Abstract

The J-pole and Vee RF antenna design families are investigated for their suitability as optical antennas. The modal and spectral properties are experimentally examined to select the most suitable resonant optical plasmonic mode, which is used to inform the optimal positioning of a quantum emitter in relation to the antennas.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. D. M. Sheen, D. L. McMakin, T. E. Hall, “Three-dimensional millimeter-wave imaging for concealed weapon detection,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 49(9), 1581–1592 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  2. Y. Li, N. J. Feuerstein, D. O. Reudink, “Performance evaluation of a cellular base station multibeam antenna,” IEEE Trans. Vehicular Technol. 46(1), 1–9 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  3. W. Schnell, W. Renz, M. Vester, H. Ermert, “Ultimate signal-to-noise-ratio of surface and body antennas for magnetic resonance imaging,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 48(3), 418–428 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  4. E. W. Reid, L. Ortiz-Balbuena, A. Ghadiri, K. Moez, “A 324-Element Vivaldi Antenna Array for Radio Astronomy Instrumentation,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 61(1), 241–250 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  5. P. Biagioni, J.-S. Huang, B. Hecht, “Nanoantennas for visible and infrared radiation,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 75(2), 024402 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. I. S. Maksymov, I. Staude, A. E. Miroshnichenko, Y. S. Kivshar, “Optical Yagi-Uda nanoantennas,” Nanophotonics 1(1), 65–81 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  7. L. Novotny, “Effective wavelength scaling for optical antennas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(26), 266802 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. L. Novotny, N. van Hulst, “Antennas for light,” Nat. Photonics 5(2), 83–90 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  9. V. Logeeswaran, N. P. Kobayashi, M. S. Islam, W. Wu, P. Chaturvedi, N. X. Fang, S. Y. Wang, R. S. Williams, “Ultrasmooth Silver Thin Films Deposited with a Germanium Nucleation Layer,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 178–182 (2009).
  10. “COMSOL,” (COMSOL, Inc, 2012).
  11. E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic Press, Boston, 1985).
  12. T. D. James, Z. Q. Teo, D. E. Gomez, T. J. Davis, A. Roberts, “The plasmonic J-pole antenna,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(3), 033106 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  13. U. M. Corps, Antenna Handbook (Department of the Navy Headquarters United States Marine Corps, 20380- 1775, 1999).
  14. H. Fischer, O. J. F. Martin, “Engineering the optical response of plasmonic nanoantennas,” Opt. Express 16(12), 9144–9154 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. A. G. Curto, G. Volpe, T. H. Taminiau, M. P. Kreuzer, R. Quidant, N. F. van Hulst, “Unidirectional Emission of a Quantum Dot Coupled to a Nanoantenna,” Science 329(5994), 930–933 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. A. Kinkhabwala, Z. Yu, S. Fan, Y. Avlasevich, K. Müllen, W. E. Moerner, “Large single-molecule fluorescence enhancements produced by a bowtie nanoantenna,” Nat. Photonics 3(11), 654–657 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  17. W. Zhu, M. G. Banaee, D. Wang, Y. Chu, K. B. Crozier, “Lithographically Fabricated Optical Antennas with Gaps Well Below 10 nm,” Small 7(13), 1761–1766 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. C. Gruber, P. Kusar, A. Hohenau, J. R. Krenn, “Controlled addressing of quantum dots by nanowire plasmons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(23), 231102 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  19. A. W. Schell, G. Kewes, T. Hanke, A. Leitenstorfer, R. Bratschitsch, O. Benson, T. Aichele, “Single defect centers in diamond nanocrystals as quantum probes for plasmonic nanostructures,” Opt. Express 19(8), 7914–7920 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2013 (1)

T. D. James, Z. Q. Teo, D. E. Gomez, T. J. Davis, A. Roberts, “The plasmonic J-pole antenna,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(3), 033106 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (4)

C. Gruber, P. Kusar, A. Hohenau, J. R. Krenn, “Controlled addressing of quantum dots by nanowire plasmons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(23), 231102 (2012).
[CrossRef]

E. W. Reid, L. Ortiz-Balbuena, A. Ghadiri, K. Moez, “A 324-Element Vivaldi Antenna Array for Radio Astronomy Instrumentation,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 61(1), 241–250 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. Biagioni, J.-S. Huang, B. Hecht, “Nanoantennas for visible and infrared radiation,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 75(2), 024402 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. S. Maksymov, I. Staude, A. E. Miroshnichenko, Y. S. Kivshar, “Optical Yagi-Uda nanoantennas,” Nanophotonics 1(1), 65–81 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (3)

L. Novotny, N. van Hulst, “Antennas for light,” Nat. Photonics 5(2), 83–90 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. W. Schell, G. Kewes, T. Hanke, A. Leitenstorfer, R. Bratschitsch, O. Benson, T. Aichele, “Single defect centers in diamond nanocrystals as quantum probes for plasmonic nanostructures,” Opt. Express 19(8), 7914–7920 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Zhu, M. G. Banaee, D. Wang, Y. Chu, K. B. Crozier, “Lithographically Fabricated Optical Antennas with Gaps Well Below 10 nm,” Small 7(13), 1761–1766 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

A. G. Curto, G. Volpe, T. H. Taminiau, M. P. Kreuzer, R. Quidant, N. F. van Hulst, “Unidirectional Emission of a Quantum Dot Coupled to a Nanoantenna,” Science 329(5994), 930–933 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

A. Kinkhabwala, Z. Yu, S. Fan, Y. Avlasevich, K. Müllen, W. E. Moerner, “Large single-molecule fluorescence enhancements produced by a bowtie nanoantenna,” Nat. Photonics 3(11), 654–657 (2009).
[CrossRef]

V. Logeeswaran, N. P. Kobayashi, M. S. Islam, W. Wu, P. Chaturvedi, N. X. Fang, S. Y. Wang, R. S. Williams, “Ultrasmooth Silver Thin Films Deposited with a Germanium Nucleation Layer,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 178–182 (2009).

2008 (1)

2007 (1)

L. Novotny, “Effective wavelength scaling for optical antennas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(26), 266802 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

D. M. Sheen, D. L. McMakin, T. E. Hall, “Three-dimensional millimeter-wave imaging for concealed weapon detection,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 49(9), 1581–1592 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

W. Schnell, W. Renz, M. Vester, H. Ermert, “Ultimate signal-to-noise-ratio of surface and body antennas for magnetic resonance imaging,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 48(3), 418–428 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

Y. Li, N. J. Feuerstein, D. O. Reudink, “Performance evaluation of a cellular base station multibeam antenna,” IEEE Trans. Vehicular Technol. 46(1), 1–9 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Aichele, T.

Avlasevich, Y.

A. Kinkhabwala, Z. Yu, S. Fan, Y. Avlasevich, K. Müllen, W. E. Moerner, “Large single-molecule fluorescence enhancements produced by a bowtie nanoantenna,” Nat. Photonics 3(11), 654–657 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Banaee, M. G.

W. Zhu, M. G. Banaee, D. Wang, Y. Chu, K. B. Crozier, “Lithographically Fabricated Optical Antennas with Gaps Well Below 10 nm,” Small 7(13), 1761–1766 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Benson, O.

Biagioni, P.

P. Biagioni, J.-S. Huang, B. Hecht, “Nanoantennas for visible and infrared radiation,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 75(2), 024402 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bratschitsch, R.

Chaturvedi, P.

V. Logeeswaran, N. P. Kobayashi, M. S. Islam, W. Wu, P. Chaturvedi, N. X. Fang, S. Y. Wang, R. S. Williams, “Ultrasmooth Silver Thin Films Deposited with a Germanium Nucleation Layer,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 178–182 (2009).

Chu, Y.

W. Zhu, M. G. Banaee, D. Wang, Y. Chu, K. B. Crozier, “Lithographically Fabricated Optical Antennas with Gaps Well Below 10 nm,” Small 7(13), 1761–1766 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Crozier, K. B.

W. Zhu, M. G. Banaee, D. Wang, Y. Chu, K. B. Crozier, “Lithographically Fabricated Optical Antennas with Gaps Well Below 10 nm,” Small 7(13), 1761–1766 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Curto, A. G.

A. G. Curto, G. Volpe, T. H. Taminiau, M. P. Kreuzer, R. Quidant, N. F. van Hulst, “Unidirectional Emission of a Quantum Dot Coupled to a Nanoantenna,” Science 329(5994), 930–933 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Davis, T. J.

T. D. James, Z. Q. Teo, D. E. Gomez, T. J. Davis, A. Roberts, “The plasmonic J-pole antenna,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(3), 033106 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Ermert, H.

W. Schnell, W. Renz, M. Vester, H. Ermert, “Ultimate signal-to-noise-ratio of surface and body antennas for magnetic resonance imaging,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 48(3), 418–428 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Fan, S.

A. Kinkhabwala, Z. Yu, S. Fan, Y. Avlasevich, K. Müllen, W. E. Moerner, “Large single-molecule fluorescence enhancements produced by a bowtie nanoantenna,” Nat. Photonics 3(11), 654–657 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fang, N. X.

V. Logeeswaran, N. P. Kobayashi, M. S. Islam, W. Wu, P. Chaturvedi, N. X. Fang, S. Y. Wang, R. S. Williams, “Ultrasmooth Silver Thin Films Deposited with a Germanium Nucleation Layer,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 178–182 (2009).

Feuerstein, N. J.

Y. Li, N. J. Feuerstein, D. O. Reudink, “Performance evaluation of a cellular base station multibeam antenna,” IEEE Trans. Vehicular Technol. 46(1), 1–9 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, H.

Ghadiri, A.

E. W. Reid, L. Ortiz-Balbuena, A. Ghadiri, K. Moez, “A 324-Element Vivaldi Antenna Array for Radio Astronomy Instrumentation,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 61(1), 241–250 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Gomez, D. E.

T. D. James, Z. Q. Teo, D. E. Gomez, T. J. Davis, A. Roberts, “The plasmonic J-pole antenna,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(3), 033106 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Gruber, C.

C. Gruber, P. Kusar, A. Hohenau, J. R. Krenn, “Controlled addressing of quantum dots by nanowire plasmons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(23), 231102 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hall, T. E.

D. M. Sheen, D. L. McMakin, T. E. Hall, “Three-dimensional millimeter-wave imaging for concealed weapon detection,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 49(9), 1581–1592 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hanke, T.

Hecht, B.

P. Biagioni, J.-S. Huang, B. Hecht, “Nanoantennas for visible and infrared radiation,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 75(2), 024402 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hohenau, A.

C. Gruber, P. Kusar, A. Hohenau, J. R. Krenn, “Controlled addressing of quantum dots by nanowire plasmons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(23), 231102 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Huang, J.-S.

P. Biagioni, J.-S. Huang, B. Hecht, “Nanoantennas for visible and infrared radiation,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 75(2), 024402 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Islam, M. S.

V. Logeeswaran, N. P. Kobayashi, M. S. Islam, W. Wu, P. Chaturvedi, N. X. Fang, S. Y. Wang, R. S. Williams, “Ultrasmooth Silver Thin Films Deposited with a Germanium Nucleation Layer,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 178–182 (2009).

James, T. D.

T. D. James, Z. Q. Teo, D. E. Gomez, T. J. Davis, A. Roberts, “The plasmonic J-pole antenna,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(3), 033106 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Kewes, G.

Kinkhabwala, A.

A. Kinkhabwala, Z. Yu, S. Fan, Y. Avlasevich, K. Müllen, W. E. Moerner, “Large single-molecule fluorescence enhancements produced by a bowtie nanoantenna,” Nat. Photonics 3(11), 654–657 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kivshar, Y. S.

I. S. Maksymov, I. Staude, A. E. Miroshnichenko, Y. S. Kivshar, “Optical Yagi-Uda nanoantennas,” Nanophotonics 1(1), 65–81 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, N. P.

V. Logeeswaran, N. P. Kobayashi, M. S. Islam, W. Wu, P. Chaturvedi, N. X. Fang, S. Y. Wang, R. S. Williams, “Ultrasmooth Silver Thin Films Deposited with a Germanium Nucleation Layer,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 178–182 (2009).

Krenn, J. R.

C. Gruber, P. Kusar, A. Hohenau, J. R. Krenn, “Controlled addressing of quantum dots by nanowire plasmons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(23), 231102 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kreuzer, M. P.

A. G. Curto, G. Volpe, T. H. Taminiau, M. P. Kreuzer, R. Quidant, N. F. van Hulst, “Unidirectional Emission of a Quantum Dot Coupled to a Nanoantenna,” Science 329(5994), 930–933 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kusar, P.

C. Gruber, P. Kusar, A. Hohenau, J. R. Krenn, “Controlled addressing of quantum dots by nanowire plasmons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(23), 231102 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Leitenstorfer, A.

Li, Y.

Y. Li, N. J. Feuerstein, D. O. Reudink, “Performance evaluation of a cellular base station multibeam antenna,” IEEE Trans. Vehicular Technol. 46(1), 1–9 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Logeeswaran, V.

V. Logeeswaran, N. P. Kobayashi, M. S. Islam, W. Wu, P. Chaturvedi, N. X. Fang, S. Y. Wang, R. S. Williams, “Ultrasmooth Silver Thin Films Deposited with a Germanium Nucleation Layer,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 178–182 (2009).

Maksymov, I. S.

I. S. Maksymov, I. Staude, A. E. Miroshnichenko, Y. S. Kivshar, “Optical Yagi-Uda nanoantennas,” Nanophotonics 1(1), 65–81 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Martin, O. J. F.

McMakin, D. L.

D. M. Sheen, D. L. McMakin, T. E. Hall, “Three-dimensional millimeter-wave imaging for concealed weapon detection,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 49(9), 1581–1592 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Miroshnichenko, A. E.

I. S. Maksymov, I. Staude, A. E. Miroshnichenko, Y. S. Kivshar, “Optical Yagi-Uda nanoantennas,” Nanophotonics 1(1), 65–81 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Moerner, W. E.

A. Kinkhabwala, Z. Yu, S. Fan, Y. Avlasevich, K. Müllen, W. E. Moerner, “Large single-molecule fluorescence enhancements produced by a bowtie nanoantenna,” Nat. Photonics 3(11), 654–657 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Moez, K.

E. W. Reid, L. Ortiz-Balbuena, A. Ghadiri, K. Moez, “A 324-Element Vivaldi Antenna Array for Radio Astronomy Instrumentation,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 61(1), 241–250 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Müllen, K.

A. Kinkhabwala, Z. Yu, S. Fan, Y. Avlasevich, K. Müllen, W. E. Moerner, “Large single-molecule fluorescence enhancements produced by a bowtie nanoantenna,” Nat. Photonics 3(11), 654–657 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Novotny, L.

L. Novotny, N. van Hulst, “Antennas for light,” Nat. Photonics 5(2), 83–90 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Novotny, “Effective wavelength scaling for optical antennas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(26), 266802 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ortiz-Balbuena, L.

E. W. Reid, L. Ortiz-Balbuena, A. Ghadiri, K. Moez, “A 324-Element Vivaldi Antenna Array for Radio Astronomy Instrumentation,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 61(1), 241–250 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Quidant, R.

A. G. Curto, G. Volpe, T. H. Taminiau, M. P. Kreuzer, R. Quidant, N. F. van Hulst, “Unidirectional Emission of a Quantum Dot Coupled to a Nanoantenna,” Science 329(5994), 930–933 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reid, E. W.

E. W. Reid, L. Ortiz-Balbuena, A. Ghadiri, K. Moez, “A 324-Element Vivaldi Antenna Array for Radio Astronomy Instrumentation,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 61(1), 241–250 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Renz, W.

W. Schnell, W. Renz, M. Vester, H. Ermert, “Ultimate signal-to-noise-ratio of surface and body antennas for magnetic resonance imaging,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 48(3), 418–428 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Reudink, D. O.

Y. Li, N. J. Feuerstein, D. O. Reudink, “Performance evaluation of a cellular base station multibeam antenna,” IEEE Trans. Vehicular Technol. 46(1), 1–9 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Roberts, A.

T. D. James, Z. Q. Teo, D. E. Gomez, T. J. Davis, A. Roberts, “The plasmonic J-pole antenna,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(3), 033106 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Schell, A. W.

Schnell, W.

W. Schnell, W. Renz, M. Vester, H. Ermert, “Ultimate signal-to-noise-ratio of surface and body antennas for magnetic resonance imaging,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 48(3), 418–428 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sheen, D. M.

D. M. Sheen, D. L. McMakin, T. E. Hall, “Three-dimensional millimeter-wave imaging for concealed weapon detection,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 49(9), 1581–1592 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Staude, I.

I. S. Maksymov, I. Staude, A. E. Miroshnichenko, Y. S. Kivshar, “Optical Yagi-Uda nanoantennas,” Nanophotonics 1(1), 65–81 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Taminiau, T. H.

A. G. Curto, G. Volpe, T. H. Taminiau, M. P. Kreuzer, R. Quidant, N. F. van Hulst, “Unidirectional Emission of a Quantum Dot Coupled to a Nanoantenna,” Science 329(5994), 930–933 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Teo, Z. Q.

T. D. James, Z. Q. Teo, D. E. Gomez, T. J. Davis, A. Roberts, “The plasmonic J-pole antenna,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(3), 033106 (2013).
[CrossRef]

van Hulst, N.

L. Novotny, N. van Hulst, “Antennas for light,” Nat. Photonics 5(2), 83–90 (2011).
[CrossRef]

van Hulst, N. F.

A. G. Curto, G. Volpe, T. H. Taminiau, M. P. Kreuzer, R. Quidant, N. F. van Hulst, “Unidirectional Emission of a Quantum Dot Coupled to a Nanoantenna,” Science 329(5994), 930–933 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vester, M.

W. Schnell, W. Renz, M. Vester, H. Ermert, “Ultimate signal-to-noise-ratio of surface and body antennas for magnetic resonance imaging,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 48(3), 418–428 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Volpe, G.

A. G. Curto, G. Volpe, T. H. Taminiau, M. P. Kreuzer, R. Quidant, N. F. van Hulst, “Unidirectional Emission of a Quantum Dot Coupled to a Nanoantenna,” Science 329(5994), 930–933 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, D.

W. Zhu, M. G. Banaee, D. Wang, Y. Chu, K. B. Crozier, “Lithographically Fabricated Optical Antennas with Gaps Well Below 10 nm,” Small 7(13), 1761–1766 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, S. Y.

V. Logeeswaran, N. P. Kobayashi, M. S. Islam, W. Wu, P. Chaturvedi, N. X. Fang, S. Y. Wang, R. S. Williams, “Ultrasmooth Silver Thin Films Deposited with a Germanium Nucleation Layer,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 178–182 (2009).

Williams, R. S.

V. Logeeswaran, N. P. Kobayashi, M. S. Islam, W. Wu, P. Chaturvedi, N. X. Fang, S. Y. Wang, R. S. Williams, “Ultrasmooth Silver Thin Films Deposited with a Germanium Nucleation Layer,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 178–182 (2009).

Wu, W.

V. Logeeswaran, N. P. Kobayashi, M. S. Islam, W. Wu, P. Chaturvedi, N. X. Fang, S. Y. Wang, R. S. Williams, “Ultrasmooth Silver Thin Films Deposited with a Germanium Nucleation Layer,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 178–182 (2009).

Yu, Z.

A. Kinkhabwala, Z. Yu, S. Fan, Y. Avlasevich, K. Müllen, W. E. Moerner, “Large single-molecule fluorescence enhancements produced by a bowtie nanoantenna,” Nat. Photonics 3(11), 654–657 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, W.

W. Zhu, M. G. Banaee, D. Wang, Y. Chu, K. B. Crozier, “Lithographically Fabricated Optical Antennas with Gaps Well Below 10 nm,” Small 7(13), 1761–1766 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

T. D. James, Z. Q. Teo, D. E. Gomez, T. J. Davis, A. Roberts, “The plasmonic J-pole antenna,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(3), 033106 (2013).
[CrossRef]

C. Gruber, P. Kusar, A. Hohenau, J. R. Krenn, “Controlled addressing of quantum dots by nanowire plasmons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(23), 231102 (2012).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. (1)

W. Schnell, W. Renz, M. Vester, H. Ermert, “Ultimate signal-to-noise-ratio of surface and body antennas for magnetic resonance imaging,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 48(3), 418–428 (2000).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. (1)

E. W. Reid, L. Ortiz-Balbuena, A. Ghadiri, K. Moez, “A 324-Element Vivaldi Antenna Array for Radio Astronomy Instrumentation,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 61(1), 241–250 (2012).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. (1)

D. M. Sheen, D. L. McMakin, T. E. Hall, “Three-dimensional millimeter-wave imaging for concealed weapon detection,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 49(9), 1581–1592 (2001).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Vehicular Technol. (1)

Y. Li, N. J. Feuerstein, D. O. Reudink, “Performance evaluation of a cellular base station multibeam antenna,” IEEE Trans. Vehicular Technol. 46(1), 1–9 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (1)

V. Logeeswaran, N. P. Kobayashi, M. S. Islam, W. Wu, P. Chaturvedi, N. X. Fang, S. Y. Wang, R. S. Williams, “Ultrasmooth Silver Thin Films Deposited with a Germanium Nucleation Layer,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 178–182 (2009).

Nanophotonics (1)

I. S. Maksymov, I. Staude, A. E. Miroshnichenko, Y. S. Kivshar, “Optical Yagi-Uda nanoantennas,” Nanophotonics 1(1), 65–81 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (2)

A. Kinkhabwala, Z. Yu, S. Fan, Y. Avlasevich, K. Müllen, W. E. Moerner, “Large single-molecule fluorescence enhancements produced by a bowtie nanoantenna,” Nat. Photonics 3(11), 654–657 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Novotny, N. van Hulst, “Antennas for light,” Nat. Photonics 5(2), 83–90 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

L. Novotny, “Effective wavelength scaling for optical antennas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(26), 266802 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rep. Prog. Phys. (1)

P. Biagioni, J.-S. Huang, B. Hecht, “Nanoantennas for visible and infrared radiation,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 75(2), 024402 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (1)

A. G. Curto, G. Volpe, T. H. Taminiau, M. P. Kreuzer, R. Quidant, N. F. van Hulst, “Unidirectional Emission of a Quantum Dot Coupled to a Nanoantenna,” Science 329(5994), 930–933 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Small (1)

W. Zhu, M. G. Banaee, D. Wang, Y. Chu, K. B. Crozier, “Lithographically Fabricated Optical Antennas with Gaps Well Below 10 nm,” Small 7(13), 1761–1766 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (3)

U. M. Corps, Antenna Handbook (Department of the Navy Headquarters United States Marine Corps, 20380- 1775, 1999).

“COMSOL,” (COMSOL, Inc, 2012).

E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic Press, Boston, 1985).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The RF and optical versions of the (a) J-pole, (b) M-J, (c) Vee and (d) AWX antennas, where the antenna and supports of the RF antennas are displayed in orange and black, respectively. The dimensions of the optical versions are noted, along with the initial gap between elements for the (c) Vee and (b) AWX. The scale bar in the SEM images represents 100 nm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Spectral response of (a) J-pole, (b) M-J, (c) Vee and (d) AWX obtained via dark-field microscopy plotted with simulated scattering spectra, where the respective surface charge profiles of the resonant modes for each of the antennas are shown. The two orthogonal resonances are plotted along with the unpolarized scattering spectra for the (c) Vee antenna.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Electric field magnitude map for (a) J-pole, (b) M-J, (c) Vee and (d) AWX antennas, where the optimal dipole location and orientation is shown, along with the corresponding far-field spectra in the xy plane, (e) local electric field enhancement for each antenna with variable gaps for the Vee and AWX antennas.

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