Abstract

Abstract: We numerically demonstrate an impedance-matched multilayer stacked fishnet metamaterial that has zero index with flat high transmittance from 600nm to 620nm. The effective refractive index(neff) is calculated to be −0.045 + 0.466i and the normalize effective impedance(Zeff/Z0) is 0.956-0.368i at 610nm. The light emitted by a red conjugated polymer layer embedded in such a zero index metamaterial (ZIM) is concentrated in a narrow cone in the surrounding media, where the half-power beam width (HPBW) of the center lobe of the radiation pattern is around 25° in the wavelength range between 600nm and 620nm, giving directive emission in the visible region. This proposed light focusing system can be applied to sensing, beam collimating and filtering functionalities.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2013 (6)

Y. Liu, L. He, L. Dong, L. Liu, Y. Shi, and C. Yang, “Multi-channeled filtering properties of the sandwich structures composed of epsilon-negative metamaterials,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(6), 063105 (2013).
[Crossref]

W. Zhu, L. Si, and M. Premaratne, “Light focusing using epsilon-near-zero metamaterials,” AIP Adv. 3(11), 112124 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. Moitra, Y. Yang, Z. Anderson, I. I. Kravchenko, D. P. Briggs, and J. Valentine, “Realization of an all-dielectric zero-index optical metamaterial,” Nat. Photonics 7(10), 791–795 (2013).

T. Cao, R. Simpson, and M. Cryan, “Study of tunable negative index metamaterials based on phase-change materials,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 30(2), 439–444 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. Cao, C. Wei, R. Simpson, L. Zhang, and M. Cryan, “Rapid phase transition of a phase-change metamaterial perfect absorber,” Opt. Mater. Express 3(8), 1101–1110 (2013).
[Crossref]

Z. H. Jiang, L. Lin, J. A. Bossard, and D. H. Werner, “Bifunctional plasmonic metamaterials enabled by subwavelength nano-notches for broadband, polarization-independent enhanced optical transmission and passive beam-steering,” Opt. Express 21(25), 31492–31505 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (6)

Y. L. Zhang, W. Jin, X. Z. Dong, Z. S. Zhao, and X. M. Duan, “Asymmetric fishnet metamaterials with strong optical activity,” Opt. Express 20(10), 10776–10787 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. S. Kruk, D. A. Powell, A. Minovich, D. N. Neshev, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Spatial dispersion of multilayer fishnet metamaterials,” Opt. Express 20(14), 15100–15105 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Yun, Z. H. Jiang, Q. Xu, Z. W. Liu, D. H. Werner, and T. S. Mayer, “Low-Loss Impedance-Matched Optical Metamaterials with Zero-Phase Delay,” ACS Nano 6(5), 4475–4482 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Cheng, W. X. Jiang, and T. J. Cui, “Spatial power combination for omnidirectional radiation via anisotropic metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(21), 213903 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Zhu, I. D. Rukhlenko, and M. Premaratne, “Light amplification in zero-index metamaterial with gain inserts,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(3), 031907 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. Akihama and K. Hane, “Single and multiple optical switches that use freestanding silicon nanowire waveguide couplers,” Light: Sci.Appl. 1(6), e16 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (6)

A. Fang, Z. Huang, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Overcoming the losses of a split ring resonator array with gain,” Opt. Express 19(13), 12688–12699 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Kocaman, M. S. Aras, P. Hsieh, J. F. McMillan, C. G. Biris, N. C. Panoiu, M. B. Yu, D. L. Kwong, A. Stein, and C. W. Wong, “Zero phase delay in negative-refractive-index photonic crystal superlattices,” Nat. Photonics 5(8), 499–505 (2011).
[Crossref]

X. Huang, Y. Lai, Z. H. Hang, H. Zheng, and C. T. Chan, “Dirac cones induced by accidental degeneracy in photonic crystals and zero-refractive-index materials,” Nat. Mater. 10(8), 582–586 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. C. Adams, S. Inampudi, T. Ribaudo, D. Slocum, S. Vangala, N. A. Kuhta, W. D. Goodhue, V. A. Podolskiy, and D. Wasserman, “Funneling Light through a Subwavelength Aperture with Epsilon-Near-Zero Materials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(13), 133901 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. García-Meca, J. Hurtado, J. Martí, A. Martínez, W. Dickson, and A. V. Zayats, “Low-loss multilayered metamaterial exhibiting a negative index of refraction at visible wavelengths,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(6), 067402 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Chanda, K. Shigeta, S. Gupta, T. Cain, A. Carlson, A. Mihi, A. J. Baca, G. R. Bogart, P. Braun, and J. A. Rogers, “Large-area flexible 3D optical negative index metamaterial formed by nanotransfer printing,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(7), 402–407 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

2009 (3)

A. Fang, Th. Koschny, M. Wegener, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Self-consistent calculation of metamaterials with gain,” Phys. Rev. B 79(24), 241104 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. J. Wierer, A. David, and M. M. Megens, “III-nitride photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes with high extraction efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 163–169 (2009).
[Crossref]

V. Mocella, S. Cabrini, A. S. P. Chang, P. Dardano, L. Moretti, I. Rendina, D. Olynick, B. Harteneck, and S. Dhuey, “Self-Collimation of Light over Millimeter-Scale Distance in a Quasi-Zero-Average-Index Metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(13), 133902 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (4)

R. Liu, Q. Cheng, T. Hand, J. J. Mock, T. J. Cui, S. A. Cummer, and D. R. Smith, “Experimental Demonstration of Electromagnetic Tunneling Through an Epsilon-Near-Zero Metamaterial at Microwave Frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(2), 023903 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index,” Nature 455(7211), 376–379 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Liu, H. Guo, L. Fu, S. Kaiser, H. Schweizer, and H. Giessen, “Three-dimensional photonic metamaterials at optical frequencies,” Nat. Mater. 7(1), 31–37 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. M. Litchinitser, A. I. Maimistov, I. R. Gabitov, R. Z. Sagdeev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Metamaterials: electromagnetic enhancement at zero-index transition,” Opt. Lett. 33(20), 2350–2352 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

M. Kafesaki, I. Tsiapa, N. Katsarakis, Th. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. N. Economou, “Left-handed metamaterials: The fishnet structure and its variations,” Phys. Rev. B 75(23), 235114 (2007).
[Crossref]

A. Rosenberg, K. Bussmann, M. Kim, M. W. Carter, M. A. Mastro, R. T. Holm, R. L. Henry, J. D. Caldwell, and C. R. Eddy., “Fabrication of GaN suspended photonic crystal slabs and resonant nanocavities on Si(111),” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 25(3), 721 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (4)

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial Electromagnetic Cloak at Microwave Frequencies,” Science 314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. M. Adawi, L. G. Connolly, D. M. Whittaker, D. G. Lidzey, E. Smith, M. Roberts, F. Qureshi, C. Foden, and N. Athanassopoulou, “Improving the light extraction efficiency of red-emitting conjugated-polymer light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 99(5), 054505 (2006).
[Crossref]

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. Brueck, “Optical negative-index bulk metamaterials consisting of 2D perforated metal-dielectric stacks,” Opt. Express 14(15), 6778–6787 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Li, H. Liu, F. M. Wang, Z. G. Dong, S. N. Zhu, and X. Zhang, “Coupling effect of magnetic polariton in perforated metal/dielectric layered metamaterials and its influence on negative refraction transmission,” Opt. Express 14(23), 11155–11163 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

M. A. Antoniades and G. V. Eleftheriades, “A broadband series power divider using zero-degree metamaterial phase-shifting lines,” IEEE Microw. Wirel. Co. 15(11), 808–810 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

X. D. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, B. I. Wu, J. Pacheco, and J. A. Kong, “Robust method to retrieve the constitutive effective parameters of metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 70(1), 016608 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

R. W. Ziolkowski, “Design, fabrication, and testing of double negative metamaterials,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 51(7), 1516–1529 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (2)

D. R. Smith, S. Schultz, P. Markos, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Determination of Effective Permittivity and Permeability of Metamaterials from Reflection and Transmission Coefficient,” Phys. Rev. B 65(19), 195104 (2002).
[Crossref]

S. Enoch, G. Tayeb, P. Sabouroux, N. Guérin, and P. Vincent, “A metamaterial for directive emission,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(21), 213902 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental Verification of a Negative Index of Refraction,” Science 292(5514), 77–79 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

J. B. Pendry, “Negative Refraction Makes a Perfect Lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(18), 3966–3969 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1972 (1)

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical Constants of the Noble Metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
[Crossref]

1970 (1)

A. M. Nicolson and G. F. Ross, “Measurement of the intrinsic properties of materials by time domain techniques,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 19(4), 377–382 (1970).
[Crossref]

Adams, D. C.

D. C. Adams, S. Inampudi, T. Ribaudo, D. Slocum, S. Vangala, N. A. Kuhta, W. D. Goodhue, V. A. Podolskiy, and D. Wasserman, “Funneling Light through a Subwavelength Aperture with Epsilon-Near-Zero Materials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(13), 133901 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adawi, A. M.

A. M. Adawi, L. G. Connolly, D. M. Whittaker, D. G. Lidzey, E. Smith, M. Roberts, F. Qureshi, C. Foden, and N. Athanassopoulou, “Improving the light extraction efficiency of red-emitting conjugated-polymer light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 99(5), 054505 (2006).
[Crossref]

Akihama, Y.

Y. Akihama and K. Hane, “Single and multiple optical switches that use freestanding silicon nanowire waveguide couplers,” Light: Sci.Appl. 1(6), e16 (2012).
[Crossref]

Anderson, Z.

P. Moitra, Y. Yang, Z. Anderson, I. I. Kravchenko, D. P. Briggs, and J. Valentine, “Realization of an all-dielectric zero-index optical metamaterial,” Nat. Photonics 7(10), 791–795 (2013).

Antoniades, M. A.

M. A. Antoniades and G. V. Eleftheriades, “A broadband series power divider using zero-degree metamaterial phase-shifting lines,” IEEE Microw. Wirel. Co. 15(11), 808–810 (2005).
[Crossref]

Aras, M. S.

S. Kocaman, M. S. Aras, P. Hsieh, J. F. McMillan, C. G. Biris, N. C. Panoiu, M. B. Yu, D. L. Kwong, A. Stein, and C. W. Wong, “Zero phase delay in negative-refractive-index photonic crystal superlattices,” Nat. Photonics 5(8), 499–505 (2011).
[Crossref]

Athanassopoulou, N.

A. M. Adawi, L. G. Connolly, D. M. Whittaker, D. G. Lidzey, E. Smith, M. Roberts, F. Qureshi, C. Foden, and N. Athanassopoulou, “Improving the light extraction efficiency of red-emitting conjugated-polymer light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 99(5), 054505 (2006).
[Crossref]

Baca, A. J.

D. Chanda, K. Shigeta, S. Gupta, T. Cain, A. Carlson, A. Mihi, A. J. Baca, G. R. Bogart, P. Braun, and J. A. Rogers, “Large-area flexible 3D optical negative index metamaterial formed by nanotransfer printing,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(7), 402–407 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bartal, G.

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index,” Nature 455(7211), 376–379 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Biris, C. G.

S. Kocaman, M. S. Aras, P. Hsieh, J. F. McMillan, C. G. Biris, N. C. Panoiu, M. B. Yu, D. L. Kwong, A. Stein, and C. W. Wong, “Zero phase delay in negative-refractive-index photonic crystal superlattices,” Nat. Photonics 5(8), 499–505 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bogart, G. R.

D. Chanda, K. Shigeta, S. Gupta, T. Cain, A. Carlson, A. Mihi, A. J. Baca, G. R. Bogart, P. Braun, and J. A. Rogers, “Large-area flexible 3D optical negative index metamaterial formed by nanotransfer printing,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(7), 402–407 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bossard, J. A.

Braun, P.

D. Chanda, K. Shigeta, S. Gupta, T. Cain, A. Carlson, A. Mihi, A. J. Baca, G. R. Bogart, P. Braun, and J. A. Rogers, “Large-area flexible 3D optical negative index metamaterial formed by nanotransfer printing,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(7), 402–407 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Briggs, D. P.

P. Moitra, Y. Yang, Z. Anderson, I. I. Kravchenko, D. P. Briggs, and J. Valentine, “Realization of an all-dielectric zero-index optical metamaterial,” Nat. Photonics 7(10), 791–795 (2013).

Brueck, S. R.

Bussmann, K.

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Koschny, Th.

A. Fang, Th. Koschny, M. Wegener, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Self-consistent calculation of metamaterials with gain,” Phys. Rev. B 79(24), 241104 (2009).
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D. C. Adams, S. Inampudi, T. Ribaudo, D. Slocum, S. Vangala, N. A. Kuhta, W. D. Goodhue, V. A. Podolskiy, and D. Wasserman, “Funneling Light through a Subwavelength Aperture with Epsilon-Near-Zero Materials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(13), 133901 (2011).
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N. Liu, H. Guo, L. Fu, S. Kaiser, H. Schweizer, and H. Giessen, “Three-dimensional photonic metamaterials at optical frequencies,” Nat. Mater. 7(1), 31–37 (2008).
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R. Liu, Q. Cheng, T. Hand, J. J. Mock, T. J. Cui, S. A. Cummer, and D. R. Smith, “Experimental Demonstration of Electromagnetic Tunneling Through an Epsilon-Near-Zero Metamaterial at Microwave Frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(2), 023903 (2008).
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J. J. Wierer, A. David, and M. M. Megens, “III-nitride photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes with high extraction efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 163–169 (2009).
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[Crossref] [PubMed]

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P. Moitra, Y. Yang, Z. Anderson, I. I. Kravchenko, D. P. Briggs, and J. Valentine, “Realization of an all-dielectric zero-index optical metamaterial,” Nat. Photonics 7(10), 791–795 (2013).

Moretti, L.

V. Mocella, S. Cabrini, A. S. P. Chang, P. Dardano, L. Moretti, I. Rendina, D. Olynick, B. Harteneck, and S. Dhuey, “Self-Collimation of Light over Millimeter-Scale Distance in a Quasi-Zero-Average-Index Metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(13), 133902 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Neshev, D. N.

Nicolson, A. M.

A. M. Nicolson and G. F. Ross, “Measurement of the intrinsic properties of materials by time domain techniques,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 19(4), 377–382 (1970).
[Crossref]

Olynick, D.

V. Mocella, S. Cabrini, A. S. P. Chang, P. Dardano, L. Moretti, I. Rendina, D. Olynick, B. Harteneck, and S. Dhuey, “Self-Collimation of Light over Millimeter-Scale Distance in a Quasi-Zero-Average-Index Metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(13), 133902 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Osgood, R. M.

Pacheco, J.

X. D. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, B. I. Wu, J. Pacheco, and J. A. Kong, “Robust method to retrieve the constitutive effective parameters of metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 70(1), 016608 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Panoiu, N. C.

S. Kocaman, M. S. Aras, P. Hsieh, J. F. McMillan, C. G. Biris, N. C. Panoiu, M. B. Yu, D. L. Kwong, A. Stein, and C. W. Wong, “Zero phase delay in negative-refractive-index photonic crystal superlattices,” Nat. Photonics 5(8), 499–505 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. Brueck, “Optical negative-index bulk metamaterials consisting of 2D perforated metal-dielectric stacks,” Opt. Express 14(15), 6778–6787 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pendry, J. B.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial Electromagnetic Cloak at Microwave Frequencies,” Science 314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
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J. B. Pendry, “Negative Refraction Makes a Perfect Lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(18), 3966–3969 (2000).
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Podolskiy, V. A.

D. C. Adams, S. Inampudi, T. Ribaudo, D. Slocum, S. Vangala, N. A. Kuhta, W. D. Goodhue, V. A. Podolskiy, and D. Wasserman, “Funneling Light through a Subwavelength Aperture with Epsilon-Near-Zero Materials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(13), 133901 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Powell, D. A.

Premaratne, M.

W. Zhu, L. Si, and M. Premaratne, “Light focusing using epsilon-near-zero metamaterials,” AIP Adv. 3(11), 112124 (2013).
[Crossref]

W. Zhu, I. D. Rukhlenko, and M. Premaratne, “Light amplification in zero-index metamaterial with gain inserts,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(3), 031907 (2012).
[Crossref]

Qureshi, F.

A. M. Adawi, L. G. Connolly, D. M. Whittaker, D. G. Lidzey, E. Smith, M. Roberts, F. Qureshi, C. Foden, and N. Athanassopoulou, “Improving the light extraction efficiency of red-emitting conjugated-polymer light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 99(5), 054505 (2006).
[Crossref]

Rendina, I.

V. Mocella, S. Cabrini, A. S. P. Chang, P. Dardano, L. Moretti, I. Rendina, D. Olynick, B. Harteneck, and S. Dhuey, “Self-Collimation of Light over Millimeter-Scale Distance in a Quasi-Zero-Average-Index Metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(13), 133902 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ribaudo, T.

D. C. Adams, S. Inampudi, T. Ribaudo, D. Slocum, S. Vangala, N. A. Kuhta, W. D. Goodhue, V. A. Podolskiy, and D. Wasserman, “Funneling Light through a Subwavelength Aperture with Epsilon-Near-Zero Materials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(13), 133901 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Roberts, M.

A. M. Adawi, L. G. Connolly, D. M. Whittaker, D. G. Lidzey, E. Smith, M. Roberts, F. Qureshi, C. Foden, and N. Athanassopoulou, “Improving the light extraction efficiency of red-emitting conjugated-polymer light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 99(5), 054505 (2006).
[Crossref]

Rogers, J. A.

D. Chanda, K. Shigeta, S. Gupta, T. Cain, A. Carlson, A. Mihi, A. J. Baca, G. R. Bogart, P. Braun, and J. A. Rogers, “Large-area flexible 3D optical negative index metamaterial formed by nanotransfer printing,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(7), 402–407 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rosenberg, A.

A. Rosenberg, K. Bussmann, M. Kim, M. W. Carter, M. A. Mastro, R. T. Holm, R. L. Henry, J. D. Caldwell, and C. R. Eddy., “Fabrication of GaN suspended photonic crystal slabs and resonant nanocavities on Si(111),” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 25(3), 721 (2007).
[Crossref]

Ross, G. F.

A. M. Nicolson and G. F. Ross, “Measurement of the intrinsic properties of materials by time domain techniques,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 19(4), 377–382 (1970).
[Crossref]

Rukhlenko, I. D.

W. Zhu, I. D. Rukhlenko, and M. Premaratne, “Light amplification in zero-index metamaterial with gain inserts,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(3), 031907 (2012).
[Crossref]

Sabouroux, P.

S. Enoch, G. Tayeb, P. Sabouroux, N. Guérin, and P. Vincent, “A metamaterial for directive emission,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(21), 213902 (2002).
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Sagdeev, R. Z.

Sameshima, H.

Schultz, S.

D. R. Smith, S. Schultz, P. Markos, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Determination of Effective Permittivity and Permeability of Metamaterials from Reflection and Transmission Coefficient,” Phys. Rev. B 65(19), 195104 (2002).
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R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental Verification of a Negative Index of Refraction,” Science 292(5514), 77–79 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schurig, D.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial Electromagnetic Cloak at Microwave Frequencies,” Science 314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schweizer, H.

N. Liu, H. Guo, L. Fu, S. Kaiser, H. Schweizer, and H. Giessen, “Three-dimensional photonic metamaterials at optical frequencies,” Nat. Mater. 7(1), 31–37 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shalaev, V. M.

Shelby, R. A.

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental Verification of a Negative Index of Refraction,” Science 292(5514), 77–79 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shi, Y.

Y. Liu, L. He, L. Dong, L. Liu, Y. Shi, and C. Yang, “Multi-channeled filtering properties of the sandwich structures composed of epsilon-negative metamaterials,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(6), 063105 (2013).
[Crossref]

Shigeta, K.

D. Chanda, K. Shigeta, S. Gupta, T. Cain, A. Carlson, A. Mihi, A. J. Baca, G. R. Bogart, P. Braun, and J. A. Rogers, “Large-area flexible 3D optical negative index metamaterial formed by nanotransfer printing,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(7), 402–407 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Si, L.

W. Zhu, L. Si, and M. Premaratne, “Light focusing using epsilon-near-zero metamaterials,” AIP Adv. 3(11), 112124 (2013).
[Crossref]

Simpson, R.

Slocum, D.

D. C. Adams, S. Inampudi, T. Ribaudo, D. Slocum, S. Vangala, N. A. Kuhta, W. D. Goodhue, V. A. Podolskiy, and D. Wasserman, “Funneling Light through a Subwavelength Aperture with Epsilon-Near-Zero Materials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(13), 133901 (2011).
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R. Liu, Q. Cheng, T. Hand, J. J. Mock, T. J. Cui, S. A. Cummer, and D. R. Smith, “Experimental Demonstration of Electromagnetic Tunneling Through an Epsilon-Near-Zero Metamaterial at Microwave Frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(2), 023903 (2008).
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D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial Electromagnetic Cloak at Microwave Frequencies,” Science 314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. R. Smith, S. Schultz, P. Markos, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Determination of Effective Permittivity and Permeability of Metamaterials from Reflection and Transmission Coefficient,” Phys. Rev. B 65(19), 195104 (2002).
[Crossref]

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental Verification of a Negative Index of Refraction,” Science 292(5514), 77–79 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Smith, E.

A. M. Adawi, L. G. Connolly, D. M. Whittaker, D. G. Lidzey, E. Smith, M. Roberts, F. Qureshi, C. Foden, and N. Athanassopoulou, “Improving the light extraction efficiency of red-emitting conjugated-polymer light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 99(5), 054505 (2006).
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Soukoulis, C. M.

A. Fang, Z. Huang, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Overcoming the losses of a split ring resonator array with gain,” Opt. Express 19(13), 12688–12699 (2011).
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A. Fang, Th. Koschny, M. Wegener, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Self-consistent calculation of metamaterials with gain,” Phys. Rev. B 79(24), 241104 (2009).
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M. Kafesaki, I. Tsiapa, N. Katsarakis, Th. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. N. Economou, “Left-handed metamaterials: The fishnet structure and its variations,” Phys. Rev. B 75(23), 235114 (2007).
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D. R. Smith, S. Schultz, P. Markos, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Determination of Effective Permittivity and Permeability of Metamaterials from Reflection and Transmission Coefficient,” Phys. Rev. B 65(19), 195104 (2002).
[Crossref]

Starr, A. F.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial Electromagnetic Cloak at Microwave Frequencies,” Science 314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stein, A.

S. Kocaman, M. S. Aras, P. Hsieh, J. F. McMillan, C. G. Biris, N. C. Panoiu, M. B. Yu, D. L. Kwong, A. Stein, and C. W. Wong, “Zero phase delay in negative-refractive-index photonic crystal superlattices,” Nat. Photonics 5(8), 499–505 (2011).
[Crossref]

Tayeb, G.

S. Enoch, G. Tayeb, P. Sabouroux, N. Guérin, and P. Vincent, “A metamaterial for directive emission,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(21), 213902 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tsiapa, I.

M. Kafesaki, I. Tsiapa, N. Katsarakis, Th. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. N. Economou, “Left-handed metamaterials: The fishnet structure and its variations,” Phys. Rev. B 75(23), 235114 (2007).
[Crossref]

Ulin-Avila, E.

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index,” Nature 455(7211), 376–379 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Valentine, J.

P. Moitra, Y. Yang, Z. Anderson, I. I. Kravchenko, D. P. Briggs, and J. Valentine, “Realization of an all-dielectric zero-index optical metamaterial,” Nat. Photonics 7(10), 791–795 (2013).

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index,” Nature 455(7211), 376–379 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vangala, S.

D. C. Adams, S. Inampudi, T. Ribaudo, D. Slocum, S. Vangala, N. A. Kuhta, W. D. Goodhue, V. A. Podolskiy, and D. Wasserman, “Funneling Light through a Subwavelength Aperture with Epsilon-Near-Zero Materials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(13), 133901 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vincent, P.

S. Enoch, G. Tayeb, P. Sabouroux, N. Guérin, and P. Vincent, “A metamaterial for directive emission,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(21), 213902 (2002).
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Wang, F. M.

Wang, Y.

Wasserman, D.

D. C. Adams, S. Inampudi, T. Ribaudo, D. Slocum, S. Vangala, N. A. Kuhta, W. D. Goodhue, V. A. Podolskiy, and D. Wasserman, “Funneling Light through a Subwavelength Aperture with Epsilon-Near-Zero Materials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(13), 133901 (2011).
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Wegener, M.

A. Fang, Th. Koschny, M. Wegener, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Self-consistent calculation of metamaterials with gain,” Phys. Rev. B 79(24), 241104 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wei, C.

Werner, D. H.

Whittaker, D. M.

A. M. Adawi, L. G. Connolly, D. M. Whittaker, D. G. Lidzey, E. Smith, M. Roberts, F. Qureshi, C. Foden, and N. Athanassopoulou, “Improving the light extraction efficiency of red-emitting conjugated-polymer light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 99(5), 054505 (2006).
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Wierer, J. J.

J. J. Wierer, A. David, and M. M. Megens, “III-nitride photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes with high extraction efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 163–169 (2009).
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Wong, C. W.

S. Kocaman, M. S. Aras, P. Hsieh, J. F. McMillan, C. G. Biris, N. C. Panoiu, M. B. Yu, D. L. Kwong, A. Stein, and C. W. Wong, “Zero phase delay in negative-refractive-index photonic crystal superlattices,” Nat. Photonics 5(8), 499–505 (2011).
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Wu, B. I.

X. D. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, B. I. Wu, J. Pacheco, and J. A. Kong, “Robust method to retrieve the constitutive effective parameters of metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 70(1), 016608 (2004).
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Xu, Q.

S. Yun, Z. H. Jiang, Q. Xu, Z. W. Liu, D. H. Werner, and T. S. Mayer, “Low-Loss Impedance-Matched Optical Metamaterials with Zero-Phase Delay,” ACS Nano 6(5), 4475–4482 (2012).
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Yang, C.

Y. Liu, L. He, L. Dong, L. Liu, Y. Shi, and C. Yang, “Multi-channeled filtering properties of the sandwich structures composed of epsilon-negative metamaterials,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(6), 063105 (2013).
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Yang, Y.

P. Moitra, Y. Yang, Z. Anderson, I. I. Kravchenko, D. P. Briggs, and J. Valentine, “Realization of an all-dielectric zero-index optical metamaterial,” Nat. Photonics 7(10), 791–795 (2013).

Yu, M. B.

S. Kocaman, M. S. Aras, P. Hsieh, J. F. McMillan, C. G. Biris, N. C. Panoiu, M. B. Yu, D. L. Kwong, A. Stein, and C. W. Wong, “Zero phase delay in negative-refractive-index photonic crystal superlattices,” Nat. Photonics 5(8), 499–505 (2011).
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Yun, S.

S. Yun, Z. H. Jiang, Q. Xu, Z. W. Liu, D. H. Werner, and T. S. Mayer, “Low-Loss Impedance-Matched Optical Metamaterials with Zero-Phase Delay,” ACS Nano 6(5), 4475–4482 (2012).
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Zayats, A. V.

C. García-Meca, J. Hurtado, J. Martí, A. Martínez, W. Dickson, and A. V. Zayats, “Low-loss multilayered metamaterial exhibiting a negative index of refraction at visible wavelengths,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(6), 067402 (2011).
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Zentgraf, T.

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index,” Nature 455(7211), 376–379 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, L.

Zhang, S.

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index,” Nature 455(7211), 376–379 (2008).
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S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. Brueck, “Optical negative-index bulk metamaterials consisting of 2D perforated metal-dielectric stacks,” Opt. Express 14(15), 6778–6787 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index,” Nature 455(7211), 376–379 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Li, H. Liu, F. M. Wang, Z. G. Dong, S. N. Zhu, and X. Zhang, “Coupling effect of magnetic polariton in perforated metal/dielectric layered metamaterials and its influence on negative refraction transmission,” Opt. Express 14(23), 11155–11163 (2006).
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Zhang, Y. L.

Zhao, Z. S.

Zheng, H.

X. Huang, Y. Lai, Z. H. Hang, H. Zheng, and C. T. Chan, “Dirac cones induced by accidental degeneracy in photonic crystals and zero-refractive-index materials,” Nat. Mater. 10(8), 582–586 (2011).
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Zhu, S. N.

Zhu, W.

W. Zhu, L. Si, and M. Premaratne, “Light focusing using epsilon-near-zero metamaterials,” AIP Adv. 3(11), 112124 (2013).
[Crossref]

W. Zhu, I. D. Rukhlenko, and M. Premaratne, “Light amplification in zero-index metamaterial with gain inserts,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(3), 031907 (2012).
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Ziolkowski, R. W.

R. W. Ziolkowski, “Design, fabrication, and testing of double negative metamaterials,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 51(7), 1516–1529 (2003).
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ACS Nano (1)

S. Yun, Z. H. Jiang, Q. Xu, Z. W. Liu, D. H. Werner, and T. S. Mayer, “Low-Loss Impedance-Matched Optical Metamaterials with Zero-Phase Delay,” ACS Nano 6(5), 4475–4482 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

AIP Adv. (1)

W. Zhu, L. Si, and M. Premaratne, “Light focusing using epsilon-near-zero metamaterials,” AIP Adv. 3(11), 112124 (2013).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

W. Zhu, I. D. Rukhlenko, and M. Premaratne, “Light amplification in zero-index metamaterial with gain inserts,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(3), 031907 (2012).
[Crossref]

IEEE Microw. Wirel. Co. (1)

M. A. Antoniades and G. V. Eleftheriades, “A broadband series power divider using zero-degree metamaterial phase-shifting lines,” IEEE Microw. Wirel. Co. 15(11), 808–810 (2005).
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IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. (1)

R. W. Ziolkowski, “Design, fabrication, and testing of double negative metamaterials,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 51(7), 1516–1529 (2003).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. (1)

A. M. Nicolson and G. F. Ross, “Measurement of the intrinsic properties of materials by time domain techniques,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 19(4), 377–382 (1970).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

A. M. Adawi, L. G. Connolly, D. M. Whittaker, D. G. Lidzey, E. Smith, M. Roberts, F. Qureshi, C. Foden, and N. Athanassopoulou, “Improving the light extraction efficiency of red-emitting conjugated-polymer light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 99(5), 054505 (2006).
[Crossref]

Y. Liu, L. He, L. Dong, L. Liu, Y. Shi, and C. Yang, “Multi-channeled filtering properties of the sandwich structures composed of epsilon-negative metamaterials,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(6), 063105 (2013).
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J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (1)

A. Rosenberg, K. Bussmann, M. Kim, M. W. Carter, M. A. Mastro, R. T. Holm, R. L. Henry, J. D. Caldwell, and C. R. Eddy., “Fabrication of GaN suspended photonic crystal slabs and resonant nanocavities on Si(111),” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 25(3), 721 (2007).
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Light: Sci.Appl. (1)

Y. Akihama and K. Hane, “Single and multiple optical switches that use freestanding silicon nanowire waveguide couplers,” Light: Sci.Appl. 1(6), e16 (2012).
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Nat. Mater. (2)

N. Liu, H. Guo, L. Fu, S. Kaiser, H. Schweizer, and H. Giessen, “Three-dimensional photonic metamaterials at optical frequencies,” Nat. Mater. 7(1), 31–37 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Huang, Y. Lai, Z. H. Hang, H. Zheng, and C. T. Chan, “Dirac cones induced by accidental degeneracy in photonic crystals and zero-refractive-index materials,” Nat. Mater. 10(8), 582–586 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Nanotechnol. (1)

D. Chanda, K. Shigeta, S. Gupta, T. Cain, A. Carlson, A. Mihi, A. J. Baca, G. R. Bogart, P. Braun, and J. A. Rogers, “Large-area flexible 3D optical negative index metamaterial formed by nanotransfer printing,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(7), 402–407 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (3)

S. Kocaman, M. S. Aras, P. Hsieh, J. F. McMillan, C. G. Biris, N. C. Panoiu, M. B. Yu, D. L. Kwong, A. Stein, and C. W. Wong, “Zero phase delay in negative-refractive-index photonic crystal superlattices,” Nat. Photonics 5(8), 499–505 (2011).
[Crossref]

P. Moitra, Y. Yang, Z. Anderson, I. I. Kravchenko, D. P. Briggs, and J. Valentine, “Realization of an all-dielectric zero-index optical metamaterial,” Nat. Photonics 7(10), 791–795 (2013).

J. J. Wierer, A. David, and M. M. Megens, “III-nitride photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes with high extraction efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 163–169 (2009).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index,” Nature 455(7211), 376–379 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (7)

Y. L. Zhang, W. Jin, X. Z. Dong, Z. S. Zhao, and X. M. Duan, “Asymmetric fishnet metamaterials with strong optical activity,” Opt. Express 20(10), 10776–10787 (2012).
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S. S. Kruk, D. A. Powell, A. Minovich, D. N. Neshev, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Spatial dispersion of multilayer fishnet metamaterials,” Opt. Express 20(14), 15100–15105 (2012).
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S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. Brueck, “Optical negative-index bulk metamaterials consisting of 2D perforated metal-dielectric stacks,” Opt. Express 14(15), 6778–6787 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. H. Jiang, L. Lin, J. A. Bossard, and D. H. Werner, “Bifunctional plasmonic metamaterials enabled by subwavelength nano-notches for broadband, polarization-independent enhanced optical transmission and passive beam-steering,” Opt. Express 21(25), 31492–31505 (2013).
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Y. Wang, F. Hu, H. Sameshima, and K. Hane, “Fabrication and characterization of freestanding circular GaN gratings,” Opt. Express 18(2), 773–779 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Li, H. Liu, F. M. Wang, Z. G. Dong, S. N. Zhu, and X. Zhang, “Coupling effect of magnetic polariton in perforated metal/dielectric layered metamaterials and its influence on negative refraction transmission,” Opt. Express 14(23), 11155–11163 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Fang, Z. Huang, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Overcoming the losses of a split ring resonator array with gain,” Opt. Express 19(13), 12688–12699 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Opt. Mater. Express (1)

Phys. Rev. B (4)

D. R. Smith, S. Schultz, P. Markos, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Determination of Effective Permittivity and Permeability of Metamaterials from Reflection and Transmission Coefficient,” Phys. Rev. B 65(19), 195104 (2002).
[Crossref]

M. Kafesaki, I. Tsiapa, N. Katsarakis, Th. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. N. Economou, “Left-handed metamaterials: The fishnet structure and its variations,” Phys. Rev. B 75(23), 235114 (2007).
[Crossref]

A. Fang, Th. Koschny, M. Wegener, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Self-consistent calculation of metamaterials with gain,” Phys. Rev. B 79(24), 241104 (2009).
[Crossref]

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical Constants of the Noble Metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. (1)

X. D. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, B. I. Wu, J. Pacheco, and J. A. Kong, “Robust method to retrieve the constitutive effective parameters of metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 70(1), 016608 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (7)

C. García-Meca, J. Hurtado, J. Martí, A. Martínez, W. Dickson, and A. V. Zayats, “Low-loss multilayered metamaterial exhibiting a negative index of refraction at visible wavelengths,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(6), 067402 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry, “Negative Refraction Makes a Perfect Lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(18), 3966–3969 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. C. Adams, S. Inampudi, T. Ribaudo, D. Slocum, S. Vangala, N. A. Kuhta, W. D. Goodhue, V. A. Podolskiy, and D. Wasserman, “Funneling Light through a Subwavelength Aperture with Epsilon-Near-Zero Materials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(13), 133901 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Liu, Q. Cheng, T. Hand, J. J. Mock, T. J. Cui, S. A. Cummer, and D. R. Smith, “Experimental Demonstration of Electromagnetic Tunneling Through an Epsilon-Near-Zero Metamaterial at Microwave Frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(2), 023903 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Mocella, S. Cabrini, A. S. P. Chang, P. Dardano, L. Moretti, I. Rendina, D. Olynick, B. Harteneck, and S. Dhuey, “Self-Collimation of Light over Millimeter-Scale Distance in a Quasi-Zero-Average-Index Metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(13), 133902 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Cheng, W. X. Jiang, and T. J. Cui, “Spatial power combination for omnidirectional radiation via anisotropic metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(21), 213903 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Enoch, G. Tayeb, P. Sabouroux, N. Guérin, and P. Vincent, “A metamaterial for directive emission,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(21), 213902 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Science (2)

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental Verification of a Negative Index of Refraction,” Science 292(5514), 77–79 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial Electromagnetic Cloak at Microwave Frequencies,” Science 314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (1)

J. D. Jackson, Classical Electrodynamics, Second Edition (John Wiley & Sons, 1975), pp. 401.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Diagram of the ZIM consisting of a multilayer stack of 11 alternating layers of 35nm thick Au and 30nm thick dielectric layer with an inter-penetrating two dimensional square array of round holes. The structure is suspended in a vacuum. The lattice constant is L = 400nm and hole diameter is d = 240nm. The light is emitted from a 30nm thick fluorescent polymer layer within the ZIM. (b) Illustration of round holes array lattice. (c) Scheme of the cross section of the structure.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a)Theoretical transmittance curves of the ZIM.(b)The real part ( R e a l ( n e f f ) ) and imaginary part ( I m a g ( n e f f ) )of the effective refractive index of the ZIM obtained using S-parameter retrieval.(c)The real part of the effective permittivity R e a l ( μ e f f ) and permeability R e a l ( μ e f f   ) of the ZIM obtained using S-parameter retrieval. (d)Figure-of-merit of the ZIM.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 The real and imaginary parts of the effective impedance of the ZIM.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Simulated angle-and wavelength-dependent transmittance of the ZIM.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Calculated emission profile for a plane wave source placed in the middle of the ZIM at center wavelengths of (a)590nm (b)600nm (c)610nm (d)620nm (e)630nm (f)640nm (g)650nm.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a)Illustration of a 30nm flat red polymer layer without holes; calculated emission profile for a plane source placed in middle of the 30nm thick single polymer layer at the central wavelength of 610nm. (b) Illustration of the round nanoholes array (L = 400nm,d = 240nm) embedding through a 30nm thick single red polymer layer; calculated emission profile for a plane source placed in middle of the 30nm thick single polymer layer at the central wavelength of 610nm. (c) Illustration of the round nanoholes array (L = 400nm,d = 240nm) embedding through a multilayer stack of 11 alternating layers of 35nm thick Au and 30nm thick dielectric layer; calculated emission profile for a plane source placed in middle of the ZIM at the central wavelength of 610nm.

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