Abstract

A method was developed for aligning interference fringes generated in interference lithography to the vertical {111} planes of <110> oriented silicon wafers. The alignment error is 0.036°. This high precision method makes it possible to combine interference lithography with anisotropic wet etch technique for the fabrication of high aspect ratio silicon gratings with extremely smooth sidewalls over a large sample area. With this alignment method, 320 nm and 2 μm period silicon gratings have been successfully fabricated. The highest aspect ratio is up to 100. The sample area is about 50 mm × 60 mm. The roughness (root mean square) of the sidewall is about 0.267 nm.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2014 (1)

F. G. Meinel, F. Schwab, A. Yaroshenko, A. Velroyen, M. Bech, K. Hellbach, J. Fuchs, T. Stiewe, A. Ö. Yildirim, F. Bamberg, M. F. Reiser, F. Pfeiffer, and K. Nikolaou, “Lung tumors on multimodal radiographs derived from grating-based X-ray imaging - A feasibility study,” Phys. Med. 30(3), 352–357 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (8)

M. Bech, A. Tapfer, A. Velroyen, A. Yaroshenko, B. Pauwels, J. Hostens, P. Bruyndonckx, A. Sasov, and F. Pfeiffer, “In-vivo dark-field and phase-contrast x-ray imaging,” Sci Rep 3, 3209 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. H. Jensen, M. Bech, T. Binderup, A. Böttiger, C. David, T. Weitkamp, I. Zanette, E. Reznikova, J. Mohr, F. Rank, R. Feidenhans’l, A. Kjaer, L. Højgaard, and F. Pfeiffer, “Imaging of Metastatic Lymph Nodes by X-ray Phase-Contrast Micro-Tomography,” PLoS ONE 8(1), e54047 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Thüring, R. Guggenberger, H. Alkadhi, J. Hodler, M. Vich, Z. Wang, C. David, and M. Stampanoni, “Human hand radiography using X-ray differential phase contrast combined with dark-field imaging,” Skeletal Radiol. 42(6), 827–835 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Grünzweig, J. Kopecek, B. Betz, A. Kaestner, K. Jefimovs, J. Kohlbrecher, U. Gasser, O. Bunk, C. David, E. Lehmann, T. Donath, and F. Pfeiffer, “Quantification of the neutron dark-field imaging signal in grating interferometry,” Phys. Rev. B 88(12), 125104 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Finn, B. Lu, R. Kirchner, X. Thrun, K. Richter, and W.-J. Fischer, “High aspect ratio pattern collapse of polymeric UV-nano-imprint molds due to cleaning,” Microelectron. Eng. 110, 112–118 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Je, J. Shim, J. Kim, M. Kim, J. Lee, H. Nho, J. Han, S.-M. Kim, and S. Kang, “Development of Direct Deep Reactive Ion Etching Process Using Laser Interference Lithographed Etch Barrier without Intermediate Layer,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 52(10S), 10MC04 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. H. Han, S. Radhakrishnan, and C.-H. Lee, “A novel batch-processing method for accurate crystallographic axis alignment,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 23(5), 055017 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Bruccoleri, D. Guan, P. Mukherjee, R. K. Heilmann, M. L. Schattenburg, and S. Vargo, “Potassium hydroxide polishing of nanoscale deep reactive-ion etched ultrahigh aspect ratio gratings,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 31(6), 06FF02 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

G. Schulz, C. Waschkies, F. Pfeiffer, I. Zanette, T. Weitkamp, C. David, and B. Müller, “Multimodal imaging of human cerebellum - merging X-ray phase microtomography, magnetic resonance microscopy and histology,” Sci Rep 2, 826 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Bruccoleri, P. Mukherjee, R. K. Heilmann, J. Yam, M. L. Schattenburg, and F. DiPiazza, “Fabrication of nanoscale, high throughput, high aspect ratio freestanding gratings,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 30(6), 06FF03 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

2010 (2)

P. Mukherjee, A. Bruccoleri, R. K. Heilmann, M. L. Schattenburg, A. F. Kaplan, and L. J. Guo, “Plasma etch fabrication of 60:1 aspect ratio silicon nanogratings with 200 nm pitch,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 28(6), 670675 (2010).
[Crossref]

P. Sievilä, N. Chekurov, and I. Tittonen, “The fabrication of silicon nanostructures by focused-ion-beam implantation and TMAH wet etching,” Nanotechnology 21(14), 145301 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

P. Mukherjee, T. H. Zurbuchen, and L. J. Guo, “Fabrication and testing of freestanding Si nanogratings for UV filtration on space-based particle sensors,” Nanotechnology 20(32), 325301 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (5)

K. J. Morton, G. Nieberg, S. Bai, and S. Y. Chou, “Wafer-scale patterning of sub-40 nm diameter and high aspect ratio (>50:1) silicon pillar arrays by nanoimprint and etching,” Nanotechnology 19(34), 345301 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Ahn, R. K. Heilmann, and M. L. Schattenburg, “Fabrication of 200nm period blazed transmission gratings on silicon-on-insulator wafers,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 26(6), 2179–2182 (2008).
[Crossref]

C. Grünzweig, F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, T. Donath, G. Kühne, G. Frei, M. Dierolf, and C. David, “Design, fabrication, and characterization of diffraction gratings for neutron phase contrast imaging,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79(5), 053703 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Pfeiffer, M. Bech, O. Bunk, P. Kraft, E. F. Eikenberry, Ch. Brönnimann, C. Grünzweig, and C. David, “Hard-X-ray dark-field imaging using a grating interferometer,” Nat. Mater. 7(2), 134–137 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. K. Heilmann, M. Ahn, E. M. Gullikson, and M. L. Schattenburg, “Blazed high-efficiency x-ray diffraction via transmission through arrays of nanometer-scale mirrors,” Opt. Express 16(12), 8658–8669 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (3)

C. David, J. Bruder, T. Rohbeck, C. Grünzweig, C. Kottler, A. Diaz, O. Bunk, and F. Pfeiffer, “Fabrication of diffraction gratings for hard X-ray phase contrast imaging,” Microelectron. Eng. 84(5-8), 1172–1177 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. Ahn, R. K. Heilmann, and M. L. Schattenburg, “Fabrication of ultrahigh aspect ratio freestanding gratings on silicon-on-insulator wafers,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 25(6), 2593–2597 (2007).
[Crossref]

P. Mukherjee, M.-G. Kang, T. H. Zurbuchen, L. J. Guo, and F. A. Herrero, “Fabrication of high aspect ratio Si nanogratings with smooth sidewalls for a deep UV-blocking particle filter,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 25(6), 2645–2648 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (3)

C.-H. Choi and C.-J. Kim, “Fabrication of a dense array of tall nanostructures over a large sample area with sidewall profile and tip sharpness control,” Nanotechnology 17(21), 5326–5333 (2006).
[Crossref]

F. Pfeiffer, T. Weitkamp, O. Bunk, and C. David, “Phase retrieval and differential phase-contrast imaging with low-brilliance X-ray sources,” Nat. Phys. 2(4), 258–261 (2006).
[Crossref]

F. Pfeiffer, C. Grünzweig, O. Bunk, G. Frei, E. Lehmann, and C. David, “Neutron Phase Imaging and Tomography,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(21), 215505 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (4)

F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. Schulze-Briese, A. Diaz, T. Weitkamp, C. David, J. Van Der Veen, I. Vartanyants, and I. K. Robinson, “Shearing Interferometer for Quantifying the Coherence of Hard X-Ray Beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(16), 164801 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Weitkamp, B. Nöhammer, A. Diaz, C. David, and E. Ziegler, “X-ray wavefront analysis and optics characterization with a grating interferometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(5), 054101 (2005).
[Crossref]

S.-W. Ahn, K.-D. Lee, J.-S. Kim, S. H. Kim, J.-D. Park, S.-H. Lee, and P.-W. Yoon, “Fabrication of a 50 nm half-pitch wire grid polarizer using nanoimprint lithography,” Nanotechnology 16(9), 1874–1877 (2005).
[Crossref]

A. Diaz, C. David, H. Guo, H. Keymeulen, F. Pfeiffer, G. Wegdam, T. Weitkamp, and J. F. Van Der Veen, “Microcavity arrays for X-ray diffraction studies of ordering phenomena in confined colloid solutions,” Physica B 357(1-2), 199–203 (2005).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

P. T. Konkola, C. G. Chen, R. K. Heilmann, C. M. Joo, J. C. Montoya, C. H. Chang, and M. L. Schattenburg, “Nanometer-level repeatable metrology using the nanoruler,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 21(6), 3097–3101 (2003).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

F. S. S. Chien, C. L. Wu, Y. C. Chou, T. T. Chen, S. Gwo, and W. F. Hsieh, “Nanomachining of (110)-oriented silicon by scanning probe lithography and anisotropic wet etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(16), 2429–2431 (1999).
[Crossref]

Ahn, M.

M. Ahn, R. K. Heilmann, and M. L. Schattenburg, “Fabrication of 200nm period blazed transmission gratings on silicon-on-insulator wafers,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 26(6), 2179–2182 (2008).
[Crossref]

R. K. Heilmann, M. Ahn, E. M. Gullikson, and M. L. Schattenburg, “Blazed high-efficiency x-ray diffraction via transmission through arrays of nanometer-scale mirrors,” Opt. Express 16(12), 8658–8669 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Ahn, R. K. Heilmann, and M. L. Schattenburg, “Fabrication of ultrahigh aspect ratio freestanding gratings on silicon-on-insulator wafers,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 25(6), 2593–2597 (2007).
[Crossref]

Ahn, S.-W.

S.-W. Ahn, K.-D. Lee, J.-S. Kim, S. H. Kim, J.-D. Park, S.-H. Lee, and P.-W. Yoon, “Fabrication of a 50 nm half-pitch wire grid polarizer using nanoimprint lithography,” Nanotechnology 16(9), 1874–1877 (2005).
[Crossref]

Alkadhi, H.

T. Thüring, R. Guggenberger, H. Alkadhi, J. Hodler, M. Vich, Z. Wang, C. David, and M. Stampanoni, “Human hand radiography using X-ray differential phase contrast combined with dark-field imaging,” Skeletal Radiol. 42(6), 827–835 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bai, S.

K. J. Morton, G. Nieberg, S. Bai, and S. Y. Chou, “Wafer-scale patterning of sub-40 nm diameter and high aspect ratio (>50:1) silicon pillar arrays by nanoimprint and etching,” Nanotechnology 19(34), 345301 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bamberg, F.

F. G. Meinel, F. Schwab, A. Yaroshenko, A. Velroyen, M. Bech, K. Hellbach, J. Fuchs, T. Stiewe, A. Ö. Yildirim, F. Bamberg, M. F. Reiser, F. Pfeiffer, and K. Nikolaou, “Lung tumors on multimodal radiographs derived from grating-based X-ray imaging - A feasibility study,” Phys. Med. 30(3), 352–357 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bech, M.

F. G. Meinel, F. Schwab, A. Yaroshenko, A. Velroyen, M. Bech, K. Hellbach, J. Fuchs, T. Stiewe, A. Ö. Yildirim, F. Bamberg, M. F. Reiser, F. Pfeiffer, and K. Nikolaou, “Lung tumors on multimodal radiographs derived from grating-based X-ray imaging - A feasibility study,” Phys. Med. 30(3), 352–357 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. H. Jensen, M. Bech, T. Binderup, A. Böttiger, C. David, T. Weitkamp, I. Zanette, E. Reznikova, J. Mohr, F. Rank, R. Feidenhans’l, A. Kjaer, L. Højgaard, and F. Pfeiffer, “Imaging of Metastatic Lymph Nodes by X-ray Phase-Contrast Micro-Tomography,” PLoS ONE 8(1), e54047 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Bech, A. Tapfer, A. Velroyen, A. Yaroshenko, B. Pauwels, J. Hostens, P. Bruyndonckx, A. Sasov, and F. Pfeiffer, “In-vivo dark-field and phase-contrast x-ray imaging,” Sci Rep 3, 3209 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Pfeiffer, M. Bech, O. Bunk, P. Kraft, E. F. Eikenberry, Ch. Brönnimann, C. Grünzweig, and C. David, “Hard-X-ray dark-field imaging using a grating interferometer,” Nat. Mater. 7(2), 134–137 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Betz, B.

C. Grünzweig, J. Kopecek, B. Betz, A. Kaestner, K. Jefimovs, J. Kohlbrecher, U. Gasser, O. Bunk, C. David, E. Lehmann, T. Donath, and F. Pfeiffer, “Quantification of the neutron dark-field imaging signal in grating interferometry,” Phys. Rev. B 88(12), 125104 (2013).
[Crossref]

Binderup, T.

T. H. Jensen, M. Bech, T. Binderup, A. Böttiger, C. David, T. Weitkamp, I. Zanette, E. Reznikova, J. Mohr, F. Rank, R. Feidenhans’l, A. Kjaer, L. Højgaard, and F. Pfeiffer, “Imaging of Metastatic Lymph Nodes by X-ray Phase-Contrast Micro-Tomography,” PLoS ONE 8(1), e54047 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Böttiger, A.

T. H. Jensen, M. Bech, T. Binderup, A. Böttiger, C. David, T. Weitkamp, I. Zanette, E. Reznikova, J. Mohr, F. Rank, R. Feidenhans’l, A. Kjaer, L. Højgaard, and F. Pfeiffer, “Imaging of Metastatic Lymph Nodes by X-ray Phase-Contrast Micro-Tomography,” PLoS ONE 8(1), e54047 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brönnimann, Ch.

F. Pfeiffer, M. Bech, O. Bunk, P. Kraft, E. F. Eikenberry, Ch. Brönnimann, C. Grünzweig, and C. David, “Hard-X-ray dark-field imaging using a grating interferometer,” Nat. Mater. 7(2), 134–137 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bruccoleri, A.

A. Bruccoleri, D. Guan, P. Mukherjee, R. K. Heilmann, M. L. Schattenburg, and S. Vargo, “Potassium hydroxide polishing of nanoscale deep reactive-ion etched ultrahigh aspect ratio gratings,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 31(6), 06FF02 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Bruccoleri, P. Mukherjee, R. K. Heilmann, J. Yam, M. L. Schattenburg, and F. DiPiazza, “Fabrication of nanoscale, high throughput, high aspect ratio freestanding gratings,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 30(6), 06FF03 (2012).
[Crossref]

P. Mukherjee, A. Bruccoleri, R. K. Heilmann, M. L. Schattenburg, A. F. Kaplan, and L. J. Guo, “Plasma etch fabrication of 60:1 aspect ratio silicon nanogratings with 200 nm pitch,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 28(6), 670675 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bruder, J.

C. David, J. Bruder, T. Rohbeck, C. Grünzweig, C. Kottler, A. Diaz, O. Bunk, and F. Pfeiffer, “Fabrication of diffraction gratings for hard X-ray phase contrast imaging,” Microelectron. Eng. 84(5-8), 1172–1177 (2007).
[Crossref]

Bruyndonckx, P.

M. Bech, A. Tapfer, A. Velroyen, A. Yaroshenko, B. Pauwels, J. Hostens, P. Bruyndonckx, A. Sasov, and F. Pfeiffer, “In-vivo dark-field and phase-contrast x-ray imaging,” Sci Rep 3, 3209 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bunk, O.

C. Grünzweig, J. Kopecek, B. Betz, A. Kaestner, K. Jefimovs, J. Kohlbrecher, U. Gasser, O. Bunk, C. David, E. Lehmann, T. Donath, and F. Pfeiffer, “Quantification of the neutron dark-field imaging signal in grating interferometry,” Phys. Rev. B 88(12), 125104 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Grünzweig, F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, T. Donath, G. Kühne, G. Frei, M. Dierolf, and C. David, “Design, fabrication, and characterization of diffraction gratings for neutron phase contrast imaging,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79(5), 053703 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Pfeiffer, M. Bech, O. Bunk, P. Kraft, E. F. Eikenberry, Ch. Brönnimann, C. Grünzweig, and C. David, “Hard-X-ray dark-field imaging using a grating interferometer,” Nat. Mater. 7(2), 134–137 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. David, J. Bruder, T. Rohbeck, C. Grünzweig, C. Kottler, A. Diaz, O. Bunk, and F. Pfeiffer, “Fabrication of diffraction gratings for hard X-ray phase contrast imaging,” Microelectron. Eng. 84(5-8), 1172–1177 (2007).
[Crossref]

F. Pfeiffer, T. Weitkamp, O. Bunk, and C. David, “Phase retrieval and differential phase-contrast imaging with low-brilliance X-ray sources,” Nat. Phys. 2(4), 258–261 (2006).
[Crossref]

F. Pfeiffer, C. Grünzweig, O. Bunk, G. Frei, E. Lehmann, and C. David, “Neutron Phase Imaging and Tomography,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(21), 215505 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. Schulze-Briese, A. Diaz, T. Weitkamp, C. David, J. Van Der Veen, I. Vartanyants, and I. K. Robinson, “Shearing Interferometer for Quantifying the Coherence of Hard X-Ray Beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(16), 164801 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chang, C. H.

P. T. Konkola, C. G. Chen, R. K. Heilmann, C. M. Joo, J. C. Montoya, C. H. Chang, and M. L. Schattenburg, “Nanometer-level repeatable metrology using the nanoruler,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 21(6), 3097–3101 (2003).
[Crossref]

Chekurov, N.

P. Sievilä, N. Chekurov, and I. Tittonen, “The fabrication of silicon nanostructures by focused-ion-beam implantation and TMAH wet etching,” Nanotechnology 21(14), 145301 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, C. G.

P. T. Konkola, C. G. Chen, R. K. Heilmann, C. M. Joo, J. C. Montoya, C. H. Chang, and M. L. Schattenburg, “Nanometer-level repeatable metrology using the nanoruler,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 21(6), 3097–3101 (2003).
[Crossref]

Chen, T. T.

F. S. S. Chien, C. L. Wu, Y. C. Chou, T. T. Chen, S. Gwo, and W. F. Hsieh, “Nanomachining of (110)-oriented silicon by scanning probe lithography and anisotropic wet etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(16), 2429–2431 (1999).
[Crossref]

Chien, F. S. S.

F. S. S. Chien, C. L. Wu, Y. C. Chou, T. T. Chen, S. Gwo, and W. F. Hsieh, “Nanomachining of (110)-oriented silicon by scanning probe lithography and anisotropic wet etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(16), 2429–2431 (1999).
[Crossref]

Choi, C.-H.

C.-H. Choi and C.-J. Kim, “Fabrication of a dense array of tall nanostructures over a large sample area with sidewall profile and tip sharpness control,” Nanotechnology 17(21), 5326–5333 (2006).
[Crossref]

Chou, S. Y.

K. J. Morton, G. Nieberg, S. Bai, and S. Y. Chou, “Wafer-scale patterning of sub-40 nm diameter and high aspect ratio (>50:1) silicon pillar arrays by nanoimprint and etching,” Nanotechnology 19(34), 345301 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chou, Y. C.

F. S. S. Chien, C. L. Wu, Y. C. Chou, T. T. Chen, S. Gwo, and W. F. Hsieh, “Nanomachining of (110)-oriented silicon by scanning probe lithography and anisotropic wet etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(16), 2429–2431 (1999).
[Crossref]

David, C.

C. Grünzweig, J. Kopecek, B. Betz, A. Kaestner, K. Jefimovs, J. Kohlbrecher, U. Gasser, O. Bunk, C. David, E. Lehmann, T. Donath, and F. Pfeiffer, “Quantification of the neutron dark-field imaging signal in grating interferometry,” Phys. Rev. B 88(12), 125104 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. Thüring, R. Guggenberger, H. Alkadhi, J. Hodler, M. Vich, Z. Wang, C. David, and M. Stampanoni, “Human hand radiography using X-ray differential phase contrast combined with dark-field imaging,” Skeletal Radiol. 42(6), 827–835 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. H. Jensen, M. Bech, T. Binderup, A. Böttiger, C. David, T. Weitkamp, I. Zanette, E. Reznikova, J. Mohr, F. Rank, R. Feidenhans’l, A. Kjaer, L. Højgaard, and F. Pfeiffer, “Imaging of Metastatic Lymph Nodes by X-ray Phase-Contrast Micro-Tomography,” PLoS ONE 8(1), e54047 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Schulz, C. Waschkies, F. Pfeiffer, I. Zanette, T. Weitkamp, C. David, and B. Müller, “Multimodal imaging of human cerebellum - merging X-ray phase microtomography, magnetic resonance microscopy and histology,” Sci Rep 2, 826 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Rutishauser, T. Donath, C. David, F. Pfeiffer, F. Marone, P. Modregger, and M. Stampanoni, “A tilted grating interferometer for full vector field differential x-ray phase contrast tomography,” Opt. Express 19(25), 24890–24896 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Pfeiffer, M. Bech, O. Bunk, P. Kraft, E. F. Eikenberry, Ch. Brönnimann, C. Grünzweig, and C. David, “Hard-X-ray dark-field imaging using a grating interferometer,” Nat. Mater. 7(2), 134–137 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Grünzweig, F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, T. Donath, G. Kühne, G. Frei, M. Dierolf, and C. David, “Design, fabrication, and characterization of diffraction gratings for neutron phase contrast imaging,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79(5), 053703 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. David, J. Bruder, T. Rohbeck, C. Grünzweig, C. Kottler, A. Diaz, O. Bunk, and F. Pfeiffer, “Fabrication of diffraction gratings for hard X-ray phase contrast imaging,” Microelectron. Eng. 84(5-8), 1172–1177 (2007).
[Crossref]

F. Pfeiffer, T. Weitkamp, O. Bunk, and C. David, “Phase retrieval and differential phase-contrast imaging with low-brilliance X-ray sources,” Nat. Phys. 2(4), 258–261 (2006).
[Crossref]

F. Pfeiffer, C. Grünzweig, O. Bunk, G. Frei, E. Lehmann, and C. David, “Neutron Phase Imaging and Tomography,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(21), 215505 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. Schulze-Briese, A. Diaz, T. Weitkamp, C. David, J. Van Der Veen, I. Vartanyants, and I. K. Robinson, “Shearing Interferometer for Quantifying the Coherence of Hard X-Ray Beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(16), 164801 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Weitkamp, B. Nöhammer, A. Diaz, C. David, and E. Ziegler, “X-ray wavefront analysis and optics characterization with a grating interferometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(5), 054101 (2005).
[Crossref]

A. Diaz, C. David, H. Guo, H. Keymeulen, F. Pfeiffer, G. Wegdam, T. Weitkamp, and J. F. Van Der Veen, “Microcavity arrays for X-ray diffraction studies of ordering phenomena in confined colloid solutions,” Physica B 357(1-2), 199–203 (2005).
[Crossref]

Diaz, A.

C. David, J. Bruder, T. Rohbeck, C. Grünzweig, C. Kottler, A. Diaz, O. Bunk, and F. Pfeiffer, “Fabrication of diffraction gratings for hard X-ray phase contrast imaging,” Microelectron. Eng. 84(5-8), 1172–1177 (2007).
[Crossref]

F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. Schulze-Briese, A. Diaz, T. Weitkamp, C. David, J. Van Der Veen, I. Vartanyants, and I. K. Robinson, “Shearing Interferometer for Quantifying the Coherence of Hard X-Ray Beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(16), 164801 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Weitkamp, B. Nöhammer, A. Diaz, C. David, and E. Ziegler, “X-ray wavefront analysis and optics characterization with a grating interferometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(5), 054101 (2005).
[Crossref]

A. Diaz, C. David, H. Guo, H. Keymeulen, F. Pfeiffer, G. Wegdam, T. Weitkamp, and J. F. Van Der Veen, “Microcavity arrays for X-ray diffraction studies of ordering phenomena in confined colloid solutions,” Physica B 357(1-2), 199–203 (2005).
[Crossref]

Dierolf, M.

C. Grünzweig, F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, T. Donath, G. Kühne, G. Frei, M. Dierolf, and C. David, “Design, fabrication, and characterization of diffraction gratings for neutron phase contrast imaging,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79(5), 053703 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

DiPiazza, F.

A. Bruccoleri, P. Mukherjee, R. K. Heilmann, J. Yam, M. L. Schattenburg, and F. DiPiazza, “Fabrication of nanoscale, high throughput, high aspect ratio freestanding gratings,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 30(6), 06FF03 (2012).
[Crossref]

Donath, T.

C. Grünzweig, J. Kopecek, B. Betz, A. Kaestner, K. Jefimovs, J. Kohlbrecher, U. Gasser, O. Bunk, C. David, E. Lehmann, T. Donath, and F. Pfeiffer, “Quantification of the neutron dark-field imaging signal in grating interferometry,” Phys. Rev. B 88(12), 125104 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Rutishauser, T. Donath, C. David, F. Pfeiffer, F. Marone, P. Modregger, and M. Stampanoni, “A tilted grating interferometer for full vector field differential x-ray phase contrast tomography,” Opt. Express 19(25), 24890–24896 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Grünzweig, F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, T. Donath, G. Kühne, G. Frei, M. Dierolf, and C. David, “Design, fabrication, and characterization of diffraction gratings for neutron phase contrast imaging,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79(5), 053703 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Du, Y.

Eikenberry, E. F.

F. Pfeiffer, M. Bech, O. Bunk, P. Kraft, E. F. Eikenberry, Ch. Brönnimann, C. Grünzweig, and C. David, “Hard-X-ray dark-field imaging using a grating interferometer,” Nat. Mater. 7(2), 134–137 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Feidenhans’l, R.

T. H. Jensen, M. Bech, T. Binderup, A. Böttiger, C. David, T. Weitkamp, I. Zanette, E. Reznikova, J. Mohr, F. Rank, R. Feidenhans’l, A. Kjaer, L. Højgaard, and F. Pfeiffer, “Imaging of Metastatic Lymph Nodes by X-ray Phase-Contrast Micro-Tomography,” PLoS ONE 8(1), e54047 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Finn, A.

A. Finn, B. Lu, R. Kirchner, X. Thrun, K. Richter, and W.-J. Fischer, “High aspect ratio pattern collapse of polymeric UV-nano-imprint molds due to cleaning,” Microelectron. Eng. 110, 112–118 (2013).
[Crossref]

Fischer, W.-J.

A. Finn, B. Lu, R. Kirchner, X. Thrun, K. Richter, and W.-J. Fischer, “High aspect ratio pattern collapse of polymeric UV-nano-imprint molds due to cleaning,” Microelectron. Eng. 110, 112–118 (2013).
[Crossref]

Frei, G.

C. Grünzweig, F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, T. Donath, G. Kühne, G. Frei, M. Dierolf, and C. David, “Design, fabrication, and characterization of diffraction gratings for neutron phase contrast imaging,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79(5), 053703 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Pfeiffer, C. Grünzweig, O. Bunk, G. Frei, E. Lehmann, and C. David, “Neutron Phase Imaging and Tomography,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(21), 215505 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fuchs, J.

F. G. Meinel, F. Schwab, A. Yaroshenko, A. Velroyen, M. Bech, K. Hellbach, J. Fuchs, T. Stiewe, A. Ö. Yildirim, F. Bamberg, M. F. Reiser, F. Pfeiffer, and K. Nikolaou, “Lung tumors on multimodal radiographs derived from grating-based X-ray imaging - A feasibility study,” Phys. Med. 30(3), 352–357 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gasser, U.

C. Grünzweig, J. Kopecek, B. Betz, A. Kaestner, K. Jefimovs, J. Kohlbrecher, U. Gasser, O. Bunk, C. David, E. Lehmann, T. Donath, and F. Pfeiffer, “Quantification of the neutron dark-field imaging signal in grating interferometry,” Phys. Rev. B 88(12), 125104 (2013).
[Crossref]

Grünzweig, C.

C. Grünzweig, J. Kopecek, B. Betz, A. Kaestner, K. Jefimovs, J. Kohlbrecher, U. Gasser, O. Bunk, C. David, E. Lehmann, T. Donath, and F. Pfeiffer, “Quantification of the neutron dark-field imaging signal in grating interferometry,” Phys. Rev. B 88(12), 125104 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Grünzweig, F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, T. Donath, G. Kühne, G. Frei, M. Dierolf, and C. David, “Design, fabrication, and characterization of diffraction gratings for neutron phase contrast imaging,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79(5), 053703 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Pfeiffer, M. Bech, O. Bunk, P. Kraft, E. F. Eikenberry, Ch. Brönnimann, C. Grünzweig, and C. David, “Hard-X-ray dark-field imaging using a grating interferometer,” Nat. Mater. 7(2), 134–137 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. David, J. Bruder, T. Rohbeck, C. Grünzweig, C. Kottler, A. Diaz, O. Bunk, and F. Pfeiffer, “Fabrication of diffraction gratings for hard X-ray phase contrast imaging,” Microelectron. Eng. 84(5-8), 1172–1177 (2007).
[Crossref]

F. Pfeiffer, C. Grünzweig, O. Bunk, G. Frei, E. Lehmann, and C. David, “Neutron Phase Imaging and Tomography,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(21), 215505 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guan, D.

A. Bruccoleri, D. Guan, P. Mukherjee, R. K. Heilmann, M. L. Schattenburg, and S. Vargo, “Potassium hydroxide polishing of nanoscale deep reactive-ion etched ultrahigh aspect ratio gratings,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 31(6), 06FF02 (2013).
[Crossref]

Guggenberger, R.

T. Thüring, R. Guggenberger, H. Alkadhi, J. Hodler, M. Vich, Z. Wang, C. David, and M. Stampanoni, “Human hand radiography using X-ray differential phase contrast combined with dark-field imaging,” Skeletal Radiol. 42(6), 827–835 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gullikson, E. M.

Guo, H.

A. Diaz, C. David, H. Guo, H. Keymeulen, F. Pfeiffer, G. Wegdam, T. Weitkamp, and J. F. Van Der Veen, “Microcavity arrays for X-ray diffraction studies of ordering phenomena in confined colloid solutions,” Physica B 357(1-2), 199–203 (2005).
[Crossref]

Guo, J. C.

Guo, L. J.

P. Mukherjee, A. Bruccoleri, R. K. Heilmann, M. L. Schattenburg, A. F. Kaplan, and L. J. Guo, “Plasma etch fabrication of 60:1 aspect ratio silicon nanogratings with 200 nm pitch,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 28(6), 670675 (2010).
[Crossref]

P. Mukherjee, T. H. Zurbuchen, and L. J. Guo, “Fabrication and testing of freestanding Si nanogratings for UV filtration on space-based particle sensors,” Nanotechnology 20(32), 325301 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Mukherjee, M.-G. Kang, T. H. Zurbuchen, L. J. Guo, and F. A. Herrero, “Fabrication of high aspect ratio Si nanogratings with smooth sidewalls for a deep UV-blocking particle filter,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 25(6), 2645–2648 (2007).
[Crossref]

Gwo, S.

F. S. S. Chien, C. L. Wu, Y. C. Chou, T. T. Chen, S. Gwo, and W. F. Hsieh, “Nanomachining of (110)-oriented silicon by scanning probe lithography and anisotropic wet etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(16), 2429–2431 (1999).
[Crossref]

Han, J.

S. Je, J. Shim, J. Kim, M. Kim, J. Lee, H. Nho, J. Han, S.-M. Kim, and S. Kang, “Development of Direct Deep Reactive Ion Etching Process Using Laser Interference Lithographed Etch Barrier without Intermediate Layer,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 52(10S), 10MC04 (2013).
[Crossref]

Han, J. H.

J. H. Han, S. Radhakrishnan, and C.-H. Lee, “A novel batch-processing method for accurate crystallographic axis alignment,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 23(5), 055017 (2013).
[Crossref]

Heilmann, R. K.

A. Bruccoleri, D. Guan, P. Mukherjee, R. K. Heilmann, M. L. Schattenburg, and S. Vargo, “Potassium hydroxide polishing of nanoscale deep reactive-ion etched ultrahigh aspect ratio gratings,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 31(6), 06FF02 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Bruccoleri, P. Mukherjee, R. K. Heilmann, J. Yam, M. L. Schattenburg, and F. DiPiazza, “Fabrication of nanoscale, high throughput, high aspect ratio freestanding gratings,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 30(6), 06FF03 (2012).
[Crossref]

P. Mukherjee, A. Bruccoleri, R. K. Heilmann, M. L. Schattenburg, A. F. Kaplan, and L. J. Guo, “Plasma etch fabrication of 60:1 aspect ratio silicon nanogratings with 200 nm pitch,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 28(6), 670675 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Ahn, R. K. Heilmann, and M. L. Schattenburg, “Fabrication of 200nm period blazed transmission gratings on silicon-on-insulator wafers,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 26(6), 2179–2182 (2008).
[Crossref]

R. K. Heilmann, M. Ahn, E. M. Gullikson, and M. L. Schattenburg, “Blazed high-efficiency x-ray diffraction via transmission through arrays of nanometer-scale mirrors,” Opt. Express 16(12), 8658–8669 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Ahn, R. K. Heilmann, and M. L. Schattenburg, “Fabrication of ultrahigh aspect ratio freestanding gratings on silicon-on-insulator wafers,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 25(6), 2593–2597 (2007).
[Crossref]

P. T. Konkola, C. G. Chen, R. K. Heilmann, C. M. Joo, J. C. Montoya, C. H. Chang, and M. L. Schattenburg, “Nanometer-level repeatable metrology using the nanoruler,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 21(6), 3097–3101 (2003).
[Crossref]

Hellbach, K.

F. G. Meinel, F. Schwab, A. Yaroshenko, A. Velroyen, M. Bech, K. Hellbach, J. Fuchs, T. Stiewe, A. Ö. Yildirim, F. Bamberg, M. F. Reiser, F. Pfeiffer, and K. Nikolaou, “Lung tumors on multimodal radiographs derived from grating-based X-ray imaging - A feasibility study,” Phys. Med. 30(3), 352–357 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Herrero, F. A.

P. Mukherjee, M.-G. Kang, T. H. Zurbuchen, L. J. Guo, and F. A. Herrero, “Fabrication of high aspect ratio Si nanogratings with smooth sidewalls for a deep UV-blocking particle filter,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 25(6), 2645–2648 (2007).
[Crossref]

Hodler, J.

T. Thüring, R. Guggenberger, H. Alkadhi, J. Hodler, M. Vich, Z. Wang, C. David, and M. Stampanoni, “Human hand radiography using X-ray differential phase contrast combined with dark-field imaging,” Skeletal Radiol. 42(6), 827–835 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Højgaard, L.

T. H. Jensen, M. Bech, T. Binderup, A. Böttiger, C. David, T. Weitkamp, I. Zanette, E. Reznikova, J. Mohr, F. Rank, R. Feidenhans’l, A. Kjaer, L. Højgaard, and F. Pfeiffer, “Imaging of Metastatic Lymph Nodes by X-ray Phase-Contrast Micro-Tomography,” PLoS ONE 8(1), e54047 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hostens, J.

M. Bech, A. Tapfer, A. Velroyen, A. Yaroshenko, B. Pauwels, J. Hostens, P. Bruyndonckx, A. Sasov, and F. Pfeiffer, “In-vivo dark-field and phase-contrast x-ray imaging,” Sci Rep 3, 3209 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hsieh, W. F.

F. S. S. Chien, C. L. Wu, Y. C. Chou, T. T. Chen, S. Gwo, and W. F. Hsieh, “Nanomachining of (110)-oriented silicon by scanning probe lithography and anisotropic wet etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(16), 2429–2431 (1999).
[Crossref]

Je, S.

S. Je, J. Shim, J. Kim, M. Kim, J. Lee, H. Nho, J. Han, S.-M. Kim, and S. Kang, “Development of Direct Deep Reactive Ion Etching Process Using Laser Interference Lithographed Etch Barrier without Intermediate Layer,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 52(10S), 10MC04 (2013).
[Crossref]

Jefimovs, K.

C. Grünzweig, J. Kopecek, B. Betz, A. Kaestner, K. Jefimovs, J. Kohlbrecher, U. Gasser, O. Bunk, C. David, E. Lehmann, T. Donath, and F. Pfeiffer, “Quantification of the neutron dark-field imaging signal in grating interferometry,” Phys. Rev. B 88(12), 125104 (2013).
[Crossref]

Jensen, T. H.

T. H. Jensen, M. Bech, T. Binderup, A. Böttiger, C. David, T. Weitkamp, I. Zanette, E. Reznikova, J. Mohr, F. Rank, R. Feidenhans’l, A. Kjaer, L. Højgaard, and F. Pfeiffer, “Imaging of Metastatic Lymph Nodes by X-ray Phase-Contrast Micro-Tomography,” PLoS ONE 8(1), e54047 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Joo, C. M.

P. T. Konkola, C. G. Chen, R. K. Heilmann, C. M. Joo, J. C. Montoya, C. H. Chang, and M. L. Schattenburg, “Nanometer-level repeatable metrology using the nanoruler,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 21(6), 3097–3101 (2003).
[Crossref]

Kaestner, A.

C. Grünzweig, J. Kopecek, B. Betz, A. Kaestner, K. Jefimovs, J. Kohlbrecher, U. Gasser, O. Bunk, C. David, E. Lehmann, T. Donath, and F. Pfeiffer, “Quantification of the neutron dark-field imaging signal in grating interferometry,” Phys. Rev. B 88(12), 125104 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kang, M.-G.

P. Mukherjee, M.-G. Kang, T. H. Zurbuchen, L. J. Guo, and F. A. Herrero, “Fabrication of high aspect ratio Si nanogratings with smooth sidewalls for a deep UV-blocking particle filter,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 25(6), 2645–2648 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kang, S.

S. Je, J. Shim, J. Kim, M. Kim, J. Lee, H. Nho, J. Han, S.-M. Kim, and S. Kang, “Development of Direct Deep Reactive Ion Etching Process Using Laser Interference Lithographed Etch Barrier without Intermediate Layer,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 52(10S), 10MC04 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kaplan, A. F.

P. Mukherjee, A. Bruccoleri, R. K. Heilmann, M. L. Schattenburg, A. F. Kaplan, and L. J. Guo, “Plasma etch fabrication of 60:1 aspect ratio silicon nanogratings with 200 nm pitch,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 28(6), 670675 (2010).
[Crossref]

Keymeulen, H.

A. Diaz, C. David, H. Guo, H. Keymeulen, F. Pfeiffer, G. Wegdam, T. Weitkamp, and J. F. Van Der Veen, “Microcavity arrays for X-ray diffraction studies of ordering phenomena in confined colloid solutions,” Physica B 357(1-2), 199–203 (2005).
[Crossref]

Kim, C.-J.

C.-H. Choi and C.-J. Kim, “Fabrication of a dense array of tall nanostructures over a large sample area with sidewall profile and tip sharpness control,” Nanotechnology 17(21), 5326–5333 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kim, J.

S. Je, J. Shim, J. Kim, M. Kim, J. Lee, H. Nho, J. Han, S.-M. Kim, and S. Kang, “Development of Direct Deep Reactive Ion Etching Process Using Laser Interference Lithographed Etch Barrier without Intermediate Layer,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 52(10S), 10MC04 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kim, J.-S.

S.-W. Ahn, K.-D. Lee, J.-S. Kim, S. H. Kim, J.-D. Park, S.-H. Lee, and P.-W. Yoon, “Fabrication of a 50 nm half-pitch wire grid polarizer using nanoimprint lithography,” Nanotechnology 16(9), 1874–1877 (2005).
[Crossref]

Kim, M.

S. Je, J. Shim, J. Kim, M. Kim, J. Lee, H. Nho, J. Han, S.-M. Kim, and S. Kang, “Development of Direct Deep Reactive Ion Etching Process Using Laser Interference Lithographed Etch Barrier without Intermediate Layer,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 52(10S), 10MC04 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kim, S. H.

S.-W. Ahn, K.-D. Lee, J.-S. Kim, S. H. Kim, J.-D. Park, S.-H. Lee, and P.-W. Yoon, “Fabrication of a 50 nm half-pitch wire grid polarizer using nanoimprint lithography,” Nanotechnology 16(9), 1874–1877 (2005).
[Crossref]

Kim, S.-M.

S. Je, J. Shim, J. Kim, M. Kim, J. Lee, H. Nho, J. Han, S.-M. Kim, and S. Kang, “Development of Direct Deep Reactive Ion Etching Process Using Laser Interference Lithographed Etch Barrier without Intermediate Layer,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 52(10S), 10MC04 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kirchner, R.

A. Finn, B. Lu, R. Kirchner, X. Thrun, K. Richter, and W.-J. Fischer, “High aspect ratio pattern collapse of polymeric UV-nano-imprint molds due to cleaning,” Microelectron. Eng. 110, 112–118 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kjaer, A.

T. H. Jensen, M. Bech, T. Binderup, A. Böttiger, C. David, T. Weitkamp, I. Zanette, E. Reznikova, J. Mohr, F. Rank, R. Feidenhans’l, A. Kjaer, L. Højgaard, and F. Pfeiffer, “Imaging of Metastatic Lymph Nodes by X-ray Phase-Contrast Micro-Tomography,” PLoS ONE 8(1), e54047 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kohlbrecher, J.

C. Grünzweig, J. Kopecek, B. Betz, A. Kaestner, K. Jefimovs, J. Kohlbrecher, U. Gasser, O. Bunk, C. David, E. Lehmann, T. Donath, and F. Pfeiffer, “Quantification of the neutron dark-field imaging signal in grating interferometry,” Phys. Rev. B 88(12), 125104 (2013).
[Crossref]

Konkola, P. T.

P. T. Konkola, C. G. Chen, R. K. Heilmann, C. M. Joo, J. C. Montoya, C. H. Chang, and M. L. Schattenburg, “Nanometer-level repeatable metrology using the nanoruler,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 21(6), 3097–3101 (2003).
[Crossref]

Kopecek, J.

C. Grünzweig, J. Kopecek, B. Betz, A. Kaestner, K. Jefimovs, J. Kohlbrecher, U. Gasser, O. Bunk, C. David, E. Lehmann, T. Donath, and F. Pfeiffer, “Quantification of the neutron dark-field imaging signal in grating interferometry,” Phys. Rev. B 88(12), 125104 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kottler, C.

C. David, J. Bruder, T. Rohbeck, C. Grünzweig, C. Kottler, A. Diaz, O. Bunk, and F. Pfeiffer, “Fabrication of diffraction gratings for hard X-ray phase contrast imaging,” Microelectron. Eng. 84(5-8), 1172–1177 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kraft, P.

F. Pfeiffer, M. Bech, O. Bunk, P. Kraft, E. F. Eikenberry, Ch. Brönnimann, C. Grünzweig, and C. David, “Hard-X-ray dark-field imaging using a grating interferometer,” Nat. Mater. 7(2), 134–137 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kühne, G.

C. Grünzweig, F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, T. Donath, G. Kühne, G. Frei, M. Dierolf, and C. David, “Design, fabrication, and characterization of diffraction gratings for neutron phase contrast imaging,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79(5), 053703 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, C.-H.

J. H. Han, S. Radhakrishnan, and C.-H. Lee, “A novel batch-processing method for accurate crystallographic axis alignment,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 23(5), 055017 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lee, J.

S. Je, J. Shim, J. Kim, M. Kim, J. Lee, H. Nho, J. Han, S.-M. Kim, and S. Kang, “Development of Direct Deep Reactive Ion Etching Process Using Laser Interference Lithographed Etch Barrier without Intermediate Layer,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 52(10S), 10MC04 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lee, K.-D.

S.-W. Ahn, K.-D. Lee, J.-S. Kim, S. H. Kim, J.-D. Park, S.-H. Lee, and P.-W. Yoon, “Fabrication of a 50 nm half-pitch wire grid polarizer using nanoimprint lithography,” Nanotechnology 16(9), 1874–1877 (2005).
[Crossref]

Lee, S.-H.

S.-W. Ahn, K.-D. Lee, J.-S. Kim, S. H. Kim, J.-D. Park, S.-H. Lee, and P.-W. Yoon, “Fabrication of a 50 nm half-pitch wire grid polarizer using nanoimprint lithography,” Nanotechnology 16(9), 1874–1877 (2005).
[Crossref]

Lehmann, E.

C. Grünzweig, J. Kopecek, B. Betz, A. Kaestner, K. Jefimovs, J. Kohlbrecher, U. Gasser, O. Bunk, C. David, E. Lehmann, T. Donath, and F. Pfeiffer, “Quantification of the neutron dark-field imaging signal in grating interferometry,” Phys. Rev. B 88(12), 125104 (2013).
[Crossref]

F. Pfeiffer, C. Grünzweig, O. Bunk, G. Frei, E. Lehmann, and C. David, “Neutron Phase Imaging and Tomography,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(21), 215505 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lei, Y. H.

Liu, X.

Lu, B.

A. Finn, B. Lu, R. Kirchner, X. Thrun, K. Richter, and W.-J. Fischer, “High aspect ratio pattern collapse of polymeric UV-nano-imprint molds due to cleaning,” Microelectron. Eng. 110, 112–118 (2013).
[Crossref]

Marone, F.

Meinel, F. G.

F. G. Meinel, F. Schwab, A. Yaroshenko, A. Velroyen, M. Bech, K. Hellbach, J. Fuchs, T. Stiewe, A. Ö. Yildirim, F. Bamberg, M. F. Reiser, F. Pfeiffer, and K. Nikolaou, “Lung tumors on multimodal radiographs derived from grating-based X-ray imaging - A feasibility study,” Phys. Med. 30(3), 352–357 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Modregger, P.

Mohr, J.

T. H. Jensen, M. Bech, T. Binderup, A. Böttiger, C. David, T. Weitkamp, I. Zanette, E. Reznikova, J. Mohr, F. Rank, R. Feidenhans’l, A. Kjaer, L. Højgaard, and F. Pfeiffer, “Imaging of Metastatic Lymph Nodes by X-ray Phase-Contrast Micro-Tomography,” PLoS ONE 8(1), e54047 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Montoya, J. C.

P. T. Konkola, C. G. Chen, R. K. Heilmann, C. M. Joo, J. C. Montoya, C. H. Chang, and M. L. Schattenburg, “Nanometer-level repeatable metrology using the nanoruler,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 21(6), 3097–3101 (2003).
[Crossref]

Morton, K. J.

K. J. Morton, G. Nieberg, S. Bai, and S. Y. Chou, “Wafer-scale patterning of sub-40 nm diameter and high aspect ratio (>50:1) silicon pillar arrays by nanoimprint and etching,” Nanotechnology 19(34), 345301 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mukherjee, P.

A. Bruccoleri, D. Guan, P. Mukherjee, R. K. Heilmann, M. L. Schattenburg, and S. Vargo, “Potassium hydroxide polishing of nanoscale deep reactive-ion etched ultrahigh aspect ratio gratings,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 31(6), 06FF02 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Bruccoleri, P. Mukherjee, R. K. Heilmann, J. Yam, M. L. Schattenburg, and F. DiPiazza, “Fabrication of nanoscale, high throughput, high aspect ratio freestanding gratings,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 30(6), 06FF03 (2012).
[Crossref]

P. Mukherjee, A. Bruccoleri, R. K. Heilmann, M. L. Schattenburg, A. F. Kaplan, and L. J. Guo, “Plasma etch fabrication of 60:1 aspect ratio silicon nanogratings with 200 nm pitch,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 28(6), 670675 (2010).
[Crossref]

P. Mukherjee, T. H. Zurbuchen, and L. J. Guo, “Fabrication and testing of freestanding Si nanogratings for UV filtration on space-based particle sensors,” Nanotechnology 20(32), 325301 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Mukherjee, M.-G. Kang, T. H. Zurbuchen, L. J. Guo, and F. A. Herrero, “Fabrication of high aspect ratio Si nanogratings with smooth sidewalls for a deep UV-blocking particle filter,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 25(6), 2645–2648 (2007).
[Crossref]

Müller, B.

G. Schulz, C. Waschkies, F. Pfeiffer, I. Zanette, T. Weitkamp, C. David, and B. Müller, “Multimodal imaging of human cerebellum - merging X-ray phase microtomography, magnetic resonance microscopy and histology,” Sci Rep 2, 826 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nho, H.

S. Je, J. Shim, J. Kim, M. Kim, J. Lee, H. Nho, J. Han, S.-M. Kim, and S. Kang, “Development of Direct Deep Reactive Ion Etching Process Using Laser Interference Lithographed Etch Barrier without Intermediate Layer,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 52(10S), 10MC04 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nieberg, G.

K. J. Morton, G. Nieberg, S. Bai, and S. Y. Chou, “Wafer-scale patterning of sub-40 nm diameter and high aspect ratio (>50:1) silicon pillar arrays by nanoimprint and etching,” Nanotechnology 19(34), 345301 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nikolaou, K.

F. G. Meinel, F. Schwab, A. Yaroshenko, A. Velroyen, M. Bech, K. Hellbach, J. Fuchs, T. Stiewe, A. Ö. Yildirim, F. Bamberg, M. F. Reiser, F. Pfeiffer, and K. Nikolaou, “Lung tumors on multimodal radiographs derived from grating-based X-ray imaging - A feasibility study,” Phys. Med. 30(3), 352–357 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Niu, H. B.

Nöhammer, B.

T. Weitkamp, B. Nöhammer, A. Diaz, C. David, and E. Ziegler, “X-ray wavefront analysis and optics characterization with a grating interferometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(5), 054101 (2005).
[Crossref]

Park, J.-D.

S.-W. Ahn, K.-D. Lee, J.-S. Kim, S. H. Kim, J.-D. Park, S.-H. Lee, and P.-W. Yoon, “Fabrication of a 50 nm half-pitch wire grid polarizer using nanoimprint lithography,” Nanotechnology 16(9), 1874–1877 (2005).
[Crossref]

Pauwels, B.

M. Bech, A. Tapfer, A. Velroyen, A. Yaroshenko, B. Pauwels, J. Hostens, P. Bruyndonckx, A. Sasov, and F. Pfeiffer, “In-vivo dark-field and phase-contrast x-ray imaging,” Sci Rep 3, 3209 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pfeiffer, F.

F. G. Meinel, F. Schwab, A. Yaroshenko, A. Velroyen, M. Bech, K. Hellbach, J. Fuchs, T. Stiewe, A. Ö. Yildirim, F. Bamberg, M. F. Reiser, F. Pfeiffer, and K. Nikolaou, “Lung tumors on multimodal radiographs derived from grating-based X-ray imaging - A feasibility study,” Phys. Med. 30(3), 352–357 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Bech, A. Tapfer, A. Velroyen, A. Yaroshenko, B. Pauwels, J. Hostens, P. Bruyndonckx, A. Sasov, and F. Pfeiffer, “In-vivo dark-field and phase-contrast x-ray imaging,” Sci Rep 3, 3209 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. H. Jensen, M. Bech, T. Binderup, A. Böttiger, C. David, T. Weitkamp, I. Zanette, E. Reznikova, J. Mohr, F. Rank, R. Feidenhans’l, A. Kjaer, L. Højgaard, and F. Pfeiffer, “Imaging of Metastatic Lymph Nodes by X-ray Phase-Contrast Micro-Tomography,” PLoS ONE 8(1), e54047 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Grünzweig, J. Kopecek, B. Betz, A. Kaestner, K. Jefimovs, J. Kohlbrecher, U. Gasser, O. Bunk, C. David, E. Lehmann, T. Donath, and F. Pfeiffer, “Quantification of the neutron dark-field imaging signal in grating interferometry,” Phys. Rev. B 88(12), 125104 (2013).
[Crossref]

G. Schulz, C. Waschkies, F. Pfeiffer, I. Zanette, T. Weitkamp, C. David, and B. Müller, “Multimodal imaging of human cerebellum - merging X-ray phase microtomography, magnetic resonance microscopy and histology,” Sci Rep 2, 826 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Rutishauser, T. Donath, C. David, F. Pfeiffer, F. Marone, P. Modregger, and M. Stampanoni, “A tilted grating interferometer for full vector field differential x-ray phase contrast tomography,” Opt. Express 19(25), 24890–24896 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Pfeiffer, M. Bech, O. Bunk, P. Kraft, E. F. Eikenberry, Ch. Brönnimann, C. Grünzweig, and C. David, “Hard-X-ray dark-field imaging using a grating interferometer,” Nat. Mater. 7(2), 134–137 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Grünzweig, F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, T. Donath, G. Kühne, G. Frei, M. Dierolf, and C. David, “Design, fabrication, and characterization of diffraction gratings for neutron phase contrast imaging,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79(5), 053703 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. David, J. Bruder, T. Rohbeck, C. Grünzweig, C. Kottler, A. Diaz, O. Bunk, and F. Pfeiffer, “Fabrication of diffraction gratings for hard X-ray phase contrast imaging,” Microelectron. Eng. 84(5-8), 1172–1177 (2007).
[Crossref]

F. Pfeiffer, T. Weitkamp, O. Bunk, and C. David, “Phase retrieval and differential phase-contrast imaging with low-brilliance X-ray sources,” Nat. Phys. 2(4), 258–261 (2006).
[Crossref]

F. Pfeiffer, C. Grünzweig, O. Bunk, G. Frei, E. Lehmann, and C. David, “Neutron Phase Imaging and Tomography,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(21), 215505 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. Schulze-Briese, A. Diaz, T. Weitkamp, C. David, J. Van Der Veen, I. Vartanyants, and I. K. Robinson, “Shearing Interferometer for Quantifying the Coherence of Hard X-Ray Beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(16), 164801 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Diaz, C. David, H. Guo, H. Keymeulen, F. Pfeiffer, G. Wegdam, T. Weitkamp, and J. F. Van Der Veen, “Microcavity arrays for X-ray diffraction studies of ordering phenomena in confined colloid solutions,” Physica B 357(1-2), 199–203 (2005).
[Crossref]

Radhakrishnan, S.

J. H. Han, S. Radhakrishnan, and C.-H. Lee, “A novel batch-processing method for accurate crystallographic axis alignment,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 23(5), 055017 (2013).
[Crossref]

Rank, F.

T. H. Jensen, M. Bech, T. Binderup, A. Böttiger, C. David, T. Weitkamp, I. Zanette, E. Reznikova, J. Mohr, F. Rank, R. Feidenhans’l, A. Kjaer, L. Højgaard, and F. Pfeiffer, “Imaging of Metastatic Lymph Nodes by X-ray Phase-Contrast Micro-Tomography,” PLoS ONE 8(1), e54047 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Reiser, M. F.

F. G. Meinel, F. Schwab, A. Yaroshenko, A. Velroyen, M. Bech, K. Hellbach, J. Fuchs, T. Stiewe, A. Ö. Yildirim, F. Bamberg, M. F. Reiser, F. Pfeiffer, and K. Nikolaou, “Lung tumors on multimodal radiographs derived from grating-based X-ray imaging - A feasibility study,” Phys. Med. 30(3), 352–357 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Reznikova, E.

T. H. Jensen, M. Bech, T. Binderup, A. Böttiger, C. David, T. Weitkamp, I. Zanette, E. Reznikova, J. Mohr, F. Rank, R. Feidenhans’l, A. Kjaer, L. Højgaard, and F. Pfeiffer, “Imaging of Metastatic Lymph Nodes by X-ray Phase-Contrast Micro-Tomography,” PLoS ONE 8(1), e54047 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Richter, K.

A. Finn, B. Lu, R. Kirchner, X. Thrun, K. Richter, and W.-J. Fischer, “High aspect ratio pattern collapse of polymeric UV-nano-imprint molds due to cleaning,” Microelectron. Eng. 110, 112–118 (2013).
[Crossref]

Robinson, I. K.

F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. Schulze-Briese, A. Diaz, T. Weitkamp, C. David, J. Van Der Veen, I. Vartanyants, and I. K. Robinson, “Shearing Interferometer for Quantifying the Coherence of Hard X-Ray Beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(16), 164801 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rohbeck, T.

C. David, J. Bruder, T. Rohbeck, C. Grünzweig, C. Kottler, A. Diaz, O. Bunk, and F. Pfeiffer, “Fabrication of diffraction gratings for hard X-ray phase contrast imaging,” Microelectron. Eng. 84(5-8), 1172–1177 (2007).
[Crossref]

Rutishauser, S.

Sasov, A.

M. Bech, A. Tapfer, A. Velroyen, A. Yaroshenko, B. Pauwels, J. Hostens, P. Bruyndonckx, A. Sasov, and F. Pfeiffer, “In-vivo dark-field and phase-contrast x-ray imaging,” Sci Rep 3, 3209 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schattenburg, M. L.

A. Bruccoleri, D. Guan, P. Mukherjee, R. K. Heilmann, M. L. Schattenburg, and S. Vargo, “Potassium hydroxide polishing of nanoscale deep reactive-ion etched ultrahigh aspect ratio gratings,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 31(6), 06FF02 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Bruccoleri, P. Mukherjee, R. K. Heilmann, J. Yam, M. L. Schattenburg, and F. DiPiazza, “Fabrication of nanoscale, high throughput, high aspect ratio freestanding gratings,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 30(6), 06FF03 (2012).
[Crossref]

P. Mukherjee, A. Bruccoleri, R. K. Heilmann, M. L. Schattenburg, A. F. Kaplan, and L. J. Guo, “Plasma etch fabrication of 60:1 aspect ratio silicon nanogratings with 200 nm pitch,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 28(6), 670675 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Ahn, R. K. Heilmann, and M. L. Schattenburg, “Fabrication of 200nm period blazed transmission gratings on silicon-on-insulator wafers,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 26(6), 2179–2182 (2008).
[Crossref]

R. K. Heilmann, M. Ahn, E. M. Gullikson, and M. L. Schattenburg, “Blazed high-efficiency x-ray diffraction via transmission through arrays of nanometer-scale mirrors,” Opt. Express 16(12), 8658–8669 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Ahn, R. K. Heilmann, and M. L. Schattenburg, “Fabrication of ultrahigh aspect ratio freestanding gratings on silicon-on-insulator wafers,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 25(6), 2593–2597 (2007).
[Crossref]

P. T. Konkola, C. G. Chen, R. K. Heilmann, C. M. Joo, J. C. Montoya, C. H. Chang, and M. L. Schattenburg, “Nanometer-level repeatable metrology using the nanoruler,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 21(6), 3097–3101 (2003).
[Crossref]

Schulz, G.

G. Schulz, C. Waschkies, F. Pfeiffer, I. Zanette, T. Weitkamp, C. David, and B. Müller, “Multimodal imaging of human cerebellum - merging X-ray phase microtomography, magnetic resonance microscopy and histology,” Sci Rep 2, 826 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schulze-Briese, C.

F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. Schulze-Briese, A. Diaz, T. Weitkamp, C. David, J. Van Der Veen, I. Vartanyants, and I. K. Robinson, “Shearing Interferometer for Quantifying the Coherence of Hard X-Ray Beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(16), 164801 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schwab, F.

F. G. Meinel, F. Schwab, A. Yaroshenko, A. Velroyen, M. Bech, K. Hellbach, J. Fuchs, T. Stiewe, A. Ö. Yildirim, F. Bamberg, M. F. Reiser, F. Pfeiffer, and K. Nikolaou, “Lung tumors on multimodal radiographs derived from grating-based X-ray imaging - A feasibility study,” Phys. Med. 30(3), 352–357 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shim, J.

S. Je, J. Shim, J. Kim, M. Kim, J. Lee, H. Nho, J. Han, S.-M. Kim, and S. Kang, “Development of Direct Deep Reactive Ion Etching Process Using Laser Interference Lithographed Etch Barrier without Intermediate Layer,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 52(10S), 10MC04 (2013).
[Crossref]

Sievilä, P.

P. Sievilä, N. Chekurov, and I. Tittonen, “The fabrication of silicon nanostructures by focused-ion-beam implantation and TMAH wet etching,” Nanotechnology 21(14), 145301 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stampanoni, M.

T. Thüring, R. Guggenberger, H. Alkadhi, J. Hodler, M. Vich, Z. Wang, C. David, and M. Stampanoni, “Human hand radiography using X-ray differential phase contrast combined with dark-field imaging,” Skeletal Radiol. 42(6), 827–835 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Rutishauser, T. Donath, C. David, F. Pfeiffer, F. Marone, P. Modregger, and M. Stampanoni, “A tilted grating interferometer for full vector field differential x-ray phase contrast tomography,” Opt. Express 19(25), 24890–24896 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stiewe, T.

F. G. Meinel, F. Schwab, A. Yaroshenko, A. Velroyen, M. Bech, K. Hellbach, J. Fuchs, T. Stiewe, A. Ö. Yildirim, F. Bamberg, M. F. Reiser, F. Pfeiffer, and K. Nikolaou, “Lung tumors on multimodal radiographs derived from grating-based X-ray imaging - A feasibility study,” Phys. Med. 30(3), 352–357 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tapfer, A.

M. Bech, A. Tapfer, A. Velroyen, A. Yaroshenko, B. Pauwels, J. Hostens, P. Bruyndonckx, A. Sasov, and F. Pfeiffer, “In-vivo dark-field and phase-contrast x-ray imaging,” Sci Rep 3, 3209 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Thrun, X.

A. Finn, B. Lu, R. Kirchner, X. Thrun, K. Richter, and W.-J. Fischer, “High aspect ratio pattern collapse of polymeric UV-nano-imprint molds due to cleaning,” Microelectron. Eng. 110, 112–118 (2013).
[Crossref]

Thüring, T.

T. Thüring, R. Guggenberger, H. Alkadhi, J. Hodler, M. Vich, Z. Wang, C. David, and M. Stampanoni, “Human hand radiography using X-ray differential phase contrast combined with dark-field imaging,” Skeletal Radiol. 42(6), 827–835 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tittonen, I.

P. Sievilä, N. Chekurov, and I. Tittonen, “The fabrication of silicon nanostructures by focused-ion-beam implantation and TMAH wet etching,” Nanotechnology 21(14), 145301 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Van Der Veen, J.

F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. Schulze-Briese, A. Diaz, T. Weitkamp, C. David, J. Van Der Veen, I. Vartanyants, and I. K. Robinson, “Shearing Interferometer for Quantifying the Coherence of Hard X-Ray Beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(16), 164801 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Van Der Veen, J. F.

A. Diaz, C. David, H. Guo, H. Keymeulen, F. Pfeiffer, G. Wegdam, T. Weitkamp, and J. F. Van Der Veen, “Microcavity arrays for X-ray diffraction studies of ordering phenomena in confined colloid solutions,” Physica B 357(1-2), 199–203 (2005).
[Crossref]

Vargo, S.

A. Bruccoleri, D. Guan, P. Mukherjee, R. K. Heilmann, M. L. Schattenburg, and S. Vargo, “Potassium hydroxide polishing of nanoscale deep reactive-ion etched ultrahigh aspect ratio gratings,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 31(6), 06FF02 (2013).
[Crossref]

Vartanyants, I.

F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. Schulze-Briese, A. Diaz, T. Weitkamp, C. David, J. Van Der Veen, I. Vartanyants, and I. K. Robinson, “Shearing Interferometer for Quantifying the Coherence of Hard X-Ray Beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(16), 164801 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Velroyen, A.

F. G. Meinel, F. Schwab, A. Yaroshenko, A. Velroyen, M. Bech, K. Hellbach, J. Fuchs, T. Stiewe, A. Ö. Yildirim, F. Bamberg, M. F. Reiser, F. Pfeiffer, and K. Nikolaou, “Lung tumors on multimodal radiographs derived from grating-based X-ray imaging - A feasibility study,” Phys. Med. 30(3), 352–357 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Bech, A. Tapfer, A. Velroyen, A. Yaroshenko, B. Pauwels, J. Hostens, P. Bruyndonckx, A. Sasov, and F. Pfeiffer, “In-vivo dark-field and phase-contrast x-ray imaging,” Sci Rep 3, 3209 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vich, M.

T. Thüring, R. Guggenberger, H. Alkadhi, J. Hodler, M. Vich, Z. Wang, C. David, and M. Stampanoni, “Human hand radiography using X-ray differential phase contrast combined with dark-field imaging,” Skeletal Radiol. 42(6), 827–835 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, Z.

T. Thüring, R. Guggenberger, H. Alkadhi, J. Hodler, M. Vich, Z. Wang, C. David, and M. Stampanoni, “Human hand radiography using X-ray differential phase contrast combined with dark-field imaging,” Skeletal Radiol. 42(6), 827–835 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Waschkies, C.

G. Schulz, C. Waschkies, F. Pfeiffer, I. Zanette, T. Weitkamp, C. David, and B. Müller, “Multimodal imaging of human cerebellum - merging X-ray phase microtomography, magnetic resonance microscopy and histology,” Sci Rep 2, 826 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wegdam, G.

A. Diaz, C. David, H. Guo, H. Keymeulen, F. Pfeiffer, G. Wegdam, T. Weitkamp, and J. F. Van Der Veen, “Microcavity arrays for X-ray diffraction studies of ordering phenomena in confined colloid solutions,” Physica B 357(1-2), 199–203 (2005).
[Crossref]

Weitkamp, T.

T. H. Jensen, M. Bech, T. Binderup, A. Böttiger, C. David, T. Weitkamp, I. Zanette, E. Reznikova, J. Mohr, F. Rank, R. Feidenhans’l, A. Kjaer, L. Højgaard, and F. Pfeiffer, “Imaging of Metastatic Lymph Nodes by X-ray Phase-Contrast Micro-Tomography,” PLoS ONE 8(1), e54047 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Schulz, C. Waschkies, F. Pfeiffer, I. Zanette, T. Weitkamp, C. David, and B. Müller, “Multimodal imaging of human cerebellum - merging X-ray phase microtomography, magnetic resonance microscopy and histology,” Sci Rep 2, 826 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Pfeiffer, T. Weitkamp, O. Bunk, and C. David, “Phase retrieval and differential phase-contrast imaging with low-brilliance X-ray sources,” Nat. Phys. 2(4), 258–261 (2006).
[Crossref]

A. Diaz, C. David, H. Guo, H. Keymeulen, F. Pfeiffer, G. Wegdam, T. Weitkamp, and J. F. Van Der Veen, “Microcavity arrays for X-ray diffraction studies of ordering phenomena in confined colloid solutions,” Physica B 357(1-2), 199–203 (2005).
[Crossref]

F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. Schulze-Briese, A. Diaz, T. Weitkamp, C. David, J. Van Der Veen, I. Vartanyants, and I. K. Robinson, “Shearing Interferometer for Quantifying the Coherence of Hard X-Ray Beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(16), 164801 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Weitkamp, B. Nöhammer, A. Diaz, C. David, and E. Ziegler, “X-ray wavefront analysis and optics characterization with a grating interferometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(5), 054101 (2005).
[Crossref]

Wu, C. L.

F. S. S. Chien, C. L. Wu, Y. C. Chou, T. T. Chen, S. Gwo, and W. F. Hsieh, “Nanomachining of (110)-oriented silicon by scanning probe lithography and anisotropic wet etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(16), 2429–2431 (1999).
[Crossref]

Yam, J.

A. Bruccoleri, P. Mukherjee, R. K. Heilmann, J. Yam, M. L. Schattenburg, and F. DiPiazza, “Fabrication of nanoscale, high throughput, high aspect ratio freestanding gratings,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 30(6), 06FF03 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yaroshenko, A.

F. G. Meinel, F. Schwab, A. Yaroshenko, A. Velroyen, M. Bech, K. Hellbach, J. Fuchs, T. Stiewe, A. Ö. Yildirim, F. Bamberg, M. F. Reiser, F. Pfeiffer, and K. Nikolaou, “Lung tumors on multimodal radiographs derived from grating-based X-ray imaging - A feasibility study,” Phys. Med. 30(3), 352–357 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Bech, A. Tapfer, A. Velroyen, A. Yaroshenko, B. Pauwels, J. Hostens, P. Bruyndonckx, A. Sasov, and F. Pfeiffer, “In-vivo dark-field and phase-contrast x-ray imaging,” Sci Rep 3, 3209 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yildirim, A. Ö.

F. G. Meinel, F. Schwab, A. Yaroshenko, A. Velroyen, M. Bech, K. Hellbach, J. Fuchs, T. Stiewe, A. Ö. Yildirim, F. Bamberg, M. F. Reiser, F. Pfeiffer, and K. Nikolaou, “Lung tumors on multimodal radiographs derived from grating-based X-ray imaging - A feasibility study,” Phys. Med. 30(3), 352–357 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yoon, P.-W.

S.-W. Ahn, K.-D. Lee, J.-S. Kim, S. H. Kim, J.-D. Park, S.-H. Lee, and P.-W. Yoon, “Fabrication of a 50 nm half-pitch wire grid polarizer using nanoimprint lithography,” Nanotechnology 16(9), 1874–1877 (2005).
[Crossref]

Zanette, I.

T. H. Jensen, M. Bech, T. Binderup, A. Böttiger, C. David, T. Weitkamp, I. Zanette, E. Reznikova, J. Mohr, F. Rank, R. Feidenhans’l, A. Kjaer, L. Højgaard, and F. Pfeiffer, “Imaging of Metastatic Lymph Nodes by X-ray Phase-Contrast Micro-Tomography,” PLoS ONE 8(1), e54047 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Schulz, C. Waschkies, F. Pfeiffer, I. Zanette, T. Weitkamp, C. David, and B. Müller, “Multimodal imaging of human cerebellum - merging X-ray phase microtomography, magnetic resonance microscopy and histology,” Sci Rep 2, 826 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ziegler, E.

T. Weitkamp, B. Nöhammer, A. Diaz, C. David, and E. Ziegler, “X-ray wavefront analysis and optics characterization with a grating interferometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(5), 054101 (2005).
[Crossref]

Zurbuchen, T. H.

P. Mukherjee, T. H. Zurbuchen, and L. J. Guo, “Fabrication and testing of freestanding Si nanogratings for UV filtration on space-based particle sensors,” Nanotechnology 20(32), 325301 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Mukherjee, M.-G. Kang, T. H. Zurbuchen, L. J. Guo, and F. A. Herrero, “Fabrication of high aspect ratio Si nanogratings with smooth sidewalls for a deep UV-blocking particle filter,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 25(6), 2645–2648 (2007).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

F. S. S. Chien, C. L. Wu, Y. C. Chou, T. T. Chen, S. Gwo, and W. F. Hsieh, “Nanomachining of (110)-oriented silicon by scanning probe lithography and anisotropic wet etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(16), 2429–2431 (1999).
[Crossref]

T. Weitkamp, B. Nöhammer, A. Diaz, C. David, and E. Ziegler, “X-ray wavefront analysis and optics characterization with a grating interferometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(5), 054101 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. Micromech. Microeng. (1)

J. H. Han, S. Radhakrishnan, and C.-H. Lee, “A novel batch-processing method for accurate crystallographic axis alignment,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 23(5), 055017 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (7)

P. T. Konkola, C. G. Chen, R. K. Heilmann, C. M. Joo, J. C. Montoya, C. H. Chang, and M. L. Schattenburg, “Nanometer-level repeatable metrology using the nanoruler,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 21(6), 3097–3101 (2003).
[Crossref]

A. Bruccoleri, D. Guan, P. Mukherjee, R. K. Heilmann, M. L. Schattenburg, and S. Vargo, “Potassium hydroxide polishing of nanoscale deep reactive-ion etched ultrahigh aspect ratio gratings,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 31(6), 06FF02 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Ahn, R. K. Heilmann, and M. L. Schattenburg, “Fabrication of 200nm period blazed transmission gratings on silicon-on-insulator wafers,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 26(6), 2179–2182 (2008).
[Crossref]

P. Mukherjee, M.-G. Kang, T. H. Zurbuchen, L. J. Guo, and F. A. Herrero, “Fabrication of high aspect ratio Si nanogratings with smooth sidewalls for a deep UV-blocking particle filter,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 25(6), 2645–2648 (2007).
[Crossref]

P. Mukherjee, A. Bruccoleri, R. K. Heilmann, M. L. Schattenburg, A. F. Kaplan, and L. J. Guo, “Plasma etch fabrication of 60:1 aspect ratio silicon nanogratings with 200 nm pitch,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 28(6), 670675 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. Bruccoleri, P. Mukherjee, R. K. Heilmann, J. Yam, M. L. Schattenburg, and F. DiPiazza, “Fabrication of nanoscale, high throughput, high aspect ratio freestanding gratings,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 30(6), 06FF03 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Ahn, R. K. Heilmann, and M. L. Schattenburg, “Fabrication of ultrahigh aspect ratio freestanding gratings on silicon-on-insulator wafers,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 25(6), 2593–2597 (2007).
[Crossref]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

S. Je, J. Shim, J. Kim, M. Kim, J. Lee, H. Nho, J. Han, S.-M. Kim, and S. Kang, “Development of Direct Deep Reactive Ion Etching Process Using Laser Interference Lithographed Etch Barrier without Intermediate Layer,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 52(10S), 10MC04 (2013).
[Crossref]

Microelectron. Eng. (2)

A. Finn, B. Lu, R. Kirchner, X. Thrun, K. Richter, and W.-J. Fischer, “High aspect ratio pattern collapse of polymeric UV-nano-imprint molds due to cleaning,” Microelectron. Eng. 110, 112–118 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. David, J. Bruder, T. Rohbeck, C. Grünzweig, C. Kottler, A. Diaz, O. Bunk, and F. Pfeiffer, “Fabrication of diffraction gratings for hard X-ray phase contrast imaging,” Microelectron. Eng. 84(5-8), 1172–1177 (2007).
[Crossref]

Nanotechnology (5)

P. Sievilä, N. Chekurov, and I. Tittonen, “The fabrication of silicon nanostructures by focused-ion-beam implantation and TMAH wet etching,” Nanotechnology 21(14), 145301 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S.-W. Ahn, K.-D. Lee, J.-S. Kim, S. H. Kim, J.-D. Park, S.-H. Lee, and P.-W. Yoon, “Fabrication of a 50 nm half-pitch wire grid polarizer using nanoimprint lithography,” Nanotechnology 16(9), 1874–1877 (2005).
[Crossref]

P. Mukherjee, T. H. Zurbuchen, and L. J. Guo, “Fabrication and testing of freestanding Si nanogratings for UV filtration on space-based particle sensors,” Nanotechnology 20(32), 325301 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C.-H. Choi and C.-J. Kim, “Fabrication of a dense array of tall nanostructures over a large sample area with sidewall profile and tip sharpness control,” Nanotechnology 17(21), 5326–5333 (2006).
[Crossref]

K. J. Morton, G. Nieberg, S. Bai, and S. Y. Chou, “Wafer-scale patterning of sub-40 nm diameter and high aspect ratio (>50:1) silicon pillar arrays by nanoimprint and etching,” Nanotechnology 19(34), 345301 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater. (1)

F. Pfeiffer, M. Bech, O. Bunk, P. Kraft, E. F. Eikenberry, Ch. Brönnimann, C. Grünzweig, and C. David, “Hard-X-ray dark-field imaging using a grating interferometer,” Nat. Mater. 7(2), 134–137 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Phys. (1)

F. Pfeiffer, T. Weitkamp, O. Bunk, and C. David, “Phase retrieval and differential phase-contrast imaging with low-brilliance X-ray sources,” Nat. Phys. 2(4), 258–261 (2006).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (3)

Phys. Med. (1)

F. G. Meinel, F. Schwab, A. Yaroshenko, A. Velroyen, M. Bech, K. Hellbach, J. Fuchs, T. Stiewe, A. Ö. Yildirim, F. Bamberg, M. F. Reiser, F. Pfeiffer, and K. Nikolaou, “Lung tumors on multimodal radiographs derived from grating-based X-ray imaging - A feasibility study,” Phys. Med. 30(3), 352–357 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

C. Grünzweig, J. Kopecek, B. Betz, A. Kaestner, K. Jefimovs, J. Kohlbrecher, U. Gasser, O. Bunk, C. David, E. Lehmann, T. Donath, and F. Pfeiffer, “Quantification of the neutron dark-field imaging signal in grating interferometry,” Phys. Rev. B 88(12), 125104 (2013).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. Schulze-Briese, A. Diaz, T. Weitkamp, C. David, J. Van Der Veen, I. Vartanyants, and I. K. Robinson, “Shearing Interferometer for Quantifying the Coherence of Hard X-Ray Beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(16), 164801 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Pfeiffer, C. Grünzweig, O. Bunk, G. Frei, E. Lehmann, and C. David, “Neutron Phase Imaging and Tomography,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(21), 215505 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Physica B (1)

A. Diaz, C. David, H. Guo, H. Keymeulen, F. Pfeiffer, G. Wegdam, T. Weitkamp, and J. F. Van Der Veen, “Microcavity arrays for X-ray diffraction studies of ordering phenomena in confined colloid solutions,” Physica B 357(1-2), 199–203 (2005).
[Crossref]

PLoS ONE (1)

T. H. Jensen, M. Bech, T. Binderup, A. Böttiger, C. David, T. Weitkamp, I. Zanette, E. Reznikova, J. Mohr, F. Rank, R. Feidenhans’l, A. Kjaer, L. Højgaard, and F. Pfeiffer, “Imaging of Metastatic Lymph Nodes by X-ray Phase-Contrast Micro-Tomography,” PLoS ONE 8(1), e54047 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

C. Grünzweig, F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, T. Donath, G. Kühne, G. Frei, M. Dierolf, and C. David, “Design, fabrication, and characterization of diffraction gratings for neutron phase contrast imaging,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79(5), 053703 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sci Rep (2)

G. Schulz, C. Waschkies, F. Pfeiffer, I. Zanette, T. Weitkamp, C. David, and B. Müller, “Multimodal imaging of human cerebellum - merging X-ray phase microtomography, magnetic resonance microscopy and histology,” Sci Rep 2, 826 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Bech, A. Tapfer, A. Velroyen, A. Yaroshenko, B. Pauwels, J. Hostens, P. Bruyndonckx, A. Sasov, and F. Pfeiffer, “In-vivo dark-field and phase-contrast x-ray imaging,” Sci Rep 3, 3209 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Skeletal Radiol. (1)

T. Thüring, R. Guggenberger, H. Alkadhi, J. Hodler, M. Vich, Z. Wang, C. David, and M. Stampanoni, “Human hand radiography using X-ray differential phase contrast combined with dark-field imaging,” Skeletal Radiol. 42(6), 827–835 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (1)

K. Seong-Hyok, L. Sang-Hun, L. Hyung-Taek, K. Yong-Kweon, and L. Seung-Ki, “(110) silicon etching for high aspect ratio comb structures,” in IEEE 6th International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation Proceedings (Cat. No.97TH8314) (1997), pp. 248–252.
[Crossref]

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Figures (14)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Process of aligning the vertical {111} planes parallel to interference fringes.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Mask layout of the fan-shape pattern. Area with grey color is dark field.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Schematic of two-side undercuts of silicon nitride mask on top end of the spokes after anisotropic wet etch in KOH solution.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a)-(e) Optical microscope images of different spokes showing two-side undercuts of the silicon nitride mask. The two-side undercuts on top end of the 36th spoke have the smallest and most similar sizes of width.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Reference grating mask layout and the alignment schematic in reference grating fabrication process. (b) Reference grating and fan-shape pattern in wafer.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Schematic of Lloyd-mirror configuration of a laser interference lithography system. r is the distance between the pinhole and the intersecting line of the mirror and substrate assembly.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 (a)-(d) Simulation results of 320 nm period interference fringes. The maximum value of bending is within ± 0.002° over 60 mm × 50 mm area.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Schematic of alignment system. (a) All the diffraction orders from photoresist grating fall on the reference line. (b) Not all the diffraction orders from reference grating fall on the reference line.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Alignment error of each step.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 HARSG fabrication process.
Fig. 11
Fig. 11 (a) and (b) SEM images showing nonuniform etching phenomenon and significant improvement of etch uniformity after adding HT541. (c) and (d) SEM images showing collapse after drying in air and non-collapse with supercritical point drying of 320 nm silicon grating.
Fig. 12
Fig. 12 (a) and (b) SEM images of 320 nm period silicon grating after 160 min etch in 50 wt % KOH with 0.5 wt % HT541 at room temperature (21 °C). (c) SEM image of 2 μm period silicon grating after 10 min etch in 50 wt % KOH with 0.5 wt % HT541 at 80 °C. (d) SEM image of 320 nm period silicon grating after 15 min etch in 45 wt % KOH with 0.5 wt % HT541 at 60 °C.
Fig. 13
Fig. 13 (a) and (b) Lateral etch rate and anisotropy at different spokes in fan-shape pattern etched in 45 wt % KOH with 0.5 wt % HT541 at 60 °C.
Fig. 14
Fig. 14 (a) Sample of 320 nm period silicon grating with area of over 50 mm × 60 mm. (b) AFM image of the sidewall of the 320 nm period silicon grating etched in 50 wt % KOH with 0.5 wt % HT541 at room temperature (21 °C), whose RMS roughness is 0.267 nm.

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