Abstract

Global satellite remote sensing of aerosols requires in situ measurements to enable the calibration and validation of algorithms. In order to improve our understanding of light scattering by aerosol particles, and to enable routine in situ airborne measurements of aerosol light scattering, we have developed an instrument, called the Polarized Imaging Nephelometer (PI-Neph). We designed and built the PI-Neph at the Laboratory for Aerosols, Clouds and Optics (LACO) of the University of Maryland, Baltimore County (UMBC). This portable instrument directly measures the ambient scattering coefficient and phase matrix elements of aerosols, in the field or onboard an aircraft. The measured phase matrix elements are the P11, phase function, and P12. Lasers illuminate the sampled ambient air and aerosol, and a wide field of view camera detects scattered light in a scattering angle range of 3° to 176°. The PI-Neph measures an ensemble of particles, supplying the relevant quantity for satellite remote sensing, as opposed to particle-by-particle measurements that have other applications. Comparisons with remote sensing measurements will have to consider aircraft inlet effects. The PI-Neph first measured at a laser wavelength of 532nm, and was first deployed successfully in 2011 aboard the B200 aircraft of NASA Langley during the Development and Evaluation of satellite ValidatiOn Tools by Experimenters (DEVOTE) project. In 2013, we upgraded the PI-Neph to measure at 473nm, 532nm, and 671nm nearly simultaneously. LACO has deployed the PI-Neph on a number of airborne field campaigns aboard three different NASA aircraft. This paper describes the PI-Neph measurement approach and validation by comparing measurements of artificial spherical aerosols with Mie theory. We provide estimates of calibration uncertainties, which show agreement with the small residuals between measurements of P11 and –P12/P11 and Mie theory. We demonstrate the capability of the PI-Neph to measure ambient aerosol with two data sets from the Deep Convective Clouds and Chemistry (DC3) field campaign, from flights over Colorado in June 2012.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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References

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2013 (5)

G. Myhre, C. E. L. Myhre, B. H. Samset, and T. Storelvmo, “Aerosols and their relation to global climate and climate sensitivity,” Nat. Educ. Knowl. 4(5), 7–15 (2013).

D. J. Diner, F. Xu, M. J. Garay, J. V. Martonchik, B. E. Rheingans, S. Geier, A. Davis, B. R. Hancock, V. M. Jovanovic, M. A. Bull, K. Capraro, R. A. Chipman, and S. C. McClain, “The Airborne Multiangle SpectroPolarimetric Imager (AirMSPI): a new tool for aerosol and cloud remote sensing,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss. 6(1), 1717–1769 (2013).
[Crossref]

I. Manolis, J. Caron, J.-L. Bézy, M. Loiselet, M. Betto, H. Barré, G. Mason, R. Meynart, and S. Grabarnik, “The MetOp second generation 3MI instrument,” Proc. SPIE 8889, 88890J (2013).

K. B. Aptowicz, Y.-L. Pan, S. D. Martin, E. Fernandez, R. K. Chang, and R. G. Pinnick, “Decomposition of atmospheric aerosol phase function by particle size and asphericity from measurements of single particle optical scattering patterns,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 131, 13–23 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. Zhang, Y. Huang, R. Rao, and Z. Wang, “Retrieval of effective complex refractive index from intensive measurements of characteristics of ambient aerosols in the boundary layer,” Opt. Express 21(15), 17849–17862 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (1)

2011 (4)

D. Baumgardner, J. L. Brenguier, A. Bucholtz, H. Coe, P. DeMott, T. J. Garrett, J. F. Gayet, M. Hermann, A. Heymsfield, A. Korolev, M. Krämer, A. Petzold, W. Strapp, P. Pilewskie, J. Taylor, C. Twohy, M. Wendisch, W. Bachalo, and P. Chuang, “Airborne instruments to measure atmospheric aerosol particles, clouds and radiation: A cook’s tour of mature and emerging technology,” Atmos. Res. 102(1-2), 10–29 (2011).
[Crossref]

G. Chen, L. D. Ziemba, D. A. Chu, K. L. Thornhill, G. L. Schuster, E. L. Winstead, G. S. Diskin, R. A. Ferrare, S. P. Burton, S. Ismail, S. A. Kooi, A. H. Omar, D. L. Slusher, M. M. Kleb, J. S. Reid, C. H. Twohy, H. Zhang, and B. E. Anderson, “Observations of Saharan dust microphysical and optical properties from the Eastern Atlantic during NAMMA airborne field campaign,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 11(2), 723–740 (2011).
[Crossref]

O. Muñoz and J. W. Hovenier, “Laboratory measurements of single light scattering by ensembles of randomly oriented small irregular particles in air. A review,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 112(11), 1646–1657 (2011).
[Crossref]

B. Meland, P. D. Kleiber, V. H. Grassian, and M. A. Young, “Visible light scattering study at 470, 550, and 660 nm of components of mineral dust aerosol: hematite and goethite,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 112(6), 1108–1118 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (3)

M. J. Berg, S. C. Hill, Y. L. Pan, and G. Videen, “Two-dimensional Guinier analysis: application to single aerosol particles in-flight,” Opt. Express 18(22), 23343–23352 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Dolgos, J. V. Martins, L. A. Remer, A. L. Correia, M. Tabacniks, and A. R. Lima, “Characterization of aerosol scattering and spectral absorption by unique methods : A Polar / Imaging Nephelometer and spectral reflectance measurements of aerosol samples collected on filters,” Proc. SPIE 7588, 75880E (2010).

S. P. Burton, R. A. Ferrare, C. A. Hostetler, J. W. Hair, C. Kittaka, M. A. Vaughan, M. D. Obland, R. R. Rogers, A. L. Cook, D. B. Harper, and L. A. Remer, “Using airborne high spectral resolution lidar data to evaluate combined active plus passive retrievals of aerosol extinction profiles,” J. Geophys. Res. 115, D00H15 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

R. Fernandez-Borda, E. Waluschka, S. Pellicori, J. V. Martins, L. Ramos-Izquierdo, J. D. Cieslak, and P. Thompson, “Evaluation of the polarization properties of a Philips-type prism for the construction of imaging polarimeters,” Proc. SPIE 7461, 746113 (2009).

2008 (2)

2007 (4)

M. I. Mishchenko, B. Cairns, J. E. Hansen, L. D. Travis, G. Kopp, C. F. Schueler, B. A. Fafaul, R. J. Hooker, H. B. Maring, and T. Itchkawich, “Accurate monitoring of terrestrial aerosols and total solar irradiance: introducing the glory mission,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 88(5), 677–691 (2007).
[Crossref]

C. S. McNaughton, A. D. Clarke, S. G. Howell, M. Pinkerton, B. Anderson, L. Thornhill, C. Hudgins, E. Winstead, J. E. Dibb, E. Scheuer, and H. Maring, “Results from the DC-8 Inlet Characterization Experiment (DICE): Airborne Versus Surface Sampling of Mineral Dust and Sea Salt Aerosols,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 41(2), 136–159 (2007).
[Crossref]

S. N. Kasarova, N. G. Sultanova, C. D. Ivanov, and I. D. Nikolov, “Analysis of the dispersion of optical plastic materials,” Opt. Mater. (Amst) 29(11), 1481–1490 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. I. Mishchenko, L. Liu, and G. Videen, “Conditions of applicability of the single-scattering approximation,” Opt. Express 15(12), 7522–7527 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

E. Boesche, P. Stammes, T. Ruhtz, R. Preusker, and J. Fischer, “Effect of aerosol microphysical properties on polarization of skylight: sensitivity study and measurements,” Appl. Opt. 45(34), 8790–8805 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Dubovik, A. Sinyuk, T. Lapyonok, B. N. Holben, M. Mishchenko, P. Yang, T. F. Eck, H. Volten, O. Munoz, B. Veihelmann, W. J. Van Der Zande, J. Leon, M. Sorokin, and I. Slutsker, “Application of spheroid models to account for aerosol particle nonsphericity in remote sensing of desert dust,” J. Geophys. Res. 111(D11), D11208 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (2)

L. A. Remer, Y. J. Kaufman, D. Tanre, S. Mattoo, D. A. Chu, J. V. Martins, R.-R. Li, C. Ichoku, R. C. Levy, R. G. Kleidman, T. F. Eck, E. F. Vermote, and B. N. Holben, “The MODIS Aerosol algorithm, products, and validation,” J. Atmos. Sci. 62(4), 947–973 (2005).
[Crossref]

P. Galletto, W. Lin, M. I. Mishchenko, and M. Borkovec, “Light-scattering form factors of asymmetric particle dimers from heteroaggregation experiments,” J. Chem. Phys. 123(6), 064709 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (3)

M. I. Mishchenko, B. Cairns, J. E. Hansen, L. D. Travis, R. Burg, Y. J. Kaufman, J. V. Martins, and E. P. Shettle, “Monitoring of aerosol forcing of climate from space: analysis of measurement requirements,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 88(1-3), 149–161 (2004).
[Crossref]

I. Koren, Y. J. Kaufman, L. A. Remer, and J. V. Martins, “Measurement of the effect of Amazon smoke on inhibition of cloud formation,” Science 303(5662), 1342–1345 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. V. Kalashnikova and I. N. Sokolik, “Modeling the radiative properties of nonspherical soil-derived mineral aerosols,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 87(2), 137–166 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (2)

C. M. Riley, W. I. Rose, and G. J. S. Bluth, “Quantitative shape measurements of distal volcanic ash,” J. Geophys. Res. 108(B10), 2504 (2003).
[Crossref]

X. Ma, J. Q. Lu, R. S. Brock, K. M. Jacobs, P. Yang, and X.-H. Hu, “Determination of complex refractive index of polystyrene microspheres from 370 to 1610 nm,” Phys. Med. Biol. 48(24), 4165–4172 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

Y. J. Kaufman, D. Tanré, and O. Boucher, “A satellite view of aerosols in the climate system,” Nature 419(6903), 215–223 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. H. McMurry and K. S. Woo, “Size distributions of 3-100-nm urban Atlanta aerosols: measurement and observations,” J. Aerosol Med. 15(2), 169–178 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (3)

J. Chowdhary, B. Cairns, M. Mishchenko, and L. Travis, “Retrieval of aerosol properties over the ocean using multispectral and multiangle photopolarimetric measurements from the Research Scanning Polarimeter,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 28(2), 243–246 (2001).
[Crossref]

J. L. Deuzé, F. M. Breon, C. Devaux, P. Goloub, M. Herman, B. Lafrance, F. Maignan, A. Marchand, F. Nadal, G. Perry, and D. Tanre, “Remote sensing of aerosols over land surfaces from POLDER-ADEOS–1 polarized measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 106(D5), 4913–4926 (2001).
[Crossref]

H. Volten, O. Munoz, E. Rol, J. de Haan, W. Vassen, J. W. Hovenier, K. Muinonen, and T. Nousiainen, “Scattering matrices of mineral aerosol particles at 441.6 nm and 632.8 nm,” J. Geophys. Res. 106(D15), 17375–17401 (2001).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

T. L. Anderson and J. A. Ogren, “Determining Aerosol Radiative Properties Using the TSI 3563 Integrating Nephelometer,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 29(1), 57–69 (1998).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

T. L. Anderson, D. S. Covert, S. F. Marshall, M. L. Laucks, R. J. Charlson, A. P. Waggoner, J. A. Ogren, R. Caldow, R. L. Holm, F. R. Quant, G. J. Sem, A. Wiedensohler, N. A. Ahlquist, and T. S. Bates, “Performance characteristics of a high-sensitivity, three-wavelength total scatter - backscatter nephelometer,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 13(5), 967–986 (1996).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

P. Chylek and J. Wong, “Effect of absorbing aerosols on global radiation budget,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22(8), 929–931 (1995).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

W. C. Malm, “Characteristics and origins of haze in the continental United States,” Earth Sci. Rev. 33(1), 1–36 (1992).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

1985 (1)

G. W. Mulholland, A. W. Hartman, G. G. Hembree, E. Marx, and T. R. Lettieri, “Development of a one-micrometer-diameter particle size Standard Reference Material,” J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. (1934)  90, 3–26 (1985).

1983 (1)

E. Marx and G. W. Mulholland, “Size and refractive index determination of single polystyrene spheres,” J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. 88(5), 321–338 (1983).
[Crossref]

1975 (1)

G. Grams, A. Dascher, and C. Wymna, “Laser Polar Nephelometer for Airborne Measurements of Aerosol Optical Properties,” Opt. Eng. 14(1), 85–90 (1975).
[Crossref]

1974 (1)

J. Hansen and L. Travis, “Light scattering in planetary atmospheres,” Space Sci. Rev. 16(4), 527–610 (1974).
[Crossref]

1960 (1)

Afargan, H.

I. Koren, J. V. Martins, L. A. Remer, and H. Afargan, “Smoke invigoration versus inhibition of clouds over the Amazon,” Science 321(5891), 946–949 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ahlquist, N. A.

T. L. Anderson, D. S. Covert, S. F. Marshall, M. L. Laucks, R. J. Charlson, A. P. Waggoner, J. A. Ogren, R. Caldow, R. L. Holm, F. R. Quant, G. J. Sem, A. Wiedensohler, N. A. Ahlquist, and T. S. Bates, “Performance characteristics of a high-sensitivity, three-wavelength total scatter - backscatter nephelometer,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 13(5), 967–986 (1996).
[Crossref]

Alexandrov, M.

Anderson, B.

C. S. McNaughton, A. D. Clarke, S. G. Howell, M. Pinkerton, B. Anderson, L. Thornhill, C. Hudgins, E. Winstead, J. E. Dibb, E. Scheuer, and H. Maring, “Results from the DC-8 Inlet Characterization Experiment (DICE): Airborne Versus Surface Sampling of Mineral Dust and Sea Salt Aerosols,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 41(2), 136–159 (2007).
[Crossref]

Anderson, B. E.

G. Chen, L. D. Ziemba, D. A. Chu, K. L. Thornhill, G. L. Schuster, E. L. Winstead, G. S. Diskin, R. A. Ferrare, S. P. Burton, S. Ismail, S. A. Kooi, A. H. Omar, D. L. Slusher, M. M. Kleb, J. S. Reid, C. H. Twohy, H. Zhang, and B. E. Anderson, “Observations of Saharan dust microphysical and optical properties from the Eastern Atlantic during NAMMA airborne field campaign,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 11(2), 723–740 (2011).
[Crossref]

Anderson, T. L.

T. L. Anderson and J. A. Ogren, “Determining Aerosol Radiative Properties Using the TSI 3563 Integrating Nephelometer,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 29(1), 57–69 (1998).
[Crossref]

T. L. Anderson, D. S. Covert, S. F. Marshall, M. L. Laucks, R. J. Charlson, A. P. Waggoner, J. A. Ogren, R. Caldow, R. L. Holm, F. R. Quant, G. J. Sem, A. Wiedensohler, N. A. Ahlquist, and T. S. Bates, “Performance characteristics of a high-sensitivity, three-wavelength total scatter - backscatter nephelometer,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 13(5), 967–986 (1996).
[Crossref]

Aptowicz, K. B.

K. B. Aptowicz, Y.-L. Pan, S. D. Martin, E. Fernandez, R. K. Chang, and R. G. Pinnick, “Decomposition of atmospheric aerosol phase function by particle size and asphericity from measurements of single particle optical scattering patterns,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 131, 13–23 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bachalo, W.

D. Baumgardner, J. L. Brenguier, A. Bucholtz, H. Coe, P. DeMott, T. J. Garrett, J. F. Gayet, M. Hermann, A. Heymsfield, A. Korolev, M. Krämer, A. Petzold, W. Strapp, P. Pilewskie, J. Taylor, C. Twohy, M. Wendisch, W. Bachalo, and P. Chuang, “Airborne instruments to measure atmospheric aerosol particles, clouds and radiation: A cook’s tour of mature and emerging technology,” Atmos. Res. 102(1-2), 10–29 (2011).
[Crossref]

Barré, H.

I. Manolis, J. Caron, J.-L. Bézy, M. Loiselet, M. Betto, H. Barré, G. Mason, R. Meynart, and S. Grabarnik, “The MetOp second generation 3MI instrument,” Proc. SPIE 8889, 88890J (2013).

Bates, T. S.

T. L. Anderson, D. S. Covert, S. F. Marshall, M. L. Laucks, R. J. Charlson, A. P. Waggoner, J. A. Ogren, R. Caldow, R. L. Holm, F. R. Quant, G. J. Sem, A. Wiedensohler, N. A. Ahlquist, and T. S. Bates, “Performance characteristics of a high-sensitivity, three-wavelength total scatter - backscatter nephelometer,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 13(5), 967–986 (1996).
[Crossref]

Baumgardner, D.

D. Baumgardner, J. L. Brenguier, A. Bucholtz, H. Coe, P. DeMott, T. J. Garrett, J. F. Gayet, M. Hermann, A. Heymsfield, A. Korolev, M. Krämer, A. Petzold, W. Strapp, P. Pilewskie, J. Taylor, C. Twohy, M. Wendisch, W. Bachalo, and P. Chuang, “Airborne instruments to measure atmospheric aerosol particles, clouds and radiation: A cook’s tour of mature and emerging technology,” Atmos. Res. 102(1-2), 10–29 (2011).
[Crossref]

Berg, M. J.

Betto, M.

I. Manolis, J. Caron, J.-L. Bézy, M. Loiselet, M. Betto, H. Barré, G. Mason, R. Meynart, and S. Grabarnik, “The MetOp second generation 3MI instrument,” Proc. SPIE 8889, 88890J (2013).

Bézy, J.-L.

I. Manolis, J. Caron, J.-L. Bézy, M. Loiselet, M. Betto, H. Barré, G. Mason, R. Meynart, and S. Grabarnik, “The MetOp second generation 3MI instrument,” Proc. SPIE 8889, 88890J (2013).

Bluth, G. J. S.

C. M. Riley, W. I. Rose, and G. J. S. Bluth, “Quantitative shape measurements of distal volcanic ash,” J. Geophys. Res. 108(B10), 2504 (2003).
[Crossref]

Boesche, E.

Borkovec, M.

P. Galletto, W. Lin, M. I. Mishchenko, and M. Borkovec, “Light-scattering form factors of asymmetric particle dimers from heteroaggregation experiments,” J. Chem. Phys. 123(6), 064709 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boucher, O.

Y. J. Kaufman, D. Tanré, and O. Boucher, “A satellite view of aerosols in the climate system,” Nature 419(6903), 215–223 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brenguier, J. L.

D. Baumgardner, J. L. Brenguier, A. Bucholtz, H. Coe, P. DeMott, T. J. Garrett, J. F. Gayet, M. Hermann, A. Heymsfield, A. Korolev, M. Krämer, A. Petzold, W. Strapp, P. Pilewskie, J. Taylor, C. Twohy, M. Wendisch, W. Bachalo, and P. Chuang, “Airborne instruments to measure atmospheric aerosol particles, clouds and radiation: A cook’s tour of mature and emerging technology,” Atmos. Res. 102(1-2), 10–29 (2011).
[Crossref]

Breon, F. M.

J. L. Deuzé, F. M. Breon, C. Devaux, P. Goloub, M. Herman, B. Lafrance, F. Maignan, A. Marchand, F. Nadal, G. Perry, and D. Tanre, “Remote sensing of aerosols over land surfaces from POLDER-ADEOS–1 polarized measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 106(D5), 4913–4926 (2001).
[Crossref]

Brock, R. S.

X. Ma, J. Q. Lu, R. S. Brock, K. M. Jacobs, P. Yang, and X.-H. Hu, “Determination of complex refractive index of polystyrene microspheres from 370 to 1610 nm,” Phys. Med. Biol. 48(24), 4165–4172 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bucholtz, A.

D. Baumgardner, J. L. Brenguier, A. Bucholtz, H. Coe, P. DeMott, T. J. Garrett, J. F. Gayet, M. Hermann, A. Heymsfield, A. Korolev, M. Krämer, A. Petzold, W. Strapp, P. Pilewskie, J. Taylor, C. Twohy, M. Wendisch, W. Bachalo, and P. Chuang, “Airborne instruments to measure atmospheric aerosol particles, clouds and radiation: A cook’s tour of mature and emerging technology,” Atmos. Res. 102(1-2), 10–29 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bull, M. A.

D. J. Diner, F. Xu, M. J. Garay, J. V. Martonchik, B. E. Rheingans, S. Geier, A. Davis, B. R. Hancock, V. M. Jovanovic, M. A. Bull, K. Capraro, R. A. Chipman, and S. C. McClain, “The Airborne Multiangle SpectroPolarimetric Imager (AirMSPI): a new tool for aerosol and cloud remote sensing,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss. 6(1), 1717–1769 (2013).
[Crossref]

Burg, R.

M. I. Mishchenko, B. Cairns, J. E. Hansen, L. D. Travis, R. Burg, Y. J. Kaufman, J. V. Martins, and E. P. Shettle, “Monitoring of aerosol forcing of climate from space: analysis of measurement requirements,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 88(1-3), 149–161 (2004).
[Crossref]

Burton, S. P.

G. Chen, L. D. Ziemba, D. A. Chu, K. L. Thornhill, G. L. Schuster, E. L. Winstead, G. S. Diskin, R. A. Ferrare, S. P. Burton, S. Ismail, S. A. Kooi, A. H. Omar, D. L. Slusher, M. M. Kleb, J. S. Reid, C. H. Twohy, H. Zhang, and B. E. Anderson, “Observations of Saharan dust microphysical and optical properties from the Eastern Atlantic during NAMMA airborne field campaign,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 11(2), 723–740 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. P. Burton, R. A. Ferrare, C. A. Hostetler, J. W. Hair, C. Kittaka, M. A. Vaughan, M. D. Obland, R. R. Rogers, A. L. Cook, D. B. Harper, and L. A. Remer, “Using airborne high spectral resolution lidar data to evaluate combined active plus passive retrievals of aerosol extinction profiles,” J. Geophys. Res. 115, D00H15 (2010).
[Crossref]

Cairns, B.

K. Knobelspiesse, B. Cairns, M. Mishchenko, J. Chowdhary, K. Tsigaridis, B. van Diedenhoven, W. Martin, M. Ottaviani, and M. Alexandrov, “Analysis of fine-mode aerosol retrieval capabilities by different passive remote sensing instrument designs,” Opt. Express 20(19), 21457–21484 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. I. Mishchenko, B. Cairns, J. E. Hansen, L. D. Travis, G. Kopp, C. F. Schueler, B. A. Fafaul, R. J. Hooker, H. B. Maring, and T. Itchkawich, “Accurate monitoring of terrestrial aerosols and total solar irradiance: introducing the glory mission,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 88(5), 677–691 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. I. Mishchenko, B. Cairns, J. E. Hansen, L. D. Travis, R. Burg, Y. J. Kaufman, J. V. Martins, and E. P. Shettle, “Monitoring of aerosol forcing of climate from space: analysis of measurement requirements,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 88(1-3), 149–161 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. Chowdhary, B. Cairns, M. Mishchenko, and L. Travis, “Retrieval of aerosol properties over the ocean using multispectral and multiangle photopolarimetric measurements from the Research Scanning Polarimeter,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 28(2), 243–246 (2001).
[Crossref]

Caldow, R.

T. L. Anderson, D. S. Covert, S. F. Marshall, M. L. Laucks, R. J. Charlson, A. P. Waggoner, J. A. Ogren, R. Caldow, R. L. Holm, F. R. Quant, G. J. Sem, A. Wiedensohler, N. A. Ahlquist, and T. S. Bates, “Performance characteristics of a high-sensitivity, three-wavelength total scatter - backscatter nephelometer,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 13(5), 967–986 (1996).
[Crossref]

Capraro, K.

D. J. Diner, F. Xu, M. J. Garay, J. V. Martonchik, B. E. Rheingans, S. Geier, A. Davis, B. R. Hancock, V. M. Jovanovic, M. A. Bull, K. Capraro, R. A. Chipman, and S. C. McClain, “The Airborne Multiangle SpectroPolarimetric Imager (AirMSPI): a new tool for aerosol and cloud remote sensing,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss. 6(1), 1717–1769 (2013).
[Crossref]

Caron, J.

I. Manolis, J. Caron, J.-L. Bézy, M. Loiselet, M. Betto, H. Barré, G. Mason, R. Meynart, and S. Grabarnik, “The MetOp second generation 3MI instrument,” Proc. SPIE 8889, 88890J (2013).

Chang, R. K.

K. B. Aptowicz, Y.-L. Pan, S. D. Martin, E. Fernandez, R. K. Chang, and R. G. Pinnick, “Decomposition of atmospheric aerosol phase function by particle size and asphericity from measurements of single particle optical scattering patterns,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 131, 13–23 (2013).
[Crossref]

Charlson, R. J.

T. L. Anderson, D. S. Covert, S. F. Marshall, M. L. Laucks, R. J. Charlson, A. P. Waggoner, J. A. Ogren, R. Caldow, R. L. Holm, F. R. Quant, G. J. Sem, A. Wiedensohler, N. A. Ahlquist, and T. S. Bates, “Performance characteristics of a high-sensitivity, three-wavelength total scatter - backscatter nephelometer,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 13(5), 967–986 (1996).
[Crossref]

Chen, G.

G. Chen, L. D. Ziemba, D. A. Chu, K. L. Thornhill, G. L. Schuster, E. L. Winstead, G. S. Diskin, R. A. Ferrare, S. P. Burton, S. Ismail, S. A. Kooi, A. H. Omar, D. L. Slusher, M. M. Kleb, J. S. Reid, C. H. Twohy, H. Zhang, and B. E. Anderson, “Observations of Saharan dust microphysical and optical properties from the Eastern Atlantic during NAMMA airborne field campaign,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 11(2), 723–740 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chipman, R. A.

D. J. Diner, F. Xu, M. J. Garay, J. V. Martonchik, B. E. Rheingans, S. Geier, A. Davis, B. R. Hancock, V. M. Jovanovic, M. A. Bull, K. Capraro, R. A. Chipman, and S. C. McClain, “The Airborne Multiangle SpectroPolarimetric Imager (AirMSPI): a new tool for aerosol and cloud remote sensing,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss. 6(1), 1717–1769 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chowdhary, J.

K. Knobelspiesse, B. Cairns, M. Mishchenko, J. Chowdhary, K. Tsigaridis, B. van Diedenhoven, W. Martin, M. Ottaviani, and M. Alexandrov, “Analysis of fine-mode aerosol retrieval capabilities by different passive remote sensing instrument designs,” Opt. Express 20(19), 21457–21484 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Chowdhary, B. Cairns, M. Mishchenko, and L. Travis, “Retrieval of aerosol properties over the ocean using multispectral and multiangle photopolarimetric measurements from the Research Scanning Polarimeter,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 28(2), 243–246 (2001).
[Crossref]

Chu, D. A.

G. Chen, L. D. Ziemba, D. A. Chu, K. L. Thornhill, G. L. Schuster, E. L. Winstead, G. S. Diskin, R. A. Ferrare, S. P. Burton, S. Ismail, S. A. Kooi, A. H. Omar, D. L. Slusher, M. M. Kleb, J. S. Reid, C. H. Twohy, H. Zhang, and B. E. Anderson, “Observations of Saharan dust microphysical and optical properties from the Eastern Atlantic during NAMMA airborne field campaign,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 11(2), 723–740 (2011).
[Crossref]

L. A. Remer, Y. J. Kaufman, D. Tanre, S. Mattoo, D. A. Chu, J. V. Martins, R.-R. Li, C. Ichoku, R. C. Levy, R. G. Kleidman, T. F. Eck, E. F. Vermote, and B. N. Holben, “The MODIS Aerosol algorithm, products, and validation,” J. Atmos. Sci. 62(4), 947–973 (2005).
[Crossref]

Chuang, P.

D. Baumgardner, J. L. Brenguier, A. Bucholtz, H. Coe, P. DeMott, T. J. Garrett, J. F. Gayet, M. Hermann, A. Heymsfield, A. Korolev, M. Krämer, A. Petzold, W. Strapp, P. Pilewskie, J. Taylor, C. Twohy, M. Wendisch, W. Bachalo, and P. Chuang, “Airborne instruments to measure atmospheric aerosol particles, clouds and radiation: A cook’s tour of mature and emerging technology,” Atmos. Res. 102(1-2), 10–29 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chylek, P.

P. Chylek and J. Wong, “Effect of absorbing aerosols on global radiation budget,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22(8), 929–931 (1995).
[Crossref]

Cieslak, J. D.

R. Fernandez-Borda, E. Waluschka, S. Pellicori, J. V. Martins, L. Ramos-Izquierdo, J. D. Cieslak, and P. Thompson, “Evaluation of the polarization properties of a Philips-type prism for the construction of imaging polarimeters,” Proc. SPIE 7461, 746113 (2009).

Clarke, A. D.

C. S. McNaughton, A. D. Clarke, S. G. Howell, M. Pinkerton, B. Anderson, L. Thornhill, C. Hudgins, E. Winstead, J. E. Dibb, E. Scheuer, and H. Maring, “Results from the DC-8 Inlet Characterization Experiment (DICE): Airborne Versus Surface Sampling of Mineral Dust and Sea Salt Aerosols,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 41(2), 136–159 (2007).
[Crossref]

Coe, H.

D. Baumgardner, J. L. Brenguier, A. Bucholtz, H. Coe, P. DeMott, T. J. Garrett, J. F. Gayet, M. Hermann, A. Heymsfield, A. Korolev, M. Krämer, A. Petzold, W. Strapp, P. Pilewskie, J. Taylor, C. Twohy, M. Wendisch, W. Bachalo, and P. Chuang, “Airborne instruments to measure atmospheric aerosol particles, clouds and radiation: A cook’s tour of mature and emerging technology,” Atmos. Res. 102(1-2), 10–29 (2011).
[Crossref]

Cook, A. L.

S. P. Burton, R. A. Ferrare, C. A. Hostetler, J. W. Hair, C. Kittaka, M. A. Vaughan, M. D. Obland, R. R. Rogers, A. L. Cook, D. B. Harper, and L. A. Remer, “Using airborne high spectral resolution lidar data to evaluate combined active plus passive retrievals of aerosol extinction profiles,” J. Geophys. Res. 115, D00H15 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. W. Hair, C. A. Hostetler, A. L. Cook, D. B. Harper, R. A. Ferrare, T. L. Mack, W. Welch, L. R. Isquierdo, and F. E. Hovis, “Airborne high spectral resolution lidar for profiling aerosol optical properties,” Appl. Opt. 47(36), 6734–6752 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Correia, A. L.

G. Dolgos, J. V. Martins, L. A. Remer, A. L. Correia, M. Tabacniks, and A. R. Lima, “Characterization of aerosol scattering and spectral absorption by unique methods : A Polar / Imaging Nephelometer and spectral reflectance measurements of aerosol samples collected on filters,” Proc. SPIE 7588, 75880E (2010).

Covert, D. S.

T. L. Anderson, D. S. Covert, S. F. Marshall, M. L. Laucks, R. J. Charlson, A. P. Waggoner, J. A. Ogren, R. Caldow, R. L. Holm, F. R. Quant, G. J. Sem, A. Wiedensohler, N. A. Ahlquist, and T. S. Bates, “Performance characteristics of a high-sensitivity, three-wavelength total scatter - backscatter nephelometer,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 13(5), 967–986 (1996).
[Crossref]

Dascher, A.

G. Grams, A. Dascher, and C. Wymna, “Laser Polar Nephelometer for Airborne Measurements of Aerosol Optical Properties,” Opt. Eng. 14(1), 85–90 (1975).
[Crossref]

Davis, A.

D. J. Diner, F. Xu, M. J. Garay, J. V. Martonchik, B. E. Rheingans, S. Geier, A. Davis, B. R. Hancock, V. M. Jovanovic, M. A. Bull, K. Capraro, R. A. Chipman, and S. C. McClain, “The Airborne Multiangle SpectroPolarimetric Imager (AirMSPI): a new tool for aerosol and cloud remote sensing,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss. 6(1), 1717–1769 (2013).
[Crossref]

de Haan, J.

H. Volten, O. Munoz, E. Rol, J. de Haan, W. Vassen, J. W. Hovenier, K. Muinonen, and T. Nousiainen, “Scattering matrices of mineral aerosol particles at 441.6 nm and 632.8 nm,” J. Geophys. Res. 106(D15), 17375–17401 (2001).
[Crossref]

DeMott, P.

D. Baumgardner, J. L. Brenguier, A. Bucholtz, H. Coe, P. DeMott, T. J. Garrett, J. F. Gayet, M. Hermann, A. Heymsfield, A. Korolev, M. Krämer, A. Petzold, W. Strapp, P. Pilewskie, J. Taylor, C. Twohy, M. Wendisch, W. Bachalo, and P. Chuang, “Airborne instruments to measure atmospheric aerosol particles, clouds and radiation: A cook’s tour of mature and emerging technology,” Atmos. Res. 102(1-2), 10–29 (2011).
[Crossref]

Deuzé, J. L.

J. L. Deuzé, F. M. Breon, C. Devaux, P. Goloub, M. Herman, B. Lafrance, F. Maignan, A. Marchand, F. Nadal, G. Perry, and D. Tanre, “Remote sensing of aerosols over land surfaces from POLDER-ADEOS–1 polarized measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 106(D5), 4913–4926 (2001).
[Crossref]

Devaux, C.

J. L. Deuzé, F. M. Breon, C. Devaux, P. Goloub, M. Herman, B. Lafrance, F. Maignan, A. Marchand, F. Nadal, G. Perry, and D. Tanre, “Remote sensing of aerosols over land surfaces from POLDER-ADEOS–1 polarized measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 106(D5), 4913–4926 (2001).
[Crossref]

Dibb, J. E.

C. S. McNaughton, A. D. Clarke, S. G. Howell, M. Pinkerton, B. Anderson, L. Thornhill, C. Hudgins, E. Winstead, J. E. Dibb, E. Scheuer, and H. Maring, “Results from the DC-8 Inlet Characterization Experiment (DICE): Airborne Versus Surface Sampling of Mineral Dust and Sea Salt Aerosols,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 41(2), 136–159 (2007).
[Crossref]

Diner, D. J.

D. J. Diner, F. Xu, M. J. Garay, J. V. Martonchik, B. E. Rheingans, S. Geier, A. Davis, B. R. Hancock, V. M. Jovanovic, M. A. Bull, K. Capraro, R. A. Chipman, and S. C. McClain, “The Airborne Multiangle SpectroPolarimetric Imager (AirMSPI): a new tool for aerosol and cloud remote sensing,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss. 6(1), 1717–1769 (2013).
[Crossref]

Diskin, G. S.

G. Chen, L. D. Ziemba, D. A. Chu, K. L. Thornhill, G. L. Schuster, E. L. Winstead, G. S. Diskin, R. A. Ferrare, S. P. Burton, S. Ismail, S. A. Kooi, A. H. Omar, D. L. Slusher, M. M. Kleb, J. S. Reid, C. H. Twohy, H. Zhang, and B. E. Anderson, “Observations of Saharan dust microphysical and optical properties from the Eastern Atlantic during NAMMA airborne field campaign,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 11(2), 723–740 (2011).
[Crossref]

Dolgos, G.

G. Dolgos, J. V. Martins, L. A. Remer, A. L. Correia, M. Tabacniks, and A. R. Lima, “Characterization of aerosol scattering and spectral absorption by unique methods : A Polar / Imaging Nephelometer and spectral reflectance measurements of aerosol samples collected on filters,” Proc. SPIE 7588, 75880E (2010).

Dubovik, O.

O. Dubovik, A. Sinyuk, T. Lapyonok, B. N. Holben, M. Mishchenko, P. Yang, T. F. Eck, H. Volten, O. Munoz, B. Veihelmann, W. J. Van Der Zande, J. Leon, M. Sorokin, and I. Slutsker, “Application of spheroid models to account for aerosol particle nonsphericity in remote sensing of desert dust,” J. Geophys. Res. 111(D11), D11208 (2006).
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O. Dubovik, A. Sinyuk, T. Lapyonok, B. N. Holben, M. Mishchenko, P. Yang, T. F. Eck, H. Volten, O. Munoz, B. Veihelmann, W. J. Van Der Zande, J. Leon, M. Sorokin, and I. Slutsker, “Application of spheroid models to account for aerosol particle nonsphericity in remote sensing of desert dust,” J. Geophys. Res. 111(D11), D11208 (2006).
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G. W. Mulholland, A. W. Hartman, G. G. Hembree, E. Marx, and T. R. Lettieri, “Development of a one-micrometer-diameter particle size Standard Reference Material,” J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. (1934)  90, 3–26 (1985).

Levy, R. C.

L. A. Remer, Y. J. Kaufman, D. Tanre, S. Mattoo, D. A. Chu, J. V. Martins, R.-R. Li, C. Ichoku, R. C. Levy, R. G. Kleidman, T. F. Eck, E. F. Vermote, and B. N. Holben, “The MODIS Aerosol algorithm, products, and validation,” J. Atmos. Sci. 62(4), 947–973 (2005).
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Li, R.-R.

L. A. Remer, Y. J. Kaufman, D. Tanre, S. Mattoo, D. A. Chu, J. V. Martins, R.-R. Li, C. Ichoku, R. C. Levy, R. G. Kleidman, T. F. Eck, E. F. Vermote, and B. N. Holben, “The MODIS Aerosol algorithm, products, and validation,” J. Atmos. Sci. 62(4), 947–973 (2005).
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Lima, A. R.

G. Dolgos, J. V. Martins, L. A. Remer, A. L. Correia, M. Tabacniks, and A. R. Lima, “Characterization of aerosol scattering and spectral absorption by unique methods : A Polar / Imaging Nephelometer and spectral reflectance measurements of aerosol samples collected on filters,” Proc. SPIE 7588, 75880E (2010).

Lin, W.

P. Galletto, W. Lin, M. I. Mishchenko, and M. Borkovec, “Light-scattering form factors of asymmetric particle dimers from heteroaggregation experiments,” J. Chem. Phys. 123(6), 064709 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, L.

Loiselet, M.

I. Manolis, J. Caron, J.-L. Bézy, M. Loiselet, M. Betto, H. Barré, G. Mason, R. Meynart, and S. Grabarnik, “The MetOp second generation 3MI instrument,” Proc. SPIE 8889, 88890J (2013).

Lu, J. Q.

X. Ma, J. Q. Lu, R. S. Brock, K. M. Jacobs, P. Yang, and X.-H. Hu, “Determination of complex refractive index of polystyrene microspheres from 370 to 1610 nm,” Phys. Med. Biol. 48(24), 4165–4172 (2003).
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Ma, X.

X. Ma, J. Q. Lu, R. S. Brock, K. M. Jacobs, P. Yang, and X.-H. Hu, “Determination of complex refractive index of polystyrene microspheres from 370 to 1610 nm,” Phys. Med. Biol. 48(24), 4165–4172 (2003).
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Mack, T. L.

Maignan, F.

J. L. Deuzé, F. M. Breon, C. Devaux, P. Goloub, M. Herman, B. Lafrance, F. Maignan, A. Marchand, F. Nadal, G. Perry, and D. Tanre, “Remote sensing of aerosols over land surfaces from POLDER-ADEOS–1 polarized measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 106(D5), 4913–4926 (2001).
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I. Manolis, J. Caron, J.-L. Bézy, M. Loiselet, M. Betto, H. Barré, G. Mason, R. Meynart, and S. Grabarnik, “The MetOp second generation 3MI instrument,” Proc. SPIE 8889, 88890J (2013).

Marchand, A.

J. L. Deuzé, F. M. Breon, C. Devaux, P. Goloub, M. Herman, B. Lafrance, F. Maignan, A. Marchand, F. Nadal, G. Perry, and D. Tanre, “Remote sensing of aerosols over land surfaces from POLDER-ADEOS–1 polarized measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 106(D5), 4913–4926 (2001).
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Maring, H.

C. S. McNaughton, A. D. Clarke, S. G. Howell, M. Pinkerton, B. Anderson, L. Thornhill, C. Hudgins, E. Winstead, J. E. Dibb, E. Scheuer, and H. Maring, “Results from the DC-8 Inlet Characterization Experiment (DICE): Airborne Versus Surface Sampling of Mineral Dust and Sea Salt Aerosols,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 41(2), 136–159 (2007).
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Maring, H. B.

M. I. Mishchenko, B. Cairns, J. E. Hansen, L. D. Travis, G. Kopp, C. F. Schueler, B. A. Fafaul, R. J. Hooker, H. B. Maring, and T. Itchkawich, “Accurate monitoring of terrestrial aerosols and total solar irradiance: introducing the glory mission,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 88(5), 677–691 (2007).
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T. L. Anderson, D. S. Covert, S. F. Marshall, M. L. Laucks, R. J. Charlson, A. P. Waggoner, J. A. Ogren, R. Caldow, R. L. Holm, F. R. Quant, G. J. Sem, A. Wiedensohler, N. A. Ahlquist, and T. S. Bates, “Performance characteristics of a high-sensitivity, three-wavelength total scatter - backscatter nephelometer,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 13(5), 967–986 (1996).
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K. B. Aptowicz, Y.-L. Pan, S. D. Martin, E. Fernandez, R. K. Chang, and R. G. Pinnick, “Decomposition of atmospheric aerosol phase function by particle size and asphericity from measurements of single particle optical scattering patterns,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 131, 13–23 (2013).
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Martin, W.

Martins, J. V.

G. Dolgos, J. V. Martins, L. A. Remer, A. L. Correia, M. Tabacniks, and A. R. Lima, “Characterization of aerosol scattering and spectral absorption by unique methods : A Polar / Imaging Nephelometer and spectral reflectance measurements of aerosol samples collected on filters,” Proc. SPIE 7588, 75880E (2010).

R. Fernandez-Borda, E. Waluschka, S. Pellicori, J. V. Martins, L. Ramos-Izquierdo, J. D. Cieslak, and P. Thompson, “Evaluation of the polarization properties of a Philips-type prism for the construction of imaging polarimeters,” Proc. SPIE 7461, 746113 (2009).

I. Koren, J. V. Martins, L. A. Remer, and H. Afargan, “Smoke invigoration versus inhibition of clouds over the Amazon,” Science 321(5891), 946–949 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. A. Remer, Y. J. Kaufman, D. Tanre, S. Mattoo, D. A. Chu, J. V. Martins, R.-R. Li, C. Ichoku, R. C. Levy, R. G. Kleidman, T. F. Eck, E. F. Vermote, and B. N. Holben, “The MODIS Aerosol algorithm, products, and validation,” J. Atmos. Sci. 62(4), 947–973 (2005).
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I. Koren, Y. J. Kaufman, L. A. Remer, and J. V. Martins, “Measurement of the effect of Amazon smoke on inhibition of cloud formation,” Science 303(5662), 1342–1345 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. I. Mishchenko, B. Cairns, J. E. Hansen, L. D. Travis, R. Burg, Y. J. Kaufman, J. V. Martins, and E. P. Shettle, “Monitoring of aerosol forcing of climate from space: analysis of measurement requirements,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 88(1-3), 149–161 (2004).
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D. J. Diner, F. Xu, M. J. Garay, J. V. Martonchik, B. E. Rheingans, S. Geier, A. Davis, B. R. Hancock, V. M. Jovanovic, M. A. Bull, K. Capraro, R. A. Chipman, and S. C. McClain, “The Airborne Multiangle SpectroPolarimetric Imager (AirMSPI): a new tool for aerosol and cloud remote sensing,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss. 6(1), 1717–1769 (2013).
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Marx, E.

G. W. Mulholland, A. W. Hartman, G. G. Hembree, E. Marx, and T. R. Lettieri, “Development of a one-micrometer-diameter particle size Standard Reference Material,” J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. (1934)  90, 3–26 (1985).

E. Marx and G. W. Mulholland, “Size and refractive index determination of single polystyrene spheres,” J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. 88(5), 321–338 (1983).
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Mason, G.

I. Manolis, J. Caron, J.-L. Bézy, M. Loiselet, M. Betto, H. Barré, G. Mason, R. Meynart, and S. Grabarnik, “The MetOp second generation 3MI instrument,” Proc. SPIE 8889, 88890J (2013).

Mattoo, S.

L. A. Remer, Y. J. Kaufman, D. Tanre, S. Mattoo, D. A. Chu, J. V. Martins, R.-R. Li, C. Ichoku, R. C. Levy, R. G. Kleidman, T. F. Eck, E. F. Vermote, and B. N. Holben, “The MODIS Aerosol algorithm, products, and validation,” J. Atmos. Sci. 62(4), 947–973 (2005).
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D. J. Diner, F. Xu, M. J. Garay, J. V. Martonchik, B. E. Rheingans, S. Geier, A. Davis, B. R. Hancock, V. M. Jovanovic, M. A. Bull, K. Capraro, R. A. Chipman, and S. C. McClain, “The Airborne Multiangle SpectroPolarimetric Imager (AirMSPI): a new tool for aerosol and cloud remote sensing,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss. 6(1), 1717–1769 (2013).
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P. H. McMurry and K. S. Woo, “Size distributions of 3-100-nm urban Atlanta aerosols: measurement and observations,” J. Aerosol Med. 15(2), 169–178 (2002).
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B. Meland, P. D. Kleiber, V. H. Grassian, and M. A. Young, “Visible light scattering study at 470, 550, and 660 nm of components of mineral dust aerosol: hematite and goethite,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 112(6), 1108–1118 (2011).
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I. Manolis, J. Caron, J.-L. Bézy, M. Loiselet, M. Betto, H. Barré, G. Mason, R. Meynart, and S. Grabarnik, “The MetOp second generation 3MI instrument,” Proc. SPIE 8889, 88890J (2013).

Mishchenko, M.

K. Knobelspiesse, B. Cairns, M. Mishchenko, J. Chowdhary, K. Tsigaridis, B. van Diedenhoven, W. Martin, M. Ottaviani, and M. Alexandrov, “Analysis of fine-mode aerosol retrieval capabilities by different passive remote sensing instrument designs,” Opt. Express 20(19), 21457–21484 (2012).
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O. Dubovik, A. Sinyuk, T. Lapyonok, B. N. Holben, M. Mishchenko, P. Yang, T. F. Eck, H. Volten, O. Munoz, B. Veihelmann, W. J. Van Der Zande, J. Leon, M. Sorokin, and I. Slutsker, “Application of spheroid models to account for aerosol particle nonsphericity in remote sensing of desert dust,” J. Geophys. Res. 111(D11), D11208 (2006).
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J. Chowdhary, B. Cairns, M. Mishchenko, and L. Travis, “Retrieval of aerosol properties over the ocean using multispectral and multiangle photopolarimetric measurements from the Research Scanning Polarimeter,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 28(2), 243–246 (2001).
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M. I. Mishchenko, L. Liu, and G. Videen, “Conditions of applicability of the single-scattering approximation,” Opt. Express 15(12), 7522–7527 (2007).
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M. I. Mishchenko, B. Cairns, J. E. Hansen, L. D. Travis, G. Kopp, C. F. Schueler, B. A. Fafaul, R. J. Hooker, H. B. Maring, and T. Itchkawich, “Accurate monitoring of terrestrial aerosols and total solar irradiance: introducing the glory mission,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 88(5), 677–691 (2007).
[Crossref]

P. Galletto, W. Lin, M. I. Mishchenko, and M. Borkovec, “Light-scattering form factors of asymmetric particle dimers from heteroaggregation experiments,” J. Chem. Phys. 123(6), 064709 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. I. Mishchenko, B. Cairns, J. E. Hansen, L. D. Travis, R. Burg, Y. J. Kaufman, J. V. Martins, and E. P. Shettle, “Monitoring of aerosol forcing of climate from space: analysis of measurement requirements,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 88(1-3), 149–161 (2004).
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Muinonen, K.

H. Volten, O. Munoz, E. Rol, J. de Haan, W. Vassen, J. W. Hovenier, K. Muinonen, and T. Nousiainen, “Scattering matrices of mineral aerosol particles at 441.6 nm and 632.8 nm,” J. Geophys. Res. 106(D15), 17375–17401 (2001).
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G. W. Mulholland, A. W. Hartman, G. G. Hembree, E. Marx, and T. R. Lettieri, “Development of a one-micrometer-diameter particle size Standard Reference Material,” J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. (1934)  90, 3–26 (1985).

E. Marx and G. W. Mulholland, “Size and refractive index determination of single polystyrene spheres,” J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. 88(5), 321–338 (1983).
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O. Dubovik, A. Sinyuk, T. Lapyonok, B. N. Holben, M. Mishchenko, P. Yang, T. F. Eck, H. Volten, O. Munoz, B. Veihelmann, W. J. Van Der Zande, J. Leon, M. Sorokin, and I. Slutsker, “Application of spheroid models to account for aerosol particle nonsphericity in remote sensing of desert dust,” J. Geophys. Res. 111(D11), D11208 (2006).
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H. Volten, O. Munoz, E. Rol, J. de Haan, W. Vassen, J. W. Hovenier, K. Muinonen, and T. Nousiainen, “Scattering matrices of mineral aerosol particles at 441.6 nm and 632.8 nm,” J. Geophys. Res. 106(D15), 17375–17401 (2001).
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Myhre, G.

G. Myhre, C. E. L. Myhre, B. H. Samset, and T. Storelvmo, “Aerosols and their relation to global climate and climate sensitivity,” Nat. Educ. Knowl. 4(5), 7–15 (2013).

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J. L. Deuzé, F. M. Breon, C. Devaux, P. Goloub, M. Herman, B. Lafrance, F. Maignan, A. Marchand, F. Nadal, G. Perry, and D. Tanre, “Remote sensing of aerosols over land surfaces from POLDER-ADEOS–1 polarized measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 106(D5), 4913–4926 (2001).
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H. Volten, O. Munoz, E. Rol, J. de Haan, W. Vassen, J. W. Hovenier, K. Muinonen, and T. Nousiainen, “Scattering matrices of mineral aerosol particles at 441.6 nm and 632.8 nm,” J. Geophys. Res. 106(D15), 17375–17401 (2001).
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S. P. Burton, R. A. Ferrare, C. A. Hostetler, J. W. Hair, C. Kittaka, M. A. Vaughan, M. D. Obland, R. R. Rogers, A. L. Cook, D. B. Harper, and L. A. Remer, “Using airborne high spectral resolution lidar data to evaluate combined active plus passive retrievals of aerosol extinction profiles,” J. Geophys. Res. 115, D00H15 (2010).
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G. Chen, L. D. Ziemba, D. A. Chu, K. L. Thornhill, G. L. Schuster, E. L. Winstead, G. S. Diskin, R. A. Ferrare, S. P. Burton, S. Ismail, S. A. Kooi, A. H. Omar, D. L. Slusher, M. M. Kleb, J. S. Reid, C. H. Twohy, H. Zhang, and B. E. Anderson, “Observations of Saharan dust microphysical and optical properties from the Eastern Atlantic during NAMMA airborne field campaign,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 11(2), 723–740 (2011).
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Ottaviani, M.

Pan, Y. L.

Pan, Y.-L.

K. B. Aptowicz, Y.-L. Pan, S. D. Martin, E. Fernandez, R. K. Chang, and R. G. Pinnick, “Decomposition of atmospheric aerosol phase function by particle size and asphericity from measurements of single particle optical scattering patterns,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 131, 13–23 (2013).
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Pellicori, S.

R. Fernandez-Borda, E. Waluschka, S. Pellicori, J. V. Martins, L. Ramos-Izquierdo, J. D. Cieslak, and P. Thompson, “Evaluation of the polarization properties of a Philips-type prism for the construction of imaging polarimeters,” Proc. SPIE 7461, 746113 (2009).

Perry, G.

J. L. Deuzé, F. M. Breon, C. Devaux, P. Goloub, M. Herman, B. Lafrance, F. Maignan, A. Marchand, F. Nadal, G. Perry, and D. Tanre, “Remote sensing of aerosols over land surfaces from POLDER-ADEOS–1 polarized measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 106(D5), 4913–4926 (2001).
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D. Baumgardner, J. L. Brenguier, A. Bucholtz, H. Coe, P. DeMott, T. J. Garrett, J. F. Gayet, M. Hermann, A. Heymsfield, A. Korolev, M. Krämer, A. Petzold, W. Strapp, P. Pilewskie, J. Taylor, C. Twohy, M. Wendisch, W. Bachalo, and P. Chuang, “Airborne instruments to measure atmospheric aerosol particles, clouds and radiation: A cook’s tour of mature and emerging technology,” Atmos. Res. 102(1-2), 10–29 (2011).
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Pilewskie, P.

D. Baumgardner, J. L. Brenguier, A. Bucholtz, H. Coe, P. DeMott, T. J. Garrett, J. F. Gayet, M. Hermann, A. Heymsfield, A. Korolev, M. Krämer, A. Petzold, W. Strapp, P. Pilewskie, J. Taylor, C. Twohy, M. Wendisch, W. Bachalo, and P. Chuang, “Airborne instruments to measure atmospheric aerosol particles, clouds and radiation: A cook’s tour of mature and emerging technology,” Atmos. Res. 102(1-2), 10–29 (2011).
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Pinkerton, M.

C. S. McNaughton, A. D. Clarke, S. G. Howell, M. Pinkerton, B. Anderson, L. Thornhill, C. Hudgins, E. Winstead, J. E. Dibb, E. Scheuer, and H. Maring, “Results from the DC-8 Inlet Characterization Experiment (DICE): Airborne Versus Surface Sampling of Mineral Dust and Sea Salt Aerosols,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 41(2), 136–159 (2007).
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Pinnick, R. G.

K. B. Aptowicz, Y.-L. Pan, S. D. Martin, E. Fernandez, R. K. Chang, and R. G. Pinnick, “Decomposition of atmospheric aerosol phase function by particle size and asphericity from measurements of single particle optical scattering patterns,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 131, 13–23 (2013).
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Preusker, R.

Pritchard, B. S.

Quant, F. R.

T. L. Anderson, D. S. Covert, S. F. Marshall, M. L. Laucks, R. J. Charlson, A. P. Waggoner, J. A. Ogren, R. Caldow, R. L. Holm, F. R. Quant, G. J. Sem, A. Wiedensohler, N. A. Ahlquist, and T. S. Bates, “Performance characteristics of a high-sensitivity, three-wavelength total scatter - backscatter nephelometer,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 13(5), 967–986 (1996).
[Crossref]

Ramos-Izquierdo, L.

R. Fernandez-Borda, E. Waluschka, S. Pellicori, J. V. Martins, L. Ramos-Izquierdo, J. D. Cieslak, and P. Thompson, “Evaluation of the polarization properties of a Philips-type prism for the construction of imaging polarimeters,” Proc. SPIE 7461, 746113 (2009).

Rao, R.

Reid, J. S.

G. Chen, L. D. Ziemba, D. A. Chu, K. L. Thornhill, G. L. Schuster, E. L. Winstead, G. S. Diskin, R. A. Ferrare, S. P. Burton, S. Ismail, S. A. Kooi, A. H. Omar, D. L. Slusher, M. M. Kleb, J. S. Reid, C. H. Twohy, H. Zhang, and B. E. Anderson, “Observations of Saharan dust microphysical and optical properties from the Eastern Atlantic during NAMMA airborne field campaign,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 11(2), 723–740 (2011).
[Crossref]

Remer, L. A.

G. Dolgos, J. V. Martins, L. A. Remer, A. L. Correia, M. Tabacniks, and A. R. Lima, “Characterization of aerosol scattering and spectral absorption by unique methods : A Polar / Imaging Nephelometer and spectral reflectance measurements of aerosol samples collected on filters,” Proc. SPIE 7588, 75880E (2010).

S. P. Burton, R. A. Ferrare, C. A. Hostetler, J. W. Hair, C. Kittaka, M. A. Vaughan, M. D. Obland, R. R. Rogers, A. L. Cook, D. B. Harper, and L. A. Remer, “Using airborne high spectral resolution lidar data to evaluate combined active plus passive retrievals of aerosol extinction profiles,” J. Geophys. Res. 115, D00H15 (2010).
[Crossref]

I. Koren, J. V. Martins, L. A. Remer, and H. Afargan, “Smoke invigoration versus inhibition of clouds over the Amazon,” Science 321(5891), 946–949 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. A. Remer, Y. J. Kaufman, D. Tanre, S. Mattoo, D. A. Chu, J. V. Martins, R.-R. Li, C. Ichoku, R. C. Levy, R. G. Kleidman, T. F. Eck, E. F. Vermote, and B. N. Holben, “The MODIS Aerosol algorithm, products, and validation,” J. Atmos. Sci. 62(4), 947–973 (2005).
[Crossref]

I. Koren, Y. J. Kaufman, L. A. Remer, and J. V. Martins, “Measurement of the effect of Amazon smoke on inhibition of cloud formation,” Science 303(5662), 1342–1345 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rheingans, B. E.

D. J. Diner, F. Xu, M. J. Garay, J. V. Martonchik, B. E. Rheingans, S. Geier, A. Davis, B. R. Hancock, V. M. Jovanovic, M. A. Bull, K. Capraro, R. A. Chipman, and S. C. McClain, “The Airborne Multiangle SpectroPolarimetric Imager (AirMSPI): a new tool for aerosol and cloud remote sensing,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss. 6(1), 1717–1769 (2013).
[Crossref]

Riley, C. M.

C. M. Riley, W. I. Rose, and G. J. S. Bluth, “Quantitative shape measurements of distal volcanic ash,” J. Geophys. Res. 108(B10), 2504 (2003).
[Crossref]

Rogers, R. R.

S. P. Burton, R. A. Ferrare, C. A. Hostetler, J. W. Hair, C. Kittaka, M. A. Vaughan, M. D. Obland, R. R. Rogers, A. L. Cook, D. B. Harper, and L. A. Remer, “Using airborne high spectral resolution lidar data to evaluate combined active plus passive retrievals of aerosol extinction profiles,” J. Geophys. Res. 115, D00H15 (2010).
[Crossref]

Rol, E.

H. Volten, O. Munoz, E. Rol, J. de Haan, W. Vassen, J. W. Hovenier, K. Muinonen, and T. Nousiainen, “Scattering matrices of mineral aerosol particles at 441.6 nm and 632.8 nm,” J. Geophys. Res. 106(D15), 17375–17401 (2001).
[Crossref]

Rose, W. I.

C. M. Riley, W. I. Rose, and G. J. S. Bluth, “Quantitative shape measurements of distal volcanic ash,” J. Geophys. Res. 108(B10), 2504 (2003).
[Crossref]

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O. Dubovik, A. Sinyuk, T. Lapyonok, B. N. Holben, M. Mishchenko, P. Yang, T. F. Eck, H. Volten, O. Munoz, B. Veihelmann, W. J. Van Der Zande, J. Leon, M. Sorokin, and I. Slutsker, “Application of spheroid models to account for aerosol particle nonsphericity in remote sensing of desert dust,” J. Geophys. Res. 111(D11), D11208 (2006).
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K. B. Aptowicz, Y.-L. Pan, S. D. Martin, E. Fernandez, R. K. Chang, and R. G. Pinnick, “Decomposition of atmospheric aerosol phase function by particle size and asphericity from measurements of single particle optical scattering patterns,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 131, 13–23 (2013).
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M. I. Mishchenko, B. Cairns, J. E. Hansen, L. D. Travis, R. Burg, Y. J. Kaufman, J. V. Martins, and E. P. Shettle, “Monitoring of aerosol forcing of climate from space: analysis of measurement requirements,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 88(1-3), 149–161 (2004).
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Phys. Med. Biol. (1)

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G. Dolgos, J. V. Martins, L. A. Remer, and A. L. Correia, “Development of new instrumentation for aerosol angular light scattering and spectral absorption measurements, T092A05,” presented at the European Aerosol Conference 2009, Karlsruhe, Germany, 10 Sept. 2009.

G. Dolgos, J. V. Martins, R. Espinosa, and O. Dubovik, “Polarized Imaging Nephelometer for Field and Aircraft Measurements of Aerosol Phase Matrix Elements,” presented at the Electromagnetic & Light Scattering XIV, Lille, France, 17 June 2013.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Scattering geometry and notation of the measurement equation. Panels (a) and (b) show the same geometry, from nearly perpendicular views. We employ the view of panel (b) because it is an advantageous orientation for Fig. 2. The incident light travels in the positive z direction. The scattering event takes place in the ΔV volume, while point M is the center of the detection. The projection of point M onto the ‘xy’ plane is point N. The scattering plane lies on points M, N, and O, and on the z-axis. The scattering plane includes the propagation directions of the incident laser beam and the scattered light.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Schematic of the imaging arrangement employed in the scattering chamber of the Polarized Imaging Nephelometer (PI-Neph). Panel (a) shows the arrangement of the instrument in a view approximating the orientation of Fig. 1. panel (b), looking in the positive x direction. The coordinate systems are the same in Fig. 1 and Fig. 2.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Panel (a) shows raw grayscale format data acquired from CO2 scattering. Scattering angles associated with a select few pixel locations appear next to perpendicular profile locations. The top and bottom beam boundaries are in blue and yellow color. Panel (b) is a single raw data image of 903nm diameter PS (polystyrene) spheres suspended in clear air, showing the Mie scattering pattern. The streaks of single particles average out for longer than a minute data acquisition times. Panels (c), (d), (e), and (f) are illustrations of the background subtraction procedure, two examples of CO2 and two from PS.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 The optical and sensor layout of the PI-Neph instrument. Components inside the pressure boundary and the M4 mirror are in the chamber module, other components reside in the laser module.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 A common measurement scheme, employing a pair of perpendicular polarizations, one pair per each wavelength in a temporal sequence. A three-wavelength measurement takes 36 seconds in this case.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Panel (a) shows the drawing of the external structure of the instrument. Dimensions are in millimeters. The photo in panel (b) shows the PI-Neph inside the DC8 aircraft at the NASA Dryden Aircraft Operations Facility, August 2013.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Measured initial P11 and –P12/P11 data products (10-minute average of 59 samples) for PS spheres are the green circles. Panel (a) shows P11, while panel (b) shows –P12/P11 data. Time averages of best fitting Mie simulations selected from a lookup table are the red solid and black dashed lines, representing the mean of fits to P11 only, and the mean of fits to –P12/P11 only, respectively.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 P11 and –P12/P11 data are in panels (a) and (b), respectively. Blue dashed lines are above and below the mean of final PS data by two standard deviations of the mean, σD (59 samples), showing the extent of random errors. Systematic (calibration) error of PS data is Δsys. The green ribbon is centered on the mean of final PS data, it shows the extent of random and systematic measurement errors. The largely overlapping red and black lines are fits to P11 and –P12/P11, respectively. The pink and grey ribbons show the standard deviations of the mean of the Mie fits, σM1 or σM2 (50 samples); the ribbons closely follow the Mie fits and are only clearly visible in –P12/P11.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Airborne measurements of ambient aerosol P11 and –P12/P11 are in panels (a) and (b), respectively. These are examples from the Deep Convective Clouds and Chemistry campaign, from two flights over the state of Colorado, demonstrating the capability of the PI-Neph to measure at ambient scattering coefficient, βsca, levels. Measurements of phase functions have low enough random errors that make the cases from 6/15 and 6/22 distinguishable. The random errors given for asymmetry parameters, g, are the population standard deviations. Assuming the dominant factor in variability of g is instrumental noise, the resulting standard deviations of the means for the two cases are: 0.0023 and 0.0017.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Size Distribution Fit Results for Polystyrene Spheres

Equations (2)

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( I sca ( θ ) Q sca ( θ ) U sca ( θ ) V sca ( θ ) )= β sca ΔV 4π r 2 P( θ ) ¯ ¯ ( I in Q in U in V in )
P( θ ) ¯ ¯ =( P 11 ( θ ) P 12 ( θ ) 0 0 P 12 ( θ ) P 22 ( θ ) 0 0 0 0 P 33 ( θ ) P 34 ( θ ) 0 0 P 34 ( θ ) P 44 ( θ ) )

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