Abstract

When implementing O-band quantum key distribution on optical fiber transmission lines carrying C-band data traffic, noise photons that arise from spontaneous Raman scattering or insufficient filtering of the classical data channels could cause the quantum bit-error rate to exceed the security threshold. In this case, a photon heralding scheme may be used to reject the uncorrelated noise photons in order to restore the quantum bit-error rate to a low level. However, the secure key rate would suffer unless one uses a heralded photon source with sufficiently high heralding rate and heralding efficiency. In this work we demonstrate a heralded photon source that has a heralding efficiency that is as high as 74.5%. One disadvantage of a typical heralded photon source is that the long deadtime of the heralding detector results in a significant drop in the heralding rate. To counter this problem, we propose a passively spatial-multiplexed configuration at the heralding arm. Using two heralding detectors in this configuration, we obtain an increase in the heralding rate by 37% and a corresponding increase in the heralded photon detection rate by 16%. We transmit the O-band photons over 10 km of noisy optical fiber to observe the relation between quantum bit-error rate and noise-degraded second-order correlation function of the transmitted photons. The effects of afterpulsing when we shorten the deadtime of the heralding detectors are also observed and discussed.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2014 (1)

K. A. Patel, J. F. Dynes, M. Lucamarini, I. Choi, A. W. Sharpe, Z. L. Yuan, R. V. Penty, and A. J. Shields, “Quantum key distribution for 10 Gb/s dense wavelength division multiplexing networks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(5), 051123 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (8)

M. T. Liu and H. C. Lim, “Transmission of O-band wavelength-division-multiplexed heralded photons over a noise-corrupted optical fiber channel,” Opt. Express 21(25), 30358–30369 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Ramelow, A. Mech, M. Giustina, S. Gröblacher, W. Wieczorek, J. Beyer, A. Lita, B. Calkins, T. Gerrits, S. W. Nam, A. Zeilinger, and R. Ursin, “Highly efficient heralding of entangled single photons,” Opt. Express 21(6), 6707–6717 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Cunha Pereira, F. E. Becerra, B. L. Glebov, J. Fan, S. W. Nam, and A. Migdall, “Demonstrating highly symmetric single-mode, single-photon heralding efficiency in spontaneous parametric downconversion,” Opt. Lett. 38(10), 1609–1611 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Inagaki, N. Matsuda, O. Tadanaga, M. Asobe, and H. Takesue, “Entanglement distribution over 300 km of fiber,” Opt. Express 21(20), 23241–23249 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Collins, C. Xiong, I. H. Rey, T. D. Vo, J. He, S. Shahnia, C. Reardon, T. F. Krauss, M. J. Steel, A. S. Clark, and B. J. Eggleton, “Integrated spatial multiplexing of heralded single-photon sources,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2582 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. L. Glebov, J. Fan, and A. Migdall, “Deterministic generation of single photons via multiplexing repetitive parametric downconversions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(3), 031115 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. Mazzarella, F. Ticozzi, A. V. Sergienko, G. Vallone, and P. Villoresi, “Asymmetric architecture for heralded single-photon sources,” Phys. Rev. A 88(2), 023848 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Xiong, T. D. Vo, M. J. Collins, J. Li, T. F. Krauss, M. J. Steel, A. S. Clark, and B. J. Eggleton, “Bidirectional multiplexing of heralded single photons from a silicon chip,” Opt. Lett. 38(23), 5176–5179 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (4)

S. Arahira, N. Namekata, T. Kishimoto, and S. Inoue, “Experimental studies in generation of high-purity photon-pairs using cascaded χ(2) processes in a periodically poled LiNbO3 ridge-waveguide device,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 29(3), 434–442 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Christ and C. Silberhorn, “Limits on the deterministic creation of pure single-photon states using parametric down-conversion,” Phys. Rev. A 85(2), 023829 (2012).
[Crossref]

E. Pomarico, B. Sanguinetti, T. Guerreiro, R. Thew, and H. Zbinden, “MHz rate and efficient synchronous heralding of single photons at telecom wavelengths,” Opt. Express 20(21), 23846–23855 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. A. Patel, J. F. Dynes, I. Choi, A. W. Sharpe, A. R. Dixon, Z. L. Yuan, R. V. Penty, and A. J. Shields, “Coexistence of high-bit-rate quantum key distribution and data on optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. X 2(4), 041010 (2012).

2011 (5)

M. Sasaki, M. Fujiwara, H. Ishizuka, W. Klaus, K. Wakui, M. Takeoka, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, Z. Wang, A. Tanaka, K. Yoshino, Y. Nambu, S. Takahashi, A. Tajima, A. Tomita, T. Domeki, T. Hasegawa, Y. Sakai, H. Kobayashi, T. Asai, K. Shimizu, T. Tokura, T. Tsurumaru, M. Matsui, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, H. Takesue, Y. Tokura, J. F. Dynes, A. R. Dixon, A. W. Sharpe, Z. L. Yuan, A. J. Shields, S. Uchikoga, M. Legré, S. Robyr, P. Trinkler, L. Monat, J.-B. Page, G. Ribordy, A. Poppe, A. Allacher, O. Maurhart, T. Länger, M. Peev, and A. Zeilinger, “Field test of quantum key distribution in the Tokyo QKD Network,” Opt. Express 19(11), 10387–10409 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Stucki, M. Legré, F. Buntschu, B. Clausen, N. Felber, N. Gisin, L. Henzen, P. Junod, G. Litzistorf, P. Monbaron, L. Monat, J.-B. Page, D. Perroud, G. Ribordy, A. Rochas, S. Robyr, J. Tavares, R. Thew, P. Trinkler, S. Ventura, R. Voirol, N. Walenta, and H. Zbinden, “Long-term performance of the SwissQuantum quantum key distribution network in a field environment,” New J. Phys. 13(12), 123001 (2011).
[Crossref]

I. Choi, R. J. Young, and P. D. Townsend, “Quantum information to the home,” New J. Phys. 13(6), 063039 (2011).
[Crossref]

X. Ma, S. Zotter, J. Kofler, T. Jennewein, and A. Zeilinger, “Experimental generation of single photons via active multiplexing,” Phys. Rev. A 83(4), 043814 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. A. Broome, M. P. Almeida, A. Fedrizzi, and A. G. White, “Reducing multi-photon rates in pulsed down-conversion by temporal multiplexing,” Opt. Express 19(23), 22698–22708 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (5)

M. Hunault, H. Takesue, O. Tadanaga, Y. Nishida, and M. Asobe, “Generation of time-bin entangled photon pairs by cascaded second-order nonlinearity in a single periodically poled LiNbO3 waveguide,” Opt. Lett. 35(8), 1239–1241 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Martin, A. Issautier, H. Herrmann, W. Sohler, D. B. Ostrowsky, O. Alibart, and S. Tanzilli, “A polarization entangled photon-pair source based on a type-II PPLN waveguide emitting at a telecom wavelength,” New J. Phys. 12(10), 103005 (2010).
[Crossref]

T. Zhong, X. Hu, F. N. C. Wong, K. K. Berggren, T. D. Roberts, and P. Battle, “High-quality fiber-optic polarization entanglement distribution at 1.3 µm telecom wavelength,” Opt. Lett. 35(9), 1392–1394 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Eraerds, N. Walenta, M. Legré, N. Gisin, and H. Zbinden, “Quantum key distribution and 1 Gbps data encryption over a single fibre,” New J. Phys. 12(6), 063027 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. C. Lim, A. Yoshizawa, H. Tsuchida, and K. Kikuchi, “Wavelength-multiplexed entanglement distribution,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 16(4), 225-235 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (6)

G. Brida, I. P. Degiovanni, V. Schettini, S. V. Polyakov, and A. Migdall, “Improved implementation and modeling of deadtime reduction in an actively multiplexed detection system,” J. Mod. Opt. 56(2–3), 405–412 (2009).
[Crossref]

N. A. Peters, P. Toliver, T. E. Chapuran, R. J. Runser, S. R. McNown, C. G. Peterson, D. Rosenberg, N. Dallmann, R. J. Hughes, K. P. McCabe, J. E. Nordholt, and K. T. Tyagi, “Dense wavelength multiplexing of 1550 nm QKD with strong classical channels in reconfigurable networking environments,” New J. Phys. 11(4), 045012 (2009).
[Crossref]

V. Scarani, H. Bechmann-Pasquinucci, N. J. Cerf, M. Dušek, N. Lütkenhaus, and M. Peev, “The security of practical quantum key distribution,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81(3), 1301–1350 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys. 11(7), 075001 (2009).
[Crossref]

T. E. Chapuran, P. Toliver, N. A. Peters, J. Jackel, M. S. Goodman, R. J. Runser, S. R. McNown, N. Dallmann, R. J. Hughes, K. P. McCabe, J. E. Nordholt, C. G. Peterson, K. T. Tyagi, L. Mercer, and H. Dardy, “Optical networking for quantum key distribution and quantum communications,” New J. Phys. 11(10), 105001 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. A. Hall, J. B. Altepeter, and P. Kumar, “Drop-in compatible entanglement for optical-fiber networks,” Opt. Express 17(17), 14558–14566 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (4)

2007 (5)

2005 (3)

2004 (1)

2003 (1)

A. Yoshizawa, R. Kaji, and H. Tsuchida, “Generation of polarisation-entangled photon pairs at 1550 nm using two PPLN waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 39(7), 621–622 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (3)

A. L. Migdall, D. Branning, and S. Castelletto, “Tailoring single-photon and multiphoton probabilities of a single-photon on-demand source,” Phys. Rev. A 66(5), 053805 (2002).
[Crossref]

S. Tanzilli, W. Tittel, H. De Riedmatten, H. Zbinden, P. Baldi, M. De Micheli, D. B. Ostrowsky, and N. Gisin, “PPLN waveguide for quantum communication,” Eur. Phys. J. D 18(2), 155–160 (2002).
[Crossref]

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, “Quantum cryptography,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 74(1), 145–195 (2002).
[Crossref]

Alibart, O.

A. Martin, A. Issautier, H. Herrmann, W. Sohler, D. B. Ostrowsky, O. Alibart, and S. Tanzilli, “A polarization entangled photon-pair source based on a type-II PPLN waveguide emitting at a telecom wavelength,” New J. Phys. 12(10), 103005 (2010).
[Crossref]

O. Alibart, D. B. Ostrowsky, P. Baldi, and S. Tanzilli, “High-performance guided-wave asynchronous heralded single-photon source,” Opt. Lett. 30(12), 1539–1541 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Allacher, A.

Alléaume, R.

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys. 11(7), 075001 (2009).
[Crossref]

Almeida, M. P.

Altepeter, J. B.

Arahira, S.

Asai, T.

Asobe, M.

Baek, B.

Baldi, P.

O. Alibart, D. B. Ostrowsky, P. Baldi, and S. Tanzilli, “High-performance guided-wave asynchronous heralded single-photon source,” Opt. Lett. 30(12), 1539–1541 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Tanzilli, W. Tittel, H. De Riedmatten, H. Zbinden, P. Baldi, M. De Micheli, D. B. Ostrowsky, and N. Gisin, “PPLN waveguide for quantum communication,” Eur. Phys. J. D 18(2), 155–160 (2002).
[Crossref]

Barreiro, C.

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys. 11(7), 075001 (2009).
[Crossref]

Battle, P.

Becerra, F. E.

Bechmann-Pasquinucci, H.

V. Scarani, H. Bechmann-Pasquinucci, N. J. Cerf, M. Dušek, N. Lütkenhaus, and M. Peev, “The security of practical quantum key distribution,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81(3), 1301–1350 (2009).
[Crossref]

Berggren, K. K.

Beyer, J.

Blauensteiner, B.

Bouda, J.

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys. 11(7), 075001 (2009).
[Crossref]

Boxleitner, W.

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys. 11(7), 075001 (2009).
[Crossref]

Branning, D.

A. L. Migdall, D. Branning, and S. Castelletto, “Tailoring single-photon and multiphoton probabilities of a single-photon on-demand source,” Phys. Rev. A 66(5), 053805 (2002).
[Crossref]

Brida, G.

G. Brida, I. P. Degiovanni, V. Schettini, S. V. Polyakov, and A. Migdall, “Improved implementation and modeling of deadtime reduction in an actively multiplexed detection system,” J. Mod. Opt. 56(2–3), 405–412 (2009).
[Crossref]

Broome, M. A.

Buntschu, F.

D. Stucki, M. Legré, F. Buntschu, B. Clausen, N. Felber, N. Gisin, L. Henzen, P. Junod, G. Litzistorf, P. Monbaron, L. Monat, J.-B. Page, D. Perroud, G. Ribordy, A. Rochas, S. Robyr, J. Tavares, R. Thew, P. Trinkler, S. Ventura, R. Voirol, N. Walenta, and H. Zbinden, “Long-term performance of the SwissQuantum quantum key distribution network in a field environment,” New J. Phys. 13(12), 123001 (2011).
[Crossref]

Calkins, B.

Canalias, C.

Castelletto, S.

A. L. Migdall, D. Branning, and S. Castelletto, “Tailoring single-photon and multiphoton probabilities of a single-photon on-demand source,” Phys. Rev. A 66(5), 053805 (2002).
[Crossref]

Castelletto, S. A.

S. A. Castelletto, I. P. Degiovanni, V. Schettini, and A. L. Migdall, “Reduced deadtime and higher rate photon-counting detection using a multiplexed detector array,” J. Mod. Opt. 54(2–3), 337–352 (2007).
[Crossref]

Cerf, N. J.

V. Scarani, H. Bechmann-Pasquinucci, N. J. Cerf, M. Dušek, N. Lütkenhaus, and M. Peev, “The security of practical quantum key distribution,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81(3), 1301–1350 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chapuran, T. E.

N. A. Peters, P. Toliver, T. E. Chapuran, R. J. Runser, S. R. McNown, C. G. Peterson, D. Rosenberg, N. Dallmann, R. J. Hughes, K. P. McCabe, J. E. Nordholt, and K. T. Tyagi, “Dense wavelength multiplexing of 1550 nm QKD with strong classical channels in reconfigurable networking environments,” New J. Phys. 11(4), 045012 (2009).
[Crossref]

T. E. Chapuran, P. Toliver, N. A. Peters, J. Jackel, M. S. Goodman, R. J. Runser, S. R. McNown, N. Dallmann, R. J. Hughes, K. P. McCabe, J. E. Nordholt, C. G. Peterson, K. T. Tyagi, L. Mercer, and H. Dardy, “Optical networking for quantum key distribution and quantum communications,” New J. Phys. 11(10), 105001 (2009).
[Crossref]

Choi, I.

K. A. Patel, J. F. Dynes, M. Lucamarini, I. Choi, A. W. Sharpe, Z. L. Yuan, R. V. Penty, and A. J. Shields, “Quantum key distribution for 10 Gb/s dense wavelength division multiplexing networks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(5), 051123 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. A. Patel, J. F. Dynes, I. Choi, A. W. Sharpe, A. R. Dixon, Z. L. Yuan, R. V. Penty, and A. J. Shields, “Coexistence of high-bit-rate quantum key distribution and data on optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. X 2(4), 041010 (2012).

I. Choi, R. J. Young, and P. D. Townsend, “Quantum information to the home,” New J. Phys. 13(6), 063039 (2011).
[Crossref]

Christ, A.

A. Christ and C. Silberhorn, “Limits on the deterministic creation of pure single-photon states using parametric down-conversion,” Phys. Rev. A 85(2), 023829 (2012).
[Crossref]

Clark, A. S.

M. J. Collins, C. Xiong, I. H. Rey, T. D. Vo, J. He, S. Shahnia, C. Reardon, T. F. Krauss, M. J. Steel, A. S. Clark, and B. J. Eggleton, “Integrated spatial multiplexing of heralded single-photon sources,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2582 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Xiong, T. D. Vo, M. J. Collins, J. Li, T. F. Krauss, M. J. Steel, A. S. Clark, and B. J. Eggleton, “Bidirectional multiplexing of heralded single photons from a silicon chip,” Opt. Lett. 38(23), 5176–5179 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Clausen, B.

D. Stucki, M. Legré, F. Buntschu, B. Clausen, N. Felber, N. Gisin, L. Henzen, P. Junod, G. Litzistorf, P. Monbaron, L. Monat, J.-B. Page, D. Perroud, G. Ribordy, A. Rochas, S. Robyr, J. Tavares, R. Thew, P. Trinkler, S. Ventura, R. Voirol, N. Walenta, and H. Zbinden, “Long-term performance of the SwissQuantum quantum key distribution network in a field environment,” New J. Phys. 13(12), 123001 (2011).
[Crossref]

Collins, M. J.

M. J. Collins, C. Xiong, I. H. Rey, T. D. Vo, J. He, S. Shahnia, C. Reardon, T. F. Krauss, M. J. Steel, A. S. Clark, and B. J. Eggleton, “Integrated spatial multiplexing of heralded single-photon sources,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2582 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Xiong, T. D. Vo, M. J. Collins, J. Li, T. F. Krauss, M. J. Steel, A. S. Clark, and B. J. Eggleton, “Bidirectional multiplexing of heralded single photons from a silicon chip,” Opt. Lett. 38(23), 5176–5179 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cunha Pereira, M.

Dallmann, N.

T. E. Chapuran, P. Toliver, N. A. Peters, J. Jackel, M. S. Goodman, R. J. Runser, S. R. McNown, N. Dallmann, R. J. Hughes, K. P. McCabe, J. E. Nordholt, C. G. Peterson, K. T. Tyagi, L. Mercer, and H. Dardy, “Optical networking for quantum key distribution and quantum communications,” New J. Phys. 11(10), 105001 (2009).
[Crossref]

N. A. Peters, P. Toliver, T. E. Chapuran, R. J. Runser, S. R. McNown, C. G. Peterson, D. Rosenberg, N. Dallmann, R. J. Hughes, K. P. McCabe, J. E. Nordholt, and K. T. Tyagi, “Dense wavelength multiplexing of 1550 nm QKD with strong classical channels in reconfigurable networking environments,” New J. Phys. 11(4), 045012 (2009).
[Crossref]

Dardy, H.

T. E. Chapuran, P. Toliver, N. A. Peters, J. Jackel, M. S. Goodman, R. J. Runser, S. R. McNown, N. Dallmann, R. J. Hughes, K. P. McCabe, J. E. Nordholt, C. G. Peterson, K. T. Tyagi, L. Mercer, and H. Dardy, “Optical networking for quantum key distribution and quantum communications,” New J. Phys. 11(10), 105001 (2009).
[Crossref]

De Micheli, M.

S. Tanzilli, W. Tittel, H. De Riedmatten, H. Zbinden, P. Baldi, M. De Micheli, D. B. Ostrowsky, and N. Gisin, “PPLN waveguide for quantum communication,” Eur. Phys. J. D 18(2), 155–160 (2002).
[Crossref]

De Riedmatten, H.

S. Tanzilli, W. Tittel, H. De Riedmatten, H. Zbinden, P. Baldi, M. De Micheli, D. B. Ostrowsky, and N. Gisin, “PPLN waveguide for quantum communication,” Eur. Phys. J. D 18(2), 155–160 (2002).
[Crossref]

Debuisschert, T.

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys. 11(7), 075001 (2009).
[Crossref]

Degiovanni, I. P.

G. Brida, I. P. Degiovanni, V. Schettini, S. V. Polyakov, and A. Migdall, “Improved implementation and modeling of deadtime reduction in an actively multiplexed detection system,” J. Mod. Opt. 56(2–3), 405–412 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. A. Castelletto, I. P. Degiovanni, V. Schettini, and A. L. Migdall, “Reduced deadtime and higher rate photon-counting detection using a multiplexed detector array,” J. Mod. Opt. 54(2–3), 337–352 (2007).
[Crossref]

Diamanti, E.

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys. 11(7), 075001 (2009).
[Crossref]

Dianati, M.

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys. 11(7), 075001 (2009).
[Crossref]

Dixon, A. R.

Domeki, T.

Dušek, M.

V. Scarani, H. Bechmann-Pasquinucci, N. J. Cerf, M. Dušek, N. Lütkenhaus, and M. Peev, “The security of practical quantum key distribution,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81(3), 1301–1350 (2009).
[Crossref]

Dynes, J. F.

K. A. Patel, J. F. Dynes, M. Lucamarini, I. Choi, A. W. Sharpe, Z. L. Yuan, R. V. Penty, and A. J. Shields, “Quantum key distribution for 10 Gb/s dense wavelength division multiplexing networks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(5), 051123 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. A. Patel, J. F. Dynes, I. Choi, A. W. Sharpe, A. R. Dixon, Z. L. Yuan, R. V. Penty, and A. J. Shields, “Coexistence of high-bit-rate quantum key distribution and data on optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. X 2(4), 041010 (2012).

M. Sasaki, M. Fujiwara, H. Ishizuka, W. Klaus, K. Wakui, M. Takeoka, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, Z. Wang, A. Tanaka, K. Yoshino, Y. Nambu, S. Takahashi, A. Tajima, A. Tomita, T. Domeki, T. Hasegawa, Y. Sakai, H. Kobayashi, T. Asai, K. Shimizu, T. Tokura, T. Tsurumaru, M. Matsui, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, H. Takesue, Y. Tokura, J. F. Dynes, A. R. Dixon, A. W. Sharpe, Z. L. Yuan, A. J. Shields, S. Uchikoga, M. Legré, S. Robyr, P. Trinkler, L. Monat, J.-B. Page, G. Ribordy, A. Poppe, A. Allacher, O. Maurhart, T. Länger, M. Peev, and A. Zeilinger, “Field test of quantum key distribution in the Tokyo QKD Network,” Opt. Express 19(11), 10387–10409 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys. 11(7), 075001 (2009).
[Crossref]

Eggleton, B. J.

M. J. Collins, C. Xiong, I. H. Rey, T. D. Vo, J. He, S. Shahnia, C. Reardon, T. F. Krauss, M. J. Steel, A. S. Clark, and B. J. Eggleton, “Integrated spatial multiplexing of heralded single-photon sources,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2582 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Xiong, T. D. Vo, M. J. Collins, J. Li, T. F. Krauss, M. J. Steel, A. S. Clark, and B. J. Eggleton, “Bidirectional multiplexing of heralded single photons from a silicon chip,” Opt. Lett. 38(23), 5176–5179 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eraerds, P.

P. Eraerds, N. Walenta, M. Legré, N. Gisin, and H. Zbinden, “Quantum key distribution and 1 Gbps data encryption over a single fibre,” New J. Phys. 12(6), 063027 (2010).
[Crossref]

Fan, J.

B. L. Glebov, J. Fan, and A. Migdall, “Deterministic generation of single photons via multiplexing repetitive parametric downconversions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(3), 031115 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Cunha Pereira, F. E. Becerra, B. L. Glebov, J. Fan, S. W. Nam, and A. Migdall, “Demonstrating highly symmetric single-mode, single-photon heralding efficiency in spontaneous parametric downconversion,” Opt. Lett. 38(10), 1609–1611 (2013).
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Fasel, S.

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N. A. Peters, P. Toliver, T. E. Chapuran, R. J. Runser, S. R. McNown, C. G. Peterson, D. Rosenberg, N. Dallmann, R. J. Hughes, K. P. McCabe, J. E. Nordholt, and K. T. Tyagi, “Dense wavelength multiplexing of 1550 nm QKD with strong classical channels in reconfigurable networking environments,” New J. Phys. 11(4), 045012 (2009).
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J. Mod. Opt. (2)

S. A. Castelletto, I. P. Degiovanni, V. Schettini, and A. L. Migdall, “Reduced deadtime and higher rate photon-counting detection using a multiplexed detector array,” J. Mod. Opt. 54(2–3), 337–352 (2007).
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G. Brida, I. P. Degiovanni, V. Schettini, S. V. Polyakov, and A. Migdall, “Improved implementation and modeling of deadtime reduction in an actively multiplexed detection system,” J. Mod. Opt. 56(2–3), 405–412 (2009).
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J. Opt. B Quantum Semiclassical Opt. (1)

A. Trifonov and A. Zavriyev, “Secure communication with a heralded single-photon source,” J. Opt. B Quantum Semiclassical Opt. 7(12), S772–S777 (2005).
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J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Nat. Commun. (1)

M. J. Collins, C. Xiong, I. H. Rey, T. D. Vo, J. He, S. Shahnia, C. Reardon, T. F. Krauss, M. J. Steel, A. S. Clark, and B. J. Eggleton, “Integrated spatial multiplexing of heralded single-photon sources,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2582 (2013).
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New J. Phys. (7)

A. Martin, A. Issautier, H. Herrmann, W. Sohler, D. B. Ostrowsky, O. Alibart, and S. Tanzilli, “A polarization entangled photon-pair source based on a type-II PPLN waveguide emitting at a telecom wavelength,” New J. Phys. 12(10), 103005 (2010).
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D. Stucki, M. Legré, F. Buntschu, B. Clausen, N. Felber, N. Gisin, L. Henzen, P. Junod, G. Litzistorf, P. Monbaron, L. Monat, J.-B. Page, D. Perroud, G. Ribordy, A. Rochas, S. Robyr, J. Tavares, R. Thew, P. Trinkler, S. Ventura, R. Voirol, N. Walenta, and H. Zbinden, “Long-term performance of the SwissQuantum quantum key distribution network in a field environment,” New J. Phys. 13(12), 123001 (2011).
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N. A. Peters, P. Toliver, T. E. Chapuran, R. J. Runser, S. R. McNown, C. G. Peterson, D. Rosenberg, N. Dallmann, R. J. Hughes, K. P. McCabe, J. E. Nordholt, and K. T. Tyagi, “Dense wavelength multiplexing of 1550 nm QKD with strong classical channels in reconfigurable networking environments,” New J. Phys. 11(4), 045012 (2009).
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T. E. Chapuran, P. Toliver, N. A. Peters, J. Jackel, M. S. Goodman, R. J. Runser, S. R. McNown, N. Dallmann, R. J. Hughes, K. P. McCabe, J. E. Nordholt, C. G. Peterson, K. T. Tyagi, L. Mercer, and H. Dardy, “Optical networking for quantum key distribution and quantum communications,” New J. Phys. 11(10), 105001 (2009).
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P. Eraerds, N. Walenta, M. Legré, N. Gisin, and H. Zbinden, “Quantum key distribution and 1 Gbps data encryption over a single fibre,” New J. Phys. 12(6), 063027 (2010).
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I. Choi, R. J. Young, and P. D. Townsend, “Quantum information to the home,” New J. Phys. 13(6), 063039 (2011).
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M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys. 11(7), 075001 (2009).
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Opt. Express (14)

M. Sasaki, M. Fujiwara, H. Ishizuka, W. Klaus, K. Wakui, M. Takeoka, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, Z. Wang, A. Tanaka, K. Yoshino, Y. Nambu, S. Takahashi, A. Tajima, A. Tomita, T. Domeki, T. Hasegawa, Y. Sakai, H. Kobayashi, T. Asai, K. Shimizu, T. Tokura, T. Tsurumaru, M. Matsui, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, H. Takesue, Y. Tokura, J. F. Dynes, A. R. Dixon, A. W. Sharpe, Z. L. Yuan, A. J. Shields, S. Uchikoga, M. Legré, S. Robyr, P. Trinkler, L. Monat, J.-B. Page, G. Ribordy, A. Poppe, A. Allacher, O. Maurhart, T. Länger, M. Peev, and A. Zeilinger, “Field test of quantum key distribution in the Tokyo QKD Network,” Opt. Express 19(11), 10387–10409 (2011).
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M. T. Liu and H. C. Lim, “Transmission of O-band wavelength-division-multiplexed heralded photons over a noise-corrupted optical fiber channel,” Opt. Express 21(25), 30358–30369 (2013).
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E. Pomarico, B. Sanguinetti, T. Guerreiro, R. Thew, and H. Zbinden, “MHz rate and efficient synchronous heralding of single photons at telecom wavelengths,” Opt. Express 20(21), 23846–23855 (2012).
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S. Ramelow, A. Mech, M. Giustina, S. Gröblacher, W. Wieczorek, J. Beyer, A. Lita, B. Calkins, T. Gerrits, S. W. Nam, A. Zeilinger, and R. Ursin, “Highly efficient heralding of entangled single photons,” Opt. Express 21(6), 6707–6717 (2013).
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A. Soujaeff, T. Nishioka, T. Hasegawa, S. Takeuchi, T. Tsurumaru, K. Sasaki, and M. Matsui, “Quantum key distribution at 1550 nm using a pulse heralded single photon source,” Opt. Express 15(2), 726–734 (2007).
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M. A. Hall, J. B. Altepeter, and P. Kumar, “Drop-in compatible entanglement for optical-fiber networks,” Opt. Express 17(17), 14558–14566 (2009).
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H. C. Lim, A. Yoshizawa, H. Tsuchida, and K. Kikuchi, “Stable source of high quality telecom-band polarization-entangled photon-pairs based on a single, pulse-pumped, short PPLN waveguide,” Opt. Express 16(17), 12460–12468 (2008).
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H. C. Lim, A. Yoshizawa, H. Tsuchida, and K. Kikuchi, “Broadband source of telecom-band polarization-entangled photon-pairs for wavelength-multiplexed entanglement distribution,” Opt. Express 16(20), 16052–16057 (2008).
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Q. Zhang, H. Takesue, S. W. Nam, C. Langrock, X. Xie, B. Baek, M. M. Fejer, and Y. Yamamoto, “Distribution of time-energy entanglement over 100 km fiber using superconducting single-photon detector,” Opt. Express 16(8), 5776–5781 (2008).
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T. Honjo, S. W. Nam, H. Takesue, Q. Zhang, H. Kamada, Y. Nishida, O. Tadanaga, M. Asobe, B. Baek, R. Hadfield, S. Miki, M. Fujiwara, M. Sasaki, Z. Wang, K. Inoue, and Y. Yamamoto, “Long-distance entanglement-based quantum key distribution over optical fiber,” Opt. Express 16(23), 19118–19126 (2008).
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T. Inagaki, N. Matsuda, O. Tadanaga, M. Asobe, and H. Takesue, “Entanglement distribution over 300 km of fiber,” Opt. Express 21(20), 23241–23249 (2013).
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M. A. Broome, M. P. Almeida, A. Fedrizzi, and A. G. White, “Reducing multi-photon rates in pulsed down-conversion by temporal multiplexing,” Opt. Express 19(23), 22698–22708 (2011).
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M. Pelton, P. Marsden, D. Ljunggren, M. Tengner, A. Karlsson, A. Fragemann, C. Canalias, and F. Laurell, “Bright, single-spatial-mode source of frequency non-degenerate, polarization-entangled photon pairs using periodically poled KTP,” Opt. Express 12(15), 3573–3580 (2004).
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H. Hübel, M. R. Vanner, T. Lederer, B. Blauensteiner, T. Lorünser, A. Poppe, and A. Zeilinger, “High-fidelity transmission of polarization encoded qubits from an entangled source over 100 km of fiber,” Opt. Express 15(12), 7853–7862 (2007).
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Opt. Fiber Technol. (1)

H. C. Lim, A. Yoshizawa, H. Tsuchida, and K. Kikuchi, “Wavelength-multiplexed entanglement distribution,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 16(4), 225-235 (2010).
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Opt. Lett. (7)

C. Xiong, T. D. Vo, M. J. Collins, J. Li, T. F. Krauss, M. J. Steel, A. S. Clark, and B. J. Eggleton, “Bidirectional multiplexing of heralded single photons from a silicon chip,” Opt. Lett. 38(23), 5176–5179 (2013).
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M. Hunault, H. Takesue, O. Tadanaga, Y. Nishida, and M. Asobe, “Generation of time-bin entangled photon pairs by cascaded second-order nonlinearity in a single periodically poled LiNbO3 waveguide,” Opt. Lett. 35(8), 1239–1241 (2010).
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J. H. Shapiro and F. N. C. Wong, “On-demand single-photon generation using a modular array of parametric downconverters with electro-optic polarization controls,” Opt. Lett. 32(18), 2698–2700 (2007).
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H. Takesue, K. Inoue, O. Tadanaga, Y. Nishida, and M. Asobe, “Generation of pulsed polarization-entangled photon pairs in a 1.55-µm band with a periodically poled lithium niobate waveguide and an orthogonal polarization delay circuit,” Opt. Lett. 30(3), 293–295 (2005).
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T. Zhong, X. Hu, F. N. C. Wong, K. K. Berggren, T. D. Roberts, and P. Battle, “High-quality fiber-optic polarization entanglement distribution at 1.3 µm telecom wavelength,” Opt. Lett. 35(9), 1392–1394 (2010).
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O. Alibart, D. B. Ostrowsky, P. Baldi, and S. Tanzilli, “High-performance guided-wave asynchronous heralded single-photon source,” Opt. Lett. 30(12), 1539–1541 (2005).
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M. Cunha Pereira, F. E. Becerra, B. L. Glebov, J. Fan, S. W. Nam, and A. Migdall, “Demonstrating highly symmetric single-mode, single-photon heralding efficiency in spontaneous parametric downconversion,” Opt. Lett. 38(10), 1609–1611 (2013).
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Phys. Rev. A (5)

A. Christ and C. Silberhorn, “Limits on the deterministic creation of pure single-photon states using parametric down-conversion,” Phys. Rev. A 85(2), 023829 (2012).
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X. Ma, S. Zotter, J. Kofler, T. Jennewein, and A. Zeilinger, “Experimental generation of single photons via active multiplexing,” Phys. Rev. A 83(4), 043814 (2011).
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A. L. Migdall, D. Branning, and S. Castelletto, “Tailoring single-photon and multiphoton probabilities of a single-photon on-demand source,” Phys. Rev. A 66(5), 053805 (2002).
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T. Horikiri, Y. Takeno, A. Yabushita, and T. Kobayashi, “Photon-number-resolved heralded-photon source for improved quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. A 76(1), 012306 (2007).
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L. Mazzarella, F. Ticozzi, A. V. Sergienko, G. Vallone, and P. Villoresi, “Asymmetric architecture for heralded single-photon sources,” Phys. Rev. A 88(2), 023848 (2013).
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Phys. Rev. X (1)

K. A. Patel, J. F. Dynes, I. Choi, A. W. Sharpe, A. R. Dixon, Z. L. Yuan, R. V. Penty, and A. J. Shields, “Coexistence of high-bit-rate quantum key distribution and data on optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. X 2(4), 041010 (2012).

Rev. Mod. Phys. (2)

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, “Quantum cryptography,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 74(1), 145–195 (2002).
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V. Scarani, H. Bechmann-Pasquinucci, N. J. Cerf, M. Dušek, N. Lütkenhaus, and M. Peev, “The security of practical quantum key distribution,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81(3), 1301–1350 (2009).
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Other (2)

M. T. Liu, Y. Huang, W. Wang, and H. C. Lim, “Broadband quantum-correlated photon-pairs in the O-band generated from a dispersion-engineered silicon waveguide,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Europe/International Quantum Electronics Conference (CLEO Europe/IQEC), Munich, Germany, 2013, IB-P.19.
[Crossref]

M. T. Liu, Y. Huang, and H. C. Lim, “Generation of O-band heralded single-photons using a silicon wire waveguide,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Pacific-Rim (CLEO-PR), Kyoto, Japan, 2013, ThG3.
[Crossref]

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic of our photon-pair source based on two PPLN waveguides. The photon pairs are traditionally called signal and idler. For measurement of SPDC spectral half-width, we attach an arrayed waveguide grating (AWG) to the signal arm to select the photon wavelength. For coincidence-to-accidental ratio (CAR) measurement, we use two wavelength-tunable fiber Bragg grating filters to select the signal and idler photons. OBPF: optical band-pass filter; PDFA: praseodymium-doped fiber amplifier; PPLNWG: periodically-poled lithium niobate waveguide; WDMC: wavelength-division-multiplexing coupler.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Photon-pair source characterization results. (a) Measured half-spectrum of the photon-pair generation that combines SPDC source spectrum and AWG channel transmittance. The effect of detector deadtime has been corrected using Eq. (3) in Section 3. For normalization, all count rates are divided by Channel 1’s count rate. The higher count rate at Channel 45 is due to leakage of 655 nm photons through a free-spectral range (FSR) mode of the AWG. The broken line marks the –1 dB level which shows a 1-dB spectral half-width of 15.5 nm. (b) Measured CAR values versus count rates at signal wavelength of 1301.75 nm (corresponding to Channel 25 of our AWG) as pump power is changed. The solid curve is a theoretical fit obtained using experimental parameters of heralding arm optical loss of –13.0 dB, detector deadtime of 10 µs, and dark count probabilities of 5.5 × 10−6 (idler detector) and 1.0 × 10−5 (signal detector).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Schematic of the experiment. SPCMs 1 and 2 are passively-spatial-multiplexed by using a 1 × 2 optical fiber coupler. SPCMs 3 and 4 perform a Hanbury-Brown–Twiss type measurement. DDG: digital delay generator; DL: delay line; FBG: fiber Bragg grating; FC: fiber coupler; SPCM: single-photon counter module; XOR: exclusive-or circuit.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Measured g(2)(0) values versus heralding rates for the cases of one heralding detector (in red) and two passively-spatial-multiplexed heralding detectors (in blue). The error bars are all smaller than the size of the markers. The two solid curves are theoretical fitting curves.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 The total number of heralded photons detected by SPCMs 3 and 4 within 1 second versus measured g(2)(0) values for the conventional scheme of one heralding detector (in red) and the PSM scheme (in purple). The error bars are all smaller than the size of the markers. The solid and broken curves are theoretical fitting curves.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) Schematic of the transmitter. It consists of a photon-pair source with two passively-spatial-multiplexed heralding detectors and a 1551 nm laser to produce heralding signal pulses. A tunable L-band laser is used as noise source. (b) Schematic of the receiver. It implements a Hanbury-Brown–Twiss type measurement. APD: avalanche photodiode; AWG: arrayed waveguide grating.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 (a) Observed relation between QBER and noise-degraded g(2)(0) of the heralded photons. QBER values are calculated from measured PSNR after transmission of the O-band heralded photons over 10 km of noisy optical fiber. The different g(2)(0) values were obtained by varying the amount of noise launched into the transmission fiber. The solid curve is theoretical estimation. Error bars for QBER are smaller than the size of the markers. (b) Measured PSNR vs noise photon count rate at receiver. The solid curve is theoretical estimation for our experiment. The broken curve is what theory predicts for WCS. The parameters used are αs = 0.745 and µ = 0.12, which gives χ = 6.95.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Schematic of the experiment on shortening heralding detector deadtime. The attenuation value used for the attenuator (ATT) is –3.36 dB.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 (a) Heralding rate versus heralding detector deadtime. Black solid curve is theoretical result obtained for two heralding detectors in PSM configuration. The broken curve (in green) is theoretical result for the case of single heralding detector. The theoretical curves are obtained using Eq. (4). The red and blue dots represent measured heralding rates for the two cases of with and without –3.36 dB attenuation. The error bars are all smaller than the size of the dots. (b) Heralded photon count rates at the receiver for the two cases of with and without –3.36 dB attenuation. Dashed curves are theoretical curves obtained from Eq. (16) as given in Appendix A and fitted to the experimental data.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 (a). QBER calculated from measured PSNR versus measured g(2)(0) values for different heralding detector deadtime settings, and for both cases of without (blue) and with (red) –3.36 dB attenuation. The solid curve is the same as the theoretical curve shown in Fig. 7(a) in the previous section. (b) QBER calculated from measured PSNR versus measured noise photon count rate at receiver. For both cases of without (blue) and with (red) –3.36 dB attenuation, the QBER values and noise photon count rates for three different heralding detector deadtimes of 1, 5, and 10 µs are shown.
Fig. 11
Fig. 11 Model for calculating photon detection rate at the receiver. Vertical arrows indicate photon detection timings. Shaded rectangles indicate deadtime durations. Some photon arrival timings at the heralded photon detector fall within detector deadtime durations and so the arriving photons cannot be detected.

Equations (16)

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Q B E R 1 2 ( 1 + P S N R ) ,
N t = [ 1 ( 1 d t ) exp ( β μ ) ] F ,
N d = N t 1 + N t τ h r .
N d , m = [ 1 ( 1 d t ) exp ( β μ m ) ] F m 1 + [ 1 ( 1 d t ) exp ( β μ m ) ] F τ h r .
N Q K D , n o i s y = N Q K D 1 + ( N Q K D + N n o i s e ) τ h d ,
f = 1 + N Q K D τ h d 1 + N Q K D ( 1 + 1 P S N R ) τ h d .
f i m p r o v e d = 1 + N Q K D τ h d 1 + N Q K D ( 1 + 1 χ P S N R ) τ h d .
N t i = ( 1 e β i μ ) F ,
N d i = N t i 1 + N t i τ h r ,
N trigger = N d 1 + N d 2 2 N XOR ,
N XOR = N d 1 N d 2 F
n d i = n t i 1 + n t i τ h r ,
n t i = [ 1 e ( N d j N XOR ) τ h d β i μ ] F .
n r i Δ N d i N d i n d i ,
Δ N d i = N t i 1 + N t i τ h r N t i 1 + N t i τ h d .
N detected = α s [ N trigger α s i = 1 2 ( Δ N d i + n d i α s n r i ) ] .

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