Abstract

A silicon Mach-Zehnder Interferometer (MZI) optical modulator with a shield coplanar waveguide (CPW) transmission line electrode design was demonstrated. This shield-CPW electrode suppresses the signal distortion caused by the parasitic slot-line (SL) mode and improves the electrical bandwidth and the electro-optical (EO) bandwidth. With the shield-CPW electrodes and 5.5 mm-long phase shifters, the silicon MZI optical modulator delivered an EO bandwidth of above 24 GHz and a V π = 3.0 V was achieved at λ = 1310nm. When modulated at 28-Gb/s data rate, it achieved an extinction ratio of 5.66 dB under a driving voltage of V pp = 1.3 V, corresponding to a power consumption of 0.8 pJ/bit.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2014 (3)

K. Goi, A. Oka, H. Kusaka, Y. Terada, K. Ogawa, T. Y. Liow, X. G. Tu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Low-loss high-speed silicon IQ modulator for QPSK/DQPSK in C and L bands,” Opt. Express 22(9), 10703–10709 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Xu, X. Y. Li, X. Xiao, Z. Y. Li, Y. D. Yu, and J. Z. Yu, “Demonstration and characterization of high-speed silicon depletion-mode Mach-Zehnder modulators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 3400110 (2014).

Z. J. Chen, A. Megrant, J. Kelly, R. Barends, J. Bochmann, Y. Chen, B. Chiaro, A. Dunsworth, E. Jeffrey, J. Y. Mutus, P. J. J. Omalley, C. Neill, P. Roushan, D. Sank, A. Vainsencher, J. Wenner, T. C. White, A. N. Cleland, and J. M. Martinis, “Fabrication and characterization of aluminum air-bridges for superconducting microwave circuits,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(5), 052602 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (4)

2012 (3)

2011 (2)

2010 (2)

M. Paniccia, “Integrating silicon photonics,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 498–499 (2010).
[Crossref]

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 518–526 (2010).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. I. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE 6125, 612502 (2006).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

K. P. Ma, Y. X. Qian, and T. Itoh, “Analysis and applications of a new CPW-Slotline Transition,” IEEE. Trans. Microwave. Theory. Tech. 47, 426–432 (1999).

1992 (1)

W. R. Eisenstadt and Y. S. Eo, “S-Parameter-Based IC Interconnect transmission line characterization,” IEEE. Trans. Compon. Hybr. 15(4), 483–490 (1992).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

N. I. Dib, P. B. Katehi, and G. E. Ponchak, “Analysis of shielded CPW discontinuities with air-bridges,” IEEE. MTT S 45, 469–472 (1991).

1989 (2)

K. Kawano, T. Kitoh, O. Mitomi, T. Nozawa, and H. Jumonji, “A wide-band and low-driving-power phase modulator employing a Ti: LiNbO3 optical waveguide at 1.5 µm wavelength,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 1(2), 33–34 (1989).
[Crossref]

K. Kawano, T. Kitoh, H. Jumonji, T. Nozawa, and M. Yanagibashi, “New travelling-wave electrode Mach-Zehnder optical modulator with 20 GHz bandwidth and 4.7 V driving voltage at 1.52 µm wavelength,” Electron. Lett. 25(20), 1382–1383 (1989).
[Crossref]

1987 (1)

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, “Electrooptical effects in silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23(1), 123–129 (1987).
[Crossref]

Adachi, K.

Ahn, D.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. I. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE 6125, 612502 (2006).
[Crossref]

Alic, N.

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J. M. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. F. Hu, B. P. P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50-Gb/s Silicon Optical Modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).
[Crossref]

Apsel, A. B.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. I. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE 6125, 612502 (2006).
[Crossref]

Baehr-Jones, T.

Barends, R.

Z. J. Chen, A. Megrant, J. Kelly, R. Barends, J. Bochmann, Y. Chen, B. Chiaro, A. Dunsworth, E. Jeffrey, J. Y. Mutus, P. J. J. Omalley, C. Neill, P. Roushan, D. Sank, A. Vainsencher, J. Wenner, T. C. White, A. N. Cleland, and J. M. Martinis, “Fabrication and characterization of aluminum air-bridges for superconducting microwave circuits,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(5), 052602 (2014).
[Crossref]

Beals, M.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. I. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE 6125, 612502 (2006).
[Crossref]

Bennett, B. R.

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, “Electrooptical effects in silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23(1), 123–129 (1987).
[Crossref]

Bochmann, J.

Z. J. Chen, A. Megrant, J. Kelly, R. Barends, J. Bochmann, Y. Chen, B. Chiaro, A. Dunsworth, E. Jeffrey, J. Y. Mutus, P. J. J. Omalley, C. Neill, P. Roushan, D. Sank, A. Vainsencher, J. Wenner, T. C. White, A. N. Cleland, and J. M. Martinis, “Fabrication and characterization of aluminum air-bridges for superconducting microwave circuits,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(5), 052602 (2014).
[Crossref]

Buhl, L. L.

Carothers, D.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. I. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE 6125, 612502 (2006).
[Crossref]

Chee, E. K.

Chen, L.

Chen, Y.

Z. J. Chen, A. Megrant, J. Kelly, R. Barends, J. Bochmann, Y. Chen, B. Chiaro, A. Dunsworth, E. Jeffrey, J. Y. Mutus, P. J. J. Omalley, C. Neill, P. Roushan, D. Sank, A. Vainsencher, J. Wenner, T. C. White, A. N. Cleland, and J. M. Martinis, “Fabrication and characterization of aluminum air-bridges for superconducting microwave circuits,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(5), 052602 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y. K.

Chen, Y.-K.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. I. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE 6125, 612502 (2006).
[Crossref]

Chen, Z. J.

Z. J. Chen, A. Megrant, J. Kelly, R. Barends, J. Bochmann, Y. Chen, B. Chiaro, A. Dunsworth, E. Jeffrey, J. Y. Mutus, P. J. J. Omalley, C. Neill, P. Roushan, D. Sank, A. Vainsencher, J. Wenner, T. C. White, A. N. Cleland, and J. M. Martinis, “Fabrication and characterization of aluminum air-bridges for superconducting microwave circuits,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(5), 052602 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chiaro, B.

Z. J. Chen, A. Megrant, J. Kelly, R. Barends, J. Bochmann, Y. Chen, B. Chiaro, A. Dunsworth, E. Jeffrey, J. Y. Mutus, P. J. J. Omalley, C. Neill, P. Roushan, D. Sank, A. Vainsencher, J. Wenner, T. C. White, A. N. Cleland, and J. M. Martinis, “Fabrication and characterization of aluminum air-bridges for superconducting microwave circuits,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(5), 052602 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chu, T.

Cleland, A. N.

Z. J. Chen, A. Megrant, J. Kelly, R. Barends, J. Bochmann, Y. Chen, B. Chiaro, A. Dunsworth, E. Jeffrey, J. Y. Mutus, P. J. J. Omalley, C. Neill, P. Roushan, D. Sank, A. Vainsencher, J. Wenner, T. C. White, A. N. Cleland, and J. M. Martinis, “Fabrication and characterization of aluminum air-bridges for superconducting microwave circuits,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(5), 052602 (2014).
[Crossref]

Conway, T.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. I. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE 6125, 612502 (2006).
[Crossref]

Dib, N. I.

N. I. Dib, P. B. Katehi, and G. E. Ponchak, “Analysis of shielded CPW discontinuities with air-bridges,” IEEE. MTT S 45, 469–472 (1991).

Ding, R.

Dong, P.

Duan, N.

T. Y. Liow, J. F. Song, X. G. Tu, E. J. Lim, Q. Fang, N. Duan, M. B. Yu, and G. Q. Lo, “Silicon optical interconnect device technologies for 40Gb/s and beyond,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(2), 8200312 (2013).
[Crossref]

Dunsworth, A.

Z. J. Chen, A. Megrant, J. Kelly, R. Barends, J. Bochmann, Y. Chen, B. Chiaro, A. Dunsworth, E. Jeffrey, J. Y. Mutus, P. J. J. Omalley, C. Neill, P. Roushan, D. Sank, A. Vainsencher, J. Wenner, T. C. White, A. N. Cleland, and J. M. Martinis, “Fabrication and characterization of aluminum air-bridges for superconducting microwave circuits,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(5), 052602 (2014).
[Crossref]

Eisenstadt, W. R.

W. R. Eisenstadt and Y. S. Eo, “S-Parameter-Based IC Interconnect transmission line characterization,” IEEE. Trans. Compon. Hybr. 15(4), 483–490 (1992).
[Crossref]

Eo, Y. S.

W. R. Eisenstadt and Y. S. Eo, “S-Parameter-Based IC Interconnect transmission line characterization,” IEEE. Trans. Compon. Hybr. 15(4), 483–490 (1992).
[Crossref]

Fang, Q.

X. G. Tu, T. Y. Liow, J. F. Song, X. S. Luo, Q. Fang, M. B. Yu, and G. Q. Lo, “50-Gb/s silicon optical modulator with traveling-wave electrodes,” Opt. Express 21(10), 12776–12782 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Y. Liow, J. F. Song, X. G. Tu, E. J. Lim, Q. Fang, N. Duan, M. B. Yu, and G. Q. Lo, “Silicon optical interconnect device technologies for 40Gb/s and beyond,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(2), 8200312 (2013).
[Crossref]

Fedeli, J. M.

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J. M. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. F. Hu, B. P. P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50-Gb/s Silicon Optical Modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).
[Crossref]

Gardes, F. Y.

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J. M. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. F. Hu, B. P. P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50-Gb/s Silicon Optical Modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 518–526 (2010).
[Crossref]

Gill, D. M.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. I. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE 6125, 612502 (2006).
[Crossref]

Goi, K.

Grove, M.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. I. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE 6125, 612502 (2006).
[Crossref]

Hochberg, M.

Hong, C.-Y.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. I. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE 6125, 612502 (2006).
[Crossref]

Hu, Y. F.

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J. M. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. F. Hu, B. P. P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50-Gb/s Silicon Optical Modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).
[Crossref]

Itoh, T.

K. P. Ma, Y. X. Qian, and T. Itoh, “Analysis and applications of a new CPW-Slotline Transition,” IEEE. Trans. Microwave. Theory. Tech. 47, 426–432 (1999).

Jeffrey, E.

Z. J. Chen, A. Megrant, J. Kelly, R. Barends, J. Bochmann, Y. Chen, B. Chiaro, A. Dunsworth, E. Jeffrey, J. Y. Mutus, P. J. J. Omalley, C. Neill, P. Roushan, D. Sank, A. Vainsencher, J. Wenner, T. C. White, A. N. Cleland, and J. M. Martinis, “Fabrication and characterization of aluminum air-bridges for superconducting microwave circuits,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(5), 052602 (2014).
[Crossref]

Jumonji, H.

K. Kawano, T. Kitoh, O. Mitomi, T. Nozawa, and H. Jumonji, “A wide-band and low-driving-power phase modulator employing a Ti: LiNbO3 optical waveguide at 1.5 µm wavelength,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 1(2), 33–34 (1989).
[Crossref]

K. Kawano, T. Kitoh, H. Jumonji, T. Nozawa, and M. Yanagibashi, “New travelling-wave electrode Mach-Zehnder optical modulator with 20 GHz bandwidth and 4.7 V driving voltage at 1.52 µm wavelength,” Electron. Lett. 25(20), 1382–1383 (1989).
[Crossref]

Kaneko, T.

Katehi, P. B.

N. I. Dib, P. B. Katehi, and G. E. Ponchak, “Analysis of shielded CPW discontinuities with air-bridges,” IEEE. MTT S 45, 469–472 (1991).

Kawano, K.

K. Kawano, T. Kitoh, H. Jumonji, T. Nozawa, and M. Yanagibashi, “New travelling-wave electrode Mach-Zehnder optical modulator with 20 GHz bandwidth and 4.7 V driving voltage at 1.52 µm wavelength,” Electron. Lett. 25(20), 1382–1383 (1989).
[Crossref]

K. Kawano, T. Kitoh, O. Mitomi, T. Nozawa, and H. Jumonji, “A wide-band and low-driving-power phase modulator employing a Ti: LiNbO3 optical waveguide at 1.5 µm wavelength,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 1(2), 33–34 (1989).
[Crossref]

Kelly, J.

Z. J. Chen, A. Megrant, J. Kelly, R. Barends, J. Bochmann, Y. Chen, B. Chiaro, A. Dunsworth, E. Jeffrey, J. Y. Mutus, P. J. J. Omalley, C. Neill, P. Roushan, D. Sank, A. Vainsencher, J. Wenner, T. C. White, A. N. Cleland, and J. M. Martinis, “Fabrication and characterization of aluminum air-bridges for superconducting microwave circuits,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(5), 052602 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kimerling, L. C.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. I. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE 6125, 612502 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kitoh, T.

K. Kawano, T. Kitoh, O. Mitomi, T. Nozawa, and H. Jumonji, “A wide-band and low-driving-power phase modulator employing a Ti: LiNbO3 optical waveguide at 1.5 µm wavelength,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 1(2), 33–34 (1989).
[Crossref]

K. Kawano, T. Kitoh, H. Jumonji, T. Nozawa, and M. Yanagibashi, “New travelling-wave electrode Mach-Zehnder optical modulator with 20 GHz bandwidth and 4.7 V driving voltage at 1.52 µm wavelength,” Electron. Lett. 25(20), 1382–1383 (1989).
[Crossref]

Kogo, K.

Kuo, B. P. P.

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J. M. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. F. Hu, B. P. P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50-Gb/s Silicon Optical Modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kurata, K.

Kusaka, H.

Kwong, D. L.

Lee, Y.

Li, X. Y.

H. Xu, X. Y. Li, X. Xiao, Z. Y. Li, Y. D. Yu, and J. Z. Yu, “Demonstration and characterization of high-speed silicon depletion-mode Mach-Zehnder modulators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 3400110 (2014).

X. Xiao, H. Xu, X. Y. Li, Z. Y. Li, T. Chu, Y. D. Yu, and J. Z. Yu, “High-speed, low-loss silicon Mach-Zehnder modulators with doping optimization,” Opt. Express 21(4), 4116–4125 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, Z. Y.

H. Xu, X. Y. Li, X. Xiao, Z. Y. Li, Y. D. Yu, and J. Z. Yu, “Demonstration and characterization of high-speed silicon depletion-mode Mach-Zehnder modulators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 3400110 (2014).

X. Xiao, H. Xu, X. Y. Li, Z. Y. Li, T. Chu, Y. D. Yu, and J. Z. Yu, “High-speed, low-loss silicon Mach-Zehnder modulators with doping optimization,” Opt. Express 21(4), 4116–4125 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lim, A. E.

Lim, E. J.

T. Y. Liow, J. F. Song, X. G. Tu, E. J. Lim, Q. Fang, N. Duan, M. B. Yu, and G. Q. Lo, “Silicon optical interconnect device technologies for 40Gb/s and beyond,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(2), 8200312 (2013).
[Crossref]

Liow, T. Y.

Lipson, M.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. I. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE 6125, 612502 (2006).
[Crossref]

Liu, J.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. I. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE 6125, 612502 (2006).
[Crossref]

Liu, Y.

Lo, G. Q.

Lo, P. G.

Luo, X. S.

Ma, K. P.

K. P. Ma, Y. X. Qian, and T. Itoh, “Analysis and applications of a new CPW-Slotline Transition,” IEEE. Trans. Microwave. Theory. Tech. 47, 426–432 (1999).

Ma, Y. J.

Martinis, J. M.

Z. J. Chen, A. Megrant, J. Kelly, R. Barends, J. Bochmann, Y. Chen, B. Chiaro, A. Dunsworth, E. Jeffrey, J. Y. Mutus, P. J. J. Omalley, C. Neill, P. Roushan, D. Sank, A. Vainsencher, J. Wenner, T. C. White, A. N. Cleland, and J. M. Martinis, “Fabrication and characterization of aluminum air-bridges for superconducting microwave circuits,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(5), 052602 (2014).
[Crossref]

Mashanovich, G.

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 518–526 (2010).
[Crossref]

Mashanovich, G. Z.

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J. M. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. F. Hu, B. P. P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50-Gb/s Silicon Optical Modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).
[Crossref]

Matsuoka, Y.

Megrant, A.

Z. J. Chen, A. Megrant, J. Kelly, R. Barends, J. Bochmann, Y. Chen, B. Chiaro, A. Dunsworth, E. Jeffrey, J. Y. Mutus, P. J. J. Omalley, C. Neill, P. Roushan, D. Sank, A. Vainsencher, J. Wenner, T. C. White, A. N. Cleland, and J. M. Martinis, “Fabrication and characterization of aluminum air-bridges for superconducting microwave circuits,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(5), 052602 (2014).
[Crossref]

Michel, J.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. I. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE 6125, 612502 (2006).
[Crossref]

Mitomi, O.

K. Kawano, T. Kitoh, O. Mitomi, T. Nozawa, and H. Jumonji, “A wide-band and low-driving-power phase modulator employing a Ti: LiNbO3 optical waveguide at 1.5 µm wavelength,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 1(2), 33–34 (1989).
[Crossref]

Mutus, J. Y.

Z. J. Chen, A. Megrant, J. Kelly, R. Barends, J. Bochmann, Y. Chen, B. Chiaro, A. Dunsworth, E. Jeffrey, J. Y. Mutus, P. J. J. Omalley, C. Neill, P. Roushan, D. Sank, A. Vainsencher, J. Wenner, T. C. White, A. N. Cleland, and J. M. Martinis, “Fabrication and characterization of aluminum air-bridges for superconducting microwave circuits,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(5), 052602 (2014).
[Crossref]

Myslivets, E.

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J. M. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. F. Hu, B. P. P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50-Gb/s Silicon Optical Modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).
[Crossref]

Namiwaka, M.

Neill, C.

Z. J. Chen, A. Megrant, J. Kelly, R. Barends, J. Bochmann, Y. Chen, B. Chiaro, A. Dunsworth, E. Jeffrey, J. Y. Mutus, P. J. J. Omalley, C. Neill, P. Roushan, D. Sank, A. Vainsencher, J. Wenner, T. C. White, A. N. Cleland, and J. M. Martinis, “Fabrication and characterization of aluminum air-bridges for superconducting microwave circuits,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(5), 052602 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nido, M.

Nishimura, S.

Novack, A.

Nozawa, T.

K. Kawano, T. Kitoh, O. Mitomi, T. Nozawa, and H. Jumonji, “A wide-band and low-driving-power phase modulator employing a Ti: LiNbO3 optical waveguide at 1.5 µm wavelength,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 1(2), 33–34 (1989).
[Crossref]

K. Kawano, T. Kitoh, H. Jumonji, T. Nozawa, and M. Yanagibashi, “New travelling-wave electrode Mach-Zehnder optical modulator with 20 GHz bandwidth and 4.7 V driving voltage at 1.52 µm wavelength,” Electron. Lett. 25(20), 1382–1383 (1989).
[Crossref]

Ogawa, K.

Oka, A.

Omalley, P. J. J.

Z. J. Chen, A. Megrant, J. Kelly, R. Barends, J. Bochmann, Y. Chen, B. Chiaro, A. Dunsworth, E. Jeffrey, J. Y. Mutus, P. J. J. Omalley, C. Neill, P. Roushan, D. Sank, A. Vainsencher, J. Wenner, T. C. White, A. N. Cleland, and J. M. Martinis, “Fabrication and characterization of aluminum air-bridges for superconducting microwave circuits,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(5), 052602 (2014).
[Crossref]

Pan, D.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. I. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE 6125, 612502 (2006).
[Crossref]

Paniccia, M.

M. Paniccia, “Integrating silicon photonics,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 498–499 (2010).
[Crossref]

Patel, S. S.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. I. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE 6125, 612502 (2006).
[Crossref]

Pomerene, A. T.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. I. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE 6125, 612502 (2006).
[Crossref]

Ponchak, G. E.

N. I. Dib, P. B. Katehi, and G. E. Ponchak, “Analysis of shielded CPW discontinuities with air-bridges,” IEEE. MTT S 45, 469–472 (1991).

Qian, Y. X.

K. P. Ma, Y. X. Qian, and T. Itoh, “Analysis and applications of a new CPW-Slotline Transition,” IEEE. Trans. Microwave. Theory. Tech. 47, 426–432 (1999).

Radic, S.

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J. M. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. F. Hu, B. P. P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50-Gb/s Silicon Optical Modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).
[Crossref]

Rasras, M.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. I. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE 6125, 612502 (2006).
[Crossref]

Reed, G. T.

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J. M. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. F. Hu, B. P. P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50-Gb/s Silicon Optical Modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 518–526 (2010).
[Crossref]

Roushan, P.

Z. J. Chen, A. Megrant, J. Kelly, R. Barends, J. Bochmann, Y. Chen, B. Chiaro, A. Dunsworth, E. Jeffrey, J. Y. Mutus, P. J. J. Omalley, C. Neill, P. Roushan, D. Sank, A. Vainsencher, J. Wenner, T. C. White, A. N. Cleland, and J. M. Martinis, “Fabrication and characterization of aluminum air-bridges for superconducting microwave circuits,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(5), 052602 (2014).
[Crossref]

Sank, D.

Z. J. Chen, A. Megrant, J. Kelly, R. Barends, J. Bochmann, Y. Chen, B. Chiaro, A. Dunsworth, E. Jeffrey, J. Y. Mutus, P. J. J. Omalley, C. Neill, P. Roushan, D. Sank, A. Vainsencher, J. Wenner, T. C. White, A. N. Cleland, and J. M. Martinis, “Fabrication and characterization of aluminum air-bridges for superconducting microwave circuits,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(5), 052602 (2014).
[Crossref]

Shinoda, K.

Song, J. F.

Soref, R. A.

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, “Electrooptical effects in silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23(1), 123–129 (1987).
[Crossref]

Sparacin, D. K. I.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. I. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE 6125, 612502 (2006).
[Crossref]

Streshinsky, M.

Sugimoto, T.

Takemoto, T.

Terada, Y.

Thomson, D. J.

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J. M. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. F. Hu, B. P. P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50-Gb/s Silicon Optical Modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 518–526 (2010).
[Crossref]

Tsuji, S.

Tu, K.-Y.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. I. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE 6125, 612502 (2006).
[Crossref]

Tu, X. G.

Vainsencher, A.

Z. J. Chen, A. Megrant, J. Kelly, R. Barends, J. Bochmann, Y. Chen, B. Chiaro, A. Dunsworth, E. Jeffrey, J. Y. Mutus, P. J. J. Omalley, C. Neill, P. Roushan, D. Sank, A. Vainsencher, J. Wenner, T. C. White, A. N. Cleland, and J. M. Martinis, “Fabrication and characterization of aluminum air-bridges for superconducting microwave circuits,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(5), 052602 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wenner, J.

Z. J. Chen, A. Megrant, J. Kelly, R. Barends, J. Bochmann, Y. Chen, B. Chiaro, A. Dunsworth, E. Jeffrey, J. Y. Mutus, P. J. J. Omalley, C. Neill, P. Roushan, D. Sank, A. Vainsencher, J. Wenner, T. C. White, A. N. Cleland, and J. M. Martinis, “Fabrication and characterization of aluminum air-bridges for superconducting microwave circuits,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(5), 052602 (2014).
[Crossref]

White, A. E.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. I. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE 6125, 612502 (2006).
[Crossref]

White, T. C.

Z. J. Chen, A. Megrant, J. Kelly, R. Barends, J. Bochmann, Y. Chen, B. Chiaro, A. Dunsworth, E. Jeffrey, J. Y. Mutus, P. J. J. Omalley, C. Neill, P. Roushan, D. Sank, A. Vainsencher, J. Wenner, T. C. White, A. N. Cleland, and J. M. Martinis, “Fabrication and characterization of aluminum air-bridges for superconducting microwave circuits,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(5), 052602 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wong, C. W.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. I. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE 6125, 612502 (2006).
[Crossref]

Xiao, X.

H. Xu, X. Y. Li, X. Xiao, Z. Y. Li, Y. D. Yu, and J. Z. Yu, “Demonstration and characterization of high-speed silicon depletion-mode Mach-Zehnder modulators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 3400110 (2014).

X. Xiao, H. Xu, X. Y. Li, Z. Y. Li, T. Chu, Y. D. Yu, and J. Z. Yu, “High-speed, low-loss silicon Mach-Zehnder modulators with doping optimization,” Opt. Express 21(4), 4116–4125 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xie, C. J.

Xu, H.

H. Xu, X. Y. Li, X. Xiao, Z. Y. Li, Y. D. Yu, and J. Z. Yu, “Demonstration and characterization of high-speed silicon depletion-mode Mach-Zehnder modulators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 3400110 (2014).

X. Xiao, H. Xu, X. Y. Li, Z. Y. Li, T. Chu, Y. D. Yu, and J. Z. Yu, “High-speed, low-loss silicon Mach-Zehnder modulators with doping optimization,” Opt. Express 21(4), 4116–4125 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yamashita, H.

Yanagibashi, M.

K. Kawano, T. Kitoh, H. Jumonji, T. Nozawa, and M. Yanagibashi, “New travelling-wave electrode Mach-Zehnder optical modulator with 20 GHz bandwidth and 4.7 V driving voltage at 1.52 µm wavelength,” Electron. Lett. 25(20), 1382–1383 (1989).
[Crossref]

Yang, Y. S.

Yu, J. Z.

H. Xu, X. Y. Li, X. Xiao, Z. Y. Li, Y. D. Yu, and J. Z. Yu, “Demonstration and characterization of high-speed silicon depletion-mode Mach-Zehnder modulators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 3400110 (2014).

X. Xiao, H. Xu, X. Y. Li, Z. Y. Li, T. Chu, Y. D. Yu, and J. Z. Yu, “High-speed, low-loss silicon Mach-Zehnder modulators with doping optimization,” Opt. Express 21(4), 4116–4125 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, M. B.

Yu, Y. D.

H. Xu, X. Y. Li, X. Xiao, Z. Y. Li, Y. D. Yu, and J. Z. Yu, “Demonstration and characterization of high-speed silicon depletion-mode Mach-Zehnder modulators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 3400110 (2014).

X. Xiao, H. Xu, X. Y. Li, Z. Y. Li, T. Chu, Y. D. Yu, and J. Z. Yu, “High-speed, low-loss silicon Mach-Zehnder modulators with doping optimization,” Opt. Express 21(4), 4116–4125 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yuki, F.

Zlatanovic, S.

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J. M. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. F. Hu, B. P. P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50-Gb/s Silicon Optical Modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

Z. J. Chen, A. Megrant, J. Kelly, R. Barends, J. Bochmann, Y. Chen, B. Chiaro, A. Dunsworth, E. Jeffrey, J. Y. Mutus, P. J. J. Omalley, C. Neill, P. Roushan, D. Sank, A. Vainsencher, J. Wenner, T. C. White, A. N. Cleland, and J. M. Martinis, “Fabrication and characterization of aluminum air-bridges for superconducting microwave circuits,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(5), 052602 (2014).
[Crossref]

Electron. Lett. (1)

K. Kawano, T. Kitoh, H. Jumonji, T. Nozawa, and M. Yanagibashi, “New travelling-wave electrode Mach-Zehnder optical modulator with 20 GHz bandwidth and 4.7 V driving voltage at 1.52 µm wavelength,” Electron. Lett. 25(20), 1382–1383 (1989).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, “Electrooptical effects in silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23(1), 123–129 (1987).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (2)

H. Xu, X. Y. Li, X. Xiao, Z. Y. Li, Y. D. Yu, and J. Z. Yu, “Demonstration and characterization of high-speed silicon depletion-mode Mach-Zehnder modulators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 3400110 (2014).

T. Y. Liow, J. F. Song, X. G. Tu, E. J. Lim, Q. Fang, N. Duan, M. B. Yu, and G. Q. Lo, “Silicon optical interconnect device technologies for 40Gb/s and beyond,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(2), 8200312 (2013).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J. M. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. F. Hu, B. P. P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50-Gb/s Silicon Optical Modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).
[Crossref]

K. Kawano, T. Kitoh, O. Mitomi, T. Nozawa, and H. Jumonji, “A wide-band and low-driving-power phase modulator employing a Ti: LiNbO3 optical waveguide at 1.5 µm wavelength,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 1(2), 33–34 (1989).
[Crossref]

IEEE. MTT S (1)

N. I. Dib, P. B. Katehi, and G. E. Ponchak, “Analysis of shielded CPW discontinuities with air-bridges,” IEEE. MTT S 45, 469–472 (1991).

IEEE. Trans. Compon. Hybr. (1)

W. R. Eisenstadt and Y. S. Eo, “S-Parameter-Based IC Interconnect transmission line characterization,” IEEE. Trans. Compon. Hybr. 15(4), 483–490 (1992).
[Crossref]

IEEE. Trans. Microwave. Theory. Tech. (1)

K. P. Ma, Y. X. Qian, and T. Itoh, “Analysis and applications of a new CPW-Slotline Transition,” IEEE. Trans. Microwave. Theory. Tech. 47, 426–432 (1999).

Nat. Photonics (2)

M. Paniccia, “Integrating silicon photonics,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 498–499 (2010).
[Crossref]

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 518–526 (2010).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (8)

X. G. Tu, T. Y. Liow, J. F. Song, X. S. Luo, Q. Fang, M. B. Yu, and G. Q. Lo, “50-Gb/s silicon optical modulator with traveling-wave electrodes,” Opt. Express 21(10), 12776–12782 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Streshinsky, R. Ding, Y. Liu, A. Novack, Y. S. Yang, Y. J. Ma, X. G. Tu, E. K. Chee, A. E. Lim, P. G. Lo, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “Low power 50 Gb/s silicon traveling wave Mach-Zehnder modulator near 1300 nm,” Opt. Express 21(25), 30350–30357 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Xiao, H. Xu, X. Y. Li, Z. Y. Li, T. Chu, Y. D. Yu, and J. Z. Yu, “High-speed, low-loss silicon Mach-Zehnder modulators with doping optimization,” Opt. Express 21(4), 4116–4125 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Takemoto, F. Yuki, H. Yamashita, S. Tsuji, Y. Lee, K. Adachi, K. Shinoda, Y. Matsuoka, K. Kogo, S. Nishimura, M. Nido, M. Namiwaka, T. Kaneko, T. Sugimoto, and K. Kurata, “100-Gbps CMOS transceiver for multilane optical backplane system with a 1.3 cm2 footprint,” Opt. Express 19(26), B777–B783 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Dong, L. Chen, C. J. Xie, L. L. Buhl, and Y. K. Chen, “50-Gb/s silicon quadrature phase-shift keying modulator,” Opt. Express 20(19), 21181–21186 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Goi, A. Oka, H. Kusaka, Y. Terada, K. Ogawa, T. Y. Liow, X. G. Tu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Low-loss high-speed silicon IQ modulator for QPSK/DQPSK in C and L bands,” Opt. Express 22(9), 10703–10709 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. G. Tu, T. Y. Liow, J. F. Song, M. B. Yu, and G. Q. Lo, “Fabrication of low loss and high speed silicon optical modulator using doping compensation method,” Opt. Express 19(19), 18029–18035 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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[Crossref] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE (1)

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. I. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE 6125, 612502 (2006).
[Crossref]

Other (3)

P. Dong, X. Liu, C. Sethumadhavan, L. L. Buhl, R. Aroca, Y. Baeyens, and Y. K. Chen, “224-Gb/s PDM-16-QAM Modulator and Receiver based on Silicon Photonic Integrated Circuits,” OFC/NFOEC, PDP5C.6 (2013).

S. Assefa, S. Shank, W. Green, M. Khater, E. Kiewra, C. Reinholm, S. Kamlapurkar, A. Yang, J. Proesel, J. Hofrichter, B. Offrein, X. X. Gu, W. Haensch, J. E. Monaghan, and Y. Vlasov, “A 90nm CMOS Integrated Nano-Photonics Technology for 25Gbps WMD Optical Communications Applications,” IEDM12–809 (2012).

H. T. Chen, “Development of an 80-Gbit/s InP-based Mach-Zehnder Modulator,” Ph. D. Dissertation, Dept. Elect. Eng. Comput. Sci., Technical Univ., Berlin, Germany. 65–66 (2007).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

E-field distributions of microwave modes travel in the travelling-wave electrodes. (a) CPW mode travelling in the conventional CPW electrode. (b) SL mode travelling in the conventional CPW electrode. (c) CPW mode travelling in the shield-CPW electrode.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Effective circuit models of the phase shifters. (a) Conventional CPW transmission line. (b) Shield-CPW transmission line. (c) The unit cell of the phase shifter in (a) and (b).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Simulated electrical S-parameters of the silicon phase shifter with conventional CPW (red color) and shield-CPW transmission line (black color). (a) EE-S11 denotes the reflection coefficient. (b) EE-S21denotes the transmission coefficient.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Cross-section of the modulator phase shifter with shield-CPW transmission line.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Measured output spectra of silicon modulator with shield-CPW electrode at (a) λ = 1310 nm and (b) λ = 1550 nm.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Measured S-parameters of a 5.5 mm-long phase shifter under V bias = −5.0 V and λ = 1310 nm. (a) Electrical transmission coefficient EE-S21. (b) Electrical reflection coefficient EE-S11. (c) Measured and extracted Electro-Optical transmission coefficient EO-S21 with shield-CPW electrodes. (d) EO-S21 with a magnified image of the EO-S21 −3 dB point.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Measured eye-diagrams of silicon modulator with shield-CPW electrode under V bias = −5 V and V pp = 1.3 V. (a) λ = 1310 nm. (b) λ = 1550 nm.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Simulated microwave performance of the phase shifter with shield-CPW electrodes include (a) EE-S21, (b) EE-S11, (c) Group index and (d) Character impedance under case (1) W = 10.0 µm and Gap = 6.4 µm (black curve), case (2) W = 6.0 µm and Gap = 10.4 µm (red curve) and case (3) W = 20.0 µm and Gap = 3.2 µm (green curve).

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 The benchmarking table of silicon optical modulator.

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