Abstract

In this paper, we are able to fabricate 3D photonic crystals or quasi-crystals through single beam and single optical element based holographic lithography. The reflective optical elements are used to generate multiple side beams with s-polarization and one central beam with circular polarization which in turn are used for interference based holographic lithography without the need of any other bulk optics. These optical elements have been used to fabricate 3D photonic crystals with 4, 5 or 6-fold symmetry. A good agreement has been observed between fabricated holographic structures and simulated interference patterns.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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2014 (1)

2011 (3)

K. Ohlinger, H. Zhang, Y. Lin, D. Xu, and K. P. Chen, “A tunable three layer phase mask for single laser exposure 3D photonic crystal generations: bandgap simulation and holographic fabrication,” Opt. Mater. Express 1(5), 1034–1039 (2011).
[Crossref]

D. Chanda, K. Shigeta, S. Gupta, T. Cain, A. Carlson, A. Mihi, A. J. Baca, G. R. Bogart, P. Braun, and J. A. Rogers, “Large-area flexible 3D optical negative index metamaterial formed by nanotransfer printing,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(7), 402–407 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Tandaechanurat, S. Ishida, D. Guimard, M. Nomura, S. Iwamoto, and Y. Arakawa, “Lasing oscillation in a three-dimensional photonic crystal nanocavity with a complete bandgap,” Nat. Photonics 5(2), 91–94 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

2009 (3)

D. Xu, K. P. Chen, A. Harb, D. Rodriguez, K. Lozano, and Y. Lin, “Phase Tunable Holographic Fabrication for Three-dimensional Photonic Crystal Templates by Using a Single Optical Element,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(23), 231116 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Valentine, J. Li, T. Zentgraf, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “An optical cloak made of dielectrics,” Nat. Mater. 8(7), 568–571 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, G. von Freymann, and M. Wegener, “Three-dimensional bi-chiral photonic crystals,” Adv. Mater. 21(46), 4680–4682 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (4)

2006 (4)

X. Wang, J. Xu, J. C. Lee, Y. K. Pang, W. Y. Tam, C. T. Chan, and P. Sheng, “Realization of optical periodic quasicrystals using holographic lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(5), 051901 (2006).
[Crossref]

T. Y. M. Chan, O. Toader, and S. John, “Photonic band-gap formation by optical-phase-mask lithography,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 73(4), 046610 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. K. Pang, J. C. Lee, C. T. Ho, and W. Y. Tam, “Realization of woodpile structure using optical interference holography,” Opt. Express 14(20), 9113–9119 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Ledermann, L. Cademartiri, M. Hermatschweiler, C. Toninelli, G. A. Ozin, D. S. Wiersma, M. Wegener, and G. von Freymann, “Three-dimensional silicon inverse photonic quasicrystals for infrared wavelengths,” Nat. Mater. 5(12), 942–945 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (3)

K. K. Seet, V. Mizeikis, S. Matsuo, S. Juodkazis, and H. Misawa, “Three-dimensional spiral-architecture photonic crystals obtained by direct laser writing,” Adv. Mater. 17(5), 541–545 (2005).
[Crossref]

Y. Lin, P. R. Herman, and E. L. Abolghasemi, “Proposed single-exposure holographic fabrication of microsphere-type photonic crystal through phase mask techniques,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(9), 096102 (2005).
[Crossref]

Y. K. Pang, J. C. Lee, H. F. Lee, W. Y. Tam, C. T. Chan, and P. Sheng, “Chiral microstructures (spirals) fabrication by holographic lithography,” Opt. Express 13(19), 7615–7620 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

M. Deubel, G. von Freymann, M. Wegener, S. Pereira, K. Busch, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Direct laser writing of three-dimensional photonic-crystal templates for telecommunications,” Nat. Mater. 3(7), 444–447 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Qi, E. Lidorikis, P. T. Rakich, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, “A three-dimensional optical photonic crystal with designed point defects,” Nature 429(6991), 538–542 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

X. Wang, J. F. Xu, H. M. Su, Z. H. Zeng, Y. L. Chen, H. Z. Wang, Y. K. Pang, and W. Y. Tam, “Three-dimensional photonic crystals fabricated by visible light holographic lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(14), 2212–2214 (2003).
[Crossref]

Yu. V. Miklyaev, D. C. Meisel, A. Blanco, G. von Freymann, K. Busch, W. Koch, C. Enkrich, M. Deubel, and M. Wegener, “Three-dimensional face-centered-cubic photonic crystal templates by laser holography: fabrication, optical characterization, and band-structure calculations,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(8), 1284–1286 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (3)

S. Yang, M. Megens, J. Aizenberg, P. Wiltzius, P. M. Chaikin, and W. B. Russel, “Creating periodic three-dimensional structures by multibeam interference of visible laser,” Chem. Mater. 14(7), 2831–2833 (2002).
[Crossref]

M. Lončar, T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, P. Gogna, and Y. Qiu, “Low-threshold photonic crystal laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(15), 2680–2682 (2002).
[Crossref]

J. G. Fleming, S. Y. Lin, I. El-Kady, R. Biswas, and K. M. Ho, “All-metallic three-dimensional photonic crystals with a large infrared bandgap,” Nature 417(6884), 52–55 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (2)

Y. A. Vlasov, X. Z. Bo, J. C. Sturm, and D. J. Norris, “On-chip natural assembly of silicon photonic bandgap crystals,” Nature 414(6861), 289–293 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Jiang, J. F. Bertone, and V. L. Colvin, “A lost-wax approach to monodisperse colloids and their crystals,” Science 291(5503), 453–457 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

M. Campbell, D. N. Sharp, M. T. Harrison, R. G. Denning, and A. J. Turberfield, “Fabrication of photonic crystals for the visible spectrum by holographic lithography,” Nature 404(6773), 53–56 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Abolghasemi, E. L.

Y. Lin, P. R. Herman, and E. L. Abolghasemi, “Proposed single-exposure holographic fabrication of microsphere-type photonic crystal through phase mask techniques,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(9), 096102 (2005).
[Crossref]

Abolghasemi, L. E.

Aizenberg, J.

S. Yang, M. Megens, J. Aizenberg, P. Wiltzius, P. M. Chaikin, and W. B. Russel, “Creating periodic three-dimensional structures by multibeam interference of visible laser,” Chem. Mater. 14(7), 2831–2833 (2002).
[Crossref]

Arakawa, Y.

A. Tandaechanurat, S. Ishida, D. Guimard, M. Nomura, S. Iwamoto, and Y. Arakawa, “Lasing oscillation in a three-dimensional photonic crystal nanocavity with a complete bandgap,” Nat. Photonics 5(2), 91–94 (2011).
[Crossref]

Baca, A. J.

D. Chanda, K. Shigeta, S. Gupta, T. Cain, A. Carlson, A. Mihi, A. J. Baca, G. R. Bogart, P. Braun, and J. A. Rogers, “Large-area flexible 3D optical negative index metamaterial formed by nanotransfer printing,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(7), 402–407 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bartal, G.

J. Valentine, J. Li, T. Zentgraf, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “An optical cloak made of dielectrics,” Nat. Mater. 8(7), 568–571 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index,” Nature 455(7211), 376–379 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bertone, J. F.

P. Jiang, J. F. Bertone, and V. L. Colvin, “A lost-wax approach to monodisperse colloids and their crystals,” Science 291(5503), 453–457 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Biswas, R.

J. G. Fleming, S. Y. Lin, I. El-Kady, R. Biswas, and K. M. Ho, “All-metallic three-dimensional photonic crystals with a large infrared bandgap,” Nature 417(6884), 52–55 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Blanco, A.

Yu. V. Miklyaev, D. C. Meisel, A. Blanco, G. von Freymann, K. Busch, W. Koch, C. Enkrich, M. Deubel, and M. Wegener, “Three-dimensional face-centered-cubic photonic crystal templates by laser holography: fabrication, optical characterization, and band-structure calculations,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(8), 1284–1286 (2003).
[Crossref]

Bo, X. Z.

Y. A. Vlasov, X. Z. Bo, J. C. Sturm, and D. J. Norris, “On-chip natural assembly of silicon photonic bandgap crystals,” Nature 414(6861), 289–293 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bogart, G. R.

D. Chanda, K. Shigeta, S. Gupta, T. Cain, A. Carlson, A. Mihi, A. J. Baca, G. R. Bogart, P. Braun, and J. A. Rogers, “Large-area flexible 3D optical negative index metamaterial formed by nanotransfer printing,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(7), 402–407 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Braun, P.

D. Chanda, K. Shigeta, S. Gupta, T. Cain, A. Carlson, A. Mihi, A. J. Baca, G. R. Bogart, P. Braun, and J. A. Rogers, “Large-area flexible 3D optical negative index metamaterial formed by nanotransfer printing,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(7), 402–407 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brenner, P.

T. Ergin, N. Stenger, P. Brenner, J. B. Pendry, and M. Wegener, “Three-dimensional invisibility cloak at optical wavelengths,” Science 328(5976), 337–339 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Busch, K.

M. Deubel, G. von Freymann, M. Wegener, S. Pereira, K. Busch, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Direct laser writing of three-dimensional photonic-crystal templates for telecommunications,” Nat. Mater. 3(7), 444–447 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu. V. Miklyaev, D. C. Meisel, A. Blanco, G. von Freymann, K. Busch, W. Koch, C. Enkrich, M. Deubel, and M. Wegener, “Three-dimensional face-centered-cubic photonic crystal templates by laser holography: fabrication, optical characterization, and band-structure calculations,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(8), 1284–1286 (2003).
[Crossref]

Cademartiri, L.

A. Ledermann, L. Cademartiri, M. Hermatschweiler, C. Toninelli, G. A. Ozin, D. S. Wiersma, M. Wegener, and G. von Freymann, “Three-dimensional silicon inverse photonic quasicrystals for infrared wavelengths,” Nat. Mater. 5(12), 942–945 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cain, T.

D. Chanda, K. Shigeta, S. Gupta, T. Cain, A. Carlson, A. Mihi, A. J. Baca, G. R. Bogart, P. Braun, and J. A. Rogers, “Large-area flexible 3D optical negative index metamaterial formed by nanotransfer printing,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(7), 402–407 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Campbell, M.

M. Campbell, D. N. Sharp, M. T. Harrison, R. G. Denning, and A. J. Turberfield, “Fabrication of photonic crystals for the visible spectrum by holographic lithography,” Nature 404(6773), 53–56 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Carlson, A.

D. Chanda, K. Shigeta, S. Gupta, T. Cain, A. Carlson, A. Mihi, A. J. Baca, G. R. Bogart, P. Braun, and J. A. Rogers, “Large-area flexible 3D optical negative index metamaterial formed by nanotransfer printing,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(7), 402–407 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chaikin, P. M.

S. Yang, M. Megens, J. Aizenberg, P. Wiltzius, P. M. Chaikin, and W. B. Russel, “Creating periodic three-dimensional structures by multibeam interference of visible laser,” Chem. Mater. 14(7), 2831–2833 (2002).
[Crossref]

Chan, C. T.

X. Wang, J. Xu, J. C. Lee, Y. K. Pang, W. Y. Tam, C. T. Chan, and P. Sheng, “Realization of optical periodic quasicrystals using holographic lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(5), 051901 (2006).
[Crossref]

Y. K. Pang, J. C. Lee, H. F. Lee, W. Y. Tam, C. T. Chan, and P. Sheng, “Chiral microstructures (spirals) fabrication by holographic lithography,” Opt. Express 13(19), 7615–7620 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chan, T. Y. M.

T. Y. M. Chan, O. Toader, and S. John, “Photonic band-gap formation by optical-phase-mask lithography,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 73(4), 046610 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chanda, D.

D. Chanda, K. Shigeta, S. Gupta, T. Cain, A. Carlson, A. Mihi, A. J. Baca, G. R. Bogart, P. Braun, and J. A. Rogers, “Large-area flexible 3D optical negative index metamaterial formed by nanotransfer printing,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(7), 402–407 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Chanda, L. E. Abolghasemi, M. Haque, M. L. Ng, and P. R. Herman, “Multi-level diffractive optics for single laser exposure fabrication of telecom-band diamond-like 3-dimensional photonic crystals,” Opt. Express 16(20), 15402–15414 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, K. P.

Chen, Y. L.

X. Wang, J. F. Xu, H. M. Su, Z. H. Zeng, Y. L. Chen, H. Z. Wang, Y. K. Pang, and W. Y. Tam, “Three-dimensional photonic crystals fabricated by visible light holographic lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(14), 2212–2214 (2003).
[Crossref]

Colvin, V. L.

P. Jiang, J. F. Bertone, and V. L. Colvin, “A lost-wax approach to monodisperse colloids and their crystals,” Science 291(5503), 453–457 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Denning, R. G.

M. Campbell, D. N. Sharp, M. T. Harrison, R. G. Denning, and A. J. Turberfield, “Fabrication of photonic crystals for the visible spectrum by holographic lithography,” Nature 404(6773), 53–56 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Deubel, M.

M. Deubel, G. von Freymann, M. Wegener, S. Pereira, K. Busch, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Direct laser writing of three-dimensional photonic-crystal templates for telecommunications,” Nat. Mater. 3(7), 444–447 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu. V. Miklyaev, D. C. Meisel, A. Blanco, G. von Freymann, K. Busch, W. Koch, C. Enkrich, M. Deubel, and M. Wegener, “Three-dimensional face-centered-cubic photonic crystal templates by laser holography: fabrication, optical characterization, and band-structure calculations,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(8), 1284–1286 (2003).
[Crossref]

El-Kady, I.

J. G. Fleming, S. Y. Lin, I. El-Kady, R. Biswas, and K. M. Ho, “All-metallic three-dimensional photonic crystals with a large infrared bandgap,” Nature 417(6884), 52–55 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Enkrich, C.

Yu. V. Miklyaev, D. C. Meisel, A. Blanco, G. von Freymann, K. Busch, W. Koch, C. Enkrich, M. Deubel, and M. Wegener, “Three-dimensional face-centered-cubic photonic crystal templates by laser holography: fabrication, optical characterization, and band-structure calculations,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(8), 1284–1286 (2003).
[Crossref]

Ergin, T.

T. Ergin, N. Stenger, P. Brenner, J. B. Pendry, and M. Wegener, “Three-dimensional invisibility cloak at optical wavelengths,” Science 328(5976), 337–339 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fleming, J. G.

J. G. Fleming, S. Y. Lin, I. El-Kady, R. Biswas, and K. M. Ho, “All-metallic three-dimensional photonic crystals with a large infrared bandgap,” Nature 417(6884), 52–55 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fu, L.

N. Liu, H. Guo, L. Fu, S. Kaiser, H. Schweizer, and H. Giessen, “Three-dimensional photonic metamaterials at optical frequencies,” Nat. Mater. 7(1), 31–37 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gao, W.

Genov, D. A.

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index,” Nature 455(7211), 376–379 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Giessen, H.

N. Liu, H. Guo, L. Fu, S. Kaiser, H. Schweizer, and H. Giessen, “Three-dimensional photonic metamaterials at optical frequencies,” Nat. Mater. 7(1), 31–37 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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K. K. Seet, V. Mizeikis, S. Matsuo, S. Juodkazis, and H. Misawa, “Three-dimensional spiral-architecture photonic crystals obtained by direct laser writing,” Adv. Mater. 17(5), 541–545 (2005).
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J. G. Fleming, S. Y. Lin, I. El-Kady, R. Biswas, and K. M. Ho, “All-metallic three-dimensional photonic crystals with a large infrared bandgap,” Nature 417(6884), 52–55 (2002).
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K. K. Seet, V. Mizeikis, S. Matsuo, S. Juodkazis, and H. Misawa, “Three-dimensional spiral-architecture photonic crystals obtained by direct laser writing,” Adv. Mater. 17(5), 541–545 (2005).
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Nomura, M.

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Y. K. Pang, J. C. Lee, C. T. Ho, and W. Y. Tam, “Realization of woodpile structure using optical interference holography,” Opt. Express 14(20), 9113–9119 (2006).
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Y. K. Pang, J. C. Lee, H. F. Lee, W. Y. Tam, C. T. Chan, and P. Sheng, “Chiral microstructures (spirals) fabrication by holographic lithography,” Opt. Express 13(19), 7615–7620 (2005).
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T. Ergin, N. Stenger, P. Brenner, J. B. Pendry, and M. Wegener, “Three-dimensional invisibility cloak at optical wavelengths,” Science 328(5976), 337–339 (2010).
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M. Deubel, G. von Freymann, M. Wegener, S. Pereira, K. Busch, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Direct laser writing of three-dimensional photonic-crystal templates for telecommunications,” Nat. Mater. 3(7), 444–447 (2004).
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M. Qi, E. Lidorikis, P. T. Rakich, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, “A three-dimensional optical photonic crystal with designed point defects,” Nature 429(6991), 538–542 (2004).
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M. Lončar, T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, P. Gogna, and Y. Qiu, “Low-threshold photonic crystal laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(15), 2680–2682 (2002).
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M. Qi, E. Lidorikis, P. T. Rakich, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, “A three-dimensional optical photonic crystal with designed point defects,” Nature 429(6991), 538–542 (2004).
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M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, G. von Freymann, and M. Wegener, “Three-dimensional bi-chiral photonic crystals,” Adv. Mater. 21(46), 4680–4682 (2009).
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S. Yang, M. Megens, J. Aizenberg, P. Wiltzius, P. M. Chaikin, and W. B. Russel, “Creating periodic three-dimensional structures by multibeam interference of visible laser,” Chem. Mater. 14(7), 2831–2833 (2002).
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M. Lončar, T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, P. Gogna, and Y. Qiu, “Low-threshold photonic crystal laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(15), 2680–2682 (2002).
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N. Liu, H. Guo, L. Fu, S. Kaiser, H. Schweizer, and H. Giessen, “Three-dimensional photonic metamaterials at optical frequencies,” Nat. Mater. 7(1), 31–37 (2008).
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K. K. Seet, V. Mizeikis, S. Matsuo, S. Juodkazis, and H. Misawa, “Three-dimensional spiral-architecture photonic crystals obtained by direct laser writing,” Adv. Mater. 17(5), 541–545 (2005).
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M. Campbell, D. N. Sharp, M. T. Harrison, R. G. Denning, and A. J. Turberfield, “Fabrication of photonic crystals for the visible spectrum by holographic lithography,” Nature 404(6773), 53–56 (2000).
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X. Wang, J. Xu, J. C. Lee, Y. K. Pang, W. Y. Tam, C. T. Chan, and P. Sheng, “Realization of optical periodic quasicrystals using holographic lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(5), 051901 (2006).
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Y. K. Pang, J. C. Lee, H. F. Lee, W. Y. Tam, C. T. Chan, and P. Sheng, “Chiral microstructures (spirals) fabrication by holographic lithography,” Opt. Express 13(19), 7615–7620 (2005).
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D. Chanda, K. Shigeta, S. Gupta, T. Cain, A. Carlson, A. Mihi, A. J. Baca, G. R. Bogart, P. Braun, and J. A. Rogers, “Large-area flexible 3D optical negative index metamaterial formed by nanotransfer printing,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(7), 402–407 (2011).
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M. Qi, E. Lidorikis, P. T. Rakich, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, “A three-dimensional optical photonic crystal with designed point defects,” Nature 429(6991), 538–542 (2004).
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M. Deubel, G. von Freymann, M. Wegener, S. Pereira, K. Busch, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Direct laser writing of three-dimensional photonic-crystal templates for telecommunications,” Nat. Mater. 3(7), 444–447 (2004).
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T. Ergin, N. Stenger, P. Brenner, J. B. Pendry, and M. Wegener, “Three-dimensional invisibility cloak at optical wavelengths,” Science 328(5976), 337–339 (2010).
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Y. A. Vlasov, X. Z. Bo, J. C. Sturm, and D. J. Norris, “On-chip natural assembly of silicon photonic bandgap crystals,” Nature 414(6861), 289–293 (2001).
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X. Wang, J. F. Xu, H. M. Su, Z. H. Zeng, Y. L. Chen, H. Z. Wang, Y. K. Pang, and W. Y. Tam, “Three-dimensional photonic crystals fabricated by visible light holographic lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(14), 2212–2214 (2003).
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X. Wang, W. Gao, J. Hung, and W. Y. Tam, “Optical activities of large-area SU8 microspirals fabricated by multibeam holographic lithography,” Appl. Opt. 53(11), 2425–2430 (2014).
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Y. K. Pang, J. C. Lee, C. T. Ho, and W. Y. Tam, “Realization of woodpile structure using optical interference holography,” Opt. Express 14(20), 9113–9119 (2006).
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Y. K. Pang, J. C. Lee, H. F. Lee, W. Y. Tam, C. T. Chan, and P. Sheng, “Chiral microstructures (spirals) fabrication by holographic lithography,” Opt. Express 13(19), 7615–7620 (2005).
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X. Wang, J. F. Xu, H. M. Su, Z. H. Zeng, Y. L. Chen, H. Z. Wang, Y. K. Pang, and W. Y. Tam, “Three-dimensional photonic crystals fabricated by visible light holographic lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(14), 2212–2214 (2003).
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M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, G. von Freymann, and M. Wegener, “Three-dimensional bi-chiral photonic crystals,” Adv. Mater. 21(46), 4680–4682 (2009).
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T. Y. M. Chan, O. Toader, and S. John, “Photonic band-gap formation by optical-phase-mask lithography,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 73(4), 046610 (2006).
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A. Ledermann, L. Cademartiri, M. Hermatschweiler, C. Toninelli, G. A. Ozin, D. S. Wiersma, M. Wegener, and G. von Freymann, “Three-dimensional silicon inverse photonic quasicrystals for infrared wavelengths,” Nat. Mater. 5(12), 942–945 (2006).
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Turberfield, A. J.

M. Campbell, D. N. Sharp, M. T. Harrison, R. G. Denning, and A. J. Turberfield, “Fabrication of photonic crystals for the visible spectrum by holographic lithography,” Nature 404(6773), 53–56 (2000).
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J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index,” Nature 455(7211), 376–379 (2008).
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Y. A. Vlasov, X. Z. Bo, J. C. Sturm, and D. J. Norris, “On-chip natural assembly of silicon photonic bandgap crystals,” Nature 414(6861), 289–293 (2001).
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M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, G. von Freymann, and M. Wegener, “Three-dimensional bi-chiral photonic crystals,” Adv. Mater. 21(46), 4680–4682 (2009).
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A. Ledermann, L. Cademartiri, M. Hermatschweiler, C. Toninelli, G. A. Ozin, D. S. Wiersma, M. Wegener, and G. von Freymann, “Three-dimensional silicon inverse photonic quasicrystals for infrared wavelengths,” Nat. Mater. 5(12), 942–945 (2006).
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[Crossref] [PubMed]

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X. Wang, W. Gao, J. Hung, and W. Y. Tam, “Optical activities of large-area SU8 microspirals fabricated by multibeam holographic lithography,” Appl. Opt. 53(11), 2425–2430 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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[Crossref]

X. Wang, J. F. Xu, H. M. Su, Z. H. Zeng, Y. L. Chen, H. Z. Wang, Y. K. Pang, and W. Y. Tam, “Three-dimensional photonic crystals fabricated by visible light holographic lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(14), 2212–2214 (2003).
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T. Ergin, N. Stenger, P. Brenner, J. B. Pendry, and M. Wegener, “Three-dimensional invisibility cloak at optical wavelengths,” Science 328(5976), 337–339 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, G. von Freymann, and M. Wegener, “Three-dimensional bi-chiral photonic crystals,” Adv. Mater. 21(46), 4680–4682 (2009).
[Crossref]

A. Ledermann, L. Cademartiri, M. Hermatschweiler, C. Toninelli, G. A. Ozin, D. S. Wiersma, M. Wegener, and G. von Freymann, “Three-dimensional silicon inverse photonic quasicrystals for infrared wavelengths,” Nat. Mater. 5(12), 942–945 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Deubel, G. von Freymann, M. Wegener, S. Pereira, K. Busch, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Direct laser writing of three-dimensional photonic-crystal templates for telecommunications,” Nat. Mater. 3(7), 444–447 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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A. Ledermann, L. Cademartiri, M. Hermatschweiler, C. Toninelli, G. A. Ozin, D. S. Wiersma, M. Wegener, and G. von Freymann, “Three-dimensional silicon inverse photonic quasicrystals for infrared wavelengths,” Nat. Mater. 5(12), 942–945 (2006).
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S. Yang, M. Megens, J. Aizenberg, P. Wiltzius, P. M. Chaikin, and W. B. Russel, “Creating periodic three-dimensional structures by multibeam interference of visible laser,” Chem. Mater. 14(7), 2831–2833 (2002).
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Xu, D.

Xu, J.

X. Wang, J. Xu, J. C. Lee, Y. K. Pang, W. Y. Tam, C. T. Chan, and P. Sheng, “Realization of optical periodic quasicrystals using holographic lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(5), 051901 (2006).
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X. Wang, J. F. Xu, H. M. Su, Z. H. Zeng, Y. L. Chen, H. Z. Wang, Y. K. Pang, and W. Y. Tam, “Three-dimensional photonic crystals fabricated by visible light holographic lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(14), 2212–2214 (2003).
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J. Valentine, J. Li, T. Zentgraf, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “An optical cloak made of dielectrics,” Nat. Mater. 8(7), 568–571 (2009).
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J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index,” Nature 455(7211), 376–379 (2008).
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J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index,” Nature 455(7211), 376–379 (2008).
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J. Valentine, J. Li, T. Zentgraf, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “An optical cloak made of dielectrics,” Nat. Mater. 8(7), 568–571 (2009).
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J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index,” Nature 455(7211), 376–379 (2008).
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Adv. Mater. (2)

K. K. Seet, V. Mizeikis, S. Matsuo, S. Juodkazis, and H. Misawa, “Three-dimensional spiral-architecture photonic crystals obtained by direct laser writing,” Adv. Mater. 17(5), 541–545 (2005).
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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Design model of single reflective optical element generated using software Solid Works. If the single circularly polarized laser is incident onto the silicon facet at a Brewster angle, the reflected beams are s-polarized and become side beams with the same angle relative to the central un-deflected beams. (b) Schematics of wave vector configuration of four side beams and one central beam for 4 + 1 interference. (c) Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) of top view of fabricated 3D woodpile-type photonic crystal template in SU-8. (d) Simulation of top view of interference pattern formed by four s-polarized side beams and one central circularly polarized beam in a configuration in (b). (e) SEM of cross-section of fabricated woodpile photonic crystals in SU8. (f) Simulated cross-section view of interference pattern.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a-b) SEMs of fabricated quasi-crystals in thin film DPHPA and SU8 using ROE for 5 + 1 beam interference lithography, respectively. (c) Simulated top view of 5 + 1 interference pattern. For eye guidance, five circles were drawn in the SEM around common pentagons in (a-c). (d) SEM of supporting post for keeping 3D quasi-crystals from washing away during development. (e) SEM of cross section of fabricated 3D quasi-crystals in SU8. Red arrow indicates the air voids and yellow ellipses indicate the formed structures corresponding to the high intensity ellipse array in (f). (f) A side view of simulated 3D interference pattern due to 5 + 1 beams.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) SEM of top-view of fabricated structures with 6-fold symmetry in SU8. (b-c) An enlarged view of top-central and bottom-right section structures in (a) and their simulated structures in (d1) and (d2), respectively. The simulations in (d1) and (d2) are taken from the 3D simulation in (d) at different depth in z-direction as indicated by arrows at (b’) and (c’), respectively. (e) AFM image of fabricated 6-fold symmetrical structures. Hexagon is drawn for eye guidance and lattice constant a is labeled. (f) SEM of the cross section of fabricated 3D photonic structures in SU8. Red rectangles in (d) and (f) are drawn for structural comparison inside.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Laue diffraction patterns from photonic crystals with 4 (a), 5 (b) and 6-fold (c) symmetries, respectively. Yellow, white and red lines were drawn for eye-guidance and for grouping the first-, second-, and third-order diffraction spots, respectively. The light-blue lines indicate a pentagon structure in (b).
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) AFM image of fabricated structures in DPHPA using ROE for 4 + 1 beam interference with an incident angle of 67 degrees onto the silicon surface. (b) Simulation of 4 + 1 interference. (c) AFM surface profile for fabricated structures in (a) along two lines indicated in (a).
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a1) 5 + 1 configuration where a linearly polarized light is incident onto silicon surface at the Brewster angle with a polarization angle θ. Top view of interference patterns as a function of polarization angle at 0 (a2), 30 (a3) and 60 (a4) degrees. Five circles are drawn for eye guidance. (b1) 6 + 1 configuration with a similar condition to (a1). Top view of interference patterns as a function of polarization angle at 0 (b2), 20 (b3) and 40 (b4) degrees. (c1) four silicon facets and one silica facet in a hexagonal arrangement. (c2) top view and (c3) 3D view of the interference pattern. (c4) An enlarged view of the interference pattern.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 List of Laser Wavelengths and Experimental Parameters

Equations (6)

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I = i = 1 n E i 2 + i < j n E i E j cos [ ( k i k j ) r + Δ δ i j ] ,
k 0 = K ( 0 , 0 , 1 ) ,
k q = K ( sin α cos 2 ( q 1 ) π p , sin α sin 2 ( q 1 ) π p , cos α ) , q = 1, 2, ... ,p,
Δ k f i r s t = k q k q 1 = 2 K sin α cos ( π 4 ) ( cos ( n 2 1 4 ) π , sin ( n 4 1 4 ) π , 0 ) , for p = 4,
Δ k f i r s t = k q k q 1 = 2 K sin α cos ( 3 π 10 ) ( cos ( 2 n 5 1 10 ) π , sin ( 2 n 5 1 10 ) π , 0 ) , for p = 5,
Δ k f i r s t = k q k q 1 = 2 K sin α cos ( π 3 ) ( cos n 3 π , sin n 3 π , 0 ) , for p = 6,

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