Abstract

An extremely compact soft x-ray microscope operating in the “water window” region at the wavelength λ = 2.88 nm is presented, making use of a long-term stable and nearly debris-free laser-induced plasma from a pulsed nitrogen gas jet target. The well characterized soft x-ray radiation is focused by an ellipsoidal grazing incidence condenser mirror. Imaging of a sample onto a CCD camera is achieved with a Fresnel zone plate using magnifications up to 500x. The spatial resolution of the recorded microscopic images is about 100 nm as demonstrated for a Siemens star test pattern.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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References

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  3. M. Juenger, V. Lamour, P. Monteiro, E. Gartner, and G. Denbeaux, “Direct observation of cement hydration by soft x-ray transmission microscopy,” J. Mater. Sci. Lett. 22(19), 1335–1337 (2003).
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  22. T. Mey, M. Rein, P. Großmann, and K. Mann, “Brilliance improvement of laser-produced soft x-ray plasma by a barrel shock,” New J. Phys. 14(7), 073045 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  23. S. Kranzusch, C. Peth, and K. Mann, “Spatial characterization of extreme ultraviolet plasmas generated by laser excitation of xenon gas targets,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74(2), 969–974 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  24. A. Bayer, F. Barkusky, S. Döring, P. Großmann, and K. Mann, “Applications of compact laser-driven EUV/XUV plasma sources,” X-Ray Opt. Instrum. 2010, 1–9 (2010).
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  27. B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, and J. C. Davis, “X-Ray Interactions: Photoabsorption, Scattering, Transmission, and Reflection at E = 50-30,000 eV, Z = 1-92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54(2), 181–342 (1993).
    [Crossref]
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2013 (1)

2012 (4)

2010 (1)

A. Bayer, F. Barkusky, S. Döring, P. Großmann, and K. Mann, “Applications of compact laser-driven EUV/XUV plasma sources,” X-Ray Opt. Instrum. 2010, 1–9 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

A. Bartnik, H. Fiedorowicz, R. Jarocki, J. Kostecki, A. Szczurek, and M. Szczurek, “Ablation and surface modifications of PMMA using a laser-plasma EUV source,” Appl. Phys. B 96(4), 727–730 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

M. Benk, K. Bergmann, D. Schäfer, and T. Wilhein, “Compact soft x-ray microscope using a gas-discharge light source,” Opt. Lett. 33(20), 2359–2361 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Peth, F. Barkusky, and K. Mann, “Near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure measurements using a laboratory-scale XUV source,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(10), 105202 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

P. A. Takman, H. Stollberg, G. A. Johansson, A. Holmberg, M. Lindblom, and H. M. Hertz, “High-resolution compact x-ray microscopy,” J. Microsc. 226(2), 175–181 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Barkusky, C. Peth, A. Bayer, and K. Mann, “Direct photo-etching of poly(methy methacrylate) using focused extreme ultraviolet radiation from a table-top laser-induced plasma source,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(12), 124908 (2007).
[Crossref]

2005 (2)

J. Allain, A. Hassanein, M. Allain, B. Heuser, M. Nieto, C. Crobak, D. Rokusek, and B. Rice, “Xe+ -irradiation effects on multilayer thin-film optical surfaces in EUV lithography,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 242(1-2), 520–522 (2005).
[Crossref]

P. Jansson, U. Vogt, and H. Hertz, “Liquid-nitrogen-jet laser-plasma source for compact soft x-ray microscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76(4), 043503 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

C. A. Larabell and M. A. Le Gros, “X-ray tomography generates 3-d reconstructions of the yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, at 60-nm resolution,” Mol. Biol. Cell 15(3), 957–962 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

M. Juenger, V. Lamour, P. Monteiro, E. Gartner, and G. Denbeaux, “Direct observation of cement hydration by soft x-ray transmission microscopy,” J. Mater. Sci. Lett. 22(19), 1335–1337 (2003).
[Crossref]

S. Kranzusch, C. Peth, and K. Mann, “Spatial characterization of extreme ultraviolet plasmas generated by laser excitation of xenon gas targets,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74(2), 969–974 (2003).
[Crossref]

2001 (2)

W. Meyer-Ilse, D. Hamamoto, A. Nair, S. A. Lelièvre, G. Denbeaux, L. Johnson, A. L. Pearson, D. Yager, M. A. Legros, and C. A. Larabell, “High resolution protein localization using soft x-ray microscopy,” J. Microsc. 201(3), 395–403 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Kranzusch and K. Mann, “Spectral characterization of EUV radiation emitted from a laser-irradiated gas puff target,” Opt. Commun. 200(1-6), 223–230 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (3)

H. Fiedorowicz, A. Bartnik, H. Daido, I. Choi, M. Suzuki, and S. Yamagami, “Strong extreme ultraviolet emission from a double-stream xenon/helium gas puff target irradiated with a Nd:YAG laser,” Opt. Commun. 184(1-4), 161–167 (2000).
[Crossref]

M. Berglund, L. Rymell, M. Peuker, T. Wilhein, and H. M. Hertz, “Compact water-window transmission x-ray microscopy,” J. Microsc. 197(3), 268–273 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Weiß, G. Schneider, B. Niemann, P. Guttmann, D. Rudolph, and G. Schmahl, “Computed tomography of cryogenic biological specimens based on x-ray microscopic images,” Ultramicroscopy 84(3-4), 185–197 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

S. C. Myneni, J. T. Brown, G. A. Martinez, and W. Meyer-Ilse, “Imaging of humic substance macromolecular structures in water and soils,” Science 286(5443), 1335–1337 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

G. Schneider, “Cryo x-ray microscopy with high spatial resolution in amplitude and phase contrast,” Ultramicroscopy 75(2), 85–104 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1993 (2)

H. Fiedorowicz, A. Bartnik, Z. Patron, and P. Piotr, “X-ray emission from laser-irradiated gas puff targets,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62(22), 2778–2780 (1993).
[Crossref]

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, and J. C. Davis, “X-Ray Interactions: Photoabsorption, Scattering, Transmission, and Reflection at E = 50-30,000 eV, Z = 1-92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54(2), 181–342 (1993).
[Crossref]

1989 (1)

D. Proch and T. Trickl, “A high-intensity multi-purpose piezoelectric pulsed molecular beam source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60(4), 713–716 (1989).
[Crossref]

Allain, J.

J. Allain, A. Hassanein, M. Allain, B. Heuser, M. Nieto, C. Crobak, D. Rokusek, and B. Rice, “Xe+ -irradiation effects on multilayer thin-film optical surfaces in EUV lithography,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 242(1-2), 520–522 (2005).
[Crossref]

Allain, M.

J. Allain, A. Hassanein, M. Allain, B. Heuser, M. Nieto, C. Crobak, D. Rokusek, and B. Rice, “Xe+ -irradiation effects on multilayer thin-film optical surfaces in EUV lithography,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 242(1-2), 520–522 (2005).
[Crossref]

Anderson, E.

Barkusky, F.

A. Bayer, F. Barkusky, S. Döring, P. Großmann, and K. Mann, “Applications of compact laser-driven EUV/XUV plasma sources,” X-Ray Opt. Instrum. 2010, 1–9 (2010).
[Crossref]

C. Peth, F. Barkusky, and K. Mann, “Near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure measurements using a laboratory-scale XUV source,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(10), 105202 (2008).
[Crossref]

F. Barkusky, C. Peth, A. Bayer, and K. Mann, “Direct photo-etching of poly(methy methacrylate) using focused extreme ultraviolet radiation from a table-top laser-induced plasma source,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(12), 124908 (2007).
[Crossref]

Bartnik, A.

A. Bartnik, H. Fiedorowicz, R. Jarocki, J. Kostecki, A. Szczurek, and M. Szczurek, “Ablation and surface modifications of PMMA using a laser-plasma EUV source,” Appl. Phys. B 96(4), 727–730 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. Fiedorowicz, A. Bartnik, H. Daido, I. Choi, M. Suzuki, and S. Yamagami, “Strong extreme ultraviolet emission from a double-stream xenon/helium gas puff target irradiated with a Nd:YAG laser,” Opt. Commun. 184(1-4), 161–167 (2000).
[Crossref]

H. Fiedorowicz, A. Bartnik, Z. Patron, and P. Piotr, “X-ray emission from laser-irradiated gas puff targets,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62(22), 2778–2780 (1993).
[Crossref]

Bayer, A.

A. Bayer, F. Barkusky, S. Döring, P. Großmann, and K. Mann, “Applications of compact laser-driven EUV/XUV plasma sources,” X-Ray Opt. Instrum. 2010, 1–9 (2010).
[Crossref]

F. Barkusky, C. Peth, A. Bayer, and K. Mann, “Direct photo-etching of poly(methy methacrylate) using focused extreme ultraviolet radiation from a table-top laser-induced plasma source,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(12), 124908 (2007).
[Crossref]

Benk, M.

Berglund, M.

M. Berglund, L. Rymell, M. Peuker, T. Wilhein, and H. M. Hertz, “Compact water-window transmission x-ray microscopy,” J. Microsc. 197(3), 268–273 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bergmann, K.

Blobel, G.

Brown, J. T.

S. C. Myneni, J. T. Brown, G. A. Martinez, and W. Meyer-Ilse, “Imaging of humic substance macromolecular structures in water and soils,” Science 286(5443), 1335–1337 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chao, W.

Choi, I.

H. Fiedorowicz, A. Bartnik, H. Daido, I. Choi, M. Suzuki, and S. Yamagami, “Strong extreme ultraviolet emission from a double-stream xenon/helium gas puff target irradiated with a Nd:YAG laser,” Opt. Commun. 184(1-4), 161–167 (2000).
[Crossref]

Crobak, C.

J. Allain, A. Hassanein, M. Allain, B. Heuser, M. Nieto, C. Crobak, D. Rokusek, and B. Rice, “Xe+ -irradiation effects on multilayer thin-film optical surfaces in EUV lithography,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 242(1-2), 520–522 (2005).
[Crossref]

Daido, H.

H. Fiedorowicz, A. Bartnik, H. Daido, I. Choi, M. Suzuki, and S. Yamagami, “Strong extreme ultraviolet emission from a double-stream xenon/helium gas puff target irradiated with a Nd:YAG laser,” Opt. Commun. 184(1-4), 161–167 (2000).
[Crossref]

Davis, J. C.

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, and J. C. Davis, “X-Ray Interactions: Photoabsorption, Scattering, Transmission, and Reflection at E = 50-30,000 eV, Z = 1-92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54(2), 181–342 (1993).
[Crossref]

Denbeaux, G.

M. Juenger, V. Lamour, P. Monteiro, E. Gartner, and G. Denbeaux, “Direct observation of cement hydration by soft x-ray transmission microscopy,” J. Mater. Sci. Lett. 22(19), 1335–1337 (2003).
[Crossref]

W. Meyer-Ilse, D. Hamamoto, A. Nair, S. A. Lelièvre, G. Denbeaux, L. Johnson, A. L. Pearson, D. Yager, M. A. Legros, and C. A. Larabell, “High resolution protein localization using soft x-ray microscopy,” J. Microsc. 201(3), 395–403 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Diete, W.

Döring, S.

A. Bayer, F. Barkusky, S. Döring, P. Großmann, and K. Mann, “Applications of compact laser-driven EUV/XUV plasma sources,” X-Ray Opt. Instrum. 2010, 1–9 (2010).
[Crossref]

Esser, D.

Feigl, T.

Fiedorowicz, H.

A. Bartnik, H. Fiedorowicz, R. Jarocki, J. Kostecki, A. Szczurek, and M. Szczurek, “Ablation and surface modifications of PMMA using a laser-plasma EUV source,” Appl. Phys. B 96(4), 727–730 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. Fiedorowicz, A. Bartnik, H. Daido, I. Choi, M. Suzuki, and S. Yamagami, “Strong extreme ultraviolet emission from a double-stream xenon/helium gas puff target irradiated with a Nd:YAG laser,” Opt. Commun. 184(1-4), 161–167 (2000).
[Crossref]

H. Fiedorowicz, A. Bartnik, Z. Patron, and P. Piotr, “X-ray emission from laser-irradiated gas puff targets,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62(22), 2778–2780 (1993).
[Crossref]

Fischer, P.

Gartner, E.

M. Juenger, V. Lamour, P. Monteiro, E. Gartner, and G. Denbeaux, “Direct observation of cement hydration by soft x-ray transmission microscopy,” J. Mater. Sci. Lett. 22(19), 1335–1337 (2003).
[Crossref]

Großmann, P.

M. Müller, F. C. Kühl, P. Großmann, P. Vrba, and K. Mann, “Emission properties of ns and ps laser-induced soft x-ray sources using pulsed gas jets,” Opt. Express 21(10), 12831–12842 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Mey, M. Rein, P. Großmann, and K. Mann, “Brilliance improvement of laser-produced soft x-ray plasma by a barrel shock,” New J. Phys. 14(7), 073045 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Bayer, F. Barkusky, S. Döring, P. Großmann, and K. Mann, “Applications of compact laser-driven EUV/XUV plasma sources,” X-Ray Opt. Instrum. 2010, 1–9 (2010).
[Crossref]

Gullikson, E. M.

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, and J. C. Davis, “X-Ray Interactions: Photoabsorption, Scattering, Transmission, and Reflection at E = 50-30,000 eV, Z = 1-92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54(2), 181–342 (1993).
[Crossref]

Guttmann, P.

Hamamoto, D.

W. Meyer-Ilse, D. Hamamoto, A. Nair, S. A. Lelièvre, G. Denbeaux, L. Johnson, A. L. Pearson, D. Yager, M. A. Legros, and C. A. Larabell, “High resolution protein localization using soft x-ray microscopy,” J. Microsc. 201(3), 395–403 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hassanein, A.

J. Allain, A. Hassanein, M. Allain, B. Heuser, M. Nieto, C. Crobak, D. Rokusek, and B. Rice, “Xe+ -irradiation effects on multilayer thin-film optical surfaces in EUV lithography,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 242(1-2), 520–522 (2005).
[Crossref]

Henke, B. L.

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, and J. C. Davis, “X-Ray Interactions: Photoabsorption, Scattering, Transmission, and Reflection at E = 50-30,000 eV, Z = 1-92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54(2), 181–342 (1993).
[Crossref]

Hertz, H.

P. Jansson, U. Vogt, and H. Hertz, “Liquid-nitrogen-jet laser-plasma source for compact soft x-ray microscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76(4), 043503 (2005).
[Crossref]

Hertz, H. M.

H. Legall, G. Blobel, H. Stiel, W. Sandner, C. Seim, P. Takman, D. H. Martz, M. Selin, U. Vogt, H. M. Hertz, D. Esser, H. Sipma, J. Luttmann, M. Höfer, H. D. Hoffmann, S. Yulin, T. Feigl, S. Rehbein, P. Guttmann, G. Schneider, U. Wiesemann, M. Wirtz, and W. Diete, “Compact x-ray microscope for the water window based on a high brightness laser plasma source,” Opt. Express 20(16), 18362–18369 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. A. Takman, H. Stollberg, G. A. Johansson, A. Holmberg, M. Lindblom, and H. M. Hertz, “High-resolution compact x-ray microscopy,” J. Microsc. 226(2), 175–181 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Berglund, L. Rymell, M. Peuker, T. Wilhein, and H. M. Hertz, “Compact water-window transmission x-ray microscopy,” J. Microsc. 197(3), 268–273 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Heuser, B.

J. Allain, A. Hassanein, M. Allain, B. Heuser, M. Nieto, C. Crobak, D. Rokusek, and B. Rice, “Xe+ -irradiation effects on multilayer thin-film optical surfaces in EUV lithography,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 242(1-2), 520–522 (2005).
[Crossref]

Höfer, M.

Hoffmann, H. D.

Holmberg, A.

P. A. Takman, H. Stollberg, G. A. Johansson, A. Holmberg, M. Lindblom, and H. M. Hertz, “High-resolution compact x-ray microscopy,” J. Microsc. 226(2), 175–181 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jansson, P.

P. Jansson, U. Vogt, and H. Hertz, “Liquid-nitrogen-jet laser-plasma source for compact soft x-ray microscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76(4), 043503 (2005).
[Crossref]

Jarocki, R.

A. Bartnik, H. Fiedorowicz, R. Jarocki, J. Kostecki, A. Szczurek, and M. Szczurek, “Ablation and surface modifications of PMMA using a laser-plasma EUV source,” Appl. Phys. B 96(4), 727–730 (2009).
[Crossref]

Johansson, G. A.

P. A. Takman, H. Stollberg, G. A. Johansson, A. Holmberg, M. Lindblom, and H. M. Hertz, “High-resolution compact x-ray microscopy,” J. Microsc. 226(2), 175–181 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Johnson, L.

W. Meyer-Ilse, D. Hamamoto, A. Nair, S. A. Lelièvre, G. Denbeaux, L. Johnson, A. L. Pearson, D. Yager, M. A. Legros, and C. A. Larabell, “High resolution protein localization using soft x-ray microscopy,” J. Microsc. 201(3), 395–403 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Juenger, M.

M. Juenger, V. Lamour, P. Monteiro, E. Gartner, and G. Denbeaux, “Direct observation of cement hydration by soft x-ray transmission microscopy,” J. Mater. Sci. Lett. 22(19), 1335–1337 (2003).
[Crossref]

Kostecki, J.

A. Bartnik, H. Fiedorowicz, R. Jarocki, J. Kostecki, A. Szczurek, and M. Szczurek, “Ablation and surface modifications of PMMA using a laser-plasma EUV source,” Appl. Phys. B 96(4), 727–730 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kranzusch, S.

S. Kranzusch, C. Peth, and K. Mann, “Spatial characterization of extreme ultraviolet plasmas generated by laser excitation of xenon gas targets,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74(2), 969–974 (2003).
[Crossref]

S. Kranzusch and K. Mann, “Spectral characterization of EUV radiation emitted from a laser-irradiated gas puff target,” Opt. Commun. 200(1-6), 223–230 (2001).
[Crossref]

Kühl, F. C.

Lamour, V.

M. Juenger, V. Lamour, P. Monteiro, E. Gartner, and G. Denbeaux, “Direct observation of cement hydration by soft x-ray transmission microscopy,” J. Mater. Sci. Lett. 22(19), 1335–1337 (2003).
[Crossref]

Larabell, C. A.

C. A. Larabell and M. A. Le Gros, “X-ray tomography generates 3-d reconstructions of the yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, at 60-nm resolution,” Mol. Biol. Cell 15(3), 957–962 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Meyer-Ilse, D. Hamamoto, A. Nair, S. A. Lelièvre, G. Denbeaux, L. Johnson, A. L. Pearson, D. Yager, M. A. Legros, and C. A. Larabell, “High resolution protein localization using soft x-ray microscopy,” J. Microsc. 201(3), 395–403 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Le Gros, M. A.

C. A. Larabell and M. A. Le Gros, “X-ray tomography generates 3-d reconstructions of the yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, at 60-nm resolution,” Mol. Biol. Cell 15(3), 957–962 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Legall, H.

Legros, M. A.

W. Meyer-Ilse, D. Hamamoto, A. Nair, S. A. Lelièvre, G. Denbeaux, L. Johnson, A. L. Pearson, D. Yager, M. A. Legros, and C. A. Larabell, “High resolution protein localization using soft x-ray microscopy,” J. Microsc. 201(3), 395–403 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lelièvre, S. A.

W. Meyer-Ilse, D. Hamamoto, A. Nair, S. A. Lelièvre, G. Denbeaux, L. Johnson, A. L. Pearson, D. Yager, M. A. Legros, and C. A. Larabell, “High resolution protein localization using soft x-ray microscopy,” J. Microsc. 201(3), 395–403 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lindblom, M.

P. A. Takman, H. Stollberg, G. A. Johansson, A. Holmberg, M. Lindblom, and H. M. Hertz, “High-resolution compact x-ray microscopy,” J. Microsc. 226(2), 175–181 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Luttmann, J.

Mann, K.

M. Müller, F. C. Kühl, P. Großmann, P. Vrba, and K. Mann, “Emission properties of ns and ps laser-induced soft x-ray sources using pulsed gas jets,” Opt. Express 21(10), 12831–12842 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Mey, M. Rein, P. Großmann, and K. Mann, “Brilliance improvement of laser-produced soft x-ray plasma by a barrel shock,” New J. Phys. 14(7), 073045 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Bayer, F. Barkusky, S. Döring, P. Großmann, and K. Mann, “Applications of compact laser-driven EUV/XUV plasma sources,” X-Ray Opt. Instrum. 2010, 1–9 (2010).
[Crossref]

C. Peth, F. Barkusky, and K. Mann, “Near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure measurements using a laboratory-scale XUV source,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(10), 105202 (2008).
[Crossref]

F. Barkusky, C. Peth, A. Bayer, and K. Mann, “Direct photo-etching of poly(methy methacrylate) using focused extreme ultraviolet radiation from a table-top laser-induced plasma source,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(12), 124908 (2007).
[Crossref]

S. Kranzusch, C. Peth, and K. Mann, “Spatial characterization of extreme ultraviolet plasmas generated by laser excitation of xenon gas targets,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74(2), 969–974 (2003).
[Crossref]

S. Kranzusch and K. Mann, “Spectral characterization of EUV radiation emitted from a laser-irradiated gas puff target,” Opt. Commun. 200(1-6), 223–230 (2001).
[Crossref]

Martinez, G. A.

S. C. Myneni, J. T. Brown, G. A. Martinez, and W. Meyer-Ilse, “Imaging of humic substance macromolecular structures in water and soils,” Science 286(5443), 1335–1337 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Martz, D. H.

Mey, T.

T. Mey, M. Rein, P. Großmann, and K. Mann, “Brilliance improvement of laser-produced soft x-ray plasma by a barrel shock,” New J. Phys. 14(7), 073045 (2012).
[Crossref]

Meyer-Ilse, W.

W. Meyer-Ilse, D. Hamamoto, A. Nair, S. A. Lelièvre, G. Denbeaux, L. Johnson, A. L. Pearson, D. Yager, M. A. Legros, and C. A. Larabell, “High resolution protein localization using soft x-ray microscopy,” J. Microsc. 201(3), 395–403 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. C. Myneni, J. T. Brown, G. A. Martinez, and W. Meyer-Ilse, “Imaging of humic substance macromolecular structures in water and soils,” Science 286(5443), 1335–1337 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Monteiro, P.

M. Juenger, V. Lamour, P. Monteiro, E. Gartner, and G. Denbeaux, “Direct observation of cement hydration by soft x-ray transmission microscopy,” J. Mater. Sci. Lett. 22(19), 1335–1337 (2003).
[Crossref]

Müller, M.

Myneni, S. C.

S. C. Myneni, J. T. Brown, G. A. Martinez, and W. Meyer-Ilse, “Imaging of humic substance macromolecular structures in water and soils,” Science 286(5443), 1335–1337 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nair, A.

W. Meyer-Ilse, D. Hamamoto, A. Nair, S. A. Lelièvre, G. Denbeaux, L. Johnson, A. L. Pearson, D. Yager, M. A. Legros, and C. A. Larabell, “High resolution protein localization using soft x-ray microscopy,” J. Microsc. 201(3), 395–403 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Naulleau, P.

Niemann, B.

D. Weiß, G. Schneider, B. Niemann, P. Guttmann, D. Rudolph, and G. Schmahl, “Computed tomography of cryogenic biological specimens based on x-ray microscopic images,” Ultramicroscopy 84(3-4), 185–197 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nieto, M.

J. Allain, A. Hassanein, M. Allain, B. Heuser, M. Nieto, C. Crobak, D. Rokusek, and B. Rice, “Xe+ -irradiation effects on multilayer thin-film optical surfaces in EUV lithography,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 242(1-2), 520–522 (2005).
[Crossref]

Patron, Z.

H. Fiedorowicz, A. Bartnik, Z. Patron, and P. Piotr, “X-ray emission from laser-irradiated gas puff targets,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62(22), 2778–2780 (1993).
[Crossref]

Pearson, A. L.

W. Meyer-Ilse, D. Hamamoto, A. Nair, S. A. Lelièvre, G. Denbeaux, L. Johnson, A. L. Pearson, D. Yager, M. A. Legros, and C. A. Larabell, “High resolution protein localization using soft x-ray microscopy,” J. Microsc. 201(3), 395–403 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Peth, C.

C. Peth, F. Barkusky, and K. Mann, “Near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure measurements using a laboratory-scale XUV source,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(10), 105202 (2008).
[Crossref]

F. Barkusky, C. Peth, A. Bayer, and K. Mann, “Direct photo-etching of poly(methy methacrylate) using focused extreme ultraviolet radiation from a table-top laser-induced plasma source,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(12), 124908 (2007).
[Crossref]

S. Kranzusch, C. Peth, and K. Mann, “Spatial characterization of extreme ultraviolet plasmas generated by laser excitation of xenon gas targets,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74(2), 969–974 (2003).
[Crossref]

Peuker, M.

M. Berglund, L. Rymell, M. Peuker, T. Wilhein, and H. M. Hertz, “Compact water-window transmission x-ray microscopy,” J. Microsc. 197(3), 268–273 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Piotr, P.

H. Fiedorowicz, A. Bartnik, Z. Patron, and P. Piotr, “X-ray emission from laser-irradiated gas puff targets,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62(22), 2778–2780 (1993).
[Crossref]

Proch, D.

D. Proch and T. Trickl, “A high-intensity multi-purpose piezoelectric pulsed molecular beam source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60(4), 713–716 (1989).
[Crossref]

Rehbein, S.

Rein, M.

T. Mey, M. Rein, P. Großmann, and K. Mann, “Brilliance improvement of laser-produced soft x-ray plasma by a barrel shock,” New J. Phys. 14(7), 073045 (2012).
[Crossref]

Rekawa, S.

Rice, B.

J. Allain, A. Hassanein, M. Allain, B. Heuser, M. Nieto, C. Crobak, D. Rokusek, and B. Rice, “Xe+ -irradiation effects on multilayer thin-film optical surfaces in EUV lithography,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 242(1-2), 520–522 (2005).
[Crossref]

Rokusek, D.

J. Allain, A. Hassanein, M. Allain, B. Heuser, M. Nieto, C. Crobak, D. Rokusek, and B. Rice, “Xe+ -irradiation effects on multilayer thin-film optical surfaces in EUV lithography,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 242(1-2), 520–522 (2005).
[Crossref]

Rudolph, D.

D. Weiß, G. Schneider, B. Niemann, P. Guttmann, D. Rudolph, and G. Schmahl, “Computed tomography of cryogenic biological specimens based on x-ray microscopic images,” Ultramicroscopy 84(3-4), 185–197 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rymell, L.

M. Berglund, L. Rymell, M. Peuker, T. Wilhein, and H. M. Hertz, “Compact water-window transmission x-ray microscopy,” J. Microsc. 197(3), 268–273 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sandner, W.

Schäfer, D.

Schmahl, G.

D. Weiß, G. Schneider, B. Niemann, P. Guttmann, D. Rudolph, and G. Schmahl, “Computed tomography of cryogenic biological specimens based on x-ray microscopic images,” Ultramicroscopy 84(3-4), 185–197 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schneider, G.

Seim, C.

Selin, M.

Sipma, H.

Stiel, H.

Stollberg, H.

P. A. Takman, H. Stollberg, G. A. Johansson, A. Holmberg, M. Lindblom, and H. M. Hertz, “High-resolution compact x-ray microscopy,” J. Microsc. 226(2), 175–181 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Suzuki, M.

H. Fiedorowicz, A. Bartnik, H. Daido, I. Choi, M. Suzuki, and S. Yamagami, “Strong extreme ultraviolet emission from a double-stream xenon/helium gas puff target irradiated with a Nd:YAG laser,” Opt. Commun. 184(1-4), 161–167 (2000).
[Crossref]

Szczurek, A.

A. Bartnik, H. Fiedorowicz, R. Jarocki, J. Kostecki, A. Szczurek, and M. Szczurek, “Ablation and surface modifications of PMMA using a laser-plasma EUV source,” Appl. Phys. B 96(4), 727–730 (2009).
[Crossref]

Szczurek, M.

A. Bartnik, H. Fiedorowicz, R. Jarocki, J. Kostecki, A. Szczurek, and M. Szczurek, “Ablation and surface modifications of PMMA using a laser-plasma EUV source,” Appl. Phys. B 96(4), 727–730 (2009).
[Crossref]

Takman, P.

Takman, P. A.

P. A. Takman, H. Stollberg, G. A. Johansson, A. Holmberg, M. Lindblom, and H. M. Hertz, “High-resolution compact x-ray microscopy,” J. Microsc. 226(2), 175–181 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Trickl, T.

D. Proch and T. Trickl, “A high-intensity multi-purpose piezoelectric pulsed molecular beam source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60(4), 713–716 (1989).
[Crossref]

Tyliszczak, T.

Vogt, U.

Vrba, P.

Weiß, D.

D. Weiß, G. Schneider, B. Niemann, P. Guttmann, D. Rudolph, and G. Schmahl, “Computed tomography of cryogenic biological specimens based on x-ray microscopic images,” Ultramicroscopy 84(3-4), 185–197 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Werner, S.

Wiesemann, U.

Wilhein, T.

M. Benk, K. Bergmann, D. Schäfer, and T. Wilhein, “Compact soft x-ray microscope using a gas-discharge light source,” Opt. Lett. 33(20), 2359–2361 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Berglund, L. Rymell, M. Peuker, T. Wilhein, and H. M. Hertz, “Compact water-window transmission x-ray microscopy,” J. Microsc. 197(3), 268–273 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wirtz, M.

Yager, D.

W. Meyer-Ilse, D. Hamamoto, A. Nair, S. A. Lelièvre, G. Denbeaux, L. Johnson, A. L. Pearson, D. Yager, M. A. Legros, and C. A. Larabell, “High resolution protein localization using soft x-ray microscopy,” J. Microsc. 201(3), 395–403 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yamagami, S.

H. Fiedorowicz, A. Bartnik, H. Daido, I. Choi, M. Suzuki, and S. Yamagami, “Strong extreme ultraviolet emission from a double-stream xenon/helium gas puff target irradiated with a Nd:YAG laser,” Opt. Commun. 184(1-4), 161–167 (2000).
[Crossref]

Yulin, S.

Appl. Phys. B (1)

A. Bartnik, H. Fiedorowicz, R. Jarocki, J. Kostecki, A. Szczurek, and M. Szczurek, “Ablation and surface modifications of PMMA using a laser-plasma EUV source,” Appl. Phys. B 96(4), 727–730 (2009).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

H. Fiedorowicz, A. Bartnik, Z. Patron, and P. Piotr, “X-ray emission from laser-irradiated gas puff targets,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62(22), 2778–2780 (1993).
[Crossref]

At. Data Nucl. Data Tables (1)

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, and J. C. Davis, “X-Ray Interactions: Photoabsorption, Scattering, Transmission, and Reflection at E = 50-30,000 eV, Z = 1-92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54(2), 181–342 (1993).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

F. Barkusky, C. Peth, A. Bayer, and K. Mann, “Direct photo-etching of poly(methy methacrylate) using focused extreme ultraviolet radiation from a table-top laser-induced plasma source,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(12), 124908 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Mater. Sci. Lett. (1)

M. Juenger, V. Lamour, P. Monteiro, E. Gartner, and G. Denbeaux, “Direct observation of cement hydration by soft x-ray transmission microscopy,” J. Mater. Sci. Lett. 22(19), 1335–1337 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. Microsc. (3)

W. Meyer-Ilse, D. Hamamoto, A. Nair, S. A. Lelièvre, G. Denbeaux, L. Johnson, A. L. Pearson, D. Yager, M. A. Legros, and C. A. Larabell, “High resolution protein localization using soft x-ray microscopy,” J. Microsc. 201(3), 395–403 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Berglund, L. Rymell, M. Peuker, T. Wilhein, and H. M. Hertz, “Compact water-window transmission x-ray microscopy,” J. Microsc. 197(3), 268–273 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. A. Takman, H. Stollberg, G. A. Johansson, A. Holmberg, M. Lindblom, and H. M. Hertz, “High-resolution compact x-ray microscopy,” J. Microsc. 226(2), 175–181 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. (1)

C. Peth, F. Barkusky, and K. Mann, “Near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure measurements using a laboratory-scale XUV source,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(10), 105202 (2008).
[Crossref]

Mol. Biol. Cell (1)

C. A. Larabell and M. A. Le Gros, “X-ray tomography generates 3-d reconstructions of the yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, at 60-nm resolution,” Mol. Biol. Cell 15(3), 957–962 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

New J. Phys. (1)

T. Mey, M. Rein, P. Großmann, and K. Mann, “Brilliance improvement of laser-produced soft x-ray plasma by a barrel shock,” New J. Phys. 14(7), 073045 (2012).
[Crossref]

Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B (1)

J. Allain, A. Hassanein, M. Allain, B. Heuser, M. Nieto, C. Crobak, D. Rokusek, and B. Rice, “Xe+ -irradiation effects on multilayer thin-film optical surfaces in EUV lithography,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 242(1-2), 520–522 (2005).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (2)

H. Fiedorowicz, A. Bartnik, H. Daido, I. Choi, M. Suzuki, and S. Yamagami, “Strong extreme ultraviolet emission from a double-stream xenon/helium gas puff target irradiated with a Nd:YAG laser,” Opt. Commun. 184(1-4), 161–167 (2000).
[Crossref]

S. Kranzusch and K. Mann, “Spectral characterization of EUV radiation emitted from a laser-irradiated gas puff target,” Opt. Commun. 200(1-6), 223–230 (2001).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (3)

P. Jansson, U. Vogt, and H. Hertz, “Liquid-nitrogen-jet laser-plasma source for compact soft x-ray microscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76(4), 043503 (2005).
[Crossref]

D. Proch and T. Trickl, “A high-intensity multi-purpose piezoelectric pulsed molecular beam source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60(4), 713–716 (1989).
[Crossref]

S. Kranzusch, C. Peth, and K. Mann, “Spatial characterization of extreme ultraviolet plasmas generated by laser excitation of xenon gas targets,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74(2), 969–974 (2003).
[Crossref]

Science (1)

S. C. Myneni, J. T. Brown, G. A. Martinez, and W. Meyer-Ilse, “Imaging of humic substance macromolecular structures in water and soils,” Science 286(5443), 1335–1337 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ultramicroscopy (2)

G. Schneider, “Cryo x-ray microscopy with high spatial resolution in amplitude and phase contrast,” Ultramicroscopy 75(2), 85–104 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Weiß, G. Schneider, B. Niemann, P. Guttmann, D. Rudolph, and G. Schmahl, “Computed tomography of cryogenic biological specimens based on x-ray microscopic images,” Ultramicroscopy 84(3-4), 185–197 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X-Ray Opt. Instrum. (1)

A. Bayer, F. Barkusky, S. Döring, P. Großmann, and K. Mann, “Applications of compact laser-driven EUV/XUV plasma sources,” X-Ray Opt. Instrum. 2010, 1–9 (2010).
[Crossref]

Other (3)

G. Kubiak and M. Richardson, US Patent 5,577,092 (1996).

G. Cox, Optical Imaging Techniques in Cell Biology (CRC Press, 2012).

M. Diehl, Abbildungseigenschaften eines Röntgenmikroskops mit gepulster Plasmaquelle (PhD thesis, University Göttingen, Shaker, 1994).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic drawing (top) and photograph (bottom) of the table-top soft x-ray microscope (cf. text). The inset shows a pinhole camera image of the laser-induced nitrogen plasma averaged over 10 pulses recorded for the emission wavelength of 2.88 nm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Emission spectra of nitrogen in the wavelength range from 1.5 nm to 3.5 nm measured with Al and Ti filters, respectively. Transmission data of both filters are taken from CXRO [27].

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Spatial intensity distribution of soft x-ray radiation at λ = 2.88 nm for different positions along the optical axis behind the ellipsoidal condenser mirror; the minimum spot diameter at z = 0 mm (object plane) is dx = (430 ± 10) µm and d y = (420 ± 10) µm, respectively. For a better view of the spatial profiles the intensities at z = −10 mm and z = 10 mm were enhanced by a factor of 2. The image at z = 105 mm was taken with the back-illuminated CCD camera (see text).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Soft x-ray micrograph of Siemens star recorded with a pixel element size of 52*52 nm2 (magnification M = 250) using 18000 pulses (60 min). The inset showing the central part of the Siemens star is recorded separately at a higher magnification of 500 (pixel element size 26*26 µm2) using 36000 pulses (120 min).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Soft x-ray microscopic image of geo-colloids taken from the Main River (18000 pulses, 60 min, pixel element size 26*26 nm2).

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