Abstract

We report a new method, termed geometry-guided resist reflow, for the batch fabrication of asymmetric optical microstructures. Thermoplastic microstructures reflow along the geometric boundaries of the adjacent thermoset microstructures above the glass transition temperature of thermoplastic resin. The shape profiles can be freely formed as a concave, convex, or linear shape and the slope angle can also be tuned from 7 to 68 degrees, depending on the geometric parameters. This new method provides a new route for developing functional optical elements.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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2013 (3)

S. Wooh, H. Yoon, J. H. Jung, Y. G. Lee, J. H. Koh, B. Lee, Y. S. Kang, and K. Char, “Efficient light harvesting with micropatterned 3D pyramidal photoanodes in dye-sensitized solar cells,” Adv. Mater. 25(22), 3111–3116 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Xu, C. Yu, S. Wang, V. Malyarchuk, T. Xie, and J. A. Rogers, “Deformable, programmable, and shape-memorizing micro-optics,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 23(26), 3299–3306 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. B. Kim, J. H. Lee, C. K. Moon, S. Y. Kim, and J. J. Kim, “Highly enhanced light extraction from surface plasmonic loss minimized organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 25(26), 3571–3577 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (1)

J. J. Kim, Y. Lee, H. G. Kim, K. J. Choi, H. S. Kweon, S. Park, and K. H. Jeong, “Biologically inspired LED lens from cuticular nanostructures of firefly lantern,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(46), 18674–18678 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (2)

H. Yoon, S. G. Oh, D. S. Kang, J. M. Park, S. J. Choi, K. Y. Suh, K. Char, and H. H. Lee, “Arrays of Lucius microprisms for directional allocation of light and autostereoscopic three-dimensional displays,” Nat Commun 2, 455 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. H. Nguyen, C. J. Chang, M. C. Lee, and F. G. Tseng, “SU8 3D prisms with ultra small inclined angle for low-insertion-loss fiber/waveguide interconnection,” Opt. Express 19(20), 18956–18964 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (3)

2009 (1)

A. Emadi, H. Wu, S. Grabarnik, G. D. Graaf, and R. F. Wolffenbuttel, “Vertically tapered layers for optical applications fabricated using resist reflow,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 19(7), 074014 (2009).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

2005 (1)

L. Wang, X. Wang, W. Jiang, J. Choi, H. Bi, and R. Chen, “45° polymer-based total internal reflection coupling mirrors for fully embedded intraboard guided wave optical interconnects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(14), 141110 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (4)

D. Feng, G. Jin, Y. Yan, and S. Fan, “High quality light guide plates that can control the illumination angle based on microprism structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(24), 6016–6018 (2004).
[Crossref]

M. Han, W. Lee, S. K. Lee, and S. S. Lee, “3D microfabrication with inclined/rotated UV lithography,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 111(1), 14–20 (2004).
[Crossref]

Y. P. Huang, H. P. Shieh, and S. T. Wu, “Applications of multidirectional asymmetrical microlens-array light-control films on reflective liquid-crystal displays for image quality enhancement,” Appl. Opt. 43(18), 3656–3663 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. K. Wei and I. L. Su, “Method to evaluate the enhancement of luminance efficiency in planar OLED light emitting devices for microlens array,” Opt. Express 12(23), 5777–5782 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

C. Waits, A. Modafe, and R. Ghodssi, “Investigation of gray-scale technology for large area 3D silicon MEMS structures,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 13(2), 170–177 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (2)

Bi, H.

L. Wang, X. Wang, W. Jiang, J. Choi, H. Bi, and R. Chen, “45° polymer-based total internal reflection coupling mirrors for fully embedded intraboard guided wave optical interconnects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(14), 141110 (2005).
[Crossref]

Bich, A.

Chang, C. J.

Char, K.

S. Wooh, H. Yoon, J. H. Jung, Y. G. Lee, J. H. Koh, B. Lee, Y. S. Kang, and K. Char, “Efficient light harvesting with micropatterned 3D pyramidal photoanodes in dye-sensitized solar cells,” Adv. Mater. 25(22), 3111–3116 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Yoon, S. G. Oh, D. S. Kang, J. M. Park, S. J. Choi, K. Y. Suh, K. Char, and H. H. Lee, “Arrays of Lucius microprisms for directional allocation of light and autostereoscopic three-dimensional displays,” Nat Commun 2, 455 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, R.

L. Wang, X. Wang, W. Jiang, J. Choi, H. Bi, and R. Chen, “45° polymer-based total internal reflection coupling mirrors for fully embedded intraboard guided wave optical interconnects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(14), 141110 (2005).
[Crossref]

Cheong, W. C.

Choi, H. Y.

Choi, J.

L. Wang, X. Wang, W. Jiang, J. Choi, H. Bi, and R. Chen, “45° polymer-based total internal reflection coupling mirrors for fully embedded intraboard guided wave optical interconnects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(14), 141110 (2005).
[Crossref]

Choi, K. J.

J. J. Kim, Y. Lee, H. G. Kim, K. J. Choi, H. S. Kweon, S. Park, and K. H. Jeong, “Biologically inspired LED lens from cuticular nanostructures of firefly lantern,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(46), 18674–18678 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choi, S. J.

H. Yoon, S. G. Oh, D. S. Kang, J. M. Park, S. J. Choi, K. Y. Suh, K. Char, and H. H. Lee, “Arrays of Lucius microprisms for directional allocation of light and autostereoscopic three-dimensional displays,” Nat Commun 2, 455 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choi, W. S.

Cullmann, E.

Emadi, A.

A. Emadi, H. Wu, S. Grabarnik, G. D. Graaf, and R. F. Wolffenbuttel, “Vertically tapered layers for optical applications fabricated using resist reflow,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 19(7), 074014 (2009).
[Crossref]

Fan, S.

D. Feng, G. Jin, Y. Yan, and S. Fan, “High quality light guide plates that can control the illumination angle based on microprism structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(24), 6016–6018 (2004).
[Crossref]

Feng, D.

D. Feng, G. Jin, Y. Yan, and S. Fan, “High quality light guide plates that can control the illumination angle based on microprism structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(24), 6016–6018 (2004).
[Crossref]

Forrest, S. R.

S. Moller and S. R. Forrest, “Improved light out-coupling in organic light emitting diodes employing ordered microlens arrays,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(5), 3324–3327 (2002).
[Crossref]

Ghodssi, R.

C. Waits, A. Modafe, and R. Ghodssi, “Investigation of gray-scale technology for large area 3D silicon MEMS structures,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 13(2), 170–177 (2003).
[Crossref]

Graaf, G. D.

A. Emadi, H. Wu, S. Grabarnik, G. D. Graaf, and R. F. Wolffenbuttel, “Vertically tapered layers for optical applications fabricated using resist reflow,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 19(7), 074014 (2009).
[Crossref]

Grabarnik, S.

A. Emadi, H. Wu, S. Grabarnik, G. D. Graaf, and R. F. Wolffenbuttel, “Vertically tapered layers for optical applications fabricated using resist reflow,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 19(7), 074014 (2009).
[Crossref]

Han, M.

M. Han, W. Lee, S. K. Lee, and S. S. Lee, “3D microfabrication with inclined/rotated UV lithography,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 111(1), 14–20 (2004).
[Crossref]

Harzendorf, T.

Hornung, M.

Hsieh, H. T.

H. T. Hsieh and G. D. J. Su, “A novel boundary-confined method for high numerical aperture microlens array fabrication,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 20(3), 035023 (2010).
[Crossref]

Huang, Y. P.

Jeong, K. H.

J. J. Kim, Y. Lee, H. G. Kim, K. J. Choi, H. S. Kweon, S. Park, and K. H. Jeong, “Biologically inspired LED lens from cuticular nanostructures of firefly lantern,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(46), 18674–18678 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jiang, W.

L. Wang, X. Wang, W. Jiang, J. Choi, H. Bi, and R. Chen, “45° polymer-based total internal reflection coupling mirrors for fully embedded intraboard guided wave optical interconnects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(14), 141110 (2005).
[Crossref]

Jin, G.

D. Feng, G. Jin, Y. Yan, and S. Fan, “High quality light guide plates that can control the illumination angle based on microprism structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(24), 6016–6018 (2004).
[Crossref]

Jung, J. H.

S. Wooh, H. Yoon, J. H. Jung, Y. G. Lee, J. H. Koh, B. Lee, Y. S. Kang, and K. Char, “Efficient light harvesting with micropatterned 3D pyramidal photoanodes in dye-sensitized solar cells,” Adv. Mater. 25(22), 3111–3116 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kang, D. S.

H. Yoon, S. G. Oh, D. S. Kang, J. M. Park, S. J. Choi, K. Y. Suh, K. Char, and H. H. Lee, “Arrays of Lucius microprisms for directional allocation of light and autostereoscopic three-dimensional displays,” Nat Commun 2, 455 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kang, Y. S.

S. Wooh, H. Yoon, J. H. Jung, Y. G. Lee, J. H. Koh, B. Lee, Y. S. Kang, and K. Char, “Efficient light harvesting with micropatterned 3D pyramidal photoanodes in dye-sensitized solar cells,” Adv. Mater. 25(22), 3111–3116 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, H. G.

J. J. Kim, Y. Lee, H. G. Kim, K. J. Choi, H. S. Kweon, S. Park, and K. H. Jeong, “Biologically inspired LED lens from cuticular nanostructures of firefly lantern,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(46), 18674–18678 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, J. B.

J. B. Kim, J. H. Lee, C. K. Moon, S. Y. Kim, and J. J. Kim, “Highly enhanced light extraction from surface plasmonic loss minimized organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 25(26), 3571–3577 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, J. J.

J. B. Kim, J. H. Lee, C. K. Moon, S. Y. Kim, and J. J. Kim, “Highly enhanced light extraction from surface plasmonic loss minimized organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 25(26), 3571–3577 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. J. Kim, Y. Lee, H. G. Kim, K. J. Choi, H. S. Kweon, S. Park, and K. H. Jeong, “Biologically inspired LED lens from cuticular nanostructures of firefly lantern,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(46), 18674–18678 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, S. Y.

J. B. Kim, J. H. Lee, C. K. Moon, S. Y. Kim, and J. J. Kim, “Highly enhanced light extraction from surface plasmonic loss minimized organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 25(26), 3571–3577 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Koh, J. H.

S. Wooh, H. Yoon, J. H. Jung, Y. G. Lee, J. H. Koh, B. Lee, Y. S. Kang, and K. Char, “Efficient light harvesting with micropatterned 3D pyramidal photoanodes in dye-sensitized solar cells,” Adv. Mater. 25(22), 3111–3116 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Koudriachov, V.

Kweon, H. S.

J. J. Kim, Y. Lee, H. G. Kim, K. J. Choi, H. S. Kweon, S. Park, and K. H. Jeong, “Biologically inspired LED lens from cuticular nanostructures of firefly lantern,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(46), 18674–18678 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, B.

S. Wooh, H. Yoon, J. H. Jung, Y. G. Lee, J. H. Koh, B. Lee, Y. S. Kang, and K. Char, “Efficient light harvesting with micropatterned 3D pyramidal photoanodes in dye-sensitized solar cells,” Adv. Mater. 25(22), 3111–3116 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, B. K.

Lee, H. H.

H. Yoon, S. G. Oh, D. S. Kang, J. M. Park, S. J. Choi, K. Y. Suh, K. Char, and H. H. Lee, “Arrays of Lucius microprisms for directional allocation of light and autostereoscopic three-dimensional displays,” Nat Commun 2, 455 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, H. S.

Lee, J. H.

J. B. Kim, J. H. Lee, C. K. Moon, S. Y. Kim, and J. J. Kim, “Highly enhanced light extraction from surface plasmonic loss minimized organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 25(26), 3571–3577 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. H. Lee, H. S. Lee, B. K. Lee, W. S. Choi, H. Y. Choi, and J. B. Yoon, “Simple liquid crystal display backlight unit comprising only a single-sheet micropatterned polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) light-guide plate,” Opt. Lett. 32(18), 2665–2667 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, M. C.

Lee, S. K.

M. Han, W. Lee, S. K. Lee, and S. S. Lee, “3D microfabrication with inclined/rotated UV lithography,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 111(1), 14–20 (2004).
[Crossref]

Lee, S. S.

M. Han, W. Lee, S. K. Lee, and S. S. Lee, “3D microfabrication with inclined/rotated UV lithography,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 111(1), 14–20 (2004).
[Crossref]

Lee, W.

M. Han, W. Lee, S. K. Lee, and S. S. Lee, “3D microfabrication with inclined/rotated UV lithography,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 111(1), 14–20 (2004).
[Crossref]

Lee, Y.

J. J. Kim, Y. Lee, H. G. Kim, K. J. Choi, H. S. Kweon, S. Park, and K. H. Jeong, “Biologically inspired LED lens from cuticular nanostructures of firefly lantern,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(46), 18674–18678 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, Y. G.

S. Wooh, H. Yoon, J. H. Jung, Y. G. Lee, J. H. Koh, B. Lee, Y. S. Kang, and K. Char, “Efficient light harvesting with micropatterned 3D pyramidal photoanodes in dye-sensitized solar cells,” Adv. Mater. 25(22), 3111–3116 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, L.

Malyarchuk, V.

H. Xu, C. Yu, S. Wang, V. Malyarchuk, T. Xie, and J. A. Rogers, “Deformable, programmable, and shape-memorizing micro-optics,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 23(26), 3299–3306 (2013).
[Crossref]

Modafe, A.

C. Waits, A. Modafe, and R. Ghodssi, “Investigation of gray-scale technology for large area 3D silicon MEMS structures,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 13(2), 170–177 (2003).
[Crossref]

Moller, S.

S. Moller and S. R. Forrest, “Improved light out-coupling in organic light emitting diodes employing ordered microlens arrays,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(5), 3324–3327 (2002).
[Crossref]

Moon, C. K.

J. B. Kim, J. H. Lee, C. K. Moon, S. Y. Kim, and J. J. Kim, “Highly enhanced light extraction from surface plasmonic loss minimized organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 25(26), 3571–3577 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ngo, N.

Nguyen, M. H.

Oh, S. G.

H. Yoon, S. G. Oh, D. S. Kang, J. M. Park, S. J. Choi, K. Y. Suh, K. Char, and H. H. Lee, “Arrays of Lucius microprisms for directional allocation of light and autostereoscopic three-dimensional displays,” Nat Commun 2, 455 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Park, J. M.

H. Yoon, S. G. Oh, D. S. Kang, J. M. Park, S. J. Choi, K. Y. Suh, K. Char, and H. H. Lee, “Arrays of Lucius microprisms for directional allocation of light and autostereoscopic three-dimensional displays,” Nat Commun 2, 455 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Park, S.

J. J. Kim, Y. Lee, H. G. Kim, K. J. Choi, H. S. Kweon, S. Park, and K. H. Jeong, “Biologically inspired LED lens from cuticular nanostructures of firefly lantern,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(46), 18674–18678 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pernet, P.

Que, W.

Rogers, J. A.

H. Xu, C. Yu, S. Wang, V. Malyarchuk, T. Xie, and J. A. Rogers, “Deformable, programmable, and shape-memorizing micro-optics,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 23(26), 3299–3306 (2013).
[Crossref]

Shieh, H. P.

Stuerzebecher, L.

Su, G. D. J.

H. T. Hsieh and G. D. J. Su, “A novel boundary-confined method for high numerical aperture microlens array fabrication,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 20(3), 035023 (2010).
[Crossref]

Su, I. L.

Suh, K. Y.

H. Yoon, S. G. Oh, D. S. Kang, J. M. Park, S. J. Choi, K. Y. Suh, K. Char, and H. H. Lee, “Arrays of Lucius microprisms for directional allocation of light and autostereoscopic three-dimensional displays,” Nat Commun 2, 455 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tseng, F. G.

Voelkel, R.

Vogler, U.

Waits, C.

C. Waits, A. Modafe, and R. Ghodssi, “Investigation of gray-scale technology for large area 3D silicon MEMS structures,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 13(2), 170–177 (2003).
[Crossref]

Wang, L.

L. Wang, X. Wang, W. Jiang, J. Choi, H. Bi, and R. Chen, “45° polymer-based total internal reflection coupling mirrors for fully embedded intraboard guided wave optical interconnects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(14), 141110 (2005).
[Crossref]

Wang, S.

H. Xu, C. Yu, S. Wang, V. Malyarchuk, T. Xie, and J. A. Rogers, “Deformable, programmable, and shape-memorizing micro-optics,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 23(26), 3299–3306 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wang, X.

L. Wang, X. Wang, W. Jiang, J. Choi, H. Bi, and R. Chen, “45° polymer-based total internal reflection coupling mirrors for fully embedded intraboard guided wave optical interconnects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(14), 141110 (2005).
[Crossref]

Wei, M. K.

Weible, K. J.

Wolffenbuttel, R. F.

A. Emadi, H. Wu, S. Grabarnik, G. D. Graaf, and R. F. Wolffenbuttel, “Vertically tapered layers for optical applications fabricated using resist reflow,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 19(7), 074014 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wooh, S.

S. Wooh, H. Yoon, J. H. Jung, Y. G. Lee, J. H. Koh, B. Lee, Y. S. Kang, and K. Char, “Efficient light harvesting with micropatterned 3D pyramidal photoanodes in dye-sensitized solar cells,” Adv. Mater. 25(22), 3111–3116 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, H.

A. Emadi, H. Wu, S. Grabarnik, G. D. Graaf, and R. F. Wolffenbuttel, “Vertically tapered layers for optical applications fabricated using resist reflow,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 19(7), 074014 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wu, S. T.

Xie, T.

H. Xu, C. Yu, S. Wang, V. Malyarchuk, T. Xie, and J. A. Rogers, “Deformable, programmable, and shape-memorizing micro-optics,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 23(26), 3299–3306 (2013).
[Crossref]

Xu, H.

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Adv. Funct. Mater. (1)

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J. B. Kim, J. H. Lee, C. K. Moon, S. Y. Kim, and J. J. Kim, “Highly enhanced light extraction from surface plasmonic loss minimized organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 25(26), 3571–3577 (2013).
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Supplementary Material (1)

» Media 1: AVI (1595 KB)     

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic illustration of geometry-guided resist reflow for the batch fabrication of surface relief microstructures with asymmetric profiles. (a) The reflow profile depends on the height of thermoset microstructures and the width and cross-sectional area of thermoplastic microstructures. (b) Thermoplastic microstructures thermally reflow along the geometric boundaries of thermoset microstructures. Depending on the cross-sectional area A of thermoplastic microstructures, thermoplastic microstructures adjacent to thermoset microstructures can be reformed into a linear (A = Ab), concave (Aa = A<Ab), or convex (Ac = A>Ab) shape in slope. (c) Control of the linear slope angles. The slope angle can be determined by a ratio of the height of a thermoset to the width of a thermoplastic microstructure.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Monolithic fabrication method for asymmetric surface-relief microstructures. (i) photolithographic definition of thermoset (SU-8) resist, (ii) photolithographic definition of thermoplastic resist (AZ9260), (iii) thermal reflow above the glass transition temperature of thermoplastic resin, (iv) PDMS replication, (v) replica molding with UV curable optical resin, (vi) device relief from the PDMS replica. (b-d) SEM images of asymmetric microstructures before (top) and after (bottom) thermal reflow resulting in a (b) concave, (c) linear, and (d) convex shape in slope. Scale bar: 5 μm. (e-g) Comparison between the measured and calculated slope profiles of asymmetric microstructures after geometry-guided resist reflow (see also Media 1). Both the results clearly indicate the cross-sectional area of a thermoplastic microstructure determines the slope profile of asymmetric microstructure after thermal reflow.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The slope angles of asymmetric microstructures with a linear profile. (a) Change in the slope angles from 7 to 68 degrees depending on a ratio of the height of thermoset to the width of thermoplastic microstructures. The ratio can be precisely tuned by changing either the width of thermoplastic microstructures or the height of thermoset microstructures. The slope angle changes either from 68 to 26 degrees by changing the width of thermoplastic microstructures from 4 to 20 μm under a constant height of thermoset microstructures or from 7 to 43 degrees by changing the height of thermoset microstructures from 2 to 16 μm under a constant width of thermoplastic microstructures. Both the experimental results (constant height and width) are well fit to the solid line represents θ = tan−1 (H / W), where θ is the inclined angle, H is the height of thermoset microstructures, and W is the width of thermoplastic microstructures. SEM images of asymmetric structures with (b) different widths of 6 μm, 10 μm, and 20 μm under a constant height of thermoset microstructures and (c) different heights of 2 μm, 6 μm, and 10 μm under a constant width of thermoplastic microstructures. Scale bar: 5 μm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a-c) Optical and (d-f) SEM images of diverse surface relief optical microstructures with asymmetric profiles and (g-i) their light distributions at 532nm wavelength. Transmission hexagonal, line, and concentric ring elements with asymmetric profiles effectively modulate their light patterns by both diffraction and refraction.

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