Abstract

Traditional methods for generating a light carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM) include the use of holographic diffraction gratings, vortex phase plates and spatial light modulators. Here we report a new method for highly efficient second-harmonic generation (SHG) of a light with OAM. By properly aligning an external cavity that contains a quasi-phase matching nonlinear crystal and pumping it with a light carrying OAM, mode matching between the pump light and the cavity’s higher order Laguerre-Gaussian (LG) mode is achieved, SHG with a conversion efficiency of up to 10.3% is obtained. We have demonstrated for the first time that the cavity can stably operate at its higher order LG mode similar to that of a Gaussian mode. The second harmonic generated light has an OAM value that is double with respected to the OAM value of the pump light. The parameters that affect the beam quality and conversion efficiency are discussed in detail. Our work opens a brand new field in laser optics and makes the first step toward high efficiency processing using a light carrying OAM.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2014 (3)

2013 (6)

X. Deng, J. Zhang, Y. C. Zhang, G. Li, and T. C. Zhang, “Generation of blue light at 426 nm by frequency doubling with a monolithic periodically poled KTiOPO4,” Opt. Express 21(22), 25907–25911 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-Scale Orbital Angular Momentum Mode Division Multiplexing in Fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. D’Ambrosio, N. Spagnolo, L. Del Re, S. Sulssarenko, Y. Li, L. C. Kwek, L. Marrucci, S. P. Walborn, L. Aolita, and F. Sciarrinao, “Photonics polarization gears for ultra-sensitive angular measurements,” Nature Commun. 4, 2432 (2013).

D.-S. Ding, Z.-Y. Zhou, B.-S. Shi, and G.-C. Guo, “Single-Photon-level quantum image memory based on cold atomic ensembles,” Nat Commun 4, 2527 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. C. Lin, K. F. Huang, and Y. F. Chen, “The formation of quasi-nondiffracting focused beams with second-harmonic generation of flower Laguerre–Gaussian modes,” Laser Phys. 23(11), 115405 (2013).
[Crossref]

G.-H. Shao, Z.-J. Wu, J.-H. Chen, F. Xu, and Y.-Q. Lu, “Nonlinear frequency conversion of fields with orbital angular momentum using quasi-phase matching,” Phys. Rev. A 88(6), 063827 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (5)

2008 (1)

J. T. Barreiro, T.-C. Wei, and P. G. Kwiat, “Beating the channel capacity limit for linear photonic superdense coding,” Nat. Phys. 4(4), 282–286 (2008).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

M. P. MacDonald, L. Paterson, K. Volke-Sepulveda, J. Arlt, W. Sibbett, and K. Dholakia, “Creation and manipulation of three-dimensional optically trapped structures,” Science 296(5570), 1101–1103 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

A. Mair, A. Vaziri, G. Weihs, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement of the orbital angular momentum states of photons,” Nature 412(6844), 313–316 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

J. Courtial, K. Dholakia, L. Allen, and M. J. Padgett, “Second-harmonic-generation and the conservation of orbital angular momentum with high-order Laguerre-Gaussian modes,” Phys. Rev. A 56(5), 4193–4196 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

K. Dholakia, N. B. Simpson, M. J. Padgett, and L. Allen, “Second-harmonic generation and the orbital angular momentum of light,” Phys. Rev. A 54(5), R3742–R3745 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 45(11), 8185–8189 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

1983 (1)

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using and optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31(2), 97–105 (1983).
[Crossref]

1966 (1)

A. Ashkin, G. D. Boyd, and J. M. Dziendzic, “Resonant optical second harmonic generation and mixing,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 2(6), 109–124 (1966).
[Crossref]

Ahmed, N.

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Allen, L.

J. Courtial, K. Dholakia, L. Allen, and M. J. Padgett, “Second-harmonic-generation and the conservation of orbital angular momentum with high-order Laguerre-Gaussian modes,” Phys. Rev. A 56(5), 4193–4196 (1997).
[Crossref]

K. Dholakia, N. B. Simpson, M. J. Padgett, and L. Allen, “Second-harmonic generation and the orbital angular momentum of light,” Phys. Rev. A 54(5), R3742–R3745 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 45(11), 8185–8189 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Andersson, E.

A. C. Data, J. Leach, G. S. Buller, M. J. Padgett, and E. Andersson, “Experimental high- dimensional two-photon entanglement and violations of generalized Bell inequality,” Nat. Phys. 7(9), 677–680 (2011).
[Crossref]

Aolita, L.

V. D’Ambrosio, N. Spagnolo, L. Del Re, S. Sulssarenko, Y. Li, L. C. Kwek, L. Marrucci, S. P. Walborn, L. Aolita, and F. Sciarrinao, “Photonics polarization gears for ultra-sensitive angular measurements,” Nature Commun. 4, 2432 (2013).

Arlt, J.

M. P. MacDonald, L. Paterson, K. Volke-Sepulveda, J. Arlt, W. Sibbett, and K. Dholakia, “Creation and manipulation of three-dimensional optically trapped structures,” Science 296(5570), 1101–1103 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ashkin, A.

A. Ashkin, G. D. Boyd, and J. M. Dziendzic, “Resonant optical second harmonic generation and mixing,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 2(6), 109–124 (1966).
[Crossref]

Ast, S.

Barreiro, J. T.

J. T. Barreiro, T.-C. Wei, and P. G. Kwiat, “Beating the channel capacity limit for linear photonic superdense coding,” Nat. Phys. 4(4), 282–286 (2008).
[Crossref]

Beijersbergen, M. W.

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 45(11), 8185–8189 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bovino, F. A.

Bowman, R.

M. Padgett and R. Bowman, “Tweezers with a twist,” Nat. Photonics 5(6), 343–348 (2011).
[Crossref]

Boyd, G. D.

A. Ashkin, G. D. Boyd, and J. M. Dziendzic, “Resonant optical second harmonic generation and mixing,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 2(6), 109–124 (1966).
[Crossref]

Bozinovic, N.

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-Scale Orbital Angular Momentum Mode Division Multiplexing in Fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Braccini, M.

Buller, G. S.

A. C. Data, J. Leach, G. S. Buller, M. J. Padgett, and E. Andersson, “Experimental high- dimensional two-photon entanglement and violations of generalized Bell inequality,” Nat. Phys. 7(9), 677–680 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chen, J.-H.

G.-H. Shao, Z.-J. Wu, J.-H. Chen, F. Xu, and Y.-Q. Lu, “Nonlinear frequency conversion of fields with orbital angular momentum using quasi-phase matching,” Phys. Rev. A 88(6), 063827 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y. F.

Y. C. Lin, K. F. Huang, and Y. F. Chen, “The formation of quasi-nondiffracting focused beams with second-harmonic generation of flower Laguerre–Gaussian modes,” Laser Phys. 23(11), 115405 (2013).
[Crossref]

Courtial, J.

J. Courtial, K. Dholakia, L. Allen, and M. J. Padgett, “Second-harmonic-generation and the conservation of orbital angular momentum with high-order Laguerre-Gaussian modes,” Phys. Rev. A 56(5), 4193–4196 (1997).
[Crossref]

D’Ambrosio, V.

V. D’Ambrosio, N. Spagnolo, L. Del Re, S. Sulssarenko, Y. Li, L. C. Kwek, L. Marrucci, S. P. Walborn, L. Aolita, and F. Sciarrinao, “Photonics polarization gears for ultra-sensitive angular measurements,” Nature Commun. 4, 2432 (2013).

Danekar, K.

Data, A. C.

A. C. Data, J. Leach, G. S. Buller, M. J. Padgett, and E. Andersson, “Experimental high- dimensional two-photon entanglement and violations of generalized Bell inequality,” Nat. Phys. 7(9), 677–680 (2011).
[Crossref]

Del Re, L.

V. D’Ambrosio, N. Spagnolo, L. Del Re, S. Sulssarenko, Y. Li, L. C. Kwek, L. Marrucci, S. P. Walborn, L. Aolita, and F. Sciarrinao, “Photonics polarization gears for ultra-sensitive angular measurements,” Nature Commun. 4, 2432 (2013).

Deng, X.

Dholakia, K.

M. P. MacDonald, L. Paterson, K. Volke-Sepulveda, J. Arlt, W. Sibbett, and K. Dholakia, “Creation and manipulation of three-dimensional optically trapped structures,” Science 296(5570), 1101–1103 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Courtial, K. Dholakia, L. Allen, and M. J. Padgett, “Second-harmonic-generation and the conservation of orbital angular momentum with high-order Laguerre-Gaussian modes,” Phys. Rev. A 56(5), 4193–4196 (1997).
[Crossref]

K. Dholakia, N. B. Simpson, M. J. Padgett, and L. Allen, “Second-harmonic generation and the orbital angular momentum of light,” Phys. Rev. A 54(5), R3742–R3745 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ding, D.-S.

Z.-Y. Zhou, Y. Li, D.-S. Ding, W. Zhang, S. Shi, and B.-S. Shi, “Optical vortex beam based optical fan for high-precision optical measurements and optical switching,” Opt. Lett. 39(17), 5098–5101 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z.-Y. Zhou, Y. Li, D.-S. Ding, Y.-K. Jiang, W. Zhang, S. Shi, B.-S. Shi, and G.-C. Guo, “Generation of light with controllable spatial patterns via the sum frequency in quasi-phase matching crystals,” Sci Rep 4, 5650 (2014).
[PubMed]

Z.-Y. Zhou, D.-S. Ding, Y.-K. Jiang, Y. Li, S. Shi, X.-S. Wang, B.-S. Shi, and G.-C. Guo, “Orbital angular momentum light frequency conversion and interference with quasi-phase matching,” Opt. Express 22(17), 20298–20310 (2014).
[Crossref]

D.-S. Ding, Z.-Y. Zhou, B.-S. Shi, and G.-C. Guo, “Single-Photon-level quantum image memory based on cold atomic ensembles,” Nat Commun 4, 2527 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dolinar, S.

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Drever, R. W. P.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using and optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31(2), 97–105 (1983).
[Crossref]

Dziendzic, J. M.

A. Ashkin, G. D. Boyd, and J. M. Dziendzic, “Resonant optical second harmonic generation and mixing,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 2(6), 109–124 (1966).
[Crossref]

Eberle, T.

Fazal, I. M.

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ford, G. M.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using and optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31(2), 97–105 (1983).
[Crossref]

Giardina, M.

Guo, G.-C.

Z.-Y. Zhou, D.-S. Ding, Y.-K. Jiang, Y. Li, S. Shi, X.-S. Wang, B.-S. Shi, and G.-C. Guo, “Orbital angular momentum light frequency conversion and interference with quasi-phase matching,” Opt. Express 22(17), 20298–20310 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z.-Y. Zhou, Y. Li, D.-S. Ding, Y.-K. Jiang, W. Zhang, S. Shi, B.-S. Shi, and G.-C. Guo, “Generation of light with controllable spatial patterns via the sum frequency in quasi-phase matching crystals,” Sci Rep 4, 5650 (2014).
[PubMed]

D.-S. Ding, Z.-Y. Zhou, B.-S. Shi, and G.-C. Guo, “Single-Photon-level quantum image memory based on cold atomic ensembles,” Nat Commun 4, 2527 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hall, J. L.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using and optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31(2), 97–105 (1983).
[Crossref]

Hough, J.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using and optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31(2), 97–105 (1983).
[Crossref]

Huang, H.

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-Scale Orbital Angular Momentum Mode Division Multiplexing in Fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Huang, K. F.

Y. C. Lin, K. F. Huang, and Y. F. Chen, “The formation of quasi-nondiffracting focused beams with second-harmonic generation of flower Laguerre–Gaussian modes,” Laser Phys. 23(11), 115405 (2013).
[Crossref]

Jiang, Y.-K.

Z.-Y. Zhou, D.-S. Ding, Y.-K. Jiang, Y. Li, S. Shi, X.-S. Wang, B.-S. Shi, and G.-C. Guo, “Orbital angular momentum light frequency conversion and interference with quasi-phase matching,” Opt. Express 22(17), 20298–20310 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z.-Y. Zhou, Y. Li, D.-S. Ding, Y.-K. Jiang, W. Zhang, S. Shi, B.-S. Shi, and G.-C. Guo, “Generation of light with controllable spatial patterns via the sum frequency in quasi-phase matching crystals,” Sci Rep 4, 5650 (2014).
[PubMed]

Khademian, A.

Kimble, H. J.

Kowalski, F. V.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using and optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31(2), 97–105 (1983).
[Crossref]

Kristensen, P.

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-Scale Orbital Angular Momentum Mode Division Multiplexing in Fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kwek, L. C.

V. D’Ambrosio, N. Spagnolo, L. Del Re, S. Sulssarenko, Y. Li, L. C. Kwek, L. Marrucci, S. P. Walborn, L. Aolita, and F. Sciarrinao, “Photonics polarization gears for ultra-sensitive angular measurements,” Nature Commun. 4, 2432 (2013).

Kwiat, P. G.

J. T. Barreiro, T.-C. Wei, and P. G. Kwiat, “Beating the channel capacity limit for linear photonic superdense coding,” Nat. Phys. 4(4), 282–286 (2008).
[Crossref]

Lastzka, N.

Leach, J.

A. C. Data, J. Leach, G. S. Buller, M. J. Padgett, and E. Andersson, “Experimental high- dimensional two-photon entanglement and violations of generalized Bell inequality,” Nat. Phys. 7(9), 677–680 (2011).
[Crossref]

Li, G.

Li, Y.

Z.-Y. Zhou, D.-S. Ding, Y.-K. Jiang, Y. Li, S. Shi, X.-S. Wang, B.-S. Shi, and G.-C. Guo, “Orbital angular momentum light frequency conversion and interference with quasi-phase matching,” Opt. Express 22(17), 20298–20310 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z.-Y. Zhou, Y. Li, D.-S. Ding, W. Zhang, S. Shi, and B.-S. Shi, “Optical vortex beam based optical fan for high-precision optical measurements and optical switching,” Opt. Lett. 39(17), 5098–5101 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z.-Y. Zhou, Y. Li, D.-S. Ding, Y.-K. Jiang, W. Zhang, S. Shi, B.-S. Shi, and G.-C. Guo, “Generation of light with controllable spatial patterns via the sum frequency in quasi-phase matching crystals,” Sci Rep 4, 5650 (2014).
[PubMed]

V. D’Ambrosio, N. Spagnolo, L. Del Re, S. Sulssarenko, Y. Li, L. C. Kwek, L. Marrucci, S. P. Walborn, L. Aolita, and F. Sciarrinao, “Photonics polarization gears for ultra-sensitive angular measurements,” Nature Commun. 4, 2432 (2013).

Lin, Y. C.

Y. C. Lin, K. F. Huang, and Y. F. Chen, “The formation of quasi-nondiffracting focused beams with second-harmonic generation of flower Laguerre–Gaussian modes,” Laser Phys. 23(11), 115405 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lu, Y.-Q.

G.-H. Shao, Z.-J. Wu, J.-H. Chen, F. Xu, and Y.-Q. Lu, “Nonlinear frequency conversion of fields with orbital angular momentum using quasi-phase matching,” Phys. Rev. A 88(6), 063827 (2013).
[Crossref]

MacDonald, M. P.

M. P. MacDonald, L. Paterson, K. Volke-Sepulveda, J. Arlt, W. Sibbett, and K. Dholakia, “Creation and manipulation of three-dimensional optically trapped structures,” Science 296(5570), 1101–1103 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mair, A.

A. Mair, A. Vaziri, G. Weihs, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement of the orbital angular momentum states of photons,” Nature 412(6844), 313–316 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Marrucci, L.

V. D’Ambrosio, N. Spagnolo, L. Del Re, S. Sulssarenko, Y. Li, L. C. Kwek, L. Marrucci, S. P. Walborn, L. Aolita, and F. Sciarrinao, “Photonics polarization gears for ultra-sensitive angular measurements,” Nature Commun. 4, 2432 (2013).

Mehmet, M.

Munley, A. J.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using and optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31(2), 97–105 (1983).
[Crossref]

Nia, R. M.

Padgett, M.

M. Padgett and R. Bowman, “Tweezers with a twist,” Nat. Photonics 5(6), 343–348 (2011).
[Crossref]

Padgett, M. J.

A. C. Data, J. Leach, G. S. Buller, M. J. Padgett, and E. Andersson, “Experimental high- dimensional two-photon entanglement and violations of generalized Bell inequality,” Nat. Phys. 7(9), 677–680 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Courtial, K. Dholakia, L. Allen, and M. J. Padgett, “Second-harmonic-generation and the conservation of orbital angular momentum with high-order Laguerre-Gaussian modes,” Phys. Rev. A 56(5), 4193–4196 (1997).
[Crossref]

K. Dholakia, N. B. Simpson, M. J. Padgett, and L. Allen, “Second-harmonic generation and the orbital angular momentum of light,” Phys. Rev. A 54(5), R3742–R3745 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Paterson, L.

M. P. MacDonald, L. Paterson, K. Volke-Sepulveda, J. Arlt, W. Sibbett, and K. Dholakia, “Creation and manipulation of three-dimensional optically trapped structures,” Science 296(5570), 1101–1103 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Polzik, E. S.

Ramachandran, S.

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-Scale Orbital Angular Momentum Mode Division Multiplexing in Fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ren, Y.

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-Scale Orbital Angular Momentum Mode Division Multiplexing in Fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Schnabel, R.

Schönbeck, A.

Sciarrinao, F.

V. D’Ambrosio, N. Spagnolo, L. Del Re, S. Sulssarenko, Y. Li, L. C. Kwek, L. Marrucci, S. P. Walborn, L. Aolita, and F. Sciarrinao, “Photonics polarization gears for ultra-sensitive angular measurements,” Nature Commun. 4, 2432 (2013).

Shao, G.-H.

G.-H. Shao, Z.-J. Wu, J.-H. Chen, F. Xu, and Y.-Q. Lu, “Nonlinear frequency conversion of fields with orbital angular momentum using quasi-phase matching,” Phys. Rev. A 88(6), 063827 (2013).
[Crossref]

Shi, B.-S.

Z.-Y. Zhou, D.-S. Ding, Y.-K. Jiang, Y. Li, S. Shi, X.-S. Wang, B.-S. Shi, and G.-C. Guo, “Orbital angular momentum light frequency conversion and interference with quasi-phase matching,” Opt. Express 22(17), 20298–20310 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z.-Y. Zhou, Y. Li, D.-S. Ding, W. Zhang, S. Shi, and B.-S. Shi, “Optical vortex beam based optical fan for high-precision optical measurements and optical switching,” Opt. Lett. 39(17), 5098–5101 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z.-Y. Zhou, Y. Li, D.-S. Ding, Y.-K. Jiang, W. Zhang, S. Shi, B.-S. Shi, and G.-C. Guo, “Generation of light with controllable spatial patterns via the sum frequency in quasi-phase matching crystals,” Sci Rep 4, 5650 (2014).
[PubMed]

D.-S. Ding, Z.-Y. Zhou, B.-S. Shi, and G.-C. Guo, “Single-Photon-level quantum image memory based on cold atomic ensembles,” Nat Commun 4, 2527 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shi, S.

Shiner, D.

Sibbett, W.

M. P. MacDonald, L. Paterson, K. Volke-Sepulveda, J. Arlt, W. Sibbett, and K. Dholakia, “Creation and manipulation of three-dimensional optically trapped structures,” Science 296(5570), 1101–1103 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sibilia, C.

Simpson, N. B.

K. Dholakia, N. B. Simpson, M. J. Padgett, and L. Allen, “Second-harmonic generation and the orbital angular momentum of light,” Phys. Rev. A 54(5), R3742–R3745 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Spagnolo, N.

V. D’Ambrosio, N. Spagnolo, L. Del Re, S. Sulssarenko, Y. Li, L. C. Kwek, L. Marrucci, S. P. Walborn, L. Aolita, and F. Sciarrinao, “Photonics polarization gears for ultra-sensitive angular measurements,” Nature Commun. 4, 2432 (2013).

Spreeuw, R. J. C.

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 45(11), 8185–8189 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Steinlechner, J.

Steinlechner, S.

Sulssarenko, S.

V. D’Ambrosio, N. Spagnolo, L. Del Re, S. Sulssarenko, Y. Li, L. C. Kwek, L. Marrucci, S. P. Walborn, L. Aolita, and F. Sciarrinao, “Photonics polarization gears for ultra-sensitive angular measurements,” Nature Commun. 4, 2432 (2013).

Tur, M.

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-Scale Orbital Angular Momentum Mode Division Multiplexing in Fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Vaziri, A.

A. Mair, A. Vaziri, G. Weihs, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement of the orbital angular momentum states of photons,” Nature 412(6844), 313–316 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Volke-Sepulveda, K.

M. P. MacDonald, L. Paterson, K. Volke-Sepulveda, J. Arlt, W. Sibbett, and K. Dholakia, “Creation and manipulation of three-dimensional optically trapped structures,” Science 296(5570), 1101–1103 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Walborn, S. P.

V. D’Ambrosio, N. Spagnolo, L. Del Re, S. Sulssarenko, Y. Li, L. C. Kwek, L. Marrucci, S. P. Walborn, L. Aolita, and F. Sciarrinao, “Photonics polarization gears for ultra-sensitive angular measurements,” Nature Commun. 4, 2432 (2013).

Wang, J.

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wang, X.-S.

Ward, H.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using and optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31(2), 97–105 (1983).
[Crossref]

Wei, T.-C.

J. T. Barreiro, T.-C. Wei, and P. G. Kwiat, “Beating the channel capacity limit for linear photonic superdense coding,” Nat. Phys. 4(4), 282–286 (2008).
[Crossref]

Weihs, G.

A. Mair, A. Vaziri, G. Weihs, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement of the orbital angular momentum states of photons,” Nature 412(6844), 313–316 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Willner, A. E.

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-Scale Orbital Angular Momentum Mode Division Multiplexing in Fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Woerdman, J. P.

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 45(11), 8185–8189 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, Z.-J.

G.-H. Shao, Z.-J. Wu, J.-H. Chen, F. Xu, and Y.-Q. Lu, “Nonlinear frequency conversion of fields with orbital angular momentum using quasi-phase matching,” Phys. Rev. A 88(6), 063827 (2013).
[Crossref]

Xu, F.

G.-H. Shao, Z.-J. Wu, J.-H. Chen, F. Xu, and Y.-Q. Lu, “Nonlinear frequency conversion of fields with orbital angular momentum using quasi-phase matching,” Phys. Rev. A 88(6), 063827 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yan, Y.

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yang, J.-Y.

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yue, Y.

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-Scale Orbital Angular Momentum Mode Division Multiplexing in Fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zeilinger, A.

A. Mair, A. Vaziri, G. Weihs, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement of the orbital angular momentum states of photons,” Nature 412(6844), 313–316 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, J.

Zhang, T. C.

Zhang, W.

Z.-Y. Zhou, Y. Li, D.-S. Ding, W. Zhang, S. Shi, and B.-S. Shi, “Optical vortex beam based optical fan for high-precision optical measurements and optical switching,” Opt. Lett. 39(17), 5098–5101 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z.-Y. Zhou, Y. Li, D.-S. Ding, Y.-K. Jiang, W. Zhang, S. Shi, B.-S. Shi, and G.-C. Guo, “Generation of light with controllable spatial patterns via the sum frequency in quasi-phase matching crystals,” Sci Rep 4, 5650 (2014).
[PubMed]

Zhang, Y. C.

Zhou, Z.-Y.

Z.-Y. Zhou, D.-S. Ding, Y.-K. Jiang, Y. Li, S. Shi, X.-S. Wang, B.-S. Shi, and G.-C. Guo, “Orbital angular momentum light frequency conversion and interference with quasi-phase matching,” Opt. Express 22(17), 20298–20310 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z.-Y. Zhou, Y. Li, D.-S. Ding, Y.-K. Jiang, W. Zhang, S. Shi, B.-S. Shi, and G.-C. Guo, “Generation of light with controllable spatial patterns via the sum frequency in quasi-phase matching crystals,” Sci Rep 4, 5650 (2014).
[PubMed]

Z.-Y. Zhou, Y. Li, D.-S. Ding, W. Zhang, S. Shi, and B.-S. Shi, “Optical vortex beam based optical fan for high-precision optical measurements and optical switching,” Opt. Lett. 39(17), 5098–5101 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D.-S. Ding, Z.-Y. Zhou, B.-S. Shi, and G.-C. Guo, “Single-Photon-level quantum image memory based on cold atomic ensembles,” Nat Commun 4, 2527 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using and optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31(2), 97–105 (1983).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

A. Ashkin, G. D. Boyd, and J. M. Dziendzic, “Resonant optical second harmonic generation and mixing,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 2(6), 109–124 (1966).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Laser Phys. (1)

Y. C. Lin, K. F. Huang, and Y. F. Chen, “The formation of quasi-nondiffracting focused beams with second-harmonic generation of flower Laguerre–Gaussian modes,” Laser Phys. 23(11), 115405 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nat Commun (1)

D.-S. Ding, Z.-Y. Zhou, B.-S. Shi, and G.-C. Guo, “Single-Photon-level quantum image memory based on cold atomic ensembles,” Nat Commun 4, 2527 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (2)

M. Padgett and R. Bowman, “Tweezers with a twist,” Nat. Photonics 5(6), 343–348 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Nat. Phys. (2)

A. C. Data, J. Leach, G. S. Buller, M. J. Padgett, and E. Andersson, “Experimental high- dimensional two-photon entanglement and violations of generalized Bell inequality,” Nat. Phys. 7(9), 677–680 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. T. Barreiro, T.-C. Wei, and P. G. Kwiat, “Beating the channel capacity limit for linear photonic superdense coding,” Nat. Phys. 4(4), 282–286 (2008).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

A. Mair, A. Vaziri, G. Weihs, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement of the orbital angular momentum states of photons,” Nature 412(6844), 313–316 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nature Commun. (1)

V. D’Ambrosio, N. Spagnolo, L. Del Re, S. Sulssarenko, Y. Li, L. C. Kwek, L. Marrucci, S. P. Walborn, L. Aolita, and F. Sciarrinao, “Photonics polarization gears for ultra-sensitive angular measurements,” Nature Commun. 4, 2432 (2013).

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Phys. Rev. A (4)

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 45(11), 8185–8189 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G.-H. Shao, Z.-J. Wu, J.-H. Chen, F. Xu, and Y.-Q. Lu, “Nonlinear frequency conversion of fields with orbital angular momentum using quasi-phase matching,” Phys. Rev. A 88(6), 063827 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. Dholakia, N. B. Simpson, M. J. Padgett, and L. Allen, “Second-harmonic generation and the orbital angular momentum of light,” Phys. Rev. A 54(5), R3742–R3745 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Courtial, K. Dholakia, L. Allen, and M. J. Padgett, “Second-harmonic-generation and the conservation of orbital angular momentum with high-order Laguerre-Gaussian modes,” Phys. Rev. A 56(5), 4193–4196 (1997).
[Crossref]

Sci Rep (1)

Z.-Y. Zhou, Y. Li, D.-S. Ding, Y.-K. Jiang, W. Zhang, S. Shi, B.-S. Shi, and G.-C. Guo, “Generation of light with controllable spatial patterns via the sum frequency in quasi-phase matching crystals,” Sci Rep 4, 5650 (2014).
[PubMed]

Science (2)

M. P. MacDonald, L. Paterson, K. Volke-Sepulveda, J. Arlt, W. Sibbett, and K. Dholakia, “Creation and manipulation of three-dimensional optically trapped structures,” Science 296(5570), 1101–1103 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-Scale Orbital Angular Momentum Mode Division Multiplexing in Fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (1)

M. Mirhosseini, O. S. Magana-Loaiza, M. N. O’Sullivan, B. Rodenburg, M. Malik, D. J. Gauthier, and R. W. Boyd, “High-dimensional quantum cryptography with twisted light,” arXiv:1402.7113v1 [quant-ph].

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 The experimental setup used in this report.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Experimental results: (a) The shape of the pump beam leakage from the cavity output coupler; (b) The shape of the SHG beam when the cavity is locked on; (c) The interference pattern of the SHG beam by sending it through an interferometer the same as shown in the literature [19] (Fig. 1, Block-c in ref [19].); (d) The transmission spectrum of the cavity; (e) The SHG power as function of the pump power.

Equations (1)

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P c P 1 = T [ 1 ( 1 T ) ( 1 L ) ( 1 Γ P c ) ] 2

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