Abstract

By integrating coherent tracking sensor functionality into a coherent communication receiver, a dual-function receiver with coherent boresight error sensing is developed for tracking in coherent free-space optical communication systems. The sensor principles are analyzed according to optical interference theory, and the boresight error detection algorithm and small signal linear model are derived. Analysis of local-oscillator beam nutation on system performance shows that the best nutation half-angle is 0.5–1μrad, the noise equivalent angle is less than 0.02μrad, and the communication sensitivity degradation is 0.2–0.6dB. This technology opens new avenues for free-space optical communication system design.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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References

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2012 (1)

K. Böhmer, M. Gregory, F. Heine, H. Kämpfner, R. Lange, M. Lutzer, and R. Meyer, “Laser Communication Terminals for the European Data Relay System,” Proc. SPIE 8246, 82460D (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

J. W. Burnside, S. D. Conrad, A. D. Pillsbury, and C. E. DeVoe, “Design of an Inertially Stabilized Telescope for the LLCD,” Proc. SPIE 7923, 79230L (2011).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

B. Smutny, H. Kaempfner, G. Muehlnikel, U. Sterr, B. Wandernoth, F. Heine, U. Hildebrand, D. Dallmann, M. Reinhardt, A. Freier, R. Lange, K. Boehmer, T. Feldhaus, J. Mueller, A. Weichert, P. Greulich, S. Seel, R. Meyer, and R. Czichy, “5.6 Gbps optical intersatellite communication link,” Proc. SPIE 7199, 719906 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

B. Smutny, R. Lange, H. Kämpfner, D. Dallmann, G. Mühlnikel, M. Reinhardt, K. Saucke, U. Sterr, B. Wandernoth, and R. Czichy, “In-orbit verification of optical inter-satellite communication links based on homodyne BPSK,” Proc. SPIE 6877, 687702 (2008).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

D. Giggenbach, A. Schex, and B. Wandernoth, “Prototype of a coherent tracking and detection receiver with wideband vibration compensation for free-space laser communications,” Proc. SPIE 2699, 186–191 (1996).
[Crossref]

1990 (1)

E. A. Swanson and R. S. Bondurant, “Using fiber optics to simplify free-space lasercom systems,” Proc. SPIE 1218, 70–82 (1990).
[Crossref]

1984 (1)

T. Okoshi, “Recent progress in heterodyne/coherent optical-fiber communications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 2(4), 341–346 (1984).
[Crossref]

1983 (1)

R. Hooper, J. Midwinter, D. Smith, and I. Stanley, “Progress in monomode transmission techniques in the United Kingdom,” J. Lightwave Technol. 1(4), 596–611 (1983).
[Crossref]

1982 (1)

T. Okoshi, “Heterodyne and coherent optical fiber communications: recent progress,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 30(8), 1138–1149 (1982).
[Crossref]

1981 (4)

T. Okoshi, K. Emura, K. Kikuchi, and R. T. Kersten, “Computation of bit-error rate of various heterodyne and coherent-type optical communication schemes,” J. Opt. Commun. 2(3), 89–96 (1981).
[Crossref]

Y. Yamamoto and T. Kimura, “Coherent optical fiber transmission systems,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 17(6), 919–935 (1981).
[Crossref]

F. Favre, L. Jeunhomme, I. Joindot, M. Monerie, and J. Simon, “Progress towards heterodyne-type single-mode fiber communication systems,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 17(6), 897–906 (1981).
[Crossref]

T. Okoshi and K. Kikuchi, “Heterodyne-type optical fiber communications,” J. Opt. Commun 2(3), 82–88 (1981).
[Crossref]

1980 (1)

Y. Yamamoto, “Receiver performance evaluation of various digital optical modulation-demodulation systems in the 0.5-10 µm wavelength region,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 16(11), 1251–1259 (1980).
[Crossref]

Boehmer, K.

B. Smutny, H. Kaempfner, G. Muehlnikel, U. Sterr, B. Wandernoth, F. Heine, U. Hildebrand, D. Dallmann, M. Reinhardt, A. Freier, R. Lange, K. Boehmer, T. Feldhaus, J. Mueller, A. Weichert, P. Greulich, S. Seel, R. Meyer, and R. Czichy, “5.6 Gbps optical intersatellite communication link,” Proc. SPIE 7199, 719906 (2009).
[Crossref]

Böhmer, K.

K. Böhmer, M. Gregory, F. Heine, H. Kämpfner, R. Lange, M. Lutzer, and R. Meyer, “Laser Communication Terminals for the European Data Relay System,” Proc. SPIE 8246, 82460D (2012).
[Crossref]

Bondurant, R. S.

E. A. Swanson and R. S. Bondurant, “Using fiber optics to simplify free-space lasercom systems,” Proc. SPIE 1218, 70–82 (1990).
[Crossref]

Burnside, J. W.

J. W. Burnside, S. D. Conrad, A. D. Pillsbury, and C. E. DeVoe, “Design of an Inertially Stabilized Telescope for the LLCD,” Proc. SPIE 7923, 79230L (2011).
[Crossref]

Conrad, S. D.

J. W. Burnside, S. D. Conrad, A. D. Pillsbury, and C. E. DeVoe, “Design of an Inertially Stabilized Telescope for the LLCD,” Proc. SPIE 7923, 79230L (2011).
[Crossref]

Czichy, R.

B. Smutny, H. Kaempfner, G. Muehlnikel, U. Sterr, B. Wandernoth, F. Heine, U. Hildebrand, D. Dallmann, M. Reinhardt, A. Freier, R. Lange, K. Boehmer, T. Feldhaus, J. Mueller, A. Weichert, P. Greulich, S. Seel, R. Meyer, and R. Czichy, “5.6 Gbps optical intersatellite communication link,” Proc. SPIE 7199, 719906 (2009).
[Crossref]

B. Smutny, R. Lange, H. Kämpfner, D. Dallmann, G. Mühlnikel, M. Reinhardt, K. Saucke, U. Sterr, B. Wandernoth, and R. Czichy, “In-orbit verification of optical inter-satellite communication links based on homodyne BPSK,” Proc. SPIE 6877, 687702 (2008).
[Crossref]

R. Lange, F. Heine, H. Kampfner, R. Czichy, R. Meyer, and M. Lutzer, “Optical inter-satellite communication operational,” in Military Communications Conference, (IEEE, 2010), pp. 2290–2294.

Dallmann, D.

B. Smutny, H. Kaempfner, G. Muehlnikel, U. Sterr, B. Wandernoth, F. Heine, U. Hildebrand, D. Dallmann, M. Reinhardt, A. Freier, R. Lange, K. Boehmer, T. Feldhaus, J. Mueller, A. Weichert, P. Greulich, S. Seel, R. Meyer, and R. Czichy, “5.6 Gbps optical intersatellite communication link,” Proc. SPIE 7199, 719906 (2009).
[Crossref]

B. Smutny, R. Lange, H. Kämpfner, D. Dallmann, G. Mühlnikel, M. Reinhardt, K. Saucke, U. Sterr, B. Wandernoth, and R. Czichy, “In-orbit verification of optical inter-satellite communication links based on homodyne BPSK,” Proc. SPIE 6877, 687702 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. Seel, H. Kampfner, F. Heine, D. Dallmann, G. Muhlnikel, M. Gregory, M. Reinhardt, K. Saucke, J. Muckherjee, and U. Sterr, “Space to ground bidirectional optical communication link at 5.6 Gbps and EDRS connectivity outlook,” in Aerospace Conference(IEEE, 2011), pp. 1–7.
[Crossref]

DeVoe, C. E.

J. W. Burnside, S. D. Conrad, A. D. Pillsbury, and C. E. DeVoe, “Design of an Inertially Stabilized Telescope for the LLCD,” Proc. SPIE 7923, 79230L (2011).
[Crossref]

Emura, K.

T. Okoshi, K. Emura, K. Kikuchi, and R. T. Kersten, “Computation of bit-error rate of various heterodyne and coherent-type optical communication schemes,” J. Opt. Commun. 2(3), 89–96 (1981).
[Crossref]

Favre, F.

F. Favre, L. Jeunhomme, I. Joindot, M. Monerie, and J. Simon, “Progress towards heterodyne-type single-mode fiber communication systems,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 17(6), 897–906 (1981).
[Crossref]

Feldhaus, T.

B. Smutny, H. Kaempfner, G. Muehlnikel, U. Sterr, B. Wandernoth, F. Heine, U. Hildebrand, D. Dallmann, M. Reinhardt, A. Freier, R. Lange, K. Boehmer, T. Feldhaus, J. Mueller, A. Weichert, P. Greulich, S. Seel, R. Meyer, and R. Czichy, “5.6 Gbps optical intersatellite communication link,” Proc. SPIE 7199, 719906 (2009).
[Crossref]

Freier, A.

B. Smutny, H. Kaempfner, G. Muehlnikel, U. Sterr, B. Wandernoth, F. Heine, U. Hildebrand, D. Dallmann, M. Reinhardt, A. Freier, R. Lange, K. Boehmer, T. Feldhaus, J. Mueller, A. Weichert, P. Greulich, S. Seel, R. Meyer, and R. Czichy, “5.6 Gbps optical intersatellite communication link,” Proc. SPIE 7199, 719906 (2009).
[Crossref]

Giggenbach, D.

D. Giggenbach, A. Schex, and B. Wandernoth, “Prototype of a coherent tracking and detection receiver with wideband vibration compensation for free-space laser communications,” Proc. SPIE 2699, 186–191 (1996).
[Crossref]

Gregory, M.

K. Böhmer, M. Gregory, F. Heine, H. Kämpfner, R. Lange, M. Lutzer, and R. Meyer, “Laser Communication Terminals for the European Data Relay System,” Proc. SPIE 8246, 82460D (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Seel, H. Kampfner, F. Heine, D. Dallmann, G. Muhlnikel, M. Gregory, M. Reinhardt, K. Saucke, J. Muckherjee, and U. Sterr, “Space to ground bidirectional optical communication link at 5.6 Gbps and EDRS connectivity outlook,” in Aerospace Conference(IEEE, 2011), pp. 1–7.
[Crossref]

Greulich, P.

B. Smutny, H. Kaempfner, G. Muehlnikel, U. Sterr, B. Wandernoth, F. Heine, U. Hildebrand, D. Dallmann, M. Reinhardt, A. Freier, R. Lange, K. Boehmer, T. Feldhaus, J. Mueller, A. Weichert, P. Greulich, S. Seel, R. Meyer, and R. Czichy, “5.6 Gbps optical intersatellite communication link,” Proc. SPIE 7199, 719906 (2009).
[Crossref]

Heine, F.

K. Böhmer, M. Gregory, F. Heine, H. Kämpfner, R. Lange, M. Lutzer, and R. Meyer, “Laser Communication Terminals for the European Data Relay System,” Proc. SPIE 8246, 82460D (2012).
[Crossref]

B. Smutny, H. Kaempfner, G. Muehlnikel, U. Sterr, B. Wandernoth, F. Heine, U. Hildebrand, D. Dallmann, M. Reinhardt, A. Freier, R. Lange, K. Boehmer, T. Feldhaus, J. Mueller, A. Weichert, P. Greulich, S. Seel, R. Meyer, and R. Czichy, “5.6 Gbps optical intersatellite communication link,” Proc. SPIE 7199, 719906 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. Seel, H. Kampfner, F. Heine, D. Dallmann, G. Muhlnikel, M. Gregory, M. Reinhardt, K. Saucke, J. Muckherjee, and U. Sterr, “Space to ground bidirectional optical communication link at 5.6 Gbps and EDRS connectivity outlook,” in Aerospace Conference(IEEE, 2011), pp. 1–7.
[Crossref]

R. Lange, F. Heine, H. Kampfner, R. Czichy, R. Meyer, and M. Lutzer, “Optical inter-satellite communication operational,” in Military Communications Conference, (IEEE, 2010), pp. 2290–2294.

Hildebrand, U.

B. Smutny, H. Kaempfner, G. Muehlnikel, U. Sterr, B. Wandernoth, F. Heine, U. Hildebrand, D. Dallmann, M. Reinhardt, A. Freier, R. Lange, K. Boehmer, T. Feldhaus, J. Mueller, A. Weichert, P. Greulich, S. Seel, R. Meyer, and R. Czichy, “5.6 Gbps optical intersatellite communication link,” Proc. SPIE 7199, 719906 (2009).
[Crossref]

Hooper, R.

R. Hooper, J. Midwinter, D. Smith, and I. Stanley, “Progress in monomode transmission techniques in the United Kingdom,” J. Lightwave Technol. 1(4), 596–611 (1983).
[Crossref]

Jeunhomme, L.

F. Favre, L. Jeunhomme, I. Joindot, M. Monerie, and J. Simon, “Progress towards heterodyne-type single-mode fiber communication systems,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 17(6), 897–906 (1981).
[Crossref]

Joindot, I.

F. Favre, L. Jeunhomme, I. Joindot, M. Monerie, and J. Simon, “Progress towards heterodyne-type single-mode fiber communication systems,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 17(6), 897–906 (1981).
[Crossref]

Kaempfner, H.

B. Smutny, H. Kaempfner, G. Muehlnikel, U. Sterr, B. Wandernoth, F. Heine, U. Hildebrand, D. Dallmann, M. Reinhardt, A. Freier, R. Lange, K. Boehmer, T. Feldhaus, J. Mueller, A. Weichert, P. Greulich, S. Seel, R. Meyer, and R. Czichy, “5.6 Gbps optical intersatellite communication link,” Proc. SPIE 7199, 719906 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kampfner, H.

R. Lange, F. Heine, H. Kampfner, R. Czichy, R. Meyer, and M. Lutzer, “Optical inter-satellite communication operational,” in Military Communications Conference, (IEEE, 2010), pp. 2290–2294.

S. Seel, H. Kampfner, F. Heine, D. Dallmann, G. Muhlnikel, M. Gregory, M. Reinhardt, K. Saucke, J. Muckherjee, and U. Sterr, “Space to ground bidirectional optical communication link at 5.6 Gbps and EDRS connectivity outlook,” in Aerospace Conference(IEEE, 2011), pp. 1–7.
[Crossref]

Kämpfner, H.

K. Böhmer, M. Gregory, F. Heine, H. Kämpfner, R. Lange, M. Lutzer, and R. Meyer, “Laser Communication Terminals for the European Data Relay System,” Proc. SPIE 8246, 82460D (2012).
[Crossref]

B. Smutny, R. Lange, H. Kämpfner, D. Dallmann, G. Mühlnikel, M. Reinhardt, K. Saucke, U. Sterr, B. Wandernoth, and R. Czichy, “In-orbit verification of optical inter-satellite communication links based on homodyne BPSK,” Proc. SPIE 6877, 687702 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kersten, R. T.

T. Okoshi, K. Emura, K. Kikuchi, and R. T. Kersten, “Computation of bit-error rate of various heterodyne and coherent-type optical communication schemes,” J. Opt. Commun. 2(3), 89–96 (1981).
[Crossref]

Kikuchi, K.

T. Okoshi, K. Emura, K. Kikuchi, and R. T. Kersten, “Computation of bit-error rate of various heterodyne and coherent-type optical communication schemes,” J. Opt. Commun. 2(3), 89–96 (1981).
[Crossref]

T. Okoshi and K. Kikuchi, “Heterodyne-type optical fiber communications,” J. Opt. Commun 2(3), 82–88 (1981).
[Crossref]

Kimura, T.

Y. Yamamoto and T. Kimura, “Coherent optical fiber transmission systems,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 17(6), 919–935 (1981).
[Crossref]

Lange, R.

K. Böhmer, M. Gregory, F. Heine, H. Kämpfner, R. Lange, M. Lutzer, and R. Meyer, “Laser Communication Terminals for the European Data Relay System,” Proc. SPIE 8246, 82460D (2012).
[Crossref]

B. Smutny, H. Kaempfner, G. Muehlnikel, U. Sterr, B. Wandernoth, F. Heine, U. Hildebrand, D. Dallmann, M. Reinhardt, A. Freier, R. Lange, K. Boehmer, T. Feldhaus, J. Mueller, A. Weichert, P. Greulich, S. Seel, R. Meyer, and R. Czichy, “5.6 Gbps optical intersatellite communication link,” Proc. SPIE 7199, 719906 (2009).
[Crossref]

B. Smutny, R. Lange, H. Kämpfner, D. Dallmann, G. Mühlnikel, M. Reinhardt, K. Saucke, U. Sterr, B. Wandernoth, and R. Czichy, “In-orbit verification of optical inter-satellite communication links based on homodyne BPSK,” Proc. SPIE 6877, 687702 (2008).
[Crossref]

R. Lange, F. Heine, H. Kampfner, R. Czichy, R. Meyer, and M. Lutzer, “Optical inter-satellite communication operational,” in Military Communications Conference, (IEEE, 2010), pp. 2290–2294.

Lutzer, M.

K. Böhmer, M. Gregory, F. Heine, H. Kämpfner, R. Lange, M. Lutzer, and R. Meyer, “Laser Communication Terminals for the European Data Relay System,” Proc. SPIE 8246, 82460D (2012).
[Crossref]

R. Lange, F. Heine, H. Kampfner, R. Czichy, R. Meyer, and M. Lutzer, “Optical inter-satellite communication operational,” in Military Communications Conference, (IEEE, 2010), pp. 2290–2294.

Meyer, R.

K. Böhmer, M. Gregory, F. Heine, H. Kämpfner, R. Lange, M. Lutzer, and R. Meyer, “Laser Communication Terminals for the European Data Relay System,” Proc. SPIE 8246, 82460D (2012).
[Crossref]

B. Smutny, H. Kaempfner, G. Muehlnikel, U. Sterr, B. Wandernoth, F. Heine, U. Hildebrand, D. Dallmann, M. Reinhardt, A. Freier, R. Lange, K. Boehmer, T. Feldhaus, J. Mueller, A. Weichert, P. Greulich, S. Seel, R. Meyer, and R. Czichy, “5.6 Gbps optical intersatellite communication link,” Proc. SPIE 7199, 719906 (2009).
[Crossref]

R. Lange, F. Heine, H. Kampfner, R. Czichy, R. Meyer, and M. Lutzer, “Optical inter-satellite communication operational,” in Military Communications Conference, (IEEE, 2010), pp. 2290–2294.

Midwinter, J.

R. Hooper, J. Midwinter, D. Smith, and I. Stanley, “Progress in monomode transmission techniques in the United Kingdom,” J. Lightwave Technol. 1(4), 596–611 (1983).
[Crossref]

Monerie, M.

F. Favre, L. Jeunhomme, I. Joindot, M. Monerie, and J. Simon, “Progress towards heterodyne-type single-mode fiber communication systems,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 17(6), 897–906 (1981).
[Crossref]

Muckherjee, J.

S. Seel, H. Kampfner, F. Heine, D. Dallmann, G. Muhlnikel, M. Gregory, M. Reinhardt, K. Saucke, J. Muckherjee, and U. Sterr, “Space to ground bidirectional optical communication link at 5.6 Gbps and EDRS connectivity outlook,” in Aerospace Conference(IEEE, 2011), pp. 1–7.
[Crossref]

Muehlnikel, G.

B. Smutny, H. Kaempfner, G. Muehlnikel, U. Sterr, B. Wandernoth, F. Heine, U. Hildebrand, D. Dallmann, M. Reinhardt, A. Freier, R. Lange, K. Boehmer, T. Feldhaus, J. Mueller, A. Weichert, P. Greulich, S. Seel, R. Meyer, and R. Czichy, “5.6 Gbps optical intersatellite communication link,” Proc. SPIE 7199, 719906 (2009).
[Crossref]

Mueller, J.

B. Smutny, H. Kaempfner, G. Muehlnikel, U. Sterr, B. Wandernoth, F. Heine, U. Hildebrand, D. Dallmann, M. Reinhardt, A. Freier, R. Lange, K. Boehmer, T. Feldhaus, J. Mueller, A. Weichert, P. Greulich, S. Seel, R. Meyer, and R. Czichy, “5.6 Gbps optical intersatellite communication link,” Proc. SPIE 7199, 719906 (2009).
[Crossref]

Muhlnikel, G.

S. Seel, H. Kampfner, F. Heine, D. Dallmann, G. Muhlnikel, M. Gregory, M. Reinhardt, K. Saucke, J. Muckherjee, and U. Sterr, “Space to ground bidirectional optical communication link at 5.6 Gbps and EDRS connectivity outlook,” in Aerospace Conference(IEEE, 2011), pp. 1–7.
[Crossref]

Mühlnikel, G.

B. Smutny, R. Lange, H. Kämpfner, D. Dallmann, G. Mühlnikel, M. Reinhardt, K. Saucke, U. Sterr, B. Wandernoth, and R. Czichy, “In-orbit verification of optical inter-satellite communication links based on homodyne BPSK,” Proc. SPIE 6877, 687702 (2008).
[Crossref]

Okoshi, T.

T. Okoshi, “Recent progress in heterodyne/coherent optical-fiber communications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 2(4), 341–346 (1984).
[Crossref]

T. Okoshi, “Heterodyne and coherent optical fiber communications: recent progress,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 30(8), 1138–1149 (1982).
[Crossref]

T. Okoshi, K. Emura, K. Kikuchi, and R. T. Kersten, “Computation of bit-error rate of various heterodyne and coherent-type optical communication schemes,” J. Opt. Commun. 2(3), 89–96 (1981).
[Crossref]

T. Okoshi and K. Kikuchi, “Heterodyne-type optical fiber communications,” J. Opt. Commun 2(3), 82–88 (1981).
[Crossref]

Pillsbury, A. D.

J. W. Burnside, S. D. Conrad, A. D. Pillsbury, and C. E. DeVoe, “Design of an Inertially Stabilized Telescope for the LLCD,” Proc. SPIE 7923, 79230L (2011).
[Crossref]

Reinhardt, M.

B. Smutny, H. Kaempfner, G. Muehlnikel, U. Sterr, B. Wandernoth, F. Heine, U. Hildebrand, D. Dallmann, M. Reinhardt, A. Freier, R. Lange, K. Boehmer, T. Feldhaus, J. Mueller, A. Weichert, P. Greulich, S. Seel, R. Meyer, and R. Czichy, “5.6 Gbps optical intersatellite communication link,” Proc. SPIE 7199, 719906 (2009).
[Crossref]

B. Smutny, R. Lange, H. Kämpfner, D. Dallmann, G. Mühlnikel, M. Reinhardt, K. Saucke, U. Sterr, B. Wandernoth, and R. Czichy, “In-orbit verification of optical inter-satellite communication links based on homodyne BPSK,” Proc. SPIE 6877, 687702 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. Seel, H. Kampfner, F. Heine, D. Dallmann, G. Muhlnikel, M. Gregory, M. Reinhardt, K. Saucke, J. Muckherjee, and U. Sterr, “Space to ground bidirectional optical communication link at 5.6 Gbps and EDRS connectivity outlook,” in Aerospace Conference(IEEE, 2011), pp. 1–7.
[Crossref]

Saucke, K.

B. Smutny, R. Lange, H. Kämpfner, D. Dallmann, G. Mühlnikel, M. Reinhardt, K. Saucke, U. Sterr, B. Wandernoth, and R. Czichy, “In-orbit verification of optical inter-satellite communication links based on homodyne BPSK,” Proc. SPIE 6877, 687702 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. Seel, H. Kampfner, F. Heine, D. Dallmann, G. Muhlnikel, M. Gregory, M. Reinhardt, K. Saucke, J. Muckherjee, and U. Sterr, “Space to ground bidirectional optical communication link at 5.6 Gbps and EDRS connectivity outlook,” in Aerospace Conference(IEEE, 2011), pp. 1–7.
[Crossref]

Schex, A.

D. Giggenbach, A. Schex, and B. Wandernoth, “Prototype of a coherent tracking and detection receiver with wideband vibration compensation for free-space laser communications,” Proc. SPIE 2699, 186–191 (1996).
[Crossref]

Seel, S.

B. Smutny, H. Kaempfner, G. Muehlnikel, U. Sterr, B. Wandernoth, F. Heine, U. Hildebrand, D. Dallmann, M. Reinhardt, A. Freier, R. Lange, K. Boehmer, T. Feldhaus, J. Mueller, A. Weichert, P. Greulich, S. Seel, R. Meyer, and R. Czichy, “5.6 Gbps optical intersatellite communication link,” Proc. SPIE 7199, 719906 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. Seel, H. Kampfner, F. Heine, D. Dallmann, G. Muhlnikel, M. Gregory, M. Reinhardt, K. Saucke, J. Muckherjee, and U. Sterr, “Space to ground bidirectional optical communication link at 5.6 Gbps and EDRS connectivity outlook,” in Aerospace Conference(IEEE, 2011), pp. 1–7.
[Crossref]

Simon, J.

F. Favre, L. Jeunhomme, I. Joindot, M. Monerie, and J. Simon, “Progress towards heterodyne-type single-mode fiber communication systems,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 17(6), 897–906 (1981).
[Crossref]

Smith, D.

R. Hooper, J. Midwinter, D. Smith, and I. Stanley, “Progress in monomode transmission techniques in the United Kingdom,” J. Lightwave Technol. 1(4), 596–611 (1983).
[Crossref]

Smutny, B.

B. Smutny, H. Kaempfner, G. Muehlnikel, U. Sterr, B. Wandernoth, F. Heine, U. Hildebrand, D. Dallmann, M. Reinhardt, A. Freier, R. Lange, K. Boehmer, T. Feldhaus, J. Mueller, A. Weichert, P. Greulich, S. Seel, R. Meyer, and R. Czichy, “5.6 Gbps optical intersatellite communication link,” Proc. SPIE 7199, 719906 (2009).
[Crossref]

B. Smutny, R. Lange, H. Kämpfner, D. Dallmann, G. Mühlnikel, M. Reinhardt, K. Saucke, U. Sterr, B. Wandernoth, and R. Czichy, “In-orbit verification of optical inter-satellite communication links based on homodyne BPSK,” Proc. SPIE 6877, 687702 (2008).
[Crossref]

Stanley, I.

R. Hooper, J. Midwinter, D. Smith, and I. Stanley, “Progress in monomode transmission techniques in the United Kingdom,” J. Lightwave Technol. 1(4), 596–611 (1983).
[Crossref]

Sterr, U.

B. Smutny, H. Kaempfner, G. Muehlnikel, U. Sterr, B. Wandernoth, F. Heine, U. Hildebrand, D. Dallmann, M. Reinhardt, A. Freier, R. Lange, K. Boehmer, T. Feldhaus, J. Mueller, A. Weichert, P. Greulich, S. Seel, R. Meyer, and R. Czichy, “5.6 Gbps optical intersatellite communication link,” Proc. SPIE 7199, 719906 (2009).
[Crossref]

B. Smutny, R. Lange, H. Kämpfner, D. Dallmann, G. Mühlnikel, M. Reinhardt, K. Saucke, U. Sterr, B. Wandernoth, and R. Czichy, “In-orbit verification of optical inter-satellite communication links based on homodyne BPSK,” Proc. SPIE 6877, 687702 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. Seel, H. Kampfner, F. Heine, D. Dallmann, G. Muhlnikel, M. Gregory, M. Reinhardt, K. Saucke, J. Muckherjee, and U. Sterr, “Space to ground bidirectional optical communication link at 5.6 Gbps and EDRS connectivity outlook,” in Aerospace Conference(IEEE, 2011), pp. 1–7.
[Crossref]

Swanson, E. A.

E. A. Swanson and R. S. Bondurant, “Using fiber optics to simplify free-space lasercom systems,” Proc. SPIE 1218, 70–82 (1990).
[Crossref]

Wandernoth, B.

B. Smutny, H. Kaempfner, G. Muehlnikel, U. Sterr, B. Wandernoth, F. Heine, U. Hildebrand, D. Dallmann, M. Reinhardt, A. Freier, R. Lange, K. Boehmer, T. Feldhaus, J. Mueller, A. Weichert, P. Greulich, S. Seel, R. Meyer, and R. Czichy, “5.6 Gbps optical intersatellite communication link,” Proc. SPIE 7199, 719906 (2009).
[Crossref]

B. Smutny, R. Lange, H. Kämpfner, D. Dallmann, G. Mühlnikel, M. Reinhardt, K. Saucke, U. Sterr, B. Wandernoth, and R. Czichy, “In-orbit verification of optical inter-satellite communication links based on homodyne BPSK,” Proc. SPIE 6877, 687702 (2008).
[Crossref]

D. Giggenbach, A. Schex, and B. Wandernoth, “Prototype of a coherent tracking and detection receiver with wideband vibration compensation for free-space laser communications,” Proc. SPIE 2699, 186–191 (1996).
[Crossref]

Weichert, A.

B. Smutny, H. Kaempfner, G. Muehlnikel, U. Sterr, B. Wandernoth, F. Heine, U. Hildebrand, D. Dallmann, M. Reinhardt, A. Freier, R. Lange, K. Boehmer, T. Feldhaus, J. Mueller, A. Weichert, P. Greulich, S. Seel, R. Meyer, and R. Czichy, “5.6 Gbps optical intersatellite communication link,” Proc. SPIE 7199, 719906 (2009).
[Crossref]

Yamamoto, Y.

Y. Yamamoto and T. Kimura, “Coherent optical fiber transmission systems,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 17(6), 919–935 (1981).
[Crossref]

Y. Yamamoto, “Receiver performance evaluation of various digital optical modulation-demodulation systems in the 0.5-10 µm wavelength region,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 16(11), 1251–1259 (1980).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (3)

Y. Yamamoto, “Receiver performance evaluation of various digital optical modulation-demodulation systems in the 0.5-10 µm wavelength region,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 16(11), 1251–1259 (1980).
[Crossref]

Y. Yamamoto and T. Kimura, “Coherent optical fiber transmission systems,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 17(6), 919–935 (1981).
[Crossref]

F. Favre, L. Jeunhomme, I. Joindot, M. Monerie, and J. Simon, “Progress towards heterodyne-type single-mode fiber communication systems,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 17(6), 897–906 (1981).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. (1)

T. Okoshi, “Heterodyne and coherent optical fiber communications: recent progress,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 30(8), 1138–1149 (1982).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

R. Hooper, J. Midwinter, D. Smith, and I. Stanley, “Progress in monomode transmission techniques in the United Kingdom,” J. Lightwave Technol. 1(4), 596–611 (1983).
[Crossref]

T. Okoshi, “Recent progress in heterodyne/coherent optical-fiber communications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 2(4), 341–346 (1984).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Commun (1)

T. Okoshi and K. Kikuchi, “Heterodyne-type optical fiber communications,” J. Opt. Commun 2(3), 82–88 (1981).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Commun. (1)

T. Okoshi, K. Emura, K. Kikuchi, and R. T. Kersten, “Computation of bit-error rate of various heterodyne and coherent-type optical communication schemes,” J. Opt. Commun. 2(3), 89–96 (1981).
[Crossref]

Proc. SPIE (6)

K. Böhmer, M. Gregory, F. Heine, H. Kämpfner, R. Lange, M. Lutzer, and R. Meyer, “Laser Communication Terminals for the European Data Relay System,” Proc. SPIE 8246, 82460D (2012).
[Crossref]

J. W. Burnside, S. D. Conrad, A. D. Pillsbury, and C. E. DeVoe, “Design of an Inertially Stabilized Telescope for the LLCD,” Proc. SPIE 7923, 79230L (2011).
[Crossref]

B. Smutny, H. Kaempfner, G. Muehlnikel, U. Sterr, B. Wandernoth, F. Heine, U. Hildebrand, D. Dallmann, M. Reinhardt, A. Freier, R. Lange, K. Boehmer, T. Feldhaus, J. Mueller, A. Weichert, P. Greulich, S. Seel, R. Meyer, and R. Czichy, “5.6 Gbps optical intersatellite communication link,” Proc. SPIE 7199, 719906 (2009).
[Crossref]

B. Smutny, R. Lange, H. Kämpfner, D. Dallmann, G. Mühlnikel, M. Reinhardt, K. Saucke, U. Sterr, B. Wandernoth, and R. Czichy, “In-orbit verification of optical inter-satellite communication links based on homodyne BPSK,” Proc. SPIE 6877, 687702 (2008).
[Crossref]

D. Giggenbach, A. Schex, and B. Wandernoth, “Prototype of a coherent tracking and detection receiver with wideband vibration compensation for free-space laser communications,” Proc. SPIE 2699, 186–191 (1996).
[Crossref]

E. A. Swanson and R. S. Bondurant, “Using fiber optics to simplify free-space lasercom systems,” Proc. SPIE 1218, 70–82 (1990).
[Crossref]

Other (11)

T. E. Knibbe, “Spatial tracking using an electro-optic nutator and a single-mode optical fiber,” (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1993).

E. A. Swanson and R. S. Bondurant, A Space-Based Optical Communication System Utilizing Fiber Optics (Massachusetts Institute of Technology Lincoln Laboratory, 1989).

E. A. Swanson and R. S. Bondurant, “Fiber-based receiver for free-space coherent optical communication systems,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference(Optical Society of America, 1989) paper THC5.

B. Gütlich, R. Meyer, S. Philipp-May, and A. Pagels-Kerp, “German Roadmap on Optical Communication in Space,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers Congress, P. W. McManamon and O. Steinvall, eds. (Optical Society of America, Paris, 2013), paper LM1B.2.
[Crossref]

B. L. Edwards, K. Wilson, D. Israel, J. Moores, and A. Fletcher, “Overview of the laser communications relay demonstration project,” in Proceedings of SpaceOps, 1261897 (2012).

S. Yamakawa, T. Hanada, and H. Kohata, “R&D status of the next generation optical communication terminals in JAXA,” inSpace Optical Systems and Applications, (IEEE, 2011), pp. 389–393.

D. M. Boroson, J. J. Scozzafava, D. V. Murphy, B. S. Robinson, and H. Shaw, “The lunar laser communications demonstration (LLCD),” in IEEE Space Mission Challenges for Information Technology, (IEEE, 2009), pp. 23–28.

G. Baister, T. Dreischer, E. R. Grond, L. Gallmann, B. Thieme, and K. Kudielka, “The OPTEL terminal development programme–enabling technologies for future optical crosslink applications,” in AIAA Space Conference and Exposition, pp. 1–8 (2003).

K. Kudielka, A. Marki, G. C. Baister, and C. Haupt, “Acquisition and tracking strategies of the OPTEL 25 GEO terminal,” in Lasers and Electro-Optics Society(IEEE, 2002), pp. 395–396.

R. Lange, F. Heine, H. Kampfner, R. Czichy, R. Meyer, and M. Lutzer, “Optical inter-satellite communication operational,” in Military Communications Conference, (IEEE, 2010), pp. 2290–2294.

S. Seel, H. Kampfner, F. Heine, D. Dallmann, G. Muhlnikel, M. Gregory, M. Reinhardt, K. Saucke, J. Muckherjee, and U. Sterr, “Space to ground bidirectional optical communication link at 5.6 Gbps and EDRS connectivity outlook,” in Aerospace Conference(IEEE, 2011), pp. 1–7.
[Crossref]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Principle block diagram of coherent tracking sensor based on local oscillator beam nutation, which is integrated in a BPSK receiver.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Schematic diagram of the intersection angle between wavefronts of LO and received light in nutation process. Point C.T. is the AOA coordinate of the received light from counter terminal.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Normalized frequency response characteristics of coherent tracking sensor based on LO beam nutation.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Linear model of a tracking loop.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 The relationship between half-nutation angle and NEA.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 The frequency response characteristic of the tracking loop.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 The relationship between the half-nutation angle and the receiving sensitivity degradation.

Equations (33)

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i D ( t ) D I ( r , t ) d s = D [ E L O ( r , t ) + E S ( r , t ) ] [ E L O ( r , t ) + E S ( r , t ) ] * d s = P L O ( t ) + P S ( t ) + 2 P L O ( t ) P S ( t ) Re { γ ( t ) }
γ ( t ) = D E L O ( r , t ) E S * ( r , t ) d s D | E L O ( r , t ) | 2 d s D | E S ( r , t ) | 2 d s
η ( t ) = Re { γ ( t ) } = D | E L O ( r , t ) | | E S ( r , t ) | cos [ Δ ω t + Δ ϕ ( r , t ) ] d s D | E L O ( r , t ) | 2 d s D | E S ( r , t ) | 2 d s
η I ( t ) = 1 S D cos [ Δ ω t + Δ ϕ ( r , t ) ] d s = 1 S a 2 ( t ) + b 2 ( t ) cos [ Δ ω t + a tan b ( t ) a ( t ) ]
η Q ( t ) = 1 S D cos [ Δ ω t + Δ ϕ ( r , t ) π 2 ] d s = 1 S a 2 ( t ) + b 2 ( t ) sin [ Δ ω t + a tan b ( t ) a ( t ) ]
a ( t ) = D cos [ Δ ϕ ( r , t ) ] d s b ( t ) = D sin [ Δ ϕ ( r , t ) ] d s
v I ( t ) = 2 R r L η I ( t ) ( 1 k ) P L O P S ( t ) + n I ( t )
v Q ( t ) = 2 R r L η Q ( t ) k P L O P S ( t ) + n Q ( t )
S N I ( f ) = S N Q ( f ) = 2 e R P L O r L 2
v ( t ) k v I 2 ( t ) + ( 1 k ) v Q 2 ( t ) = s ( t ) + n ( t )
Δ ϕ ( r , t ) = Δ ϕ 0 ( t ) + x tan [ φ ( t ) ] Δ ϕ 0 ( t ) + x φ ( t )
a ( t ) = S cos Δ ϕ 0 ( t ) 2 J 1 [ 2 π R D λ φ ( t ) ] 2 π R D λ φ ( t ) b ( t ) = S sin Δ ϕ 0 ( t ) 2 J 1 [ 2 π R D λ φ ( t ) ] 2 π R D λ φ ( t )
s ( t ) = 4 R 2 r L 2 k ( 1 k ) P L O P S ( t ) { 2 J 1 [ ψ ( t ) ] / [ ψ ( t ) ] } 2
n ( t ) = 8 R r L k k ( 1 k ) P L O P S ( t ) J 1 [ [ ψ ( t ) ] ] / [ [ ψ ( t ) ] ] cos ( Δ ω t + Δ ϕ 0 ( t ) ) n I ( t ) + ... + 8 R r L ( 1 k ) k ( 1 k ) P L O P S ( t ) J 1 [ [ ψ ( t ) ] ] / [ [ ψ ( t ) ] ] sin ( Δ ω t + Δ ϕ 0 ( t ) ) n Q ( t ) + ... + k n I 2 ( t ) + ( 1 k ) n Q 2 ( t ) 4 R r L k ( 1 k ) P L O P S max { k cos ( Δ ω t + Δ ϕ 0 ( t ) ) n I ( t ) + ( 1 k ) sin ( Δ ω t + Δ ϕ 0 ( t ) ) n Q ( t ) }
S N ( f ) 8 R 2 r L 2 k ( 1 k ) P L O P S max S N I ( f ) = 16 e R 3 r L 4 k ( 1 k ) P L O 2 P S max
φ ( t ) φ N α ( t ) φ ( t T / 2 ) α ( t T / 2 ) + φ N
v ( t ) 4 k ( 1 k ) R 2 r L 2 P L O P S ( t ) { 2 J 1 { 2 π R D λ [ φ N α ( t ) ] } 2 π R D λ [ φ N α ( t ) ] } 2 + n ( t ) 4 k ( 1 k ) R 2 r L 2 P L O P S ( t ) { [ 2 J 1 ( ψ N ) ψ N ] 2 S F ( φ N ) α ( t ) } + n ( t )
v ( t T / 2 ) 4 k ( 1 k ) R 2 r L 2 P L O P S ( t T / 2 ) { [ 2 J 1 ( ψ N ) ψ N ] 2 + S F ( φ N ) α ( t T / 2 ) } + n ( t T / 2 )
S F ( φ N ) = d [ 2 J 1 ( ψ ( t ) ) ψ ( t ) ] 2 / d φ ( t ) | φ N = 16 π R D λ J 1 ( ψ N ) ψ N [ J 0 ( ψ N ) ψ N 2 J 1 ( ψ N ) ψ N 2 ]
v ( t ) v ( t T / 2 ) 4 k ( 1 k ) R 2 r L 2 P L O P S ( t ) S F ( φ N ) [ 2 α ( t ) T 2 d α ( t ) d t ] + n ( t ) n ( t T / 2 )
v ( t ) + v ( t T / 2 ) 4 k ( 1 k ) R 2 r L 2 P L O P S ( t ) { 2 { 2 J 1 [ ψ N ] [ ψ N ] } 2 S F ( φ N ) T 2 d α ( t ) d t }
S F ( φ N ) T 2 d α ( t ) d t < < S F ( φ N ) α ( t )
S F ( φ N ) α ( t ) < < { 2 J 1 [ ψ N ] [ ψ N ] } 2
S F ( φ N ) T 2 d α ( t ) d t < < 2 { 2 J 1 [ ψ N ] [ ψ N ] } 2
e α ( t ) = v ( t ) v ( t T / 2 ) v ( t ) + v ( t T / 2 ) S F ( φ N ) { 2 J 1 [ ψ N ] [ ψ N ] } 2 [ α ( t ) T 4 d α ( t ) d t ] + n ( t )
n ( t ) [ n ( t ) n ( t T / 2 ) ] / [ 8 k ( 1 k ) R 2 r 2 P L O P S max ]
S N ( f ) e / [ 2 k ( 1 k ) R P S max ]
G S ( s ) = E α ( s ) A ( s ) = S F ( φ N ) { 2 J 1 [ ψ N ] [ ψ N ] } 2 ( T 4 s + 1 )
S N E A ( f ) = S N ( f ) | G L ( f ) / G S ( f ) | 2
G L ( f ) = G S ( f ) G F P A ( f ) / [ 1 + G S ( f ) G F P A ( f ) ]
N E A = 0 S N E A ( f ) d f = S N ( f ) B n
B n = 0 | G L ( f ) / G S ( f ) | 2 d f
S N R = | v I | 2 | n I | 2 = 4 R 2 r L 2 ( 1 k ) P L O P S ( t ) { 2 J 1 [ ψ ( t ) ] / [ ψ ( t ) ] } 2 S N I B

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