Abstract

We demonstrate the design, fabrication and experimental characterization of long-range dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguides (LR-DLSPPWs) that are compatible with complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology. The demonstrated waveguide configuration represents a silicon nitride ridge atop a thin strip of metal, which is positioned on a partially oxidized layer of silicon supported by a silicon oxide layer. The demonstrated waveguides feature reasonable mode confinement (~0.5μm2) and show rather long propagation (~700 μm) at telecom wavelengths. Owing to the existence of a metal strip within the structure, one can envision the co-propagation of electrical and photonic signals within the structure, enabling thereby seamless integration of photonic and electronic circuits. Electrical signals in metal strips supporting plasmonic modes can be used for variety of applications, e.g. to control the propagation of radiation via the thermo-optic effect.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. J. A. Dionne, K. Diest, L. A. Sweatlock, and H. A. Atwater, “Plasmostor: A metal-oxide-Si field effect plasmonic modulator,” Nano Lett. 9(2), 897–902 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. W. Cai, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Compact, high-speed and power-efficient electrooptic plasmonic modulators,” Nano Lett. 9(12), 4403–4411 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]

2014 (1)

2013 (1)

2012 (1)

2011 (1)

2010 (7)

M. L. Brongersma and V. M. Shalaev, “Applied physics. The case for plasmonics,” Science 328(5977), 440–441 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics for extreme light concentration and manipulation,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 193–204 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. K. Gramotnev and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Plasmonics beyond the diffraction limit,” Nat. Photonics 4(2), 83–91 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. P. Nezhad, A. Simic, O. Bondarenko, B. Slutsky, A. Mizrahi, L. Feng, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, “Room-temperature subwavelength metallo-dielectric lasers,” Nat. Photonics 4(6), 395–399 (2010).
[Crossref]

I. Goykhman, B. Desiatov, and U. Levy, “Experimental demonstration of locally oxidized hybrid silicon-plasmonic waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(14), 141106 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. Akbari, R. N. Tait, and P. Berini, “Surface plasmon waveguide Schottky detector,” Opt. Express 18(8), 8505–8514 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Holmgaard, J. Gosciniak, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Long-range dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(22), 23009–23015 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (3)

J. A. Dionne, K. Diest, L. A. Sweatlock, and H. A. Atwater, “Plasmostor: A metal-oxide-Si field effect plasmonic modulator,” Nano Lett. 9(2), 897–902 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Cai, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Compact, high-speed and power-efficient electrooptic plasmonic modulators,” Nano Lett. 9(12), 4403–4411 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R.-M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

R. Oulton, V. Sorger, D. A. Genov, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, “A hybrid plasmonic waveguide for subwavelength confinement and long range propagation,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 496–500 (2008).
[Crossref]

T. Holmgaard, Z. Chen, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, A. Dereux, A. V. Krasavin, and A. V. Zayats, “Bend- and splitting loss of dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguides,” Opt. Express 16(18), 13585–13592 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (3)

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J. Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature 440(7083), 508–511 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. S. Volkov, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Compact gradual bends for channel plasmon polaritons,” Opt. Express 14(10), 4494–4503 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Ozbay, “Plasmonics: Merging photonics and electronics at nanoscale dimensions,” Science 311(5758), 189–193 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

G. Veronis and S. Fan, “Bends and splitters in metal-dielectric-metal subwavelength plasmonic waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(13), 131102 (2005).

R. Charbonneau, N. Lahoud, G. Mattiussi, and P. Berini, “Demonstration of integrated optics elements based on long-ranging surface plasmon polaritons,” Opt. Express 13(3), 977–984 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

F. P. Payne and J. P. R. Lacey, “A theoretical analysis of scattering loss from planar optical waveguides,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 26(10), 977–986 (1994).
[Crossref]

1981 (1)

D. Sarid, “Long-Range Surface-Plasma Waves on Very Thin Metal Films,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 47(26), 1927–1930 (1981).
[Crossref]

Akbari, A.

Albrektsen, O.

Atwater, H. A.

J. A. Dionne, K. Diest, L. A. Sweatlock, and H. A. Atwater, “Plasmostor: A metal-oxide-Si field effect plasmonic modulator,” Nano Lett. 9(2), 897–902 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Babicheva, V. E.

Barnard, E. S.

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics for extreme light concentration and manipulation,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 193–204 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bartal, G.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R.-M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Berini, P.

Boltasseva, A.

Bondarenko, O.

M. P. Nezhad, A. Simic, O. Bondarenko, B. Slutsky, A. Mizrahi, L. Feng, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, “Room-temperature subwavelength metallo-dielectric lasers,” Nat. Photonics 4(6), 395–399 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

Brongersma, M. L.

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics for extreme light concentration and manipulation,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 193–204 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. L. Brongersma and V. M. Shalaev, “Applied physics. The case for plasmonics,” Science 328(5977), 440–441 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Cai, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Compact, high-speed and power-efficient electrooptic plasmonic modulators,” Nano Lett. 9(12), 4403–4411 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cai, W.

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics for extreme light concentration and manipulation,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 193–204 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Cai, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Compact, high-speed and power-efficient electrooptic plasmonic modulators,” Nano Lett. 9(12), 4403–4411 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Charbonneau, R.

Chen, Z.

Dai, L.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R.-M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dereux, A.

Desiatov, B.

I. Goykhman, B. Desiatov, J. Khurgin, J. Shappir, and U. Levy, “Waveguide based compact silicon Schottky photodetector with enhanced responsivity in the telecom spectral band,” Opt. Express 20(27), 28594–28602 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Goykhman, B. Desiatov, and U. Levy, “Experimental demonstration of locally oxidized hybrid silicon-plasmonic waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(14), 141106 (2010).
[Crossref]

Devaux, E.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J. Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature 440(7083), 508–511 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. S. Volkov, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Compact gradual bends for channel plasmon polaritons,” Opt. Express 14(10), 4494–4503 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Diest, K.

J. A. Dionne, K. Diest, L. A. Sweatlock, and H. A. Atwater, “Plasmostor: A metal-oxide-Si field effect plasmonic modulator,” Nano Lett. 9(2), 897–902 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dionne, J. A.

J. A. Dionne, K. Diest, L. A. Sweatlock, and H. A. Atwater, “Plasmostor: A metal-oxide-Si field effect plasmonic modulator,” Nano Lett. 9(2), 897–902 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ebbesen, T. W.

V. S. Volkov, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Compact gradual bends for channel plasmon polaritons,” Opt. Express 14(10), 4494–4503 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J. Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature 440(7083), 508–511 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fainman, Y.

M. P. Nezhad, A. Simic, O. Bondarenko, B. Slutsky, A. Mizrahi, L. Feng, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, “Room-temperature subwavelength metallo-dielectric lasers,” Nat. Photonics 4(6), 395–399 (2010).
[Crossref]

Fan, S.

G. Veronis and S. Fan, “Bends and splitters in metal-dielectric-metal subwavelength plasmonic waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(13), 131102 (2005).

Feng, L.

M. P. Nezhad, A. Simic, O. Bondarenko, B. Slutsky, A. Mizrahi, L. Feng, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, “Room-temperature subwavelength metallo-dielectric lasers,” Nat. Photonics 4(6), 395–399 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ferrera, M.

Genov, D. A.

R. Oulton, V. Sorger, D. A. Genov, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, “A hybrid plasmonic waveguide for subwavelength confinement and long range propagation,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 496–500 (2008).
[Crossref]

Gladden, C.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R.-M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gosciniak, J.

Goykhman, I.

I. Goykhman, B. Desiatov, J. Khurgin, J. Shappir, and U. Levy, “Waveguide based compact silicon Schottky photodetector with enhanced responsivity in the telecom spectral band,” Opt. Express 20(27), 28594–28602 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Goykhman, B. Desiatov, and U. Levy, “Experimental demonstration of locally oxidized hybrid silicon-plasmonic waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(14), 141106 (2010).
[Crossref]

Gramotnev, D. K.

D. K. Gramotnev and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Plasmonics beyond the diffraction limit,” Nat. Photonics 4(2), 83–91 (2010).
[Crossref]

Han, Z.

Holmgaard, T.

Jun, Y. C.

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics for extreme light concentration and manipulation,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 193–204 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Keshmiri, H.

Khurgin, J.

Kinsey, N.

Krasavin, A. V.

Lacey, J. P. R.

F. P. Payne and J. P. R. Lacey, “A theoretical analysis of scattering loss from planar optical waveguides,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 26(10), 977–986 (1994).
[Crossref]

Lahoud, N.

Laluet, J. Y.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J. Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature 440(7083), 508–511 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Leosson, K.

Levy, U.

Lomakin, V.

M. P. Nezhad, A. Simic, O. Bondarenko, B. Slutsky, A. Mizrahi, L. Feng, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, “Room-temperature subwavelength metallo-dielectric lasers,” Nat. Photonics 4(6), 395–399 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ma, R.-M.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R.-M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Markey, L.

Mattiussi, G.

Mizrahi, A.

M. P. Nezhad, A. Simic, O. Bondarenko, B. Slutsky, A. Mizrahi, L. Feng, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, “Room-temperature subwavelength metallo-dielectric lasers,” Nat. Photonics 4(6), 395–399 (2010).
[Crossref]

Naik, G. V.

Nezhad, M. P.

M. P. Nezhad, A. Simic, O. Bondarenko, B. Slutsky, A. Mizrahi, L. Feng, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, “Room-temperature subwavelength metallo-dielectric lasers,” Nat. Photonics 4(6), 395–399 (2010).
[Crossref]

Nielsen, M. G.

Oulton, R.

R. Oulton, V. Sorger, D. A. Genov, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, “A hybrid plasmonic waveguide for subwavelength confinement and long range propagation,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 496–500 (2008).
[Crossref]

Oulton, R. F.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R.-M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ozbay, E.

E. Ozbay, “Plasmonics: Merging photonics and electronics at nanoscale dimensions,” Science 311(5758), 189–193 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Payne, F. P.

F. P. Payne and J. P. R. Lacey, “A theoretical analysis of scattering loss from planar optical waveguides,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 26(10), 977–986 (1994).
[Crossref]

Pile, D. F. P.

R. Oulton, V. Sorger, D. A. Genov, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, “A hybrid plasmonic waveguide for subwavelength confinement and long range propagation,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 496–500 (2008).
[Crossref]

Sarid, D.

D. Sarid, “Long-Range Surface-Plasma Waves on Very Thin Metal Films,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 47(26), 1927–1930 (1981).
[Crossref]

Schuller, J. A.

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics for extreme light concentration and manipulation,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 193–204 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shalaev, V. M.

Shappir, J.

Shi, X.

Simic, A.

M. P. Nezhad, A. Simic, O. Bondarenko, B. Slutsky, A. Mizrahi, L. Feng, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, “Room-temperature subwavelength metallo-dielectric lasers,” Nat. Photonics 4(6), 395–399 (2010).
[Crossref]

Slutsky, B.

M. P. Nezhad, A. Simic, O. Bondarenko, B. Slutsky, A. Mizrahi, L. Feng, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, “Room-temperature subwavelength metallo-dielectric lasers,” Nat. Photonics 4(6), 395–399 (2010).
[Crossref]

Sorger, V.

R. Oulton, V. Sorger, D. A. Genov, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, “A hybrid plasmonic waveguide for subwavelength confinement and long range propagation,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 496–500 (2008).
[Crossref]

Sorger, V. J.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R.-M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sweatlock, L. A.

J. A. Dionne, K. Diest, L. A. Sweatlock, and H. A. Atwater, “Plasmostor: A metal-oxide-Si field effect plasmonic modulator,” Nano Lett. 9(2), 897–902 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tait, R. N.

Veronis, G.

G. Veronis and S. Fan, “Bends and splitters in metal-dielectric-metal subwavelength plasmonic waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(13), 131102 (2005).

Volkov, V. S.

White, J. S.

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics for extreme light concentration and manipulation,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 193–204 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Cai, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Compact, high-speed and power-efficient electrooptic plasmonic modulators,” Nano Lett. 9(12), 4403–4411 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zayats, A. V.

Zentgraf, T.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R.-M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

X. Shi, X. Zhang, Z. Han, U. Levy, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “CMOS-Compatible Long-Range Dielectric-Loaded Plasmonic Waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31(21), 3361–3367 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R.-M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Oulton, V. Sorger, D. A. Genov, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, “A hybrid plasmonic waveguide for subwavelength confinement and long range propagation,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 496–500 (2008).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

I. Goykhman, B. Desiatov, and U. Levy, “Experimental demonstration of locally oxidized hybrid silicon-plasmonic waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(14), 141106 (2010).
[Crossref]

G. Veronis and S. Fan, “Bends and splitters in metal-dielectric-metal subwavelength plasmonic waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(13), 131102 (2005).

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Nano Lett. (2)

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematics showing (a) the cross section of an ideal device and (b) the cross section of our fabricated device, taking into account the fabrication constrains.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Effective propagation length as a function of (a) thermal oxide layer thickness, nitride rib (b) height and (c) width, and (d) aluminum strip misalignment from the center of the nitride rib.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Schematic cross section of the as-fabricated device. (b,c,d,e,f) Electromagnetic field norm distributions of the modes supported by our LR-DLSPPW. In practice, TM polarized light from an external fiber couples only to the modes shown in panels (b,c).
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Schematic description of the device fabrication flow: (a) planar substrate, (b) oxidation of the SOI, (c) aluminum liftoff, (d) nitride deposition, (e) aluminum liftoff, (f) reactive ion etching (RIE).
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 SEM image showing a cross section of the LR-DLSPPW device. The various material layers are highlighted.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Light transmission as a function of device length for devices (a) with and (b) without metal strips.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 SEM image of the side walls of the LR-DLSPPW
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 a) NSOM image b) mode propagation simulation c) NSOM (Blue) and simulated (green) cross section

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