. P. McCabe, J. E. Nordholt, C. G. Peterson, K. T. Tyagi, L. Mercer, H. Dardy, “Optical networking for quantum key distribution and quantum communications,” New J. Phys. 11, 105001 (2009).
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Sakai, Y.

Salvail, L.

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys. 11, 075001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sangouard, N.

C. I. Osorio, N. Bruno, N. Sangouard, H. Zbinden, N. Gisin, R. T. Thew, “Heralded photon amplification for quantum communication,” Phys. Rev. A 86, 023815 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Sasaki, G.

R. Ramaswami, K. Sivarajan, G. Sasaki, Optical Networks: A Practical Perspective, 3rd ed. (Morgan Kaufmann, 2009).

Sasaki, M.

Scarani, V.

V. Scarani, H. Bechmann-Pasquinucci, N. J. Cerf, M. Dusek, N. Lütkenhaus, M. Peev, “The security of practical quantum key distribution,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81, 1301–1350 (2009).
[CrossRef]

V. Scarani, R. Renner, “Quantum cryptography with finite resources: Unconditional security bound for discrete-variable protocols with one-way postprocessing,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 200501 (2008).
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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Typical architecture and topology used in the canonical metropolitan optical network considered in this work. A core network, the backbone, with the highest capacity links set up in a ring, is connected with the final users through one-to-many passive access networks. The network component (NC, typically an splitter or multiplexing device) is usually located near the users (optical network units or ONUs) in order to minimize the amount of non-shared fiber used. The backbone uses (reconfigurable) optical add and drop modules, (R)OADM, to add or drop different signals to/from the access networks. In order to drive the access network and translate between its protocol and the one running in the core, an optical line terminator (OLT) is used. This usually means electro-optical conversion, which is disruptive for QKD. Finally, the backbone can be connected to other rings or long-haul networks.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Spectrum of the proposed wavelength-multiplexing scheme. The spectrum is divided in two bands, quantum and service, separated well enough to minimize noise in the quantum band. The first band is located in the O band (13xx) and is used to transport the quantum channel. The second, mainly at the C band (15xx), carries the service channels needed to keep the quantum channel and cryptographic protocol working. Each of the two bands is divided in N subbands, named here Q1...N and S1...N, for quantum and service, respectively. A pair of quantum and service subbands will correspond to an access network. Each subband carries M channels, represented here as arrows. Channels are chosen in an ITU grid and periods of the AWG. Subbands are selected such that the corresponding wavelengths in the quantum and service band are in the same period, hence both will come out together in the same AWG port. (b) Experimental spectrum of the network prototype. To check the behavior of the network prototype, two signals were fed into the quantum and service subbands Q2 and S2. The subband structure is clearly seen. The different number of channels seen in both bands are due to the input signals used for the test. For a complete description, see Sec. 4.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimental data of the cyclic behavior of a 100 GHz 32-channels AWG, as the one used in the network prototype, in the range 1250–1620 nm. Only outputs 1, 8, 16, 24 and 32 are shown, and only output 16 is presented over the whole range. Channels from the same periodic set have the same color.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Simplified network with two WDM-PON access networks. Only one switch is actually needed to allow a wavelength tunable QKD emitter to use any port of the AWG, and thus communicate in an all to all configuration with any receiver on the other AWG. If a switch is used on each side, as depicted, then emitters and receivers can be freely mixed in both access networks. See text.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Backbone node: OADM designed for the QKD-MON. Built out of common network components, it drops the quantum and service subbands from the ring’s signal (input) to the access network, and adds any channel coming from the access network, no matter which subband it belongs to, to the ring (output).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Proposed QKD-MON with three access networks. Colored dots are used to illustrate the communication over different paths. Each colored dot represents a pair of wavelengths: one in the quantum band and the corresponding periodic one in the service band that would come out of the same output port of the AWG. The main network components are represented in dashed-line boxes. These devices can be built with out of the shelf commercial components. Note how one access network can communicate simultaneously with the others in a non-blocking way: communications can be performed simultaneously since the network operates employing wavelength multiplexing.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

QKD-MON test bed: Network prototype with three OADMs built following the design in Fig. 6. The total length of the fiber is approx. 16 km, a typical span for metro area. A relatively long fiber is used in the access network 1 to generate a high amount of Raman scattering, more than the average for access networks. Overlaid in black is the worst case path in the test bed with respect to losses and generated noise, hence this is the set-up used to perform the measurements.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Noise measurement done using the setup in Fig. 7. A laser signal centered at 1520 nm and with power ranging from −30 to +2 dBm is fed at the access network #1. The forward noise produced in a quantum channel (1340 nm, triangles) is measured using a SPD at the access network #3. The backward noise (circles) is also measured by connecting the SPD to the access network #1. This allows assessing the amount of interference that would reach a QKD receiver coming from an emitter in the same AWG. As a further check, we also measure the forward noise in the service band (1530 nm, squares). To facilitate the comparison, values are normalized considering 1 ns gates. Besides, a quantum signal (mean photon number, μ = 0.1, and detector’s quantum efficiency, η = 0.1) detected at the access network #3 and the dark count rate of an SPD [58] are also presented. Using these data, a rough estimation of the QBER is shown for multiple points.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Losses of typical optical network components. Values are from commercial models available in the market [6164] that are used for the test-bed in Sec. 4.

Tables Icon

Table 2 Calculated losses for the main network modules of the QKD-MON (according to Table 1). Using these theoretical values, we estimate the losses of different full optical paths in terms of OADMs and fiber length.

Tables Icon

Table 3 Measured losses in the quantum and service band for the OADMs and for the full optical path in the QKD-MON test bed (see Fig. 7).

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