Abstract

We present a rigorous approach for designing a highly efficient coupling between single mode optical fibers and silicon nanophotonic waveguides based on diffractive gratings. The structures are fabricated on standard SOI wafers in a cost-effective CMOS process flow. The measured coupling efficiency reaches −1.08 dB and a record value of −0.62 dB in the 1550 nm telecommunication window using a uniform and a nonuniform grating, respectively, with a 1dB-bandwidth larger than 40 nm.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2013 (4)

J. Leuthold, C. Koos, W. Freude, L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, D. Korn, J. Pfeifle, M. Lauermann, R. Dinu, S. Wehrli, M. Jazbinsek, P. Günter, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, H. Kurz, M. Fournier, J. Fedeli, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, “Silicon-organic hybrid electro-optical devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(6), 3401413 (2013).
[CrossRef]

R. Takei, M. Suzuki, E. Omoda, S. Manako, T. Kamei, M. Mori, Y. Sakakibara, “Silicon knife-edge taper waveguide for ultralow-loss spot-size converter fabricated by photolithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(10), 101108 (2013).
[CrossRef]

C. Zhang, J.-H. Sun, X. Xiao, W.-M. Sun, X.-J. Zhang, T. Chu, J.-Z. Yu, Y.-D. Yu, “High efficiency grating coupler for coupling between single-mode fiber and SOI waveguides,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 30(1), 014207 (2013).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Zaoui, A. Kunze, W. Vogel, M. Berroth, “CMOS-compatible polarization splitting grating couplers with a backside metal mirror,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(14), 1395–1397 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (2)

2011 (3)

M. J. Heck, H. Chen, A. W. Fang, B. R. Koch, D. Liang, H. Park, M. N. Sysak, J. E. Bowers, “Hybrid silicon photonics for optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(2), 333–346 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. A. Kish, D. Welch, R. Nagarajan, J. L. Pleumeekers, V. Lal, M. Ziari, A. Nilsson, M. Kato, S. Murthy, P. Evans, S. W. Corzine, M. Mitchell, P. Samra, M. Missey, S. DeMars, R. P. Schneider, M. S. Reffle, T. Butrie, J. T. Rahn, M. Van Leeuwen, J. W. Stewart, D. J. Lambert, R. C. Muthiah, H. Tsai, J. S. Bostak, A. Dentai, K. Wu, H. Sun, D. J. Pavinski, J. Zhang, J. Tang, J. McNicol, M. Kuntz, V. Dominic, B. D. Taylor, R. A. Salvatore, M. Fisher, A. Spannagel, E. Strzelecka, P. Studenkov, M. Raburn, W. Williams, D. Christini, K. J. Thomson, S. S. Agashe, R. Malendevich, G. Goldfarb, S. Melle, C. Joyner, M. Kaufman, S. G. Grubb, “Current status of large-scale InP photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(6), 1470–1489 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Mekis, S. Gloeckner, G. Masini, A. Narasimha, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, P. De Dobbelaere, “A grating-coupler-enabled CMOS photonics platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 597–608 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

X. Chen, C. Li, C. K. Fung, S. M. Lo, H. K. Tsang, “Apodized waveguide grating couplers for efficient coupling to optical fibers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(15), 1156–1158 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Pu, L. Liu, H. Ou, K. Yvind, J. M. Hvam, “Ultra-low-loss inverted taper coupler for silicon-on-insulator ridge waveguide,” Opt. Commun. 283(19), 3678–3682 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

N. Fang, Z. Yang, A. Wu, J. Chen, M. Zhang, S. Zou, X. Wang, “Three-dimensional tapered spot-size converter based on (111) silicon-on-insulator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21, 820–822 (2009).

B. Schmid, A. Petrov, M. Eich, “Optimized grating coupler with fully etched slots,” Opt. Express 17(13), 11066–11076 (2009).
[PubMed]

2007 (2)

F. Van Laere, G. Roelkens, M. Ayre, J. Schrauwen, D. Taillaert, D. Van Thourhout, T. F. Krauss, R. Baets, “Compact and highly efficient grating couplers between optical fiber and nanophotonic waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25(1), 151–156 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. Van Laere, T. Claes, J. Schrauwen, S. Scheerlinck, W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, L. O’Faolain, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, “Compact focusing grating couplers for silicon-on-insulator integrated circuits,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19(23), 1919–1921 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

2004 (2)

2002 (1)

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel, R. Baets, “An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(7), 949–955 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Abdalla, S.

A. Mekis, S. Abdalla, D. Foltz, S. Gloeckner, S. Hovey, S. Jackson, Y. Liang, M. Mack, G. Masini, M. Peterson, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, M. Sharp, P. Sun, D. Tan, L. Verslegers, B. P. Welch, K. Yokoyama, S. Yu, P. M. De Dobbelaere, “A CMOS photonics platform for high-speed optical interconnects,” in Proceedings of IEEE Photonics Conference (2012), pp. 356–357.

Agashe, S. S.

F. A. Kish, D. Welch, R. Nagarajan, J. L. Pleumeekers, V. Lal, M. Ziari, A. Nilsson, M. Kato, S. Murthy, P. Evans, S. W. Corzine, M. Mitchell, P. Samra, M. Missey, S. DeMars, R. P. Schneider, M. S. Reffle, T. Butrie, J. T. Rahn, M. Van Leeuwen, J. W. Stewart, D. J. Lambert, R. C. Muthiah, H. Tsai, J. S. Bostak, A. Dentai, K. Wu, H. Sun, D. J. Pavinski, J. Zhang, J. Tang, J. McNicol, M. Kuntz, V. Dominic, B. D. Taylor, R. A. Salvatore, M. Fisher, A. Spannagel, E. Strzelecka, P. Studenkov, M. Raburn, W. Williams, D. Christini, K. J. Thomson, S. S. Agashe, R. Malendevich, G. Goldfarb, S. Melle, C. Joyner, M. Kaufman, S. G. Grubb, “Current status of large-scale InP photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(6), 1470–1489 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Alloatti, L.

J. Leuthold, C. Koos, W. Freude, L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, D. Korn, J. Pfeifle, M. Lauermann, R. Dinu, S. Wehrli, M. Jazbinsek, P. Günter, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, H. Kurz, M. Fournier, J. Fedeli, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, “Silicon-organic hybrid electro-optical devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(6), 3401413 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Atta, R.

Ayre, M.

Baets, R.

F. Van Laere, G. Roelkens, M. Ayre, J. Schrauwen, D. Taillaert, D. Van Thourhout, T. F. Krauss, R. Baets, “Compact and highly efficient grating couplers between optical fiber and nanophotonic waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25(1), 151–156 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. Van Laere, T. Claes, J. Schrauwen, S. Scheerlinck, W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, L. O’Faolain, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, “Compact focusing grating couplers for silicon-on-insulator integrated circuits,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19(23), 1919–1921 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Taillaert, P. Bienstman, R. Baets, “Compact efficient broadband grating coupler for silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 29(23), 2749–2751 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Dumon, J. Van Campenhout, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, V. Wiaux, S. Beckx, “Basic structures for photonic integrated circuits in silicon-on-insulator,” Opt. Express 12(8), 1583–1591 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel, R. Baets, “An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(7), 949–955 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Beckx, S.

Berroth, M.

W. S. Zaoui, A. Kunze, W. Vogel, M. Berroth, “CMOS-compatible polarization splitting grating couplers with a backside metal mirror,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(14), 1395–1397 (2013).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Zaoui, M. F. Rosa, W. Vogel, M. Berroth, J. Butschke, F. Letzkus, “Cost-effective CMOS-compatible grating couplers with backside metal mirror and 69% coupling efficiency,” Opt. Express 20(26), B238–B243 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bienstman, P.

Bogaerts, W.

J. Leuthold, C. Koos, W. Freude, L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, D. Korn, J. Pfeifle, M. Lauermann, R. Dinu, S. Wehrli, M. Jazbinsek, P. Günter, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, H. Kurz, M. Fournier, J. Fedeli, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, “Silicon-organic hybrid electro-optical devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(6), 3401413 (2013).
[CrossRef]

F. Van Laere, T. Claes, J. Schrauwen, S. Scheerlinck, W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, L. O’Faolain, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, “Compact focusing grating couplers for silicon-on-insulator integrated circuits,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19(23), 1919–1921 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Dumon, J. Van Campenhout, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, V. Wiaux, S. Beckx, “Basic structures for photonic integrated circuits in silicon-on-insulator,” Opt. Express 12(8), 1583–1591 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel, R. Baets, “An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(7), 949–955 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bolten, J.

J. Leuthold, C. Koos, W. Freude, L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, D. Korn, J. Pfeifle, M. Lauermann, R. Dinu, S. Wehrli, M. Jazbinsek, P. Günter, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, H. Kurz, M. Fournier, J. Fedeli, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, “Silicon-organic hybrid electro-optical devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(6), 3401413 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Bostak, J. S.

F. A. Kish, D. Welch, R. Nagarajan, J. L. Pleumeekers, V. Lal, M. Ziari, A. Nilsson, M. Kato, S. Murthy, P. Evans, S. W. Corzine, M. Mitchell, P. Samra, M. Missey, S. DeMars, R. P. Schneider, M. S. Reffle, T. Butrie, J. T. Rahn, M. Van Leeuwen, J. W. Stewart, D. J. Lambert, R. C. Muthiah, H. Tsai, J. S. Bostak, A. Dentai, K. Wu, H. Sun, D. J. Pavinski, J. Zhang, J. Tang, J. McNicol, M. Kuntz, V. Dominic, B. D. Taylor, R. A. Salvatore, M. Fisher, A. Spannagel, E. Strzelecka, P. Studenkov, M. Raburn, W. Williams, D. Christini, K. J. Thomson, S. S. Agashe, R. Malendevich, G. Goldfarb, S. Melle, C. Joyner, M. Kaufman, S. G. Grubb, “Current status of large-scale InP photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(6), 1470–1489 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bowers, J. E.

M. J. Heck, H. Chen, A. W. Fang, B. R. Koch, D. Liang, H. Park, M. N. Sysak, J. E. Bowers, “Hybrid silicon photonics for optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(2), 333–346 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Butrie, T.

F. A. Kish, D. Welch, R. Nagarajan, J. L. Pleumeekers, V. Lal, M. Ziari, A. Nilsson, M. Kato, S. Murthy, P. Evans, S. W. Corzine, M. Mitchell, P. Samra, M. Missey, S. DeMars, R. P. Schneider, M. S. Reffle, T. Butrie, J. T. Rahn, M. Van Leeuwen, J. W. Stewart, D. J. Lambert, R. C. Muthiah, H. Tsai, J. S. Bostak, A. Dentai, K. Wu, H. Sun, D. J. Pavinski, J. Zhang, J. Tang, J. McNicol, M. Kuntz, V. Dominic, B. D. Taylor, R. A. Salvatore, M. Fisher, A. Spannagel, E. Strzelecka, P. Studenkov, M. Raburn, W. Williams, D. Christini, K. J. Thomson, S. S. Agashe, R. Malendevich, G. Goldfarb, S. Melle, C. Joyner, M. Kaufman, S. G. Grubb, “Current status of large-scale InP photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(6), 1470–1489 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Butschke, J.

Chen, H.

M. J. Heck, H. Chen, A. W. Fang, B. R. Koch, D. Liang, H. Park, M. N. Sysak, J. E. Bowers, “Hybrid silicon photonics for optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(2), 333–346 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J.

N. Fang, Z. Yang, A. Wu, J. Chen, M. Zhang, S. Zou, X. Wang, “Three-dimensional tapered spot-size converter based on (111) silicon-on-insulator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21, 820–822 (2009).

Chen, X.

X. Chen, C. Li, C. K. Fung, S. M. Lo, H. K. Tsang, “Apodized waveguide grating couplers for efficient coupling to optical fibers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(15), 1156–1158 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Christini, D.

F. A. Kish, D. Welch, R. Nagarajan, J. L. Pleumeekers, V. Lal, M. Ziari, A. Nilsson, M. Kato, S. Murthy, P. Evans, S. W. Corzine, M. Mitchell, P. Samra, M. Missey, S. DeMars, R. P. Schneider, M. S. Reffle, T. Butrie, J. T. Rahn, M. Van Leeuwen, J. W. Stewart, D. J. Lambert, R. C. Muthiah, H. Tsai, J. S. Bostak, A. Dentai, K. Wu, H. Sun, D. J. Pavinski, J. Zhang, J. Tang, J. McNicol, M. Kuntz, V. Dominic, B. D. Taylor, R. A. Salvatore, M. Fisher, A. Spannagel, E. Strzelecka, P. Studenkov, M. Raburn, W. Williams, D. Christini, K. J. Thomson, S. S. Agashe, R. Malendevich, G. Goldfarb, S. Melle, C. Joyner, M. Kaufman, S. G. Grubb, “Current status of large-scale InP photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(6), 1470–1489 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chu, T.

C. Zhang, J.-H. Sun, X. Xiao, W.-M. Sun, X.-J. Zhang, T. Chu, J.-Z. Yu, Y.-D. Yu, “High efficiency grating coupler for coupling between single-mode fiber and SOI waveguides,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 30(1), 014207 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Claes, T.

F. Van Laere, T. Claes, J. Schrauwen, S. Scheerlinck, W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, L. O’Faolain, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, “Compact focusing grating couplers for silicon-on-insulator integrated circuits,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19(23), 1919–1921 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Corzine, S. W.

F. A. Kish, D. Welch, R. Nagarajan, J. L. Pleumeekers, V. Lal, M. Ziari, A. Nilsson, M. Kato, S. Murthy, P. Evans, S. W. Corzine, M. Mitchell, P. Samra, M. Missey, S. DeMars, R. P. Schneider, M. S. Reffle, T. Butrie, J. T. Rahn, M. Van Leeuwen, J. W. Stewart, D. J. Lambert, R. C. Muthiah, H. Tsai, J. S. Bostak, A. Dentai, K. Wu, H. Sun, D. J. Pavinski, J. Zhang, J. Tang, J. McNicol, M. Kuntz, V. Dominic, B. D. Taylor, R. A. Salvatore, M. Fisher, A. Spannagel, E. Strzelecka, P. Studenkov, M. Raburn, W. Williams, D. Christini, K. J. Thomson, S. S. Agashe, R. Malendevich, G. Goldfarb, S. Melle, C. Joyner, M. Kaufman, S. G. Grubb, “Current status of large-scale InP photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(6), 1470–1489 (2011).
[CrossRef]

De Dobbelaere, P.

A. Mekis, S. Gloeckner, G. Masini, A. Narasimha, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, P. De Dobbelaere, “A grating-coupler-enabled CMOS photonics platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 597–608 (2011).
[CrossRef]

De Dobbelaere, P. M.

A. Mekis, S. Abdalla, D. Foltz, S. Gloeckner, S. Hovey, S. Jackson, Y. Liang, M. Mack, G. Masini, M. Peterson, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, M. Sharp, P. Sun, D. Tan, L. Verslegers, B. P. Welch, K. Yokoyama, S. Yu, P. M. De Dobbelaere, “A CMOS photonics platform for high-speed optical interconnects,” in Proceedings of IEEE Photonics Conference (2012), pp. 356–357.

De Mesel, K.

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel, R. Baets, “An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(7), 949–955 (2002).
[CrossRef]

DeMars, S.

F. A. Kish, D. Welch, R. Nagarajan, J. L. Pleumeekers, V. Lal, M. Ziari, A. Nilsson, M. Kato, S. Murthy, P. Evans, S. W. Corzine, M. Mitchell, P. Samra, M. Missey, S. DeMars, R. P. Schneider, M. S. Reffle, T. Butrie, J. T. Rahn, M. Van Leeuwen, J. W. Stewart, D. J. Lambert, R. C. Muthiah, H. Tsai, J. S. Bostak, A. Dentai, K. Wu, H. Sun, D. J. Pavinski, J. Zhang, J. Tang, J. McNicol, M. Kuntz, V. Dominic, B. D. Taylor, R. A. Salvatore, M. Fisher, A. Spannagel, E. Strzelecka, P. Studenkov, M. Raburn, W. Williams, D. Christini, K. J. Thomson, S. S. Agashe, R. Malendevich, G. Goldfarb, S. Melle, C. Joyner, M. Kaufman, S. G. Grubb, “Current status of large-scale InP photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(6), 1470–1489 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Dentai, A.

F. A. Kish, D. Welch, R. Nagarajan, J. L. Pleumeekers, V. Lal, M. Ziari, A. Nilsson, M. Kato, S. Murthy, P. Evans, S. W. Corzine, M. Mitchell, P. Samra, M. Missey, S. DeMars, R. P. Schneider, M. S. Reffle, T. Butrie, J. T. Rahn, M. Van Leeuwen, J. W. Stewart, D. J. Lambert, R. C. Muthiah, H. Tsai, J. S. Bostak, A. Dentai, K. Wu, H. Sun, D. J. Pavinski, J. Zhang, J. Tang, J. McNicol, M. Kuntz, V. Dominic, B. D. Taylor, R. A. Salvatore, M. Fisher, A. Spannagel, E. Strzelecka, P. Studenkov, M. Raburn, W. Williams, D. Christini, K. J. Thomson, S. S. Agashe, R. Malendevich, G. Goldfarb, S. Melle, C. Joyner, M. Kaufman, S. G. Grubb, “Current status of large-scale InP photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(6), 1470–1489 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Dinu, R.

J. Leuthold, C. Koos, W. Freude, L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, D. Korn, J. Pfeifle, M. Lauermann, R. Dinu, S. Wehrli, M. Jazbinsek, P. Günter, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, H. Kurz, M. Fournier, J. Fedeli, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, “Silicon-organic hybrid electro-optical devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(6), 3401413 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Dominic, V.

F. A. Kish, D. Welch, R. Nagarajan, J. L. Pleumeekers, V. Lal, M. Ziari, A. Nilsson, M. Kato, S. Murthy, P. Evans, S. W. Corzine, M. Mitchell, P. Samra, M. Missey, S. DeMars, R. P. Schneider, M. S. Reffle, T. Butrie, J. T. Rahn, M. Van Leeuwen, J. W. Stewart, D. J. Lambert, R. C. Muthiah, H. Tsai, J. S. Bostak, A. Dentai, K. Wu, H. Sun, D. J. Pavinski, J. Zhang, J. Tang, J. McNicol, M. Kuntz, V. Dominic, B. D. Taylor, R. A. Salvatore, M. Fisher, A. Spannagel, E. Strzelecka, P. Studenkov, M. Raburn, W. Williams, D. Christini, K. J. Thomson, S. S. Agashe, R. Malendevich, G. Goldfarb, S. Melle, C. Joyner, M. Kaufman, S. G. Grubb, “Current status of large-scale InP photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(6), 1470–1489 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Dumon, P.

Eich, M.

Ensell, G.

Evans, A. G.

Evans, P.

F. A. Kish, D. Welch, R. Nagarajan, J. L. Pleumeekers, V. Lal, M. Ziari, A. Nilsson, M. Kato, S. Murthy, P. Evans, S. W. Corzine, M. Mitchell, P. Samra, M. Missey, S. DeMars, R. P. Schneider, M. S. Reffle, T. Butrie, J. T. Rahn, M. Van Leeuwen, J. W. Stewart, D. J. Lambert, R. C. Muthiah, H. Tsai, J. S. Bostak, A. Dentai, K. Wu, H. Sun, D. J. Pavinski, J. Zhang, J. Tang, J. McNicol, M. Kuntz, V. Dominic, B. D. Taylor, R. A. Salvatore, M. Fisher, A. Spannagel, E. Strzelecka, P. Studenkov, M. Raburn, W. Williams, D. Christini, K. J. Thomson, S. S. Agashe, R. Malendevich, G. Goldfarb, S. Melle, C. Joyner, M. Kaufman, S. G. Grubb, “Current status of large-scale InP photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(6), 1470–1489 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Fang, A. W.

M. J. Heck, H. Chen, A. W. Fang, B. R. Koch, D. Liang, H. Park, M. N. Sysak, J. E. Bowers, “Hybrid silicon photonics for optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(2), 333–346 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Fang, N.

N. Fang, Z. Yang, A. Wu, J. Chen, M. Zhang, S. Zou, X. Wang, “Three-dimensional tapered spot-size converter based on (111) silicon-on-insulator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21, 820–822 (2009).

Fedeli, J.

J. Leuthold, C. Koos, W. Freude, L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, D. Korn, J. Pfeifle, M. Lauermann, R. Dinu, S. Wehrli, M. Jazbinsek, P. Günter, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, H. Kurz, M. Fournier, J. Fedeli, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, “Silicon-organic hybrid electro-optical devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(6), 3401413 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Fisher, M.

F. A. Kish, D. Welch, R. Nagarajan, J. L. Pleumeekers, V. Lal, M. Ziari, A. Nilsson, M. Kato, S. Murthy, P. Evans, S. W. Corzine, M. Mitchell, P. Samra, M. Missey, S. DeMars, R. P. Schneider, M. S. Reffle, T. Butrie, J. T. Rahn, M. Van Leeuwen, J. W. Stewart, D. J. Lambert, R. C. Muthiah, H. Tsai, J. S. Bostak, A. Dentai, K. Wu, H. Sun, D. J. Pavinski, J. Zhang, J. Tang, J. McNicol, M. Kuntz, V. Dominic, B. D. Taylor, R. A. Salvatore, M. Fisher, A. Spannagel, E. Strzelecka, P. Studenkov, M. Raburn, W. Williams, D. Christini, K. J. Thomson, S. S. Agashe, R. Malendevich, G. Goldfarb, S. Melle, C. Joyner, M. Kaufman, S. G. Grubb, “Current status of large-scale InP photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(6), 1470–1489 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Foltz, D.

A. Mekis, S. Abdalla, D. Foltz, S. Gloeckner, S. Hovey, S. Jackson, Y. Liang, M. Mack, G. Masini, M. Peterson, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, M. Sharp, P. Sun, D. Tan, L. Verslegers, B. P. Welch, K. Yokoyama, S. Yu, P. M. De Dobbelaere, “A CMOS photonics platform for high-speed optical interconnects,” in Proceedings of IEEE Photonics Conference (2012), pp. 356–357.

Fournier, M.

J. Leuthold, C. Koos, W. Freude, L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, D. Korn, J. Pfeifle, M. Lauermann, R. Dinu, S. Wehrli, M. Jazbinsek, P. Günter, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, H. Kurz, M. Fournier, J. Fedeli, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, “Silicon-organic hybrid electro-optical devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(6), 3401413 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Freude, W.

J. Leuthold, C. Koos, W. Freude, L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, D. Korn, J. Pfeifle, M. Lauermann, R. Dinu, S. Wehrli, M. Jazbinsek, P. Günter, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, H. Kurz, M. Fournier, J. Fedeli, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, “Silicon-organic hybrid electro-optical devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(6), 3401413 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Fung, C. K.

X. Chen, C. Li, C. K. Fung, S. M. Lo, H. K. Tsang, “Apodized waveguide grating couplers for efficient coupling to optical fibers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(15), 1156–1158 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gloeckner, S.

A. Mekis, S. Gloeckner, G. Masini, A. Narasimha, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, P. De Dobbelaere, “A grating-coupler-enabled CMOS photonics platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 597–608 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Mekis, S. Abdalla, D. Foltz, S. Gloeckner, S. Hovey, S. Jackson, Y. Liang, M. Mack, G. Masini, M. Peterson, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, M. Sharp, P. Sun, D. Tan, L. Verslegers, B. P. Welch, K. Yokoyama, S. Yu, P. M. De Dobbelaere, “A CMOS photonics platform for high-speed optical interconnects,” in Proceedings of IEEE Photonics Conference (2012), pp. 356–357.

Goldfarb, G.

F. A. Kish, D. Welch, R. Nagarajan, J. L. Pleumeekers, V. Lal, M. Ziari, A. Nilsson, M. Kato, S. Murthy, P. Evans, S. W. Corzine, M. Mitchell, P. Samra, M. Missey, S. DeMars, R. P. Schneider, M. S. Reffle, T. Butrie, J. T. Rahn, M. Van Leeuwen, J. W. Stewart, D. J. Lambert, R. C. Muthiah, H. Tsai, J. S. Bostak, A. Dentai, K. Wu, H. Sun, D. J. Pavinski, J. Zhang, J. Tang, J. McNicol, M. Kuntz, V. Dominic, B. D. Taylor, R. A. Salvatore, M. Fisher, A. Spannagel, E. Strzelecka, P. Studenkov, M. Raburn, W. Williams, D. Christini, K. J. Thomson, S. S. Agashe, R. Malendevich, G. Goldfarb, S. Melle, C. Joyner, M. Kaufman, S. G. Grubb, “Current status of large-scale InP photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(6), 1470–1489 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Grubb, S. G.

F. A. Kish, D. Welch, R. Nagarajan, J. L. Pleumeekers, V. Lal, M. Ziari, A. Nilsson, M. Kato, S. Murthy, P. Evans, S. W. Corzine, M. Mitchell, P. Samra, M. Missey, S. DeMars, R. P. Schneider, M. S. Reffle, T. Butrie, J. T. Rahn, M. Van Leeuwen, J. W. Stewart, D. J. Lambert, R. C. Muthiah, H. Tsai, J. S. Bostak, A. Dentai, K. Wu, H. Sun, D. J. Pavinski, J. Zhang, J. Tang, J. McNicol, M. Kuntz, V. Dominic, B. D. Taylor, R. A. Salvatore, M. Fisher, A. Spannagel, E. Strzelecka, P. Studenkov, M. Raburn, W. Williams, D. Christini, K. J. Thomson, S. S. Agashe, R. Malendevich, G. Goldfarb, S. Melle, C. Joyner, M. Kaufman, S. G. Grubb, “Current status of large-scale InP photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(6), 1470–1489 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Günter, P.

J. Leuthold, C. Koos, W. Freude, L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, D. Korn, J. Pfeifle, M. Lauermann, R. Dinu, S. Wehrli, M. Jazbinsek, P. Günter, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, H. Kurz, M. Fournier, J. Fedeli, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, “Silicon-organic hybrid electro-optical devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(6), 3401413 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Headley, W.

Heck, M. J.

M. J. Heck, H. Chen, A. W. Fang, B. R. Koch, D. Liang, H. Park, M. N. Sysak, J. E. Bowers, “Hybrid silicon photonics for optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(2), 333–346 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hovey, S.

A. Mekis, S. Abdalla, D. Foltz, S. Gloeckner, S. Hovey, S. Jackson, Y. Liang, M. Mack, G. Masini, M. Peterson, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, M. Sharp, P. Sun, D. Tan, L. Verslegers, B. P. Welch, K. Yokoyama, S. Yu, P. M. De Dobbelaere, “A CMOS photonics platform for high-speed optical interconnects,” in Proceedings of IEEE Photonics Conference (2012), pp. 356–357.

Hvam, J. M.

M. Pu, L. Liu, H. Ou, K. Yvind, J. M. Hvam, “Ultra-low-loss inverted taper coupler for silicon-on-insulator ridge waveguide,” Opt. Commun. 283(19), 3678–3682 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jackson, S.

A. Mekis, S. Abdalla, D. Foltz, S. Gloeckner, S. Hovey, S. Jackson, Y. Liang, M. Mack, G. Masini, M. Peterson, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, M. Sharp, P. Sun, D. Tan, L. Verslegers, B. P. Welch, K. Yokoyama, S. Yu, P. M. De Dobbelaere, “A CMOS photonics platform for high-speed optical interconnects,” in Proceedings of IEEE Photonics Conference (2012), pp. 356–357.

Jazbinsek, M.

J. Leuthold, C. Koos, W. Freude, L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, D. Korn, J. Pfeifle, M. Lauermann, R. Dinu, S. Wehrli, M. Jazbinsek, P. Günter, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, H. Kurz, M. Fournier, J. Fedeli, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, “Silicon-organic hybrid electro-optical devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(6), 3401413 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Joyner, C.

F. A. Kish, D. Welch, R. Nagarajan, J. L. Pleumeekers, V. Lal, M. Ziari, A. Nilsson, M. Kato, S. Murthy, P. Evans, S. W. Corzine, M. Mitchell, P. Samra, M. Missey, S. DeMars, R. P. Schneider, M. S. Reffle, T. Butrie, J. T. Rahn, M. Van Leeuwen, J. W. Stewart, D. J. Lambert, R. C. Muthiah, H. Tsai, J. S. Bostak, A. Dentai, K. Wu, H. Sun, D. J. Pavinski, J. Zhang, J. Tang, J. McNicol, M. Kuntz, V. Dominic, B. D. Taylor, R. A. Salvatore, M. Fisher, A. Spannagel, E. Strzelecka, P. Studenkov, M. Raburn, W. Williams, D. Christini, K. J. Thomson, S. S. Agashe, R. Malendevich, G. Goldfarb, S. Melle, C. Joyner, M. Kaufman, S. G. Grubb, “Current status of large-scale InP photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(6), 1470–1489 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kamei, T.

R. Takei, M. Suzuki, E. Omoda, S. Manako, T. Kamei, M. Mori, Y. Sakakibara, “Silicon knife-edge taper waveguide for ultralow-loss spot-size converter fabricated by photolithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(10), 101108 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Kato, M.

F. A. Kish, D. Welch, R. Nagarajan, J. L. Pleumeekers, V. Lal, M. Ziari, A. Nilsson, M. Kato, S. Murthy, P. Evans, S. W. Corzine, M. Mitchell, P. Samra, M. Missey, S. DeMars, R. P. Schneider, M. S. Reffle, T. Butrie, J. T. Rahn, M. Van Leeuwen, J. W. Stewart, D. J. Lambert, R. C. Muthiah, H. Tsai, J. S. Bostak, A. Dentai, K. Wu, H. Sun, D. J. Pavinski, J. Zhang, J. Tang, J. McNicol, M. Kuntz, V. Dominic, B. D. Taylor, R. A. Salvatore, M. Fisher, A. Spannagel, E. Strzelecka, P. Studenkov, M. Raburn, W. Williams, D. Christini, K. J. Thomson, S. S. Agashe, R. Malendevich, G. Goldfarb, S. Melle, C. Joyner, M. Kaufman, S. G. Grubb, “Current status of large-scale InP photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(6), 1470–1489 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kaufman, M.

F. A. Kish, D. Welch, R. Nagarajan, J. L. Pleumeekers, V. Lal, M. Ziari, A. Nilsson, M. Kato, S. Murthy, P. Evans, S. W. Corzine, M. Mitchell, P. Samra, M. Missey, S. DeMars, R. P. Schneider, M. S. Reffle, T. Butrie, J. T. Rahn, M. Van Leeuwen, J. W. Stewart, D. J. Lambert, R. C. Muthiah, H. Tsai, J. S. Bostak, A. Dentai, K. Wu, H. Sun, D. J. Pavinski, J. Zhang, J. Tang, J. McNicol, M. Kuntz, V. Dominic, B. D. Taylor, R. A. Salvatore, M. Fisher, A. Spannagel, E. Strzelecka, P. Studenkov, M. Raburn, W. Williams, D. Christini, K. J. Thomson, S. S. Agashe, R. Malendevich, G. Goldfarb, S. Melle, C. Joyner, M. Kaufman, S. G. Grubb, “Current status of large-scale InP photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(6), 1470–1489 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kimerling, L. C.

J. Liu, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, “Monolithic Ge-on-Si lasers for large-scale electronic-photonic integration,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 27(9), 094006 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kish, F. A.

F. A. Kish, D. Welch, R. Nagarajan, J. L. Pleumeekers, V. Lal, M. Ziari, A. Nilsson, M. Kato, S. Murthy, P. Evans, S. W. Corzine, M. Mitchell, P. Samra, M. Missey, S. DeMars, R. P. Schneider, M. S. Reffle, T. Butrie, J. T. Rahn, M. Van Leeuwen, J. W. Stewart, D. J. Lambert, R. C. Muthiah, H. Tsai, J. S. Bostak, A. Dentai, K. Wu, H. Sun, D. J. Pavinski, J. Zhang, J. Tang, J. McNicol, M. Kuntz, V. Dominic, B. D. Taylor, R. A. Salvatore, M. Fisher, A. Spannagel, E. Strzelecka, P. Studenkov, M. Raburn, W. Williams, D. Christini, K. J. Thomson, S. S. Agashe, R. Malendevich, G. Goldfarb, S. Melle, C. Joyner, M. Kaufman, S. G. Grubb, “Current status of large-scale InP photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(6), 1470–1489 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Koch, B. R.

M. J. Heck, H. Chen, A. W. Fang, B. R. Koch, D. Liang, H. Park, M. N. Sysak, J. E. Bowers, “Hybrid silicon photonics for optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(2), 333–346 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Koos, C.

J. Leuthold, C. Koos, W. Freude, L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, D. Korn, J. Pfeifle, M. Lauermann, R. Dinu, S. Wehrli, M. Jazbinsek, P. Günter, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, H. Kurz, M. Fournier, J. Fedeli, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, “Silicon-organic hybrid electro-optical devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(6), 3401413 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Korn, D.

J. Leuthold, C. Koos, W. Freude, L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, D. Korn, J. Pfeifle, M. Lauermann, R. Dinu, S. Wehrli, M. Jazbinsek, P. Günter, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, H. Kurz, M. Fournier, J. Fedeli, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, “Silicon-organic hybrid electro-optical devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(6), 3401413 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Krauss, T. F.

F. Van Laere, G. Roelkens, M. Ayre, J. Schrauwen, D. Taillaert, D. Van Thourhout, T. F. Krauss, R. Baets, “Compact and highly efficient grating couplers between optical fiber and nanophotonic waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25(1), 151–156 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel, R. Baets, “An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(7), 949–955 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kuntz, M.

F. A. Kish, D. Welch, R. Nagarajan, J. L. Pleumeekers, V. Lal, M. Ziari, A. Nilsson, M. Kato, S. Murthy, P. Evans, S. W. Corzine, M. Mitchell, P. Samra, M. Missey, S. DeMars, R. P. Schneider, M. S. Reffle, T. Butrie, J. T. Rahn, M. Van Leeuwen, J. W. Stewart, D. J. Lambert, R. C. Muthiah, H. Tsai, J. S. Bostak, A. Dentai, K. Wu, H. Sun, D. J. Pavinski, J. Zhang, J. Tang, J. McNicol, M. Kuntz, V. Dominic, B. D. Taylor, R. A. Salvatore, M. Fisher, A. Spannagel, E. Strzelecka, P. Studenkov, M. Raburn, W. Williams, D. Christini, K. J. Thomson, S. S. Agashe, R. Malendevich, G. Goldfarb, S. Melle, C. Joyner, M. Kaufman, S. G. Grubb, “Current status of large-scale InP photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(6), 1470–1489 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kunze, A.

W. S. Zaoui, A. Kunze, W. Vogel, M. Berroth, “CMOS-compatible polarization splitting grating couplers with a backside metal mirror,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(14), 1395–1397 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Kurz, H.

J. Leuthold, C. Koos, W. Freude, L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, D. Korn, J. Pfeifle, M. Lauermann, R. Dinu, S. Wehrli, M. Jazbinsek, P. Günter, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, H. Kurz, M. Fournier, J. Fedeli, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, “Silicon-organic hybrid electro-optical devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(6), 3401413 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Lal, V.

F. A. Kish, D. Welch, R. Nagarajan, J. L. Pleumeekers, V. Lal, M. Ziari, A. Nilsson, M. Kato, S. Murthy, P. Evans, S. W. Corzine, M. Mitchell, P. Samra, M. Missey, S. DeMars, R. P. Schneider, M. S. Reffle, T. Butrie, J. T. Rahn, M. Van Leeuwen, J. W. Stewart, D. J. Lambert, R. C. Muthiah, H. Tsai, J. S. Bostak, A. Dentai, K. Wu, H. Sun, D. J. Pavinski, J. Zhang, J. Tang, J. McNicol, M. Kuntz, V. Dominic, B. D. Taylor, R. A. Salvatore, M. Fisher, A. Spannagel, E. Strzelecka, P. Studenkov, M. Raburn, W. Williams, D. Christini, K. J. Thomson, S. S. Agashe, R. Malendevich, G. Goldfarb, S. Melle, C. Joyner, M. Kaufman, S. G. Grubb, “Current status of large-scale InP photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(6), 1470–1489 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lambert, D. J.

F. A. Kish, D. Welch, R. Nagarajan, J. L. Pleumeekers, V. Lal, M. Ziari, A. Nilsson, M. Kato, S. Murthy, P. Evans, S. W. Corzine, M. Mitchell, P. Samra, M. Missey, S. DeMars, R. P. Schneider, M. S. Reffle, T. Butrie, J. T. Rahn, M. Van Leeuwen, J. W. Stewart, D. J. Lambert, R. C. Muthiah, H. Tsai, J. S. Bostak, A. Dentai, K. Wu, H. Sun, D. J. Pavinski, J. Zhang, J. Tang, J. McNicol, M. Kuntz, V. Dominic, B. D. Taylor, R. A. Salvatore, M. Fisher, A. Spannagel, E. Strzelecka, P. Studenkov, M. Raburn, W. Williams, D. Christini, K. J. Thomson, S. S. Agashe, R. Malendevich, G. Goldfarb, S. Melle, C. Joyner, M. Kaufman, S. G. Grubb, “Current status of large-scale InP photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(6), 1470–1489 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lauermann, M.

J. Leuthold, C. Koos, W. Freude, L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, D. Korn, J. Pfeifle, M. Lauermann, R. Dinu, S. Wehrli, M. Jazbinsek, P. Günter, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, H. Kurz, M. Fournier, J. Fedeli, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, “Silicon-organic hybrid electro-optical devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(6), 3401413 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Letzkus, F.

Leuthold, J.

J. Leuthold, C. Koos, W. Freude, L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, D. Korn, J. Pfeifle, M. Lauermann, R. Dinu, S. Wehrli, M. Jazbinsek, P. Günter, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, H. Kurz, M. Fournier, J. Fedeli, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, “Silicon-organic hybrid electro-optical devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(6), 3401413 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Li, C.

X. Chen, C. Li, C. K. Fung, S. M. Lo, H. K. Tsang, “Apodized waveguide grating couplers for efficient coupling to optical fibers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(15), 1156–1158 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liang, D.

M. J. Heck, H. Chen, A. W. Fang, B. R. Koch, D. Liang, H. Park, M. N. Sysak, J. E. Bowers, “Hybrid silicon photonics for optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(2), 333–346 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Liang, Y.

A. Mekis, S. Abdalla, D. Foltz, S. Gloeckner, S. Hovey, S. Jackson, Y. Liang, M. Mack, G. Masini, M. Peterson, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, M. Sharp, P. Sun, D. Tan, L. Verslegers, B. P. Welch, K. Yokoyama, S. Yu, P. M. De Dobbelaere, “A CMOS photonics platform for high-speed optical interconnects,” in Proceedings of IEEE Photonics Conference (2012), pp. 356–357.

Liu, J.

J. Liu, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, “Monolithic Ge-on-Si lasers for large-scale electronic-photonic integration,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 27(9), 094006 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Liu, L.

M. Pu, L. Liu, H. Ou, K. Yvind, J. M. Hvam, “Ultra-low-loss inverted taper coupler for silicon-on-insulator ridge waveguide,” Opt. Commun. 283(19), 3678–3682 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lo, S. M.

X. Chen, C. Li, C. K. Fung, S. M. Lo, H. K. Tsang, “Apodized waveguide grating couplers for efficient coupling to optical fibers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(15), 1156–1158 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Luyssaert, B.

Mack, M.

A. Mekis, S. Abdalla, D. Foltz, S. Gloeckner, S. Hovey, S. Jackson, Y. Liang, M. Mack, G. Masini, M. Peterson, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, M. Sharp, P. Sun, D. Tan, L. Verslegers, B. P. Welch, K. Yokoyama, S. Yu, P. M. De Dobbelaere, “A CMOS photonics platform for high-speed optical interconnects,” in Proceedings of IEEE Photonics Conference (2012), pp. 356–357.

Malendevich, R.

F. A. Kish, D. Welch, R. Nagarajan, J. L. Pleumeekers, V. Lal, M. Ziari, A. Nilsson, M. Kato, S. Murthy, P. Evans, S. W. Corzine, M. Mitchell, P. Samra, M. Missey, S. DeMars, R. P. Schneider, M. S. Reffle, T. Butrie, J. T. Rahn, M. Van Leeuwen, J. W. Stewart, D. J. Lambert, R. C. Muthiah, H. Tsai, J. S. Bostak, A. Dentai, K. Wu, H. Sun, D. J. Pavinski, J. Zhang, J. Tang, J. McNicol, M. Kuntz, V. Dominic, B. D. Taylor, R. A. Salvatore, M. Fisher, A. Spannagel, E. Strzelecka, P. Studenkov, M. Raburn, W. Williams, D. Christini, K. J. Thomson, S. S. Agashe, R. Malendevich, G. Goldfarb, S. Melle, C. Joyner, M. Kaufman, S. G. Grubb, “Current status of large-scale InP photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(6), 1470–1489 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Manako, S.

R. Takei, M. Suzuki, E. Omoda, S. Manako, T. Kamei, M. Mori, Y. Sakakibara, “Silicon knife-edge taper waveguide for ultralow-loss spot-size converter fabricated by photolithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(10), 101108 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Masanovic, G. Z.

Masini, G.

A. Mekis, S. Gloeckner, G. Masini, A. Narasimha, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, P. De Dobbelaere, “A grating-coupler-enabled CMOS photonics platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 597–608 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Mekis, S. Abdalla, D. Foltz, S. Gloeckner, S. Hovey, S. Jackson, Y. Liang, M. Mack, G. Masini, M. Peterson, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, M. Sharp, P. Sun, D. Tan, L. Verslegers, B. P. Welch, K. Yokoyama, S. Yu, P. M. De Dobbelaere, “A CMOS photonics platform for high-speed optical interconnects,” in Proceedings of IEEE Photonics Conference (2012), pp. 356–357.

McNicol, J.

F. A. Kish, D. Welch, R. Nagarajan, J. L. Pleumeekers, V. Lal, M. Ziari, A. Nilsson, M. Kato, S. Murthy, P. Evans, S. W. Corzine, M. Mitchell, P. Samra, M. Missey, S. DeMars, R. P. Schneider, M. S. Reffle, T. Butrie, J. T. Rahn, M. Van Leeuwen, J. W. Stewart, D. J. Lambert, R. C. Muthiah, H. Tsai, J. S. Bostak, A. Dentai, K. Wu, H. Sun, D. J. Pavinski, J. Zhang, J. Tang, J. McNicol, M. Kuntz, V. Dominic, B. D. Taylor, R. A. Salvatore, M. Fisher, A. Spannagel, E. Strzelecka, P. Studenkov, M. Raburn, W. Williams, D. Christini, K. J. Thomson, S. S. Agashe, R. Malendevich, G. Goldfarb, S. Melle, C. Joyner, M. Kaufman, S. G. Grubb, “Current status of large-scale InP photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(6), 1470–1489 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Mekis, A.

A. Mekis, S. Gloeckner, G. Masini, A. Narasimha, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, P. De Dobbelaere, “A grating-coupler-enabled CMOS photonics platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 597–608 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Mekis, S. Abdalla, D. Foltz, S. Gloeckner, S. Hovey, S. Jackson, Y. Liang, M. Mack, G. Masini, M. Peterson, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, M. Sharp, P. Sun, D. Tan, L. Verslegers, B. P. Welch, K. Yokoyama, S. Yu, P. M. De Dobbelaere, “A CMOS photonics platform for high-speed optical interconnects,” in Proceedings of IEEE Photonics Conference (2012), pp. 356–357.

Melle, S.

F. A. Kish, D. Welch, R. Nagarajan, J. L. Pleumeekers, V. Lal, M. Ziari, A. Nilsson, M. Kato, S. Murthy, P. Evans, S. W. Corzine, M. Mitchell, P. Samra, M. Missey, S. DeMars, R. P. Schneider, M. S. Reffle, T. Butrie, J. T. Rahn, M. Van Leeuwen, J. W. Stewart, D. J. Lambert, R. C. Muthiah, H. Tsai, J. S. Bostak, A. Dentai, K. Wu, H. Sun, D. J. Pavinski, J. Zhang, J. Tang, J. McNicol, M. Kuntz, V. Dominic, B. D. Taylor, R. A. Salvatore, M. Fisher, A. Spannagel, E. Strzelecka, P. Studenkov, M. Raburn, W. Williams, D. Christini, K. J. Thomson, S. S. Agashe, R. Malendevich, G. Goldfarb, S. Melle, C. Joyner, M. Kaufman, S. G. Grubb, “Current status of large-scale InP photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(6), 1470–1489 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Michel, J.

J. Liu, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, “Monolithic Ge-on-Si lasers for large-scale electronic-photonic integration,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 27(9), 094006 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Missey, M.

F. A. Kish, D. Welch, R. Nagarajan, J. L. Pleumeekers, V. Lal, M. Ziari, A. Nilsson, M. Kato, S. Murthy, P. Evans, S. W. Corzine, M. Mitchell, P. Samra, M. Missey, S. DeMars, R. P. Schneider, M. S. Reffle, T. Butrie, J. T. Rahn, M. Van Leeuwen, J. W. Stewart, D. J. Lambert, R. C. Muthiah, H. Tsai, J. S. Bostak, A. Dentai, K. Wu, H. Sun, D. J. Pavinski, J. Zhang, J. Tang, J. McNicol, M. Kuntz, V. Dominic, B. D. Taylor, R. A. Salvatore, M. Fisher, A. Spannagel, E. Strzelecka, P. Studenkov, M. Raburn, W. Williams, D. Christini, K. J. Thomson, S. S. Agashe, R. Malendevich, G. Goldfarb, S. Melle, C. Joyner, M. Kaufman, S. G. Grubb, “Current status of large-scale InP photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(6), 1470–1489 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Mitchell, M.

F. A. Kish, D. Welch, R. Nagarajan, J. L. Pleumeekers, V. Lal, M. Ziari, A. Nilsson, M. Kato, S. Murthy, P. Evans, S. W. Corzine, M. Mitchell, P. Samra, M. Missey, S. DeMars, R. P. Schneider, M. S. Reffle, T. Butrie, J. T. Rahn, M. Van Leeuwen, J. W. Stewart, D. J. Lambert, R. C. Muthiah, H. Tsai, J. S. Bostak, A. Dentai, K. Wu, H. Sun, D. J. Pavinski, J. Zhang, J. Tang, J. McNicol, M. Kuntz, V. Dominic, B. D. Taylor, R. A. Salvatore, M. Fisher, A. Spannagel, E. Strzelecka, P. Studenkov, M. Raburn, W. Williams, D. Christini, K. J. Thomson, S. S. Agashe, R. Malendevich, G. Goldfarb, S. Melle, C. Joyner, M. Kaufman, S. G. Grubb, “Current status of large-scale InP photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(6), 1470–1489 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Moerman, I.

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel, R. Baets, “An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(7), 949–955 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mori, M.

R. Takei, M. Suzuki, E. Omoda, S. Manako, T. Kamei, M. Mori, Y. Sakakibara, “Silicon knife-edge taper waveguide for ultralow-loss spot-size converter fabricated by photolithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(10), 101108 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Murthy, S.

F. A. Kish, D. Welch, R. Nagarajan, J. L. Pleumeekers, V. Lal, M. Ziari, A. Nilsson, M. Kato, S. Murthy, P. Evans, S. W. Corzine, M. Mitchell, P. Samra, M. Missey, S. DeMars, R. P. Schneider, M. S. Reffle, T. Butrie, J. T. Rahn, M. Van Leeuwen, J. W. Stewart, D. J. Lambert, R. C. Muthiah, H. Tsai, J. S. Bostak, A. Dentai, K. Wu, H. Sun, D. J. Pavinski, J. Zhang, J. Tang, J. McNicol, M. Kuntz, V. Dominic, B. D. Taylor, R. A. Salvatore, M. Fisher, A. Spannagel, E. Strzelecka, P. Studenkov, M. Raburn, W. Williams, D. Christini, K. J. Thomson, S. S. Agashe, R. Malendevich, G. Goldfarb, S. Melle, C. Joyner, M. Kaufman, S. G. Grubb, “Current status of large-scale InP photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(6), 1470–1489 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Muthiah, R. C.

F. A. Kish, D. Welch, R. Nagarajan, J. L. Pleumeekers, V. Lal, M. Ziari, A. Nilsson, M. Kato, S. Murthy, P. Evans, S. W. Corzine, M. Mitchell, P. Samra, M. Missey, S. DeMars, R. P. Schneider, M. S. Reffle, T. Butrie, J. T. Rahn, M. Van Leeuwen, J. W. Stewart, D. J. Lambert, R. C. Muthiah, H. Tsai, J. S. Bostak, A. Dentai, K. Wu, H. Sun, D. J. Pavinski, J. Zhang, J. Tang, J. McNicol, M. Kuntz, V. Dominic, B. D. Taylor, R. A. Salvatore, M. Fisher, A. Spannagel, E. Strzelecka, P. Studenkov, M. Raburn, W. Williams, D. Christini, K. J. Thomson, S. S. Agashe, R. Malendevich, G. Goldfarb, S. Melle, C. Joyner, M. Kaufman, S. G. Grubb, “Current status of large-scale InP photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(6), 1470–1489 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nagarajan, R.

F. A. Kish, D. Welch, R. Nagarajan, J. L. Pleumeekers, V. Lal, M. Ziari, A. Nilsson, M. Kato, S. Murthy, P. Evans, S. W. Corzine, M. Mitchell, P. Samra, M. Missey, S. DeMars, R. P. Schneider, M. S. Reffle, T. Butrie, J. T. Rahn, M. Van Leeuwen, J. W. Stewart, D. J. Lambert, R. C. Muthiah, H. Tsai, J. S. Bostak, A. Dentai, K. Wu, H. Sun, D. J. Pavinski, J. Zhang, J. Tang, J. McNicol, M. Kuntz, V. Dominic, B. D. Taylor, R. A. Salvatore, M. Fisher, A. Spannagel, E. Strzelecka, P. Studenkov, M. Raburn, W. Williams, D. Christini, K. J. Thomson, S. S. Agashe, R. Malendevich, G. Goldfarb, S. Melle, C. Joyner, M. Kaufman, S. G. Grubb, “Current status of large-scale InP photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(6), 1470–1489 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Narasimha, A.

A. Mekis, S. Gloeckner, G. Masini, A. Narasimha, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, P. De Dobbelaere, “A grating-coupler-enabled CMOS photonics platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 597–608 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nilsson, A.

F. A. Kish, D. Welch, R. Nagarajan, J. L. Pleumeekers, V. Lal, M. Ziari, A. Nilsson, M. Kato, S. Murthy, P. Evans, S. W. Corzine, M. Mitchell, P. Samra, M. Missey, S. DeMars, R. P. Schneider, M. S. Reffle, T. Butrie, J. T. Rahn, M. Van Leeuwen, J. W. Stewart, D. J. Lambert, R. C. Muthiah, H. Tsai, J. S. Bostak, A. Dentai, K. Wu, H. Sun, D. J. Pavinski, J. Zhang, J. Tang, J. McNicol, M. Kuntz, V. Dominic, B. D. Taylor, R. A. Salvatore, M. Fisher, A. Spannagel, E. Strzelecka, P. Studenkov, M. Raburn, W. Williams, D. Christini, K. J. Thomson, S. S. Agashe, R. Malendevich, G. Goldfarb, S. Melle, C. Joyner, M. Kaufman, S. G. Grubb, “Current status of large-scale InP photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(6), 1470–1489 (2011).
[CrossRef]

O’Faolain, L.

F. Van Laere, T. Claes, J. Schrauwen, S. Scheerlinck, W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, L. O’Faolain, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, “Compact focusing grating couplers for silicon-on-insulator integrated circuits,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19(23), 1919–1921 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Omoda, E.

R. Takei, M. Suzuki, E. Omoda, S. Manako, T. Kamei, M. Mori, Y. Sakakibara, “Silicon knife-edge taper waveguide for ultralow-loss spot-size converter fabricated by photolithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(10), 101108 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Ou, H.

M. Pu, L. Liu, H. Ou, K. Yvind, J. M. Hvam, “Ultra-low-loss inverted taper coupler for silicon-on-insulator ridge waveguide,” Opt. Commun. 283(19), 3678–3682 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Palmer, R.

J. Leuthold, C. Koos, W. Freude, L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, D. Korn, J. Pfeifle, M. Lauermann, R. Dinu, S. Wehrli, M. Jazbinsek, P. Günter, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, H. Kurz, M. Fournier, J. Fedeli, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, “Silicon-organic hybrid electro-optical devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(6), 3401413 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Park, H.

M. J. Heck, H. Chen, A. W. Fang, B. R. Koch, D. Liang, H. Park, M. N. Sysak, J. E. Bowers, “Hybrid silicon photonics for optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(2), 333–346 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Passaro, V. M.

Pavinski, D. J.

F. A. Kish, D. Welch, R. Nagarajan, J. L. Pleumeekers, V. Lal, M. Ziari, A. Nilsson, M. Kato, S. Murthy, P. Evans, S. W. Corzine, M. Mitchell, P. Samra, M. Missey, S. DeMars, R. P. Schneider, M. S. Reffle, T. Butrie, J. T. Rahn, M. Van Leeuwen, J. W. Stewart, D. J. Lambert, R. C. Muthiah, H. Tsai, J. S. Bostak, A. Dentai, K. Wu, H. Sun, D. J. Pavinski, J. Zhang, J. Tang, J. McNicol, M. Kuntz, V. Dominic, B. D. Taylor, R. A. Salvatore, M. Fisher, A. Spannagel, E. Strzelecka, P. Studenkov, M. Raburn, W. Williams, D. Christini, K. J. Thomson, S. S. Agashe, R. Malendevich, G. Goldfarb, S. Melle, C. Joyner, M. Kaufman, S. G. Grubb, “Current status of large-scale InP photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(6), 1470–1489 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Peterson, M.

A. Mekis, S. Abdalla, D. Foltz, S. Gloeckner, S. Hovey, S. Jackson, Y. Liang, M. Mack, G. Masini, M. Peterson, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, M. Sharp, P. Sun, D. Tan, L. Verslegers, B. P. Welch, K. Yokoyama, S. Yu, P. M. De Dobbelaere, “A CMOS photonics platform for high-speed optical interconnects,” in Proceedings of IEEE Photonics Conference (2012), pp. 356–357.

Petrov, A.

Pfeifle, J.

J. Leuthold, C. Koos, W. Freude, L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, D. Korn, J. Pfeifle, M. Lauermann, R. Dinu, S. Wehrli, M. Jazbinsek, P. Günter, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, H. Kurz, M. Fournier, J. Fedeli, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, “Silicon-organic hybrid electro-optical devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(6), 3401413 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Pinguet, T.

A. Mekis, S. Gloeckner, G. Masini, A. Narasimha, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, P. De Dobbelaere, “A grating-coupler-enabled CMOS photonics platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 597–608 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Mekis, S. Abdalla, D. Foltz, S. Gloeckner, S. Hovey, S. Jackson, Y. Liang, M. Mack, G. Masini, M. Peterson, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, M. Sharp, P. Sun, D. Tan, L. Verslegers, B. P. Welch, K. Yokoyama, S. Yu, P. M. De Dobbelaere, “A CMOS photonics platform for high-speed optical interconnects,” in Proceedings of IEEE Photonics Conference (2012), pp. 356–357.

Pleumeekers, J. L.

F. A. Kish, D. Welch, R. Nagarajan, J. L. Pleumeekers, V. Lal, M. Ziari, A. Nilsson, M. Kato, S. Murthy, P. Evans, S. W. Corzine, M. Mitchell, P. Samra, M. Missey, S. DeMars, R. P. Schneider, M. S. Reffle, T. Butrie, J. T. Rahn, M. Van Leeuwen, J. W. Stewart, D. J. Lambert, R. C. Muthiah, H. Tsai, J. S. Bostak, A. Dentai, K. Wu, H. Sun, D. J. Pavinski, J. Zhang, J. Tang, J. McNicol, M. Kuntz, V. Dominic, B. D. Taylor, R. A. Salvatore, M. Fisher, A. Spannagel, E. Strzelecka, P. Studenkov, M. Raburn, W. Williams, D. Christini, K. J. Thomson, S. S. Agashe, R. Malendevich, G. Goldfarb, S. Melle, C. Joyner, M. Kaufman, S. G. Grubb, “Current status of large-scale InP photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(6), 1470–1489 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Pu, M.

M. Pu, L. Liu, H. Ou, K. Yvind, J. M. Hvam, “Ultra-low-loss inverted taper coupler for silicon-on-insulator ridge waveguide,” Opt. Commun. 283(19), 3678–3682 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Raburn, M.

F. A. Kish, D. Welch, R. Nagarajan, J. L. Pleumeekers, V. Lal, M. Ziari, A. Nilsson, M. Kato, S. Murthy, P. Evans, S. W. Corzine, M. Mitchell, P. Samra, M. Missey, S. DeMars, R. P. Schneider, M. S. Reffle, T. Butrie, J. T. Rahn, M. Van Leeuwen, J. W. Stewart, D. J. Lambert, R. C. Muthiah, H. Tsai, J. S. Bostak, A. Dentai, K. Wu, H. Sun, D. J. Pavinski, J. Zhang, J. Tang, J. McNicol, M. Kuntz, V. Dominic, B. D. Taylor, R. A. Salvatore, M. Fisher, A. Spannagel, E. Strzelecka, P. Studenkov, M. Raburn, W. Williams, D. Christini, K. J. Thomson, S. S. Agashe, R. Malendevich, G. Goldfarb, S. Melle, C. Joyner, M. Kaufman, S. G. Grubb, “Current status of large-scale InP photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(6), 1470–1489 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Rahn, J. T.

F. A. Kish, D. Welch, R. Nagarajan, J. L. Pleumeekers, V. Lal, M. Ziari, A. Nilsson, M. Kato, S. Murthy, P. Evans, S. W. Corzine, M. Mitchell, P. Samra, M. Missey, S. DeMars, R. P. Schneider, M. S. Reffle, T. Butrie, J. T. Rahn, M. Van Leeuwen, J. W. Stewart, D. J. Lambert, R. C. Muthiah, H. Tsai, J. S. Bostak, A. Dentai, K. Wu, H. Sun, D. J. Pavinski, J. Zhang, J. Tang, J. McNicol, M. Kuntz, V. Dominic, B. D. Taylor, R. A. Salvatore, M. Fisher, A. Spannagel, E. Strzelecka, P. Studenkov, M. Raburn, W. Williams, D. Christini, K. J. Thomson, S. S. Agashe, R. Malendevich, G. Goldfarb, S. Melle, C. Joyner, M. Kaufman, S. G. Grubb, “Current status of large-scale InP photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(6), 1470–1489 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Reed, G. T.

Reffle, M. S.

F. A. Kish, D. Welch, R. Nagarajan, J. L. Pleumeekers, V. Lal, M. Ziari, A. Nilsson, M. Kato, S. Murthy, P. Evans, S. W. Corzine, M. Mitchell, P. Samra, M. Missey, S. DeMars, R. P. Schneider, M. S. Reffle, T. Butrie, J. T. Rahn, M. Van Leeuwen, J. W. Stewart, D. J. Lambert, R. C. Muthiah, H. Tsai, J. S. Bostak, A. Dentai, K. Wu, H. Sun, D. J. Pavinski, J. Zhang, J. Tang, J. McNicol, M. Kuntz, V. Dominic, B. D. Taylor, R. A. Salvatore, M. Fisher, A. Spannagel, E. Strzelecka, P. Studenkov, M. Raburn, W. Williams, D. Christini, K. J. Thomson, S. S. Agashe, R. Malendevich, G. Goldfarb, S. Melle, C. Joyner, M. Kaufman, S. G. Grubb, “Current status of large-scale InP photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(6), 1470–1489 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Roelkens, G.

Rosa, M. F.

Sahni, S.

A. Mekis, S. Gloeckner, G. Masini, A. Narasimha, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, P. De Dobbelaere, “A grating-coupler-enabled CMOS photonics platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 597–608 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Mekis, S. Abdalla, D. Foltz, S. Gloeckner, S. Hovey, S. Jackson, Y. Liang, M. Mack, G. Masini, M. Peterson, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, M. Sharp, P. Sun, D. Tan, L. Verslegers, B. P. Welch, K. Yokoyama, S. Yu, P. M. De Dobbelaere, “A CMOS photonics platform for high-speed optical interconnects,” in Proceedings of IEEE Photonics Conference (2012), pp. 356–357.

Sakakibara, Y.

R. Takei, M. Suzuki, E. Omoda, S. Manako, T. Kamei, M. Mori, Y. Sakakibara, “Silicon knife-edge taper waveguide for ultralow-loss spot-size converter fabricated by photolithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(10), 101108 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Salvatore, R. A.

F. A. Kish, D. Welch, R. Nagarajan, J. L. Pleumeekers, V. Lal, M. Ziari, A. Nilsson, M. Kato, S. Murthy, P. Evans, S. W. Corzine, M. Mitchell, P. Samra, M. Missey, S. DeMars, R. P. Schneider, M. S. Reffle, T. Butrie, J. T. Rahn, M. Van Leeuwen, J. W. Stewart, D. J. Lambert, R. C. Muthiah, H. Tsai, J. S. Bostak, A. Dentai, K. Wu, H. Sun, D. J. Pavinski, J. Zhang, J. Tang, J. McNicol, M. Kuntz, V. Dominic, B. D. Taylor, R. A. Salvatore, M. Fisher, A. Spannagel, E. Strzelecka, P. Studenkov, M. Raburn, W. Williams, D. Christini, K. J. Thomson, S. S. Agashe, R. Malendevich, G. Goldfarb, S. Melle, C. Joyner, M. Kaufman, S. G. Grubb, “Current status of large-scale InP photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(6), 1470–1489 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Samra, P.

F. A. Kish, D. Welch, R. Nagarajan, J. L. Pleumeekers, V. Lal, M. Ziari, A. Nilsson, M. Kato, S. Murthy, P. Evans, S. W. Corzine, M. Mitchell, P. Samra, M. Missey, S. DeMars, R. P. Schneider, M. S. Reffle, T. Butrie, J. T. Rahn, M. Van Leeuwen, J. W. Stewart, D. J. Lambert, R. C. Muthiah, H. Tsai, J. S. Bostak, A. Dentai, K. Wu, H. Sun, D. J. Pavinski, J. Zhang, J. Tang, J. McNicol, M. Kuntz, V. Dominic, B. D. Taylor, R. A. Salvatore, M. Fisher, A. Spannagel, E. Strzelecka, P. Studenkov, M. Raburn, W. Williams, D. Christini, K. J. Thomson, S. S. Agashe, R. Malendevich, G. Goldfarb, S. Melle, C. Joyner, M. Kaufman, S. G. Grubb, “Current status of large-scale InP photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(6), 1470–1489 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Scheerlinck, S.

F. Van Laere, T. Claes, J. Schrauwen, S. Scheerlinck, W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, L. O’Faolain, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, “Compact focusing grating couplers for silicon-on-insulator integrated circuits,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19(23), 1919–1921 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schmid, B.

Schneider, R. P.

F. A. Kish, D. Welch, R. Nagarajan, J. L. Pleumeekers, V. Lal, M. Ziari, A. Nilsson, M. Kato, S. Murthy, P. Evans, S. W. Corzine, M. Mitchell, P. Samra, M. Missey, S. DeMars, R. P. Schneider, M. S. Reffle, T. Butrie, J. T. Rahn, M. Van Leeuwen, J. W. Stewart, D. J. Lambert, R. C. Muthiah, H. Tsai, J. S. Bostak, A. Dentai, K. Wu, H. Sun, D. J. Pavinski, J. Zhang, J. Tang, J. McNicol, M. Kuntz, V. Dominic, B. D. Taylor, R. A. Salvatore, M. Fisher, A. Spannagel, E. Strzelecka, P. Studenkov, M. Raburn, W. Williams, D. Christini, K. J. Thomson, S. S. Agashe, R. Malendevich, G. Goldfarb, S. Melle, C. Joyner, M. Kaufman, S. G. Grubb, “Current status of large-scale InP photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(6), 1470–1489 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Schrauwen, J.

F. Van Laere, G. Roelkens, M. Ayre, J. Schrauwen, D. Taillaert, D. Van Thourhout, T. F. Krauss, R. Baets, “Compact and highly efficient grating couplers between optical fiber and nanophotonic waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25(1), 151–156 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. Van Laere, T. Claes, J. Schrauwen, S. Scheerlinck, W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, L. O’Faolain, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, “Compact focusing grating couplers for silicon-on-insulator integrated circuits,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19(23), 1919–1921 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sharp, M.

A. Mekis, S. Abdalla, D. Foltz, S. Gloeckner, S. Hovey, S. Jackson, Y. Liang, M. Mack, G. Masini, M. Peterson, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, M. Sharp, P. Sun, D. Tan, L. Verslegers, B. P. Welch, K. Yokoyama, S. Yu, P. M. De Dobbelaere, “A CMOS photonics platform for high-speed optical interconnects,” in Proceedings of IEEE Photonics Conference (2012), pp. 356–357.

Spannagel, A.

F. A. Kish, D. Welch, R. Nagarajan, J. L. Pleumeekers, V. Lal, M. Ziari, A. Nilsson, M. Kato, S. Murthy, P. Evans, S. W. Corzine, M. Mitchell, P. Samra, M. Missey, S. DeMars, R. P. Schneider, M. S. Reffle, T. Butrie, J. T. Rahn, M. Van Leeuwen, J. W. Stewart, D. J. Lambert, R. C. Muthiah, H. Tsai, J. S. Bostak, A. Dentai, K. Wu, H. Sun, D. J. Pavinski, J. Zhang, J. Tang, J. McNicol, M. Kuntz, V. Dominic, B. D. Taylor, R. A. Salvatore, M. Fisher, A. Spannagel, E. Strzelecka, P. Studenkov, M. Raburn, W. Williams, D. Christini, K. J. Thomson, S. S. Agashe, R. Malendevich, G. Goldfarb, S. Melle, C. Joyner, M. Kaufman, S. G. Grubb, “Current status of large-scale InP photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(6), 1470–1489 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Stewart, J. W.

F. A. Kish, D. Welch, R. Nagarajan, J. L. Pleumeekers, V. Lal, M. Ziari, A. Nilsson, M. Kato, S. Murthy, P. Evans, S. W. Corzine, M. Mitchell, P. Samra, M. Missey, S. DeMars, R. P. Schneider, M. S. Reffle, T. Butrie, J. T. Rahn, M. Van Leeuwen, J. W. Stewart, D. J. Lambert, R. C. Muthiah, H. Tsai, J. S. Bostak, A. Dentai, K. Wu, H. Sun, D. J. Pavinski, J. Zhang, J. Tang, J. McNicol, M. Kuntz, V. Dominic, B. D. Taylor, R. A. Salvatore, M. Fisher, A. Spannagel, E. Strzelecka, P. Studenkov, M. Raburn, W. Williams, D. Christini, K. J. Thomson, S. S. Agashe, R. Malendevich, G. Goldfarb, S. Melle, C. Joyner, M. Kaufman, S. G. Grubb, “Current status of large-scale InP photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(6), 1470–1489 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Strzelecka, E.

F. A. Kish, D. Welch, R. Nagarajan, J. L. Pleumeekers, V. Lal, M. Ziari, A. Nilsson, M. Kato, S. Murthy, P. Evans, S. W. Corzine, M. Mitchell, P. Samra, M. Missey, S. DeMars, R. P. Schneider, M. S. Reffle, T. Butrie, J. T. Rahn, M. Van Leeuwen, J. W. Stewart, D. J. Lambert, R. C. Muthiah, H. Tsai, J. S. Bostak, A. Dentai, K. Wu, H. Sun, D. J. Pavinski, J. Zhang, J. Tang, J. McNicol, M. Kuntz, V. Dominic, B. D. Taylor, R. A. Salvatore, M. Fisher, A. Spannagel, E. Strzelecka, P. Studenkov, M. Raburn, W. Williams, D. Christini, K. J. Thomson, S. S. Agashe, R. Malendevich, G. Goldfarb, S. Melle, C. Joyner, M. Kaufman, S. G. Grubb, “Current status of large-scale InP photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(6), 1470–1489 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Studenkov, P.

F. A. Kish, D. Welch, R. Nagarajan, J. L. Pleumeekers, V. Lal, M. Ziari, A. Nilsson, M. Kato, S. Murthy, P. Evans, S. W. Corzine, M. Mitchell, P. Samra, M. Missey, S. DeMars, R. P. Schneider, M. S. Reffle, T. Butrie, J. T. Rahn, M. Van Leeuwen, J. W. Stewart, D. J. Lambert, R. C. Muthiah, H. Tsai, J. S. Bostak, A. Dentai, K. Wu, H. Sun, D. J. Pavinski, J. Zhang, J. Tang, J. McNicol, M. Kuntz, V. Dominic, B. D. Taylor, R. A. Salvatore, M. Fisher, A. Spannagel, E. Strzelecka, P. Studenkov, M. Raburn, W. Williams, D. Christini, K. J. Thomson, S. S. Agashe, R. Malendevich, G. Goldfarb, S. Melle, C. Joyner, M. Kaufman, S. G. Grubb, “Current status of large-scale InP photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(6), 1470–1489 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sun, H.

F. A. Kish, D. Welch, R. Nagarajan, J. L. Pleumeekers, V. Lal, M. Ziari, A. Nilsson, M. Kato, S. Murthy, P. Evans, S. W. Corzine, M. Mitchell, P. Samra, M. Missey, S. DeMars, R. P. Schneider, M. S. Reffle, T. Butrie, J. T. Rahn, M. Van Leeuwen, J. W. Stewart, D. J. Lambert, R. C. Muthiah, H. Tsai, J. S. Bostak, A. Dentai, K. Wu, H. Sun, D. J. Pavinski, J. Zhang, J. Tang, J. McNicol, M. Kuntz, V. Dominic, B. D. Taylor, R. A. Salvatore, M. Fisher, A. Spannagel, E. Strzelecka, P. Studenkov, M. Raburn, W. Williams, D. Christini, K. J. Thomson, S. S. Agashe, R. Malendevich, G. Goldfarb, S. Melle, C. Joyner, M. Kaufman, S. G. Grubb, “Current status of large-scale InP photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(6), 1470–1489 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sun, J.-H.

C. Zhang, J.-H. Sun, X. Xiao, W.-M. Sun, X.-J. Zhang, T. Chu, J.-Z. Yu, Y.-D. Yu, “High efficiency grating coupler for coupling between single-mode fiber and SOI waveguides,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 30(1), 014207 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Sun, P.

A. Mekis, S. Abdalla, D. Foltz, S. Gloeckner, S. Hovey, S. Jackson, Y. Liang, M. Mack, G. Masini, M. Peterson, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, M. Sharp, P. Sun, D. Tan, L. Verslegers, B. P. Welch, K. Yokoyama, S. Yu, P. M. De Dobbelaere, “A CMOS photonics platform for high-speed optical interconnects,” in Proceedings of IEEE Photonics Conference (2012), pp. 356–357.

Sun, W.-M.

C. Zhang, J.-H. Sun, X. Xiao, W.-M. Sun, X.-J. Zhang, T. Chu, J.-Z. Yu, Y.-D. Yu, “High efficiency grating coupler for coupling between single-mode fiber and SOI waveguides,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 30(1), 014207 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, M.

R. Takei, M. Suzuki, E. Omoda, S. Manako, T. Kamei, M. Mori, Y. Sakakibara, “Silicon knife-edge taper waveguide for ultralow-loss spot-size converter fabricated by photolithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(10), 101108 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Sysak, M. N.

M. J. Heck, H. Chen, A. W. Fang, B. R. Koch, D. Liang, H. Park, M. N. Sysak, J. E. Bowers, “Hybrid silicon photonics for optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(2), 333–346 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Taillaert, D.

F. Van Laere, T. Claes, J. Schrauwen, S. Scheerlinck, W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, L. O’Faolain, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, “Compact focusing grating couplers for silicon-on-insulator integrated circuits,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19(23), 1919–1921 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. Van Laere, G. Roelkens, M. Ayre, J. Schrauwen, D. Taillaert, D. Van Thourhout, T. F. Krauss, R. Baets, “Compact and highly efficient grating couplers between optical fiber and nanophotonic waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25(1), 151–156 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Taillaert, P. Bienstman, R. Baets, “Compact efficient broadband grating coupler for silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 29(23), 2749–2751 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Dumon, J. Van Campenhout, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, V. Wiaux, S. Beckx, “Basic structures for photonic integrated circuits in silicon-on-insulator,” Opt. Express 12(8), 1583–1591 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel, R. Baets, “An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(7), 949–955 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Takei, R.

R. Takei, M. Suzuki, E. Omoda, S. Manako, T. Kamei, M. Mori, Y. Sakakibara, “Silicon knife-edge taper waveguide for ultralow-loss spot-size converter fabricated by photolithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(10), 101108 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Tan, D.

A. Mekis, S. Abdalla, D. Foltz, S. Gloeckner, S. Hovey, S. Jackson, Y. Liang, M. Mack, G. Masini, M. Peterson, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, M. Sharp, P. Sun, D. Tan, L. Verslegers, B. P. Welch, K. Yokoyama, S. Yu, P. M. De Dobbelaere, “A CMOS photonics platform for high-speed optical interconnects,” in Proceedings of IEEE Photonics Conference (2012), pp. 356–357.

Tang, J.

F. A. Kish, D. Welch, R. Nagarajan, J. L. Pleumeekers, V. Lal, M. Ziari, A. Nilsson, M. Kato, S. Murthy, P. Evans, S. W. Corzine, M. Mitchell, P. Samra, M. Missey, S. DeMars, R. P. Schneider, M. S. Reffle, T. Butrie, J. T. Rahn, M. Van Leeuwen, J. W. Stewart, D. J. Lambert, R. C. Muthiah, H. Tsai, J. S. Bostak, A. Dentai, K. Wu, H. Sun, D. J. Pavinski, J. Zhang, J. Tang, J. McNicol, M. Kuntz, V. Dominic, B. D. Taylor, R. A. Salvatore, M. Fisher, A. Spannagel, E. Strzelecka, P. Studenkov, M. Raburn, W. Williams, D. Christini, K. J. Thomson, S. S. Agashe, R. Malendevich, G. Goldfarb, S. Melle, C. Joyner, M. Kaufman, S. G. Grubb, “Current status of large-scale InP photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(6), 1470–1489 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, B. D.

F. A. Kish, D. Welch, R. Nagarajan, J. L. Pleumeekers, V. Lal, M. Ziari, A. Nilsson, M. Kato, S. Murthy, P. Evans, S. W. Corzine, M. Mitchell, P. Samra, M. Missey, S. DeMars, R. P. Schneider, M. S. Reffle, T. Butrie, J. T. Rahn, M. Van Leeuwen, J. W. Stewart, D. J. Lambert, R. C. Muthiah, H. Tsai, J. S. Bostak, A. Dentai, K. Wu, H. Sun, D. J. Pavinski, J. Zhang, J. Tang, J. McNicol, M. Kuntz, V. Dominic, B. D. Taylor, R. A. Salvatore, M. Fisher, A. Spannagel, E. Strzelecka, P. Studenkov, M. Raburn, W. Williams, D. Christini, K. J. Thomson, S. S. Agashe, R. Malendevich, G. Goldfarb, S. Melle, C. Joyner, M. Kaufman, S. G. Grubb, “Current status of large-scale InP photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(6), 1470–1489 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Thomson, K. J.

F. A. Kish, D. Welch, R. Nagarajan, J. L. Pleumeekers, V. Lal, M. Ziari, A. Nilsson, M. Kato, S. Murthy, P. Evans, S. W. Corzine, M. Mitchell, P. Samra, M. Missey, S. DeMars, R. P. Schneider, M. S. Reffle, T. Butrie, J. T. Rahn, M. Van Leeuwen, J. W. Stewart, D. J. Lambert, R. C. Muthiah, H. Tsai, J. S. Bostak, A. Dentai, K. Wu, H. Sun, D. J. Pavinski, J. Zhang, J. Tang, J. McNicol, M. Kuntz, V. Dominic, B. D. Taylor, R. A. Salvatore, M. Fisher, A. Spannagel, E. Strzelecka, P. Studenkov, M. Raburn, W. Williams, D. Christini, K. J. Thomson, S. S. Agashe, R. Malendevich, G. Goldfarb, S. Melle, C. Joyner, M. Kaufman, S. G. Grubb, “Current status of large-scale InP photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(6), 1470–1489 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Timotijevic, B.

Tsai, H.

F. A. Kish, D. Welch, R. Nagarajan, J. L. Pleumeekers, V. Lal, M. Ziari, A. Nilsson, M. Kato, S. Murthy, P. Evans, S. W. Corzine, M. Mitchell, P. Samra, M. Missey, S. DeMars, R. P. Schneider, M. S. Reffle, T. Butrie, J. T. Rahn, M. Van Leeuwen, J. W. Stewart, D. J. Lambert, R. C. Muthiah, H. Tsai, J. S. Bostak, A. Dentai, K. Wu, H. Sun, D. J. Pavinski, J. Zhang, J. Tang, J. McNicol, M. Kuntz, V. Dominic, B. D. Taylor, R. A. Salvatore, M. Fisher, A. Spannagel, E. Strzelecka, P. Studenkov, M. Raburn, W. Williams, D. Christini, K. J. Thomson, S. S. Agashe, R. Malendevich, G. Goldfarb, S. Melle, C. Joyner, M. Kaufman, S. G. Grubb, “Current status of large-scale InP photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(6), 1470–1489 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tsang, H. K.

X. Chen, C. Li, C. K. Fung, S. M. Lo, H. K. Tsang, “Apodized waveguide grating couplers for efficient coupling to optical fibers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(15), 1156–1158 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Van Campenhout, J.

Van Daele, P.

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel, R. Baets, “An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(7), 949–955 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Van Laere, F.

F. Van Laere, T. Claes, J. Schrauwen, S. Scheerlinck, W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, L. O’Faolain, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, “Compact focusing grating couplers for silicon-on-insulator integrated circuits,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19(23), 1919–1921 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. Van Laere, G. Roelkens, M. Ayre, J. Schrauwen, D. Taillaert, D. Van Thourhout, T. F. Krauss, R. Baets, “Compact and highly efficient grating couplers between optical fiber and nanophotonic waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25(1), 151–156 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Van Leeuwen, M.

F. A. Kish, D. Welch, R. Nagarajan, J. L. Pleumeekers, V. Lal, M. Ziari, A. Nilsson, M. Kato, S. Murthy, P. Evans, S. W. Corzine, M. Mitchell, P. Samra, M. Missey, S. DeMars, R. P. Schneider, M. S. Reffle, T. Butrie, J. T. Rahn, M. Van Leeuwen, J. W. Stewart, D. J. Lambert, R. C. Muthiah, H. Tsai, J. S. Bostak, A. Dentai, K. Wu, H. Sun, D. J. Pavinski, J. Zhang, J. Tang, J. McNicol, M. Kuntz, V. Dominic, B. D. Taylor, R. A. Salvatore, M. Fisher, A. Spannagel, E. Strzelecka, P. Studenkov, M. Raburn, W. Williams, D. Christini, K. J. Thomson, S. S. Agashe, R. Malendevich, G. Goldfarb, S. Melle, C. Joyner, M. Kaufman, S. G. Grubb, “Current status of large-scale InP photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(6), 1470–1489 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Van Thourhout, D.

Verslegers, L.

A. Mekis, S. Abdalla, D. Foltz, S. Gloeckner, S. Hovey, S. Jackson, Y. Liang, M. Mack, G. Masini, M. Peterson, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, M. Sharp, P. Sun, D. Tan, L. Verslegers, B. P. Welch, K. Yokoyama, S. Yu, P. M. De Dobbelaere, “A CMOS photonics platform for high-speed optical interconnects,” in Proceedings of IEEE Photonics Conference (2012), pp. 356–357.

Verstuyft, S.

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel, R. Baets, “An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(7), 949–955 (2002).
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Vogel, W.

W. S. Zaoui, A. Kunze, W. Vogel, M. Berroth, “CMOS-compatible polarization splitting grating couplers with a backside metal mirror,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(14), 1395–1397 (2013).
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W. S. Zaoui, M. F. Rosa, W. Vogel, M. Berroth, J. Butschke, F. Letzkus, “Cost-effective CMOS-compatible grating couplers with backside metal mirror and 69% coupling efficiency,” Opt. Express 20(26), B238–B243 (2012).
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Wahlbrink, T.

J. Leuthold, C. Koos, W. Freude, L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, D. Korn, J. Pfeifle, M. Lauermann, R. Dinu, S. Wehrli, M. Jazbinsek, P. Günter, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, H. Kurz, M. Fournier, J. Fedeli, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, “Silicon-organic hybrid electro-optical devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(6), 3401413 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Waldow, M.

J. Leuthold, C. Koos, W. Freude, L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, D. Korn, J. Pfeifle, M. Lauermann, R. Dinu, S. Wehrli, M. Jazbinsek, P. Günter, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, H. Kurz, M. Fournier, J. Fedeli, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, “Silicon-organic hybrid electro-optical devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(6), 3401413 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X.

N. Fang, Z. Yang, A. Wu, J. Chen, M. Zhang, S. Zou, X. Wang, “Three-dimensional tapered spot-size converter based on (111) silicon-on-insulator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21, 820–822 (2009).

Wehrli, S.

J. Leuthold, C. Koos, W. Freude, L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, D. Korn, J. Pfeifle, M. Lauermann, R. Dinu, S. Wehrli, M. Jazbinsek, P. Günter, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, H. Kurz, M. Fournier, J. Fedeli, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, “Silicon-organic hybrid electro-optical devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(6), 3401413 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Welch, B. P.

A. Mekis, S. Abdalla, D. Foltz, S. Gloeckner, S. Hovey, S. Jackson, Y. Liang, M. Mack, G. Masini, M. Peterson, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, M. Sharp, P. Sun, D. Tan, L. Verslegers, B. P. Welch, K. Yokoyama, S. Yu, P. M. De Dobbelaere, “A CMOS photonics platform for high-speed optical interconnects,” in Proceedings of IEEE Photonics Conference (2012), pp. 356–357.

Welch, D.

F. A. Kish, D. Welch, R. Nagarajan, J. L. Pleumeekers, V. Lal, M. Ziari, A. Nilsson, M. Kato, S. Murthy, P. Evans, S. W. Corzine, M. Mitchell, P. Samra, M. Missey, S. DeMars, R. P. Schneider, M. S. Reffle, T. Butrie, J. T. Rahn, M. Van Leeuwen, J. W. Stewart, D. J. Lambert, R. C. Muthiah, H. Tsai, J. S. Bostak, A. Dentai, K. Wu, H. Sun, D. J. Pavinski, J. Zhang, J. Tang, J. McNicol, M. Kuntz, V. Dominic, B. D. Taylor, R. A. Salvatore, M. Fisher, A. Spannagel, E. Strzelecka, P. Studenkov, M. Raburn, W. Williams, D. Christini, K. J. Thomson, S. S. Agashe, R. Malendevich, G. Goldfarb, S. Melle, C. Joyner, M. Kaufman, S. G. Grubb, “Current status of large-scale InP photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(6), 1470–1489 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wiaux, V.

Williams, W.

F. A. Kish, D. Welch, R. Nagarajan, J. L. Pleumeekers, V. Lal, M. Ziari, A. Nilsson, M. Kato, S. Murthy, P. Evans, S. W. Corzine, M. Mitchell, P. Samra, M. Missey, S. DeMars, R. P. Schneider, M. S. Reffle, T. Butrie, J. T. Rahn, M. Van Leeuwen, J. W. Stewart, D. J. Lambert, R. C. Muthiah, H. Tsai, J. S. Bostak, A. Dentai, K. Wu, H. Sun, D. J. Pavinski, J. Zhang, J. Tang, J. McNicol, M. Kuntz, V. Dominic, B. D. Taylor, R. A. Salvatore, M. Fisher, A. Spannagel, E. Strzelecka, P. Studenkov, M. Raburn, W. Williams, D. Christini, K. J. Thomson, S. S. Agashe, R. Malendevich, G. Goldfarb, S. Melle, C. Joyner, M. Kaufman, S. G. Grubb, “Current status of large-scale InP photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(6), 1470–1489 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wu, A.

N. Fang, Z. Yang, A. Wu, J. Chen, M. Zhang, S. Zou, X. Wang, “Three-dimensional tapered spot-size converter based on (111) silicon-on-insulator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21, 820–822 (2009).

Wu, K.

F. A. Kish, D. Welch, R. Nagarajan, J. L. Pleumeekers, V. Lal, M. Ziari, A. Nilsson, M. Kato, S. Murthy, P. Evans, S. W. Corzine, M. Mitchell, P. Samra, M. Missey, S. DeMars, R. P. Schneider, M. S. Reffle, T. Butrie, J. T. Rahn, M. Van Leeuwen, J. W. Stewart, D. J. Lambert, R. C. Muthiah, H. Tsai, J. S. Bostak, A. Dentai, K. Wu, H. Sun, D. J. Pavinski, J. Zhang, J. Tang, J. McNicol, M. Kuntz, V. Dominic, B. D. Taylor, R. A. Salvatore, M. Fisher, A. Spannagel, E. Strzelecka, P. Studenkov, M. Raburn, W. Williams, D. Christini, K. J. Thomson, S. S. Agashe, R. Malendevich, G. Goldfarb, S. Melle, C. Joyner, M. Kaufman, S. G. Grubb, “Current status of large-scale InP photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(6), 1470–1489 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Xiao, X.

C. Zhang, J.-H. Sun, X. Xiao, W.-M. Sun, X.-J. Zhang, T. Chu, J.-Z. Yu, Y.-D. Yu, “High efficiency grating coupler for coupling between single-mode fiber and SOI waveguides,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 30(1), 014207 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Z.

N. Fang, Z. Yang, A. Wu, J. Chen, M. Zhang, S. Zou, X. Wang, “Three-dimensional tapered spot-size converter based on (111) silicon-on-insulator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21, 820–822 (2009).

Yokoyama, K.

A. Mekis, S. Abdalla, D. Foltz, S. Gloeckner, S. Hovey, S. Jackson, Y. Liang, M. Mack, G. Masini, M. Peterson, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, M. Sharp, P. Sun, D. Tan, L. Verslegers, B. P. Welch, K. Yokoyama, S. Yu, P. M. De Dobbelaere, “A CMOS photonics platform for high-speed optical interconnects,” in Proceedings of IEEE Photonics Conference (2012), pp. 356–357.

Yu, H.

J. Leuthold, C. Koos, W. Freude, L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, D. Korn, J. Pfeifle, M. Lauermann, R. Dinu, S. Wehrli, M. Jazbinsek, P. Günter, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, H. Kurz, M. Fournier, J. Fedeli, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, “Silicon-organic hybrid electro-optical devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(6), 3401413 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Yu, J.-Z.

C. Zhang, J.-H. Sun, X. Xiao, W.-M. Sun, X.-J. Zhang, T. Chu, J.-Z. Yu, Y.-D. Yu, “High efficiency grating coupler for coupling between single-mode fiber and SOI waveguides,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 30(1), 014207 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Yu, S.

A. Mekis, S. Abdalla, D. Foltz, S. Gloeckner, S. Hovey, S. Jackson, Y. Liang, M. Mack, G. Masini, M. Peterson, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, M. Sharp, P. Sun, D. Tan, L. Verslegers, B. P. Welch, K. Yokoyama, S. Yu, P. M. De Dobbelaere, “A CMOS photonics platform for high-speed optical interconnects,” in Proceedings of IEEE Photonics Conference (2012), pp. 356–357.

Yu, Y.-D.

C. Zhang, J.-H. Sun, X. Xiao, W.-M. Sun, X.-J. Zhang, T. Chu, J.-Z. Yu, Y.-D. Yu, “High efficiency grating coupler for coupling between single-mode fiber and SOI waveguides,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 30(1), 014207 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Yvind, K.

M. Pu, L. Liu, H. Ou, K. Yvind, J. M. Hvam, “Ultra-low-loss inverted taper coupler for silicon-on-insulator ridge waveguide,” Opt. Commun. 283(19), 3678–3682 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zaoui, W. S.

W. S. Zaoui, A. Kunze, W. Vogel, M. Berroth, “CMOS-compatible polarization splitting grating couplers with a backside metal mirror,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(14), 1395–1397 (2013).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Zaoui, M. F. Rosa, W. Vogel, M. Berroth, J. Butschke, F. Letzkus, “Cost-effective CMOS-compatible grating couplers with backside metal mirror and 69% coupling efficiency,” Opt. Express 20(26), B238–B243 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, C.

C. Zhang, J.-H. Sun, X. Xiao, W.-M. Sun, X.-J. Zhang, T. Chu, J.-Z. Yu, Y.-D. Yu, “High efficiency grating coupler for coupling between single-mode fiber and SOI waveguides,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 30(1), 014207 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

F. A. Kish, D. Welch, R. Nagarajan, J. L. Pleumeekers, V. Lal, M. Ziari, A. Nilsson, M. Kato, S. Murthy, P. Evans, S. W. Corzine, M. Mitchell, P. Samra, M. Missey, S. DeMars, R. P. Schneider, M. S. Reffle, T. Butrie, J. T. Rahn, M. Van Leeuwen, J. W. Stewart, D. J. Lambert, R. C. Muthiah, H. Tsai, J. S. Bostak, A. Dentai, K. Wu, H. Sun, D. J. Pavinski, J. Zhang, J. Tang, J. McNicol, M. Kuntz, V. Dominic, B. D. Taylor, R. A. Salvatore, M. Fisher, A. Spannagel, E. Strzelecka, P. Studenkov, M. Raburn, W. Williams, D. Christini, K. J. Thomson, S. S. Agashe, R. Malendevich, G. Goldfarb, S. Melle, C. Joyner, M. Kaufman, S. G. Grubb, “Current status of large-scale InP photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(6), 1470–1489 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, M.

N. Fang, Z. Yang, A. Wu, J. Chen, M. Zhang, S. Zou, X. Wang, “Three-dimensional tapered spot-size converter based on (111) silicon-on-insulator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21, 820–822 (2009).

Zhang, X.-J.

C. Zhang, J.-H. Sun, X. Xiao, W.-M. Sun, X.-J. Zhang, T. Chu, J.-Z. Yu, Y.-D. Yu, “High efficiency grating coupler for coupling between single-mode fiber and SOI waveguides,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 30(1), 014207 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Ziari, M.

F. A. Kish, D. Welch, R. Nagarajan, J. L. Pleumeekers, V. Lal, M. Ziari, A. Nilsson, M. Kato, S. Murthy, P. Evans, S. W. Corzine, M. Mitchell, P. Samra, M. Missey, S. DeMars, R. P. Schneider, M. S. Reffle, T. Butrie, J. T. Rahn, M. Van Leeuwen, J. W. Stewart, D. J. Lambert, R. C. Muthiah, H. Tsai, J. S. Bostak, A. Dentai, K. Wu, H. Sun, D. J. Pavinski, J. Zhang, J. Tang, J. McNicol, M. Kuntz, V. Dominic, B. D. Taylor, R. A. Salvatore, M. Fisher, A. Spannagel, E. Strzelecka, P. Studenkov, M. Raburn, W. Williams, D. Christini, K. J. Thomson, S. S. Agashe, R. Malendevich, G. Goldfarb, S. Melle, C. Joyner, M. Kaufman, S. G. Grubb, “Current status of large-scale InP photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(6), 1470–1489 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zou, S.

N. Fang, Z. Yang, A. Wu, J. Chen, M. Zhang, S. Zou, X. Wang, “Three-dimensional tapered spot-size converter based on (111) silicon-on-insulator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21, 820–822 (2009).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

R. Takei, M. Suzuki, E. Omoda, S. Manako, T. Kamei, M. Mori, Y. Sakakibara, “Silicon knife-edge taper waveguide for ultralow-loss spot-size converter fabricated by photolithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(10), 101108 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Chin. Phys. Lett. (1)

C. Zhang, J.-H. Sun, X. Xiao, W.-M. Sun, X.-J. Zhang, T. Chu, J.-Z. Yu, Y.-D. Yu, “High efficiency grating coupler for coupling between single-mode fiber and SOI waveguides,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 30(1), 014207 (2013).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel, R. Baets, “An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(7), 949–955 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (4)

F. A. Kish, D. Welch, R. Nagarajan, J. L. Pleumeekers, V. Lal, M. Ziari, A. Nilsson, M. Kato, S. Murthy, P. Evans, S. W. Corzine, M. Mitchell, P. Samra, M. Missey, S. DeMars, R. P. Schneider, M. S. Reffle, T. Butrie, J. T. Rahn, M. Van Leeuwen, J. W. Stewart, D. J. Lambert, R. C. Muthiah, H. Tsai, J. S. Bostak, A. Dentai, K. Wu, H. Sun, D. J. Pavinski, J. Zhang, J. Tang, J. McNicol, M. Kuntz, V. Dominic, B. D. Taylor, R. A. Salvatore, M. Fisher, A. Spannagel, E. Strzelecka, P. Studenkov, M. Raburn, W. Williams, D. Christini, K. J. Thomson, S. S. Agashe, R. Malendevich, G. Goldfarb, S. Melle, C. Joyner, M. Kaufman, S. G. Grubb, “Current status of large-scale InP photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(6), 1470–1489 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Leuthold, C. Koos, W. Freude, L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, D. Korn, J. Pfeifle, M. Lauermann, R. Dinu, S. Wehrli, M. Jazbinsek, P. Günter, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, H. Kurz, M. Fournier, J. Fedeli, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, “Silicon-organic hybrid electro-optical devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(6), 3401413 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Heck, H. Chen, A. W. Fang, B. R. Koch, D. Liang, H. Park, M. N. Sysak, J. E. Bowers, “Hybrid silicon photonics for optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(2), 333–346 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Mekis, S. Gloeckner, G. Masini, A. Narasimha, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, P. De Dobbelaere, “A grating-coupler-enabled CMOS photonics platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 597–608 (2011).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (4)

W. S. Zaoui, A. Kunze, W. Vogel, M. Berroth, “CMOS-compatible polarization splitting grating couplers with a backside metal mirror,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(14), 1395–1397 (2013).
[CrossRef]

F. Van Laere, T. Claes, J. Schrauwen, S. Scheerlinck, W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, L. O’Faolain, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, “Compact focusing grating couplers for silicon-on-insulator integrated circuits,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19(23), 1919–1921 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. Fang, Z. Yang, A. Wu, J. Chen, M. Zhang, S. Zou, X. Wang, “Three-dimensional tapered spot-size converter based on (111) silicon-on-insulator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21, 820–822 (2009).

X. Chen, C. Li, C. K. Fung, S. M. Lo, H. K. Tsang, “Apodized waveguide grating couplers for efficient coupling to optical fibers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(15), 1156–1158 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Opt. Commun. (1)

M. Pu, L. Liu, H. Ou, K. Yvind, J. M. Hvam, “Ultra-low-loss inverted taper coupler for silicon-on-insulator ridge waveguide,” Opt. Commun. 283(19), 3678–3682 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Semicond. Sci. Technol. (1)

J. Liu, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, “Monolithic Ge-on-Si lasers for large-scale electronic-photonic integration,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 27(9), 094006 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

S. K. Selvaraja, D. Vermeulen, M. Schaekers, E. Sleeckx, W. Bogaerts, G. Roelkens, P. Dumon, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Highly efficient grating coupler between optical fiber and silicon photonic circuit,” presented at the Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Baltimore, Maryland, CTuC6 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Mekis, S. Abdalla, D. Foltz, S. Gloeckner, S. Hovey, S. Jackson, Y. Liang, M. Mack, G. Masini, M. Peterson, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, M. Sharp, P. Sun, D. Tan, L. Verslegers, B. P. Welch, K. Yokoyama, S. Yu, P. M. De Dobbelaere, “A CMOS photonics platform for high-speed optical interconnects,” in Proceedings of IEEE Photonics Conference (2012), pp. 356–357.

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, and R. Baets, “Efficient coupling between submicron SOI-waveguides and single-mode fibers,” in Proceedings of Symposium IEEE/LEOS Benelux Chapter, Enschede, The Netherlands (2003), pp. 289–292.

S. Klinger, M. Grözing, W. Sfar Zaoui, M. Berroth, M. Kaschel, M. Oehme, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “Ge on Si p-i-n photodiodes for a bit rate of up to 25 Gbit/s,” presented at the European Conference on Optical Communication, Vienna, Austria, 9.2.3 (2009).

A. Melloni, F. Morichetti, R. Costa, G. Cusmai, R. G. Heideman, R. Mateman, D. H. Geuzebroek, and A. Borreman, “TriPleX: a new concept in optical waveguiding,” presented at the 13th European Conference on Integrated Optics, Copenhagen, Denmark, ThA3 (2007).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic design of a grating coupler with an optical fiber core on top. (b) Summary of published experimental results of grating couplers with respect to their coupling efficiency over the last ten years.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Fiber mode profile versus diffracted field profile of a periodic grating with 26 periods, Λ = 600 nm, FF = 0.5, and 5 µm long input and output waveguides at 1550 nm. The mode field diameter of the SMF is 10.4 µm. (b) Typical overall coupling efficiency progression using the optimization algorithm. The first iteration corresponds to the periodic grating. (c) Fiber mode profile versus diffracted field profile of the obtained nonuniform grating. (d) Alignment tolerance along the z-direction of both grating couplers. The origin corresponds to the z-position of the fiber at highest transmission. (e) Coupling efficiency spectrum of the three designed structures with variable critical dimensions. (f) Overlap integral in lateral direction η3,y versus grating width.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured coupling efficiency of a grating coupler at different angles with (a) Λ = 600 nm and FF = 0.5 for TE, and (b) Λ = 850 nm and FF = 0.5 for TM-polarization.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Scanning electron microscope (SEM) picture of the fabricated nonuniform grating GC2. (b) Measured coupling efficiency of the structure at different angles. (c) Distribution of the BOX thickness on a typical SOITEC wafer with 3 µm nominal value.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Measured coupling efficiency of the 19 fabricated gratings GC2 on the whole wafer. (b) Microscopic pictures of two backside metal mirrors at different positions on the wafer. Top: perfect membrane window, bottom: window with silicon residuals.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

η= η 1 η 2 η 3 ,
η 1 = P in P t P r P in ,
η 2 = P up P up + P down ,
η 3 = η 3,z η 3,y =| ( E up (z) E out * (z) ) 2 dz E up 2 (z)dz E out 2 (z)dz || ( E up (y) E out * (y) ) 2 dy E up 2 (y)dy E out 2 (y)dy |,

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