Abstract

This paper presents a novel stereo-phase-based absolute three-dimensional (3D) shape measurement that requires neither phase unwrapping nor projector calibration. This proposed method can be divided into two steps: (1) obtain a coarse disparity map from the quality map; and (2) refine the disparity map using wrapped phase. Fringe patterns are modified to encode the quality map for efficient and accurate stereo matching. Experiments demonstrated that the proposed method could achieve high-quality 3D measurement even with extremely low-quality fringe patterns.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2013 (6)

U. R. Dhond, J. K. Aggarwal, “Real-time scalable depth sensing with hybrid structured light illumination,” IEEE Trans. Imag. Proc. 23(1), 97–109 (2013).

W. Jang, C. Je, Y. Seo, S. W. Lee, “Structured-light stereo: Comparative analysis and integration of structured-light and active stereo for measuring dynamic shape,” Opt. Laser Eng. 51(11), 1255–1264 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. Schaffer, M. Große, B. Harendt, R. Kowarschik, “Coherent two-beam interference fringe projection for highspeed three-dimensional shape measurements,” Appl. Opt. 52(11), 2306–2311 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Bräuer-Burchardt, M. Möller, C. Munkelt, M. Heinze, P. Kühmstedt, G. Notni, “On the accuracy of point correspondence methods in three-dimensional measurement systems using fringe projection,” Opt. Eng. 526), 063,601 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Z. Li, K. Zhong, Y. Li, X. Zhou, Y. Shi, “Multiview phase shifting: a full-resolution and high-speed 3D measurement framework for arbitrary shape dynamic objects,” Opt. Lett. 38(9), 1389–1391 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Zhong, Z. Li, Y. Shi, C. Wang, Y. Lei, “Fast phase measurement profilometry for arbitrary shape objects without phase unwrapping,” Opt. Laser Eng. 51(11), 1213–1222 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (3)

S. Zhang, “Composite phase-shifting algorithm for absolute phase measurement,” Opt. Laser Eng. 50(11), 1538–1541 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Z. Zhang, “Microsoft Kinect Sensor and Its Effect,” IEEE Multimedia 19(2), 4–10 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Je, S. W. Lee, R.-H. Park, “Colour-Stripe Permutation Pattern for Rapid Structured-Light Range Imaging,” Opt. Comm. 285(9), 2320–2331 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (2)

G. Geng, “Structured-light 3D surface imaging: a tutorial,” Advances in Opt. and Photonics 3(2), 128–160 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Wang, S. Zhang, “Superfast multifrequency phase-shifting technique with optimal pulse width modulation,” Opt. Express 19(6), 5143–5148 (2011).

2010 (3)

S. Gorthi, P. Rastogi, “Fringe projection techniques: Whither we are?” Opt. Laser. Eng. 48, 133–140 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Salvi, S. Fernandez, T. Pribanic, X. Llado, “A state of the art in structured light patterns for surface profilometry,” Patt. Recogn. 43(8), 2666–2680 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Zhang, “Recent progresses on real-time 3-D shape measurement using digital fringe projection techniques,” Opt. Laser Eng. 48(2), 149–158 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

X. Chen, J. Xi, Y. Jin, J. Sun, “Accurate calibration for a camera–projector measurement system based on structured light projection,” Opt. Laser Eng. 47(3), 310–319 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. Pan, Q. Kemao, L. Huang, A. Asundi, “Phase error analysis and compensation for nonsinusoidal waveforms in phase-shifting digital fringe projection profilometry,” Opt. Lett. 34(4), 2906–2914 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (5)

W. Gao, L. Wang, Z. Hu, “Flexible method for structured light system calibration,” Opt. Eng. 478), 083,602 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Yang, S. Cheng, Y. Chen, “Flexible and accurate implementation of a binocular structured light system,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 46(5), 373–379 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z. Li, Y. Shi, C. Wang, Y. Wang, “Accurate calibration method for a structured light system,” Opt. Eng. 475), 053,604 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Hirschmuller, “Stereo processing by semiglobal matching and mutual information,” IEEE Trans. Patt. Analysis Mach. Intellig. 30(2), 328–341 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Zhang, S.-T. Yau, “Three-dimensional shape measurement using a structured light system with dual cameras,” Opt. Eng. 471), 013,604 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

S. Zhang, P. S. Huang, “Phase error compensation for a three-dimensional shape measurement system based on the phase shifting method,” Opt. Eng. 466), 063,601 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Zhang, S.-T. Yau, “Generic nonsinusoidal phase error correction for three-dimensional shape measurement using a digital video projector,” Appl. Opt. 46(1), 36–43 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (5)

J. Pan, P. S. Huang, F.-P. Chiang, “Color phase-shifting technique for three-dimensional shape measurement,” Opt. Eng. 4512), 013,602 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Z. Zhang, C. E. Towers, D. P. Towers, “Time efficient color fringe projection system for 3D shape and color using optimum 3-frequency selection,” Opt. Express 14(14), 6444–6455 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Zhang, P. S. Huang, “Novel method for structured light system calibration,” Opt. Eng. 458), 083,601 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Wiegmann, H. Wagner, R. Kowarschik, “Human face measurement by projecting bandlimited random patterns,” Opt. Express 14(17), 7692–7698 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Zhang, P. S. Huang, “High-resolution real-time three-dimensional shape measurement,” Opt. Eng. 4512), 123,601 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

J. Davis, R. Ramamoorthi, S. Rusinkiewicz, “Spacetime Stereo: A Unifying Framework for Depth from Triangulation,” IEEE Trans. Patt. Anal. and Mach.e Intell. 27(2), 1–7 (2005).

J. Pan, P. S. Huang, F.-P. Chiang, “Color-coded binary fringe projection technique for 3-D shape measurement,” Opt. Eng. 4412), 023,606 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (4)

H. Guo, H. He, M. Chen, “Gamma correction for digital fringe projection profilometry,” Appl. Opt. 43, 2906–2914 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Legarda-Sáenz, T. Bothe, W. P. Jüptner, “Accurate Procedure for the Calibration of a Structured Light System,” Opt. Eng. 43(2), 464–471 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Salvi, J. Pages, J. Batlle, “Pattern codification strategies in structured light systems,” Patt. Recogn. 37(4), 827–849 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. Zhang, N. Snavely, B. Curless, S. M. Seitz, “Spacetime Faces: High-Resolution Capture for Modeling and Animation,” ACM Trans. Graph. 23(3), 548–558 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

Q. Hu, P. S. Huang, Q. Fu, F. P. Chiang, “Calibration of a 3-D Shape Measurement System,” Opt. Eng. 42(2), 487–493 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (3)

D. Scharstein, R. Szeliski, “A taxonomy and evaluation of dense two-frame stereo correspondence algorithms,” Intl J. Comp. Vis. 47(1–3), 7–42 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Rusinkiewicz, O. Hall-Holt, M. Levoy, “Real-time 3D Model Acquisition,” ACM Trans. Graph. 21(3), 438–446 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. S. Huang, C. Zhang, F.-P. Chiang, “High-speed 3-D Shape Measurement Based on Digital Fringe Projection,” Opt. Eng. 42(1), 163–168 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1999 (4)

G. Sansoni, M. Carocci, R. Rodella, “Three-Dimensional Vision Based on a Combination of Gray-Code and Phase-Shift Light Projection: Analysis and Compensation of the Systematic Errors,” Appl. Opt. 38, 6565–6573 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Kakunai, T. Sakamoto, K. Iwata, “Profile measurement taken with liquid-crystal grating,” Appl. Opt. 38(13), 2824–2828 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. J. Cuevas, M. Servin, R. Rodriguez-Vera, “Depth Object Recovery Using Radial Basis Functions,” Opt. Commun. 163(4), 270–277 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. S. Huang, Q. Hu, F. Jin, F. P. Chiang, “Color-encoded digital fringe projection technique for high-speed three-dimensional surface contouring,” Opt. Eng. 38, 1065–1071 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

Z. J. Geng, “Rainbow 3-D Camera: New Concept of High-Speed Three Vision System,” Opt. Eng. 35, 376–383 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

T. Kanade, M. Okutomi, “A stereo matching algorithm with an adaptive window: Theory and experiment,” IEEE Trans. Patt. Analy. and Mach. Intellig. 16(9), 920–932 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

M. Maruyama, S. Abe, “Range sensing by projecting multiple slits with random cuts,” IEEE Trans. Patt. Analysis Mach. Intellig. 15(6), 647–651 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

U. R. Dhond, J. K. Aggarwal, “Structure from stereo-a review,” IEEE Trans. Systems, Man. and Cybernetics 19(6), 1489–1510 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

K. G. Harding, “Color Encoded Morié Contouring,” in Proc. SPIE, vol. 1005, pp. 169–178 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

1985 (1)

Abe, S.

M. Maruyama, S. Abe, “Range sensing by projecting multiple slits with random cuts,” IEEE Trans. Patt. Analysis Mach. Intellig. 15(6), 647–651 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Aggarwal, J. K.

U. R. Dhond, J. K. Aggarwal, “Real-time scalable depth sensing with hybrid structured light illumination,” IEEE Trans. Imag. Proc. 23(1), 97–109 (2013).

U. R. Dhond, J. K. Aggarwal, “Structure from stereo-a review,” IEEE Trans. Systems, Man. and Cybernetics 19(6), 1489–1510 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Asundi, A.

Bao, H.

Y. Huang, Y. Shang, Y. Liu, H. Bao, Handbook of 3D Machine Vision: Optical Metrology and Imaging, chap. 3D shapes from Speckle, pp. 33–56, 1 (CRC, 2013).
[CrossRef]

Batlle, J.

J. Salvi, J. Pages, J. Batlle, “Pattern codification strategies in structured light systems,” Patt. Recogn. 37(4), 827–849 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Besse, F.

F. Besse, C. Rother, A. W. Fitzgibbon, J. Kautz, “PMBP: PatchMatch Belief Propagation for Correspondence Field Estimation,” Intl J. Comp. Vis. pp. 1–12 (Springer2013).

Bothe, T.

R. Legarda-Sáenz, T. Bothe, W. P. Jüptner, “Accurate Procedure for the Calibration of a Structured Light System,” Opt. Eng. 43(2), 464–471 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bräuer-Burchardt, C.

C. Bräuer-Burchardt, M. Möller, C. Munkelt, M. Heinze, P. Kühmstedt, G. Notni, “On the accuracy of point correspondence methods in three-dimensional measurement systems using fringe projection,” Opt. Eng. 526), 063,601 (2013).
[CrossRef]

C. Bräuer-Burchardt, P. Kühmstedt, G. Notni, “Phase unwrapping using geometric constraints for high-speed fringe projection based 3D measurements,” in SPIE Optical Metrology 2013, pp. 878,906 (2013).

Carocci, M.

Chen, M.

H. Guo, H. He, M. Chen, “Gamma correction for digital fringe projection profilometry,” Appl. Opt. 43, 2906–2914 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, X.

X. Chen, J. Xi, Y. Jin, J. Sun, “Accurate calibration for a camera–projector measurement system based on structured light projection,” Opt. Laser Eng. 47(3), 310–319 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.

R. Yang, S. Cheng, Y. Chen, “Flexible and accurate implementation of a binocular structured light system,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 46(5), 373–379 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, S.

R. Yang, S. Cheng, Y. Chen, “Flexible and accurate implementation of a binocular structured light system,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 46(5), 373–379 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, Y.-Y.

Chiang, F. P.

Q. Hu, P. S. Huang, Q. Fu, F. P. Chiang, “Calibration of a 3-D Shape Measurement System,” Opt. Eng. 42(2), 487–493 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. S. Huang, Q. Hu, F. Jin, F. P. Chiang, “Color-encoded digital fringe projection technique for high-speed three-dimensional surface contouring,” Opt. Eng. 38, 1065–1071 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chiang, F.-P.

J. Pan, P. S. Huang, F.-P. Chiang, “Color phase-shifting technique for three-dimensional shape measurement,” Opt. Eng. 4512), 013,602 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Pan, P. S. Huang, F.-P. Chiang, “Color-coded binary fringe projection technique for 3-D shape measurement,” Opt. Eng. 4412), 023,606 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. S. Huang, C. Zhang, F.-P. Chiang, “High-speed 3-D Shape Measurement Based on Digital Fringe Projection,” Opt. Eng. 42(1), 163–168 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Creath, K.

Cuevas, F. J.

F. J. Cuevas, M. Servin, R. Rodriguez-Vera, “Depth Object Recovery Using Radial Basis Functions,” Opt. Commun. 163(4), 270–277 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Curless, B.

L. Zhang, N. Snavely, B. Curless, S. M. Seitz, “Spacetime Faces: High-Resolution Capture for Modeling and Animation,” ACM Trans. Graph. 23(3), 548–558 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. Zhang, B. Curless, S. Seitz, “Spacetime Stereo: Shape Recovery for Dynamic Scenes,” in Proc. Comp. Vis. Patt. Recogn., pp. 367–374 (2003).

Davis, J.

J. Davis, R. Ramamoorthi, S. Rusinkiewicz, “Spacetime Stereo: A Unifying Framework for Depth from Triangulation,” IEEE Trans. Patt. Anal. and Mach.e Intell. 27(2), 1–7 (2005).

Dhond, U. R.

U. R. Dhond, J. K. Aggarwal, “Real-time scalable depth sensing with hybrid structured light illumination,” IEEE Trans. Imag. Proc. 23(1), 97–109 (2013).

U. R. Dhond, J. K. Aggarwal, “Structure from stereo-a review,” IEEE Trans. Systems, Man. and Cybernetics 19(6), 1489–1510 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Fernandez, S.

J. Salvi, S. Fernandez, T. Pribanic, X. Llado, “A state of the art in structured light patterns for surface profilometry,” Patt. Recogn. 43(8), 2666–2680 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fitzgibbon, A. W.

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Appl. Opt. (1)

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Appl. Opt. (6)

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Example of 1/f noise used for encoded pattern. (a) Encoded pattern, Ip(x, y); (b) modified fringe pattern

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Photograph of the developed hardware system.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimental results of a smooth sphere. (a) One for three fringe patterns from left camera; (b) wrapped phase map; (c) quality map, γ(x, y); (d)–(f) corresponding images for the right camera.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Experimental results of a smooth sphere. (a) Photograph of measured sphere; (b) coarse disparity map using ELAS algorithm; (c) Refined disparity map using wrapped phase; (d) 3D result using (b); (e) 3D reconstruction using (c); (f) unwrapped phase after removing gross slope.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Surface measurement error for different methods. (a) Normalized cross-section of the 3D result shown in Fig. 4(d); (b) Normalized cross-section of the 3D result shown in Fig. 4(e); and (c) Normalized cross-section of the 3D result shown in Fig. 4(f); (d)–(f) shows the difference between the 3D result with the fitted smooth surface.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Comparing measurement results with ideal spheres. (a) Cross sections of the refined 3D shape and the ideal sphere; (b) Cross sections of the 3D shape from the reference-plane-based calibration method and the ideal sphere; (c) Difference error for (a) (rms error is approximately 0.16 mm); (d) Difference error for (b) (rms error is approximately 2.27 mm).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Experimental results of more complex objects. (a) Photograph of measured statues; (b) quality map showing encoded pattern; (c) coarse disparity map using ELAS algorithm; (d) Refined disparity map using wrapped phase; (e) closeup view of (c); (f) closeup view of (d).

Equations (11)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I 1 ( x , y ) = I + I cos ( ϕ 2 π / 3 ) ,
I 2 ( x , y ) = I + I cos ( ϕ ) ,
I 3 ( x , y ) = I + I cos ( ϕ + 2 π / 3 ) ,
ϕ ( x , y ) = tan 1 [ 3 ( I 1 I 3 ) 2 I 2 I 1 I 3 ] ,
γ ( x , y ) = I I = 3 ( I 1 I 3 ) 2 + ( 2 I 2 I 1 I 3 ) 2 I 1 + I 2 + I 3 .
I 1 ( x , y ) = I + I p ( x , y ) I cos ( ϕ 2 π / 3 ) ,
I 2 ( x , y ) = I + I p ( x , y ) I cos ( ϕ ) ,
I 3 ( x , y ) = I + I p ( x , y ) I cos ( ϕ + 2 π / 3 ) .
x target ( ϕ ) + τ = x source ( ϕ )
x target ( ϕ ) = a 0 t + a 1 ϕ + a 2 ϕ 2 + a 3 ϕ 3
x source ( ϕ ) = a 0 s + a 1 ϕ + a 2 ϕ 2 + a 3 ϕ 3

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