Abstract

In this paper, we propose a Rayleigh backscattering (RB) noise mitigation scheme based on the use of real-time heterodyne receiver for loop-back wavelength division multiplexing passive optical network (WDM-PON). Heterodyne detection has been utilized to increase the upstream receiver sensitivity, while an electro-absorption modulator (EAM) is used to simultaneously turn heterodyning bipolar signal into single polar signal and mitigate accumulated carrier RB noise. With the help of the nonlinear negative-slope transfer function of EAM, low frequency interference noise is suppressed successfully. RB noise mitigation performance is studied over 45-km single mode fiber (SMF) transmission, and the optical-signal-to-Rayleigh-noise-ratio (OSRNR) is reduced to 15.6 dB, when bias voltage of EAM is at −4 V. Through utilizing this real-time heterodyne receiver in single fiber loop-back structure, upstream error free transmission is realized with receiver sensitivity of −25 dBm.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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2014 (1)

2013 (1)

C. W. Chow and C. H. Yeh, “Using Downstream DPSK and Upstream Wavelength-Shifted ASK for Rayleigh Backscattering Mitigation in TDM-PON to WDM-PON Migration Scheme,” IEEE Photon. J 5(2), 7900407 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

2011 (1)

2010 (3)

A. Chiuchiarelli, M. Presi, R. Proietti, G. Contestabile, P. Choudhury, L. Giorgi, and E. Ciaramella, “Enhancing Resilience to Rayleigh Crosstalk by Means of Line Coding and Electrical Filtering,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(2), 85–87 (2010).
[Crossref]

D. Jorgesen, C. F. Marki, and S. Esener, “Improved High Pass Filtering for Passive Optical Networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(15), 1144–1146 (2010).
[Crossref]

C. H. Wang, C. W. Chow, C. H. Yeh, C. L. Wu, S. Chi, and C. Lin, “Rayleigh Noise Mitigation Using Single-Sideband Modulation Generated by a Dual-Parallel MZM for Carrier Distributed PON,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(11), 820–822 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

2008 (1)

2007 (2)

C. F. Marki, F. A. Marki, and S. C. Esener, “Reduction of interferometric optical crosstalk penalty via DC blocking,” Electron. Lett. 43(11), 644–646 (2007).
[Crossref]

L. G. Kazovsky, S. Wei-Tao, D. Gutierrez, C. Ning, and S.-W. Wong, “Next-generation optical access networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25(11), 3428–3442 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

Chan, C. C. K.

Z. Liu, J. Xu, Q. Wang, and C. C. K. Chan, “Rayleigh Noise Mitigated 70-km-Reach Bi-directional WDM-PON with 10-Gb/s Directly Modulated Manchester-duobinary as Downstream Signal,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC),2012, OW1B.2.
[Crossref]

Chang, G.-K.

Chen, L. K..

Chi, S.

C. H. Wang, C. W. Chow, C. H. Yeh, C. L. Wu, S. Chi, and C. Lin, “Rayleigh Noise Mitigation Using Single-Sideband Modulation Generated by a Dual-Parallel MZM for Carrier Distributed PON,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(11), 820–822 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chiuchiarelli, A.

A. Chiuchiarelli, M. Presi, R. Proietti, G. Contestabile, P. Choudhury, L. Giorgi, and E. Ciaramella, “Enhancing Resilience to Rayleigh Crosstalk by Means of Line Coding and Electrical Filtering,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(2), 85–87 (2010).
[Crossref]

Choudhury, P.

A. Chiuchiarelli, M. Presi, R. Proietti, G. Contestabile, P. Choudhury, L. Giorgi, and E. Ciaramella, “Enhancing Resilience to Rayleigh Crosstalk by Means of Line Coding and Electrical Filtering,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(2), 85–87 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chow, C.

Chow, C. W.

C. W. Chow and C. H. Yeh, “Using Downstream DPSK and Upstream Wavelength-Shifted ASK for Rayleigh Backscattering Mitigation in TDM-PON to WDM-PON Migration Scheme,” IEEE Photon. J 5(2), 7900407 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. H. Wang, C. W. Chow, C. H. Yeh, C. L. Wu, S. Chi, and C. Lin, “Rayleigh Noise Mitigation Using Single-Sideband Modulation Generated by a Dual-Parallel MZM for Carrier Distributed PON,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(11), 820–822 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chowdhury, A.

Ciaramella, E.

A. Chiuchiarelli, M. Presi, R. Proietti, G. Contestabile, P. Choudhury, L. Giorgi, and E. Ciaramella, “Enhancing Resilience to Rayleigh Crosstalk by Means of Line Coding and Electrical Filtering,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(2), 85–87 (2010).
[Crossref]

Contestabile, G.

A. Chiuchiarelli, M. Presi, R. Proietti, G. Contestabile, P. Choudhury, L. Giorgi, and E. Ciaramella, “Enhancing Resilience to Rayleigh Crosstalk by Means of Line Coding and Electrical Filtering,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(2), 85–87 (2010).
[Crossref]

Cvijetic, N.

Djan Khoe, G.

Ellinas, G.

Esener, S.

D. Jorgesen, C. F. Marki, and S. Esener, “Improved High Pass Filtering for Passive Optical Networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(15), 1144–1146 (2010).
[Crossref]

Esener, S. C.

C. F. Marki, F. A. Marki, and S. C. Esener, “Reduction of interferometric optical crosstalk penalty via DC blocking,” Electron. Lett. 43(11), 644–646 (2007).
[Crossref]

Feng, H.

Fok, M. P.

Ge, J.

Giorgi, L.

A. Chiuchiarelli, M. Presi, R. Proietti, G. Contestabile, P. Choudhury, L. Giorgi, and E. Ciaramella, “Enhancing Resilience to Rayleigh Crosstalk by Means of Line Coding and Electrical Filtering,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(2), 85–87 (2010).
[Crossref]

Guo, Q.

Gutierrez, D.

Hung-Chang, C.

Jeppesen, P.

I. T. Monroy, J. Seoane, and P. Jeppesen, “All Optical Envelope Detection for Wireless Photonic Communication,” in European Conference and Ehxibition of Optical Communication (ECOC), 2007, 1–2.
[Crossref]

Jia, Z.

Jianjun, Y.

Jorgesen, D.

D. Jorgesen, C. F. Marki, and S. Esener, “Improved High Pass Filtering for Passive Optical Networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(15), 1144–1146 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kazovsky, L. G.

Kim, H.

Koonen, A. M.

Li, M.

Lin, C.

C. H. Wang, C. W. Chow, C. H. Yeh, C. L. Wu, S. Chi, and C. Lin, “Rayleigh Noise Mitigation Using Single-Sideband Modulation Generated by a Dual-Parallel MZM for Carrier Distributed PON,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(11), 820–822 (2010).
[Crossref]

Liu, Z.

Z. Liu, J. Xu, Q. Wang, and C. C. K. Chan, “Rayleigh Noise Mitigated 70-km-Reach Bi-directional WDM-PON with 10-Gb/s Directly Modulated Manchester-duobinary as Downstream Signal,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC),2012, OW1B.2.
[Crossref]

Z. Liu, D. S. Wu, D. J. Richardson, and R. Slavik, “Homodyne OFDM using Simple Optical Carrier Recovery,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), 2014, W4K.3.
[Crossref]

Marki, C. F.

D. Jorgesen, C. F. Marki, and S. Esener, “Improved High Pass Filtering for Passive Optical Networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(15), 1144–1146 (2010).
[Crossref]

C. F. Marki, F. A. Marki, and S. C. Esener, “Reduction of interferometric optical crosstalk penalty via DC blocking,” Electron. Lett. 43(11), 644–646 (2007).
[Crossref]

Marki, F. A.

C. F. Marki, F. A. Marki, and S. C. Esener, “Reduction of interferometric optical crosstalk penalty via DC blocking,” Electron. Lett. 43(11), 644–646 (2007).
[Crossref]

Ming-Fang, H.

Monroy, I. T.

I. T. Monroy, J. Seoane, and P. Jeppesen, “All Optical Envelope Detection for Wireless Photonic Communication,” in European Conference and Ehxibition of Optical Communication (ECOC), 2007, 1–2.
[Crossref]

Ning, C.

Presi, M.

A. Chiuchiarelli, M. Presi, R. Proietti, G. Contestabile, P. Choudhury, L. Giorgi, and E. Ciaramella, “Enhancing Resilience to Rayleigh Crosstalk by Means of Line Coding and Electrical Filtering,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(2), 85–87 (2010).
[Crossref]

Proietti, R.

A. Chiuchiarelli, M. Presi, R. Proietti, G. Contestabile, P. Choudhury, L. Giorgi, and E. Ciaramella, “Enhancing Resilience to Rayleigh Crosstalk by Means of Line Coding and Electrical Filtering,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(2), 85–87 (2010).
[Crossref]

Richardson, D. J.

Z. Liu, D. S. Wu, D. J. Richardson, and R. Slavik, “Homodyne OFDM using Simple Optical Carrier Recovery,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), 2014, W4K.3.
[Crossref]

Seoane, J.

I. T. Monroy, J. Seoane, and P. Jeppesen, “All Optical Envelope Detection for Wireless Photonic Communication,” in European Conference and Ehxibition of Optical Communication (ECOC), 2007, 1–2.
[Crossref]

Slavik, R.

Z. Liu, D. S. Wu, D. J. Richardson, and R. Slavik, “Homodyne OFDM using Simple Optical Carrier Recovery,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), 2014, W4K.3.
[Crossref]

Talli, G.

Townsend, P. D.

Tran, A. V.

Urban, P. J.

Wang, C. H.

C. H. Wang, C. W. Chow, C. H. Yeh, C. L. Wu, S. Chi, and C. Lin, “Rayleigh Noise Mitigation Using Single-Sideband Modulation Generated by a Dual-Parallel MZM for Carrier Distributed PON,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(11), 820–822 (2010).
[Crossref]

Wang, Q.

Z. Liu, J. Xu, Q. Wang, and C. C. K. Chan, “Rayleigh Noise Mitigated 70-km-Reach Bi-directional WDM-PON with 10-Gb/s Directly Modulated Manchester-duobinary as Downstream Signal,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC),2012, OW1B.2.
[Crossref]

Wei-Tao, S.

Wong, S.-W.

Wu, C. L.

C. H. Wang, C. W. Chow, C. H. Yeh, C. L. Wu, S. Chi, and C. Lin, “Rayleigh Noise Mitigation Using Single-Sideband Modulation Generated by a Dual-Parallel MZM for Carrier Distributed PON,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(11), 820–822 (2010).
[Crossref]

Wu, D. S.

Z. Liu, D. S. Wu, D. J. Richardson, and R. Slavik, “Homodyne OFDM using Simple Optical Carrier Recovery,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), 2014, W4K.3.
[Crossref]

Xiao, S.

Xiong, F.

Xu, J.

J. Xu, M. Li, and L. K.. Chen, “Rayleigh Noise Reduction in 10-Gb/s Carrier-Distributed WDM-PONs Using In-Band Optical Filtering,” J. Lightwave Technol. 29(24), 3632–3639 (2011).
[Crossref]

Z. Liu, J. Xu, Q. Wang, and C. C. K. Chan, “Rayleigh Noise Mitigated 70-km-Reach Bi-directional WDM-PON with 10-Gb/s Directly Modulated Manchester-duobinary as Downstream Signal,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC),2012, OW1B.2.
[Crossref]

J. Xu, “OFDM remodulation for 10-Gb/s/channel WDM-PON with simple carrier extraction and enhanced tolerance to Rayleigh noise”, Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), 2012.
[Crossref]

Yeh, C. H.

C. W. Chow and C. H. Yeh, “Using Downstream DPSK and Upstream Wavelength-Shifted ASK for Rayleigh Backscattering Mitigation in TDM-PON to WDM-PON Migration Scheme,” IEEE Photon. J 5(2), 7900407 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. H. Wang, C. W. Chow, C. H. Yeh, C. L. Wu, S. Chi, and C. Lin, “Rayleigh Noise Mitigation Using Single-Sideband Modulation Generated by a Dual-Parallel MZM for Carrier Distributed PON,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(11), 820–822 (2010).
[Crossref]

Zhong, W.-D.

Electron. Lett. (1)

C. F. Marki, F. A. Marki, and S. C. Esener, “Reduction of interferometric optical crosstalk penalty via DC blocking,” Electron. Lett. 43(11), 644–646 (2007).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. J (1)

C. W. Chow and C. H. Yeh, “Using Downstream DPSK and Upstream Wavelength-Shifted ASK for Rayleigh Backscattering Mitigation in TDM-PON to WDM-PON Migration Scheme,” IEEE Photon. J 5(2), 7900407 (2013).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

C. H. Wang, C. W. Chow, C. H. Yeh, C. L. Wu, S. Chi, and C. Lin, “Rayleigh Noise Mitigation Using Single-Sideband Modulation Generated by a Dual-Parallel MZM for Carrier Distributed PON,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(11), 820–822 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. Chiuchiarelli, M. Presi, R. Proietti, G. Contestabile, P. Choudhury, L. Giorgi, and E. Ciaramella, “Enhancing Resilience to Rayleigh Crosstalk by Means of Line Coding and Electrical Filtering,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(2), 85–87 (2010).
[Crossref]

D. Jorgesen, C. F. Marki, and S. Esener, “Improved High Pass Filtering for Passive Optical Networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(15), 1144–1146 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (7)

J. Opt. Commun. Netw. (1)

Opt. Express (2)

Other (4)

I. T. Monroy, J. Seoane, and P. Jeppesen, “All Optical Envelope Detection for Wireless Photonic Communication,” in European Conference and Ehxibition of Optical Communication (ECOC), 2007, 1–2.
[Crossref]

J. Xu, “OFDM remodulation for 10-Gb/s/channel WDM-PON with simple carrier extraction and enhanced tolerance to Rayleigh noise”, Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), 2012.
[Crossref]

Z. Liu, D. S. Wu, D. J. Richardson, and R. Slavik, “Homodyne OFDM using Simple Optical Carrier Recovery,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), 2014, W4K.3.
[Crossref]

Z. Liu, J. Xu, Q. Wang, and C. C. K. Chan, “Rayleigh Noise Mitigated 70-km-Reach Bi-directional WDM-PON with 10-Gb/s Directly Modulated Manchester-duobinary as Downstream Signal,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC),2012, OW1B.2.
[Crossref]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Principle of Rayleigh backscattering noise suppression; (b) Setup of real-time heterodyne receiver. PD: photodiode, RF AMP: radio frequency amplifier, PC: polarization controller, EAM: electro-absorption modulator, LPF: low pass filter.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Optical spectrum of the upstream signal and the local oscillator; (b) Waveforms during heterodyne detection.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) The modulation transfer function of EAM; (b) Low frequency response of EAM.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Experimental setup of OSRNR test and (b) back to back BER test. LD: laser diode, PC: polarization controller, MZM: Mach-Zehnder modulator, VOA: variable optical attenuator, SMF: single mode fiber, APC: angled physical contact, AWG: arrayed waveguide grating, OC: optical circulator, OA: optical amplifier.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) The measured OSRNR curves at different bias voltage and (b) Back to back BER results. Filled markers represent PRBS of 215-1 and hollow markers represent PRBS of 27-1.

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