Abstract

The new Aquatic Laser Fluorescence Analyzer (ALFA) provides spectral and temporal measurements of laser-stimulated emission (LSE) for assessment of phytoplankton pigments, community structure, photochemical efficiency (PY), and chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM). The instrument was deployed in the Northern Gulf of Mexico to evaluate the ALFA analytical capabilities across the estuarine-marine gradient. The robust relationships between the pigment fluorescence and independent pigment measurements were used to validate the ALFA analytical algorithms and calibrate the instrument. The maximal PY magnitudes, PYm = PY(1-1.35·10−4PAR)−1, were estimated using the underway measurements of PY and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). The chlorophyll (Chl) spatial patterns were calculated using the ratio of Chl fluorescence to PY to eliminate the effect of non-photochemical quenching on the underway Chl assessments. These measurements have provided rich information about spatial distributions of Chl, PYm, CDOM, and phytoplankton community structure, and demonstrated the utility of the ALFA instrument for oceanographic studies and bio-environmental surveys. The data suggest that the fluorescence measurements with 514 nm excitation can provide informative data for characterization of the CDOM-rich fresh, estuarine, and coastal aquatic environments.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2014 (2)

J. I. Goes, H. R. Gomes, A. M. Chekalyuk, E. J. Carpenter, J. P. Montoya, V. J. Coles, P. L. Yager, W. M. Berelson, D. G. Capone, R. A. Foster, D. K. Steinberg, A. Subramaniam, and M. A. Hafez, “Influence of Amazon River discharge on the biogeography of phytoplankton communities in the western tropical north Atlantic,” Prog. Oceanogr. 120, 29–40 (2014), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhao and A. Quigg, “Nutrient limitation in Northern Gulf of Mexico (NGOM): phytoplankton communities and photosynthesis respond to nutrient pulse,” PLoS ONE 9(2), e88732 (2014), doi:.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2013 (4)

R. E. Turner and N. N. Rabalais, “Nitrogen and phosphorus phytoplankton growth limitation in the northern Gulf of Mexico,” Aquat. Microb. Ecol. 68(2), 159–169 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Ohman, D. L. Rudnick, A. Chekalyuk, R. E. Davis, R. A. Feely, M. Kahru, H.-J. Kim, M. R. Landry, T. R. Martz, C. L. Sabine, and U. Send, “Autonomous ocean measurements in the California Current Ecosystem,” Oceanography (Wash. D.C.) 26(3), 18–25 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Chekalyuk and M. A. Hafez, “Next generation Advanced Laser Fluorometry (ALF) for characterization of natural aquatic environments: new instruments,” Opt. Express 21(12), 14181–14201 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Chekalyuk and M. Hafez, “Analysis of spectral excitation for measurements of fluorescence constituents in natural waters,” Opt. Express 21(24), 29255–29268 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012 (2)

A. M. Chekalyuk, M. Landry, R. Goericke, A. G. Taylor, and M. Hafez, “Laser fluorescence analysis of phytoplankton across a frontal zone in the California Current ecosystem,” J. Plankton Res. 34(9), 761–777 (2012).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Schaeffer, J. C. Kurtz, and M. K. Hein, “Phytoplankton community composition in nearshore coastal waters of Louisiana,” Mar. Pollut. Bull. 64(8), 1705–1712 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (3)

J. B. Sylvan, A. Quigg, S. Tozzi, and J. W. Ammerman, “Mapping phytoplankton community physiology on a river impacted continental shelf: testing a multifaceted approach,” Estuaries Coasts 34(6), 1220–1233 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Quigg, J. B. Sylvan, A. B. Gustafson, T. R. Fisher, R. L. Oliver, S. Tozzi, and J. W. Ammerman, “Going west: nutrient limitation of primary production in the Northern Gulf of Mexico and the importance of the Atchafalaya River,” Aquat. Geochem. 17(4-5), 519–544 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Chekalyuk and M. Hafez, “Photo-physiological variability in phytoplankton chlorophyll fluorescence and assessment of chlorophyll concentration,” Opt. Express 19(23), 22643–22658 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

A. M. Chekalyuk and M. Hafez, “Advanced laser fluorometry of natural aquatic environments,” Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods 6, 591–609 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

J. B. Sylvan, A. Quigg, S. Tozzi, and J. W. Ammerman, “Eutrophication-induced phosphorus limitation in the Mississippi River plume: evidence from fast repetition rate fluorometry,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 52(6), 2679–2685 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

D. M. Kehoe and A. Gutu, “Responding to color: the regulation of complementary chromatic adaptation,” Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. 57(1), 127–150 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

Y. R. Qian, A. E. Jochens, M. C. Kennicutt, and D. C. Biggs, “Spatial and temporal variability of phytoplankton biomass and community structure over the continental margin of the northeast Gulf of Mexico based on pigment analysis,” Cont. Shelf Res. 23(1), 1–17 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

B. Palenik, “Chromatic adaptation in marine Synechococcus strains,” Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 67(2), 991–994 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

A. M. Chekalyuk, F. E. Hoge, C. W. Wright, R. N. Swift, and J. K. Yungel, “Airborne test of laser pump-and-probe technique for assessment of phytoplankton photochemical characteristics,” Photosynth. Res. 66(1-2), 45–56 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

Z. S. Kolber, O. Prasil, and P. G. Falkowski, “Measurements of variable chlorophyll fluorescence using fast repetition rate techniques: Defining methodology and experimental protocols,” Biochem. Biophys. Acta 1367(1-3), 88–106 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

D. Marie, F. Partensky, S. Jacquet, and D. Vaulot, “Enumeration and cell cycle analysis of natural populations of marine picoplankton by flow cytometry using the nucleic acid stain SYBR Green I,” Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 63(1), 186–193 (1997).
[PubMed]

1996 (2)

R. J. Olson, A. M. Chekalyuk, and H. M. Sosik, “Phytoplankton photosynthetic characteristics from fluorescence induction assays of individual cells,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 41(6), 1253–1263 (1996).
[CrossRef]

N. N. Rabalais, W. J. Wiseman, R. E. Turner, D. Justić, B. K. Gupta, and Q. Dortch, “Nutrient changes in the Mississippi River and system responses on the adjacent continental shelf,” Estuaries 19(2), 386–407 (1996).

1995 (2)

P. G. Falkowski and Z. Kolber, “Variations in chlorophyll fluorescence yields in phytoplankton in the world oceans,” Aust. J. Plant Physiol. 22(2), 341–355 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Bricaud, M. Babin, A. Morel, and H. Claustre, “Variability in the chlorophyll-specific absorption coefficients of natural phytoplankton: Analysis and parameterization,” J. Geophys. Res. 100(C7), 13321–13332 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

R. E. Turner and N. N. Rabalais, “Coastal eutrophication near the Mississippi River delta,” Nature 368(6472), 619–621 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

T. J. Cowles, R. A. Desiderio, and S. Neuer, “In situ characterization of phytoplankton from vertical profiles of fluorescence emission spectra,” Mar. Biol. 115(2), 217–222 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

R. Williams and H. Claustre, “Photosynthetic pigments as biomarkers oof phytoplankton populations and processes involved in the transformation of particulate organic matter at the Biotrans site (47°N, 20°W),” Deep-Sea Res. Part A, Oceanograph. Res. Papers 38, 347–355 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

M. Vernet, B. G. Mitchell, and O. Holm-Hansen, “Adaptation of Synechococcus in situ determined by variability in intracellular phycoerythrin-543 at a coastal station off the Southern California coast, USA,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 63, 9–16 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

1981 (1)

F. E. Hoge and R. N. Swift, “Airborne simultaneous spectroscopic detection of laser-induced water Raman backscatter and fluorescence from chlorophyll a and other naturally occurring pigments,” Appl. Opt. 20(18), 3197–3205 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1978 (1)

D. N. Klyshko and V. V. Fadeev, “Remote determination of concentration of impurities in water by the laser spectroscopy method with calibration by Raman scattering,” Sov. Phys. Dokl. 23, 55–59 (1978).

Ammerman, J. W.

A. Quigg, J. B. Sylvan, A. B. Gustafson, T. R. Fisher, R. L. Oliver, S. Tozzi, and J. W. Ammerman, “Going west: nutrient limitation of primary production in the Northern Gulf of Mexico and the importance of the Atchafalaya River,” Aquat. Geochem. 17(4-5), 519–544 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Sylvan, A. Quigg, S. Tozzi, and J. W. Ammerman, “Mapping phytoplankton community physiology on a river impacted continental shelf: testing a multifaceted approach,” Estuaries Coasts 34(6), 1220–1233 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Sylvan, A. Quigg, S. Tozzi, and J. W. Ammerman, “Eutrophication-induced phosphorus limitation in the Mississippi River plume: evidence from fast repetition rate fluorometry,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 52(6), 2679–2685 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Babin, M.

A. Bricaud, M. Babin, A. Morel, and H. Claustre, “Variability in the chlorophyll-specific absorption coefficients of natural phytoplankton: Analysis and parameterization,” J. Geophys. Res. 100(C7), 13321–13332 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Berelson, W. M.

J. I. Goes, H. R. Gomes, A. M. Chekalyuk, E. J. Carpenter, J. P. Montoya, V. J. Coles, P. L. Yager, W. M. Berelson, D. G. Capone, R. A. Foster, D. K. Steinberg, A. Subramaniam, and M. A. Hafez, “Influence of Amazon River discharge on the biogeography of phytoplankton communities in the western tropical north Atlantic,” Prog. Oceanogr. 120, 29–40 (2014), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Biggs, D. C.

Y. R. Qian, A. E. Jochens, M. C. Kennicutt, and D. C. Biggs, “Spatial and temporal variability of phytoplankton biomass and community structure over the continental margin of the northeast Gulf of Mexico based on pigment analysis,” Cont. Shelf Res. 23(1), 1–17 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bricaud, A.

A. Bricaud, M. Babin, A. Morel, and H. Claustre, “Variability in the chlorophyll-specific absorption coefficients of natural phytoplankton: Analysis and parameterization,” J. Geophys. Res. 100(C7), 13321–13332 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Capone, D. G.

J. I. Goes, H. R. Gomes, A. M. Chekalyuk, E. J. Carpenter, J. P. Montoya, V. J. Coles, P. L. Yager, W. M. Berelson, D. G. Capone, R. A. Foster, D. K. Steinberg, A. Subramaniam, and M. A. Hafez, “Influence of Amazon River discharge on the biogeography of phytoplankton communities in the western tropical north Atlantic,” Prog. Oceanogr. 120, 29–40 (2014), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Carpenter, E. J.

J. I. Goes, H. R. Gomes, A. M. Chekalyuk, E. J. Carpenter, J. P. Montoya, V. J. Coles, P. L. Yager, W. M. Berelson, D. G. Capone, R. A. Foster, D. K. Steinberg, A. Subramaniam, and M. A. Hafez, “Influence of Amazon River discharge on the biogeography of phytoplankton communities in the western tropical north Atlantic,” Prog. Oceanogr. 120, 29–40 (2014), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Chekalyuk, A.

M. D. Ohman, D. L. Rudnick, A. Chekalyuk, R. E. Davis, R. A. Feely, M. Kahru, H.-J. Kim, M. R. Landry, T. R. Martz, C. L. Sabine, and U. Send, “Autonomous ocean measurements in the California Current Ecosystem,” Oceanography (Wash. D.C.) 26(3), 18–25 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Chekalyuk, A. M.

J. I. Goes, H. R. Gomes, A. M. Chekalyuk, E. J. Carpenter, J. P. Montoya, V. J. Coles, P. L. Yager, W. M. Berelson, D. G. Capone, R. A. Foster, D. K. Steinberg, A. Subramaniam, and M. A. Hafez, “Influence of Amazon River discharge on the biogeography of phytoplankton communities in the western tropical north Atlantic,” Prog. Oceanogr. 120, 29–40 (2014), doi:.
[CrossRef]

A. M. Chekalyuk and M. A. Hafez, “Next generation Advanced Laser Fluorometry (ALF) for characterization of natural aquatic environments: new instruments,” Opt. Express 21(12), 14181–14201 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Chekalyuk and M. Hafez, “Analysis of spectral excitation for measurements of fluorescence constituents in natural waters,” Opt. Express 21(24), 29255–29268 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Chekalyuk, M. Landry, R. Goericke, A. G. Taylor, and M. Hafez, “Laser fluorescence analysis of phytoplankton across a frontal zone in the California Current ecosystem,” J. Plankton Res. 34(9), 761–777 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Chekalyuk and M. Hafez, “Photo-physiological variability in phytoplankton chlorophyll fluorescence and assessment of chlorophyll concentration,” Opt. Express 19(23), 22643–22658 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Chekalyuk and M. Hafez, “Advanced laser fluorometry of natural aquatic environments,” Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods 6, 591–609 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Chekalyuk, F. E. Hoge, C. W. Wright, R. N. Swift, and J. K. Yungel, “Airborne test of laser pump-and-probe technique for assessment of phytoplankton photochemical characteristics,” Photosynth. Res. 66(1-2), 45–56 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Olson, A. M. Chekalyuk, and H. M. Sosik, “Phytoplankton photosynthetic characteristics from fluorescence induction assays of individual cells,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 41(6), 1253–1263 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Claustre, H.

A. Bricaud, M. Babin, A. Morel, and H. Claustre, “Variability in the chlorophyll-specific absorption coefficients of natural phytoplankton: Analysis and parameterization,” J. Geophys. Res. 100(C7), 13321–13332 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. Williams and H. Claustre, “Photosynthetic pigments as biomarkers oof phytoplankton populations and processes involved in the transformation of particulate organic matter at the Biotrans site (47°N, 20°W),” Deep-Sea Res. Part A, Oceanograph. Res. Papers 38, 347–355 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Coles, V. J.

J. I. Goes, H. R. Gomes, A. M. Chekalyuk, E. J. Carpenter, J. P. Montoya, V. J. Coles, P. L. Yager, W. M. Berelson, D. G. Capone, R. A. Foster, D. K. Steinberg, A. Subramaniam, and M. A. Hafez, “Influence of Amazon River discharge on the biogeography of phytoplankton communities in the western tropical north Atlantic,” Prog. Oceanogr. 120, 29–40 (2014), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Cowles, T. J.

T. J. Cowles, R. A. Desiderio, and S. Neuer, “In situ characterization of phytoplankton from vertical profiles of fluorescence emission spectra,” Mar. Biol. 115(2), 217–222 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Davis, R. E.

M. D. Ohman, D. L. Rudnick, A. Chekalyuk, R. E. Davis, R. A. Feely, M. Kahru, H.-J. Kim, M. R. Landry, T. R. Martz, C. L. Sabine, and U. Send, “Autonomous ocean measurements in the California Current Ecosystem,” Oceanography (Wash. D.C.) 26(3), 18–25 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Desiderio, R. A.

T. J. Cowles, R. A. Desiderio, and S. Neuer, “In situ characterization of phytoplankton from vertical profiles of fluorescence emission spectra,” Mar. Biol. 115(2), 217–222 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Dortch, Q.

N. N. Rabalais, W. J. Wiseman, R. E. Turner, D. Justić, B. K. Gupta, and Q. Dortch, “Nutrient changes in the Mississippi River and system responses on the adjacent continental shelf,” Estuaries 19(2), 386–407 (1996).

Esaias, W. E.

Exton, R. J.

Fadeev, V. V.

D. N. Klyshko and V. V. Fadeev, “Remote determination of concentration of impurities in water by the laser spectroscopy method with calibration by Raman scattering,” Sov. Phys. Dokl. 23, 55–59 (1978).

Falkowski, P. G.

Z. S. Kolber, O. Prasil, and P. G. Falkowski, “Measurements of variable chlorophyll fluorescence using fast repetition rate techniques: Defining methodology and experimental protocols,” Biochem. Biophys. Acta 1367(1-3), 88–106 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. G. Falkowski and Z. Kolber, “Variations in chlorophyll fluorescence yields in phytoplankton in the world oceans,” Aust. J. Plant Physiol. 22(2), 341–355 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Farmer, F. H.

Feely, R. A.

M. D. Ohman, D. L. Rudnick, A. Chekalyuk, R. E. Davis, R. A. Feely, M. Kahru, H.-J. Kim, M. R. Landry, T. R. Martz, C. L. Sabine, and U. Send, “Autonomous ocean measurements in the California Current Ecosystem,” Oceanography (Wash. D.C.) 26(3), 18–25 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Fisher, T. R.

A. Quigg, J. B. Sylvan, A. B. Gustafson, T. R. Fisher, R. L. Oliver, S. Tozzi, and J. W. Ammerman, “Going west: nutrient limitation of primary production in the Northern Gulf of Mexico and the importance of the Atchafalaya River,” Aquat. Geochem. 17(4-5), 519–544 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Foster, R. A.

J. I. Goes, H. R. Gomes, A. M. Chekalyuk, E. J. Carpenter, J. P. Montoya, V. J. Coles, P. L. Yager, W. M. Berelson, D. G. Capone, R. A. Foster, D. K. Steinberg, A. Subramaniam, and M. A. Hafez, “Influence of Amazon River discharge on the biogeography of phytoplankton communities in the western tropical north Atlantic,” Prog. Oceanogr. 120, 29–40 (2014), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Goericke, R.

A. M. Chekalyuk, M. Landry, R. Goericke, A. G. Taylor, and M. Hafez, “Laser fluorescence analysis of phytoplankton across a frontal zone in the California Current ecosystem,” J. Plankton Res. 34(9), 761–777 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Goes, J. I.

J. I. Goes, H. R. Gomes, A. M. Chekalyuk, E. J. Carpenter, J. P. Montoya, V. J. Coles, P. L. Yager, W. M. Berelson, D. G. Capone, R. A. Foster, D. K. Steinberg, A. Subramaniam, and M. A. Hafez, “Influence of Amazon River discharge on the biogeography of phytoplankton communities in the western tropical north Atlantic,” Prog. Oceanogr. 120, 29–40 (2014), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Gomes, H. R.

J. I. Goes, H. R. Gomes, A. M. Chekalyuk, E. J. Carpenter, J. P. Montoya, V. J. Coles, P. L. Yager, W. M. Berelson, D. G. Capone, R. A. Foster, D. K. Steinberg, A. Subramaniam, and M. A. Hafez, “Influence of Amazon River discharge on the biogeography of phytoplankton communities in the western tropical north Atlantic,” Prog. Oceanogr. 120, 29–40 (2014), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Gupta, B. K.

N. N. Rabalais, W. J. Wiseman, R. E. Turner, D. Justić, B. K. Gupta, and Q. Dortch, “Nutrient changes in the Mississippi River and system responses on the adjacent continental shelf,” Estuaries 19(2), 386–407 (1996).

Gustafson, A. B.

A. Quigg, J. B. Sylvan, A. B. Gustafson, T. R. Fisher, R. L. Oliver, S. Tozzi, and J. W. Ammerman, “Going west: nutrient limitation of primary production in the Northern Gulf of Mexico and the importance of the Atchafalaya River,” Aquat. Geochem. 17(4-5), 519–544 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gutu, A.

D. M. Kehoe and A. Gutu, “Responding to color: the regulation of complementary chromatic adaptation,” Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. 57(1), 127–150 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hafez, M.

A. M. Chekalyuk and M. Hafez, “Analysis of spectral excitation for measurements of fluorescence constituents in natural waters,” Opt. Express 21(24), 29255–29268 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Chekalyuk, M. Landry, R. Goericke, A. G. Taylor, and M. Hafez, “Laser fluorescence analysis of phytoplankton across a frontal zone in the California Current ecosystem,” J. Plankton Res. 34(9), 761–777 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Chekalyuk and M. Hafez, “Photo-physiological variability in phytoplankton chlorophyll fluorescence and assessment of chlorophyll concentration,” Opt. Express 19(23), 22643–22658 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Chekalyuk and M. Hafez, “Advanced laser fluorometry of natural aquatic environments,” Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods 6, 591–609 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hafez, M. A.

J. I. Goes, H. R. Gomes, A. M. Chekalyuk, E. J. Carpenter, J. P. Montoya, V. J. Coles, P. L. Yager, W. M. Berelson, D. G. Capone, R. A. Foster, D. K. Steinberg, A. Subramaniam, and M. A. Hafez, “Influence of Amazon River discharge on the biogeography of phytoplankton communities in the western tropical north Atlantic,” Prog. Oceanogr. 120, 29–40 (2014), doi:.
[CrossRef]

A. M. Chekalyuk and M. A. Hafez, “Next generation Advanced Laser Fluorometry (ALF) for characterization of natural aquatic environments: new instruments,” Opt. Express 21(12), 14181–14201 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harriss, R. C.

Hein, M. K.

B. A. Schaeffer, J. C. Kurtz, and M. K. Hein, “Phytoplankton community composition in nearshore coastal waters of Louisiana,” Mar. Pollut. Bull. 64(8), 1705–1712 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hoge, F. E.

A. M. Chekalyuk, F. E. Hoge, C. W. Wright, R. N. Swift, and J. K. Yungel, “Airborne test of laser pump-and-probe technique for assessment of phytoplankton photochemical characteristics,” Photosynth. Res. 66(1-2), 45–56 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. E. Hoge and R. N. Swift, “Airborne simultaneous spectroscopic detection of laser-induced water Raman backscatter and fluorescence from chlorophyll a and other naturally occurring pigments,” Appl. Opt. 20(18), 3197–3205 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Holm-Hansen, O.

M. Vernet, B. G. Mitchell, and O. Holm-Hansen, “Adaptation of Synechococcus in situ determined by variability in intracellular phycoerythrin-543 at a coastal station off the Southern California coast, USA,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 63, 9–16 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Houghton, W. M.

Jacquet, S.

D. Marie, F. Partensky, S. Jacquet, and D. Vaulot, “Enumeration and cell cycle analysis of natural populations of marine picoplankton by flow cytometry using the nucleic acid stain SYBR Green I,” Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 63(1), 186–193 (1997).
[PubMed]

Jochens, A. E.

Y. R. Qian, A. E. Jochens, M. C. Kennicutt, and D. C. Biggs, “Spatial and temporal variability of phytoplankton biomass and community structure over the continental margin of the northeast Gulf of Mexico based on pigment analysis,” Cont. Shelf Res. 23(1), 1–17 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Justic, D.

N. N. Rabalais, W. J. Wiseman, R. E. Turner, D. Justić, B. K. Gupta, and Q. Dortch, “Nutrient changes in the Mississippi River and system responses on the adjacent continental shelf,” Estuaries 19(2), 386–407 (1996).

Kahru, M.

M. D. Ohman, D. L. Rudnick, A. Chekalyuk, R. E. Davis, R. A. Feely, M. Kahru, H.-J. Kim, M. R. Landry, T. R. Martz, C. L. Sabine, and U. Send, “Autonomous ocean measurements in the California Current Ecosystem,” Oceanography (Wash. D.C.) 26(3), 18–25 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Kehoe, D. M.

D. M. Kehoe and A. Gutu, “Responding to color: the regulation of complementary chromatic adaptation,” Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. 57(1), 127–150 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kennicutt, M. C.

Y. R. Qian, A. E. Jochens, M. C. Kennicutt, and D. C. Biggs, “Spatial and temporal variability of phytoplankton biomass and community structure over the continental margin of the northeast Gulf of Mexico based on pigment analysis,” Cont. Shelf Res. 23(1), 1–17 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H.-J.

M. D. Ohman, D. L. Rudnick, A. Chekalyuk, R. E. Davis, R. A. Feely, M. Kahru, H.-J. Kim, M. R. Landry, T. R. Martz, C. L. Sabine, and U. Send, “Autonomous ocean measurements in the California Current Ecosystem,” Oceanography (Wash. D.C.) 26(3), 18–25 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Klyshko, D. N.

D. N. Klyshko and V. V. Fadeev, “Remote determination of concentration of impurities in water by the laser spectroscopy method with calibration by Raman scattering,” Sov. Phys. Dokl. 23, 55–59 (1978).

Kolber, Z.

P. G. Falkowski and Z. Kolber, “Variations in chlorophyll fluorescence yields in phytoplankton in the world oceans,” Aust. J. Plant Physiol. 22(2), 341–355 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kolber, Z. S.

Z. S. Kolber, O. Prasil, and P. G. Falkowski, “Measurements of variable chlorophyll fluorescence using fast repetition rate techniques: Defining methodology and experimental protocols,” Biochem. Biophys. Acta 1367(1-3), 88–106 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kurtz, J. C.

B. A. Schaeffer, J. C. Kurtz, and M. K. Hein, “Phytoplankton community composition in nearshore coastal waters of Louisiana,” Mar. Pollut. Bull. 64(8), 1705–1712 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Landry, M.

A. M. Chekalyuk, M. Landry, R. Goericke, A. G. Taylor, and M. Hafez, “Laser fluorescence analysis of phytoplankton across a frontal zone in the California Current ecosystem,” J. Plankton Res. 34(9), 761–777 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Landry, M. R.

M. D. Ohman, D. L. Rudnick, A. Chekalyuk, R. E. Davis, R. A. Feely, M. Kahru, H.-J. Kim, M. R. Landry, T. R. Martz, C. L. Sabine, and U. Send, “Autonomous ocean measurements in the California Current Ecosystem,” Oceanography (Wash. D.C.) 26(3), 18–25 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Marie, D.

D. Marie, F. Partensky, S. Jacquet, and D. Vaulot, “Enumeration and cell cycle analysis of natural populations of marine picoplankton by flow cytometry using the nucleic acid stain SYBR Green I,” Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 63(1), 186–193 (1997).
[PubMed]

Martz, T. R.

M. D. Ohman, D. L. Rudnick, A. Chekalyuk, R. E. Davis, R. A. Feely, M. Kahru, H.-J. Kim, M. R. Landry, T. R. Martz, C. L. Sabine, and U. Send, “Autonomous ocean measurements in the California Current Ecosystem,” Oceanography (Wash. D.C.) 26(3), 18–25 (2013).
[CrossRef]

McInnes, A. S.

A. S. McInnes, A. K. Shepard, E. J. Raes, A. M. Waite, and A. Quigg, “Carbon and Nitrogen Fixation: Simultaneous quantification of active communities and estimation of rates using Fluorescence in situ Hybridization and Flow Cytometry,” Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (submitted).

Mitchell, B. G.

M. Vernet, B. G. Mitchell, and O. Holm-Hansen, “Adaptation of Synechococcus in situ determined by variability in intracellular phycoerythrin-543 at a coastal station off the Southern California coast, USA,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 63, 9–16 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Montoya, J. P.

J. I. Goes, H. R. Gomes, A. M. Chekalyuk, E. J. Carpenter, J. P. Montoya, V. J. Coles, P. L. Yager, W. M. Berelson, D. G. Capone, R. A. Foster, D. K. Steinberg, A. Subramaniam, and M. A. Hafez, “Influence of Amazon River discharge on the biogeography of phytoplankton communities in the western tropical north Atlantic,” Prog. Oceanogr. 120, 29–40 (2014), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Morel, A.

A. Bricaud, M. Babin, A. Morel, and H. Claustre, “Variability in the chlorophyll-specific absorption coefficients of natural phytoplankton: Analysis and parameterization,” J. Geophys. Res. 100(C7), 13321–13332 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Neuer, S.

T. J. Cowles, R. A. Desiderio, and S. Neuer, “In situ characterization of phytoplankton from vertical profiles of fluorescence emission spectra,” Mar. Biol. 115(2), 217–222 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ohman, M. D.

M. D. Ohman, D. L. Rudnick, A. Chekalyuk, R. E. Davis, R. A. Feely, M. Kahru, H.-J. Kim, M. R. Landry, T. R. Martz, C. L. Sabine, and U. Send, “Autonomous ocean measurements in the California Current Ecosystem,” Oceanography (Wash. D.C.) 26(3), 18–25 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Oliver, R. L.

A. Quigg, J. B. Sylvan, A. B. Gustafson, T. R. Fisher, R. L. Oliver, S. Tozzi, and J. W. Ammerman, “Going west: nutrient limitation of primary production in the Northern Gulf of Mexico and the importance of the Atchafalaya River,” Aquat. Geochem. 17(4-5), 519–544 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Olson, R. J.

R. J. Olson, A. M. Chekalyuk, and H. M. Sosik, “Phytoplankton photosynthetic characteristics from fluorescence induction assays of individual cells,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 41(6), 1253–1263 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Palenik, B.

B. Palenik, “Chromatic adaptation in marine Synechococcus strains,” Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 67(2), 991–994 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Partensky, F.

D. Marie, F. Partensky, S. Jacquet, and D. Vaulot, “Enumeration and cell cycle analysis of natural populations of marine picoplankton by flow cytometry using the nucleic acid stain SYBR Green I,” Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 63(1), 186–193 (1997).
[PubMed]

Prasil, O.

Z. S. Kolber, O. Prasil, and P. G. Falkowski, “Measurements of variable chlorophyll fluorescence using fast repetition rate techniques: Defining methodology and experimental protocols,” Biochem. Biophys. Acta 1367(1-3), 88–106 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Qian, Y. R.

Y. R. Qian, A. E. Jochens, M. C. Kennicutt, and D. C. Biggs, “Spatial and temporal variability of phytoplankton biomass and community structure over the continental margin of the northeast Gulf of Mexico based on pigment analysis,” Cont. Shelf Res. 23(1), 1–17 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Quigg, A.

Y. Zhao and A. Quigg, “Nutrient limitation in Northern Gulf of Mexico (NGOM): phytoplankton communities and photosynthesis respond to nutrient pulse,” PLoS ONE 9(2), e88732 (2014), doi:.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Sylvan, A. Quigg, S. Tozzi, and J. W. Ammerman, “Mapping phytoplankton community physiology on a river impacted continental shelf: testing a multifaceted approach,” Estuaries Coasts 34(6), 1220–1233 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Quigg, J. B. Sylvan, A. B. Gustafson, T. R. Fisher, R. L. Oliver, S. Tozzi, and J. W. Ammerman, “Going west: nutrient limitation of primary production in the Northern Gulf of Mexico and the importance of the Atchafalaya River,” Aquat. Geochem. 17(4-5), 519–544 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Sylvan, A. Quigg, S. Tozzi, and J. W. Ammerman, “Eutrophication-induced phosphorus limitation in the Mississippi River plume: evidence from fast repetition rate fluorometry,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 52(6), 2679–2685 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. S. McInnes, A. K. Shepard, E. J. Raes, A. M. Waite, and A. Quigg, “Carbon and Nitrogen Fixation: Simultaneous quantification of active communities and estimation of rates using Fluorescence in situ Hybridization and Flow Cytometry,” Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (submitted).

Rabalais, N. N.

R. E. Turner and N. N. Rabalais, “Nitrogen and phosphorus phytoplankton growth limitation in the northern Gulf of Mexico,” Aquat. Microb. Ecol. 68(2), 159–169 (2013).
[CrossRef]

N. N. Rabalais, W. J. Wiseman, R. E. Turner, D. Justić, B. K. Gupta, and Q. Dortch, “Nutrient changes in the Mississippi River and system responses on the adjacent continental shelf,” Estuaries 19(2), 386–407 (1996).

R. E. Turner and N. N. Rabalais, “Coastal eutrophication near the Mississippi River delta,” Nature 368(6472), 619–621 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Raes, E. J.

A. S. McInnes, A. K. Shepard, E. J. Raes, A. M. Waite, and A. Quigg, “Carbon and Nitrogen Fixation: Simultaneous quantification of active communities and estimation of rates using Fluorescence in situ Hybridization and Flow Cytometry,” Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (submitted).

Rudnick, D. L.

M. D. Ohman, D. L. Rudnick, A. Chekalyuk, R. E. Davis, R. A. Feely, M. Kahru, H.-J. Kim, M. R. Landry, T. R. Martz, C. L. Sabine, and U. Send, “Autonomous ocean measurements in the California Current Ecosystem,” Oceanography (Wash. D.C.) 26(3), 18–25 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Sabine, C. L.

M. D. Ohman, D. L. Rudnick, A. Chekalyuk, R. E. Davis, R. A. Feely, M. Kahru, H.-J. Kim, M. R. Landry, T. R. Martz, C. L. Sabine, and U. Send, “Autonomous ocean measurements in the California Current Ecosystem,” Oceanography (Wash. D.C.) 26(3), 18–25 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Schaeffer, B. A.

B. A. Schaeffer, J. C. Kurtz, and M. K. Hein, “Phytoplankton community composition in nearshore coastal waters of Louisiana,” Mar. Pollut. Bull. 64(8), 1705–1712 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Send, U.

M. D. Ohman, D. L. Rudnick, A. Chekalyuk, R. E. Davis, R. A. Feely, M. Kahru, H.-J. Kim, M. R. Landry, T. R. Martz, C. L. Sabine, and U. Send, “Autonomous ocean measurements in the California Current Ecosystem,” Oceanography (Wash. D.C.) 26(3), 18–25 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Shepard, A. K.

A. S. McInnes, A. K. Shepard, E. J. Raes, A. M. Waite, and A. Quigg, “Carbon and Nitrogen Fixation: Simultaneous quantification of active communities and estimation of rates using Fluorescence in situ Hybridization and Flow Cytometry,” Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (submitted).

Sosik, H. M.

R. J. Olson, A. M. Chekalyuk, and H. M. Sosik, “Phytoplankton photosynthetic characteristics from fluorescence induction assays of individual cells,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 41(6), 1253–1263 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Steinberg, D. K.

J. I. Goes, H. R. Gomes, A. M. Chekalyuk, E. J. Carpenter, J. P. Montoya, V. J. Coles, P. L. Yager, W. M. Berelson, D. G. Capone, R. A. Foster, D. K. Steinberg, A. Subramaniam, and M. A. Hafez, “Influence of Amazon River discharge on the biogeography of phytoplankton communities in the western tropical north Atlantic,” Prog. Oceanogr. 120, 29–40 (2014), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Subramaniam, A.

J. I. Goes, H. R. Gomes, A. M. Chekalyuk, E. J. Carpenter, J. P. Montoya, V. J. Coles, P. L. Yager, W. M. Berelson, D. G. Capone, R. A. Foster, D. K. Steinberg, A. Subramaniam, and M. A. Hafez, “Influence of Amazon River discharge on the biogeography of phytoplankton communities in the western tropical north Atlantic,” Prog. Oceanogr. 120, 29–40 (2014), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Swift, R. N.

A. M. Chekalyuk, F. E. Hoge, C. W. Wright, R. N. Swift, and J. K. Yungel, “Airborne test of laser pump-and-probe technique for assessment of phytoplankton photochemical characteristics,” Photosynth. Res. 66(1-2), 45–56 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. E. Hoge and R. N. Swift, “Airborne simultaneous spectroscopic detection of laser-induced water Raman backscatter and fluorescence from chlorophyll a and other naturally occurring pigments,” Appl. Opt. 20(18), 3197–3205 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sylvan, J. B.

J. B. Sylvan, A. Quigg, S. Tozzi, and J. W. Ammerman, “Mapping phytoplankton community physiology on a river impacted continental shelf: testing a multifaceted approach,” Estuaries Coasts 34(6), 1220–1233 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Quigg, J. B. Sylvan, A. B. Gustafson, T. R. Fisher, R. L. Oliver, S. Tozzi, and J. W. Ammerman, “Going west: nutrient limitation of primary production in the Northern Gulf of Mexico and the importance of the Atchafalaya River,” Aquat. Geochem. 17(4-5), 519–544 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Sylvan, A. Quigg, S. Tozzi, and J. W. Ammerman, “Eutrophication-induced phosphorus limitation in the Mississippi River plume: evidence from fast repetition rate fluorometry,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 52(6), 2679–2685 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, A. G.

A. M. Chekalyuk, M. Landry, R. Goericke, A. G. Taylor, and M. Hafez, “Laser fluorescence analysis of phytoplankton across a frontal zone in the California Current ecosystem,” J. Plankton Res. 34(9), 761–777 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Tozzi, S.

A. Quigg, J. B. Sylvan, A. B. Gustafson, T. R. Fisher, R. L. Oliver, S. Tozzi, and J. W. Ammerman, “Going west: nutrient limitation of primary production in the Northern Gulf of Mexico and the importance of the Atchafalaya River,” Aquat. Geochem. 17(4-5), 519–544 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Sylvan, A. Quigg, S. Tozzi, and J. W. Ammerman, “Mapping phytoplankton community physiology on a river impacted continental shelf: testing a multifaceted approach,” Estuaries Coasts 34(6), 1220–1233 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Sylvan, A. Quigg, S. Tozzi, and J. W. Ammerman, “Eutrophication-induced phosphorus limitation in the Mississippi River plume: evidence from fast repetition rate fluorometry,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 52(6), 2679–2685 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Turner, R. E.

R. E. Turner and N. N. Rabalais, “Nitrogen and phosphorus phytoplankton growth limitation in the northern Gulf of Mexico,” Aquat. Microb. Ecol. 68(2), 159–169 (2013).
[CrossRef]

N. N. Rabalais, W. J. Wiseman, R. E. Turner, D. Justić, B. K. Gupta, and Q. Dortch, “Nutrient changes in the Mississippi River and system responses on the adjacent continental shelf,” Estuaries 19(2), 386–407 (1996).

R. E. Turner and N. N. Rabalais, “Coastal eutrophication near the Mississippi River delta,” Nature 368(6472), 619–621 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Vaulot, D.

D. Marie, F. Partensky, S. Jacquet, and D. Vaulot, “Enumeration and cell cycle analysis of natural populations of marine picoplankton by flow cytometry using the nucleic acid stain SYBR Green I,” Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 63(1), 186–193 (1997).
[PubMed]

Vernet, M.

M. Vernet, B. G. Mitchell, and O. Holm-Hansen, “Adaptation of Synechococcus in situ determined by variability in intracellular phycoerythrin-543 at a coastal station off the Southern California coast, USA,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 63, 9–16 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Waite, A. M.

A. S. McInnes, A. K. Shepard, E. J. Raes, A. M. Waite, and A. Quigg, “Carbon and Nitrogen Fixation: Simultaneous quantification of active communities and estimation of rates using Fluorescence in situ Hybridization and Flow Cytometry,” Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (submitted).

White, H. H.

Williams, R.

R. Williams and H. Claustre, “Photosynthetic pigments as biomarkers oof phytoplankton populations and processes involved in the transformation of particulate organic matter at the Biotrans site (47°N, 20°W),” Deep-Sea Res. Part A, Oceanograph. Res. Papers 38, 347–355 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Wiseman, W. J.

N. N. Rabalais, W. J. Wiseman, R. E. Turner, D. Justić, B. K. Gupta, and Q. Dortch, “Nutrient changes in the Mississippi River and system responses on the adjacent continental shelf,” Estuaries 19(2), 386–407 (1996).

Wright, C. W.

A. M. Chekalyuk, F. E. Hoge, C. W. Wright, R. N. Swift, and J. K. Yungel, “Airborne test of laser pump-and-probe technique for assessment of phytoplankton photochemical characteristics,” Photosynth. Res. 66(1-2), 45–56 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yager, P. L.

J. I. Goes, H. R. Gomes, A. M. Chekalyuk, E. J. Carpenter, J. P. Montoya, V. J. Coles, P. L. Yager, W. M. Berelson, D. G. Capone, R. A. Foster, D. K. Steinberg, A. Subramaniam, and M. A. Hafez, “Influence of Amazon River discharge on the biogeography of phytoplankton communities in the western tropical north Atlantic,” Prog. Oceanogr. 120, 29–40 (2014), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Yungel, J. K.

A. M. Chekalyuk, F. E. Hoge, C. W. Wright, R. N. Swift, and J. K. Yungel, “Airborne test of laser pump-and-probe technique for assessment of phytoplankton photochemical characteristics,” Photosynth. Res. 66(1-2), 45–56 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhao, Y.

Y. Zhao and A. Quigg, “Nutrient limitation in Northern Gulf of Mexico (NGOM): phytoplankton communities and photosynthesis respond to nutrient pulse,” PLoS ONE 9(2), e88732 (2014), doi:.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. (1)

D. M. Kehoe and A. Gutu, “Responding to color: the regulation of complementary chromatic adaptation,” Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. 57(1), 127–150 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (1)

B. Palenik, “Chromatic adaptation in marine Synechococcus strains,” Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 67(2), 991–994 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

F. E. Hoge and R. N. Swift, “Airborne simultaneous spectroscopic detection of laser-induced water Raman backscatter and fluorescence from chlorophyll a and other naturally occurring pigments,” Appl. Opt. 20(18), 3197–3205 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (1)

D. Marie, F. Partensky, S. Jacquet, and D. Vaulot, “Enumeration and cell cycle analysis of natural populations of marine picoplankton by flow cytometry using the nucleic acid stain SYBR Green I,” Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 63(1), 186–193 (1997).
[PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Aquat. Microb. Ecol. (1)

R. E. Turner and N. N. Rabalais, “Nitrogen and phosphorus phytoplankton growth limitation in the northern Gulf of Mexico,” Aquat. Microb. Ecol. 68(2), 159–169 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Aquat. Geochem. (1)

A. Quigg, J. B. Sylvan, A. B. Gustafson, T. R. Fisher, R. L. Oliver, S. Tozzi, and J. W. Ammerman, “Going west: nutrient limitation of primary production in the Northern Gulf of Mexico and the importance of the Atchafalaya River,” Aquat. Geochem. 17(4-5), 519–544 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Aust. J. Plant Physiol. (1)

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Z. S. Kolber, O. Prasil, and P. G. Falkowski, “Measurements of variable chlorophyll fluorescence using fast repetition rate techniques: Defining methodology and experimental protocols,” Biochem. Biophys. Acta 1367(1-3), 88–106 (1998).
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Y. R. Qian, A. E. Jochens, M. C. Kennicutt, and D. C. Biggs, “Spatial and temporal variability of phytoplankton biomass and community structure over the continental margin of the northeast Gulf of Mexico based on pigment analysis,” Cont. Shelf Res. 23(1), 1–17 (2003).
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R. Williams and H. Claustre, “Photosynthetic pigments as biomarkers oof phytoplankton populations and processes involved in the transformation of particulate organic matter at the Biotrans site (47°N, 20°W),” Deep-Sea Res. Part A, Oceanograph. Res. Papers 38, 347–355 (1991).
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N. N. Rabalais, W. J. Wiseman, R. E. Turner, D. Justić, B. K. Gupta, and Q. Dortch, “Nutrient changes in the Mississippi River and system responses on the adjacent continental shelf,” Estuaries 19(2), 386–407 (1996).

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J. B. Sylvan, A. Quigg, S. Tozzi, and J. W. Ammerman, “Mapping phytoplankton community physiology on a river impacted continental shelf: testing a multifaceted approach,” Estuaries Coasts 34(6), 1220–1233 (2011).
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A. M. Chekalyuk, M. Landry, R. Goericke, A. G. Taylor, and M. Hafez, “Laser fluorescence analysis of phytoplankton across a frontal zone in the California Current ecosystem,” J. Plankton Res. 34(9), 761–777 (2012).
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Limnol. Oceanogr. (2)

J. B. Sylvan, A. Quigg, S. Tozzi, and J. W. Ammerman, “Eutrophication-induced phosphorus limitation in the Mississippi River plume: evidence from fast repetition rate fluorometry,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 52(6), 2679–2685 (2007).
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J. I. Goes, H. R. Gomes, A. M. Chekalyuk, E. J. Carpenter, J. P. Montoya, V. J. Coles, P. L. Yager, W. M. Berelson, D. G. Capone, R. A. Foster, D. K. Steinberg, A. Subramaniam, and M. A. Hafez, “Influence of Amazon River discharge on the biogeography of phytoplankton communities in the western tropical north Atlantic,” Prog. Oceanogr. 120, 29–40 (2014), doi:.
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Other (4)

J. I. Goes, H. R. Gomes, E. M. Haugen, K. T. McKee, E. J. D’Sa, A. M. Chekalyuk, D. K. Stoecker, P. J. Stabeno, S.-I. Saitoh, and R. N. Sambrotto, “Fluorescence, pigment, and microscope characterization of Bering Sea phytoplankton community structure and photosynthetic competency in the presence of a Cold Pool during summer,” http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0967064513004505

A. M. Chekalyuk, “Optical analysis of emissions from stimulated liquids,” Patent application WO2013116769 A1 (2013). https://www.google.com/patents/WO2013116760A1?cl=en&dq=WO2013116760+A1&hl=en&sa=X&ei=N9FKUsJ4863gA8n8gcgB&ved=0CDkQ6AEwAA

A. Barnard, A. M. Chekalyuk, A. Derr, W. Strubhar, M. A. Hafez, J. Pearson, C. Orrico, and C. Moore, “Aquatic Laser Fluorescence Analyzer (ALFA): A new instrument for characterization of natural aquatic environments,” AGU 2012 Ocean Sciences Meeting (2012). http://www.sgmeet.com/osm2012/viewabstract2.asp?AbstractID=11217 .; see also http://www.wetlabs.com/aquatic-laser-fluorescence-analyzer-alfa .

A. S. McInnes, A. K. Shepard, E. J. Raes, A. M. Waite, and A. Quigg, “Carbon and Nitrogen Fixation: Simultaneous quantification of active communities and estimation of rates using Fluorescence in situ Hybridization and Flow Cytometry,” Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (submitted).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Left: The ALFA instrument setup for the underway flow-through measurements and discrete sample analysis (R/V Pelican; Apr. 2012). Right: A map of ALFA underway measurements and sampling stations in the Northern Gulf of Mexico in April 2012.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

ALFA measurements using laser excitation at 405 nm (left column) and 514 nm (middle column: LSE spectra; right column: PDP induction). The locations of measurements are marked as A, B, C, and D, respectively, in Fig. 1.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

A,B: The regression relationships between Chl concentration (Cchl) in water samples and Chl fluorescence normalized to WR (Fchl) measured with 405 and 514 nm excitation. C,D: The regression relationships between Cchl in water samples and Fchl normalized to phytoplankton photochemical efficiency (PY) measured with 405 and 514 nm excitation (data for the same set of samples as in panels A and B).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The regression relationships between the ALFA measurements of (A) PE fluorescence of green-water cyanobacteria, FPE2514, (B) total cyanobacterial PE fluorescence, FPE12514, and (C) cryptophyte-specific PE fluorescence, FPE3514, and HPLC measurements of their respective pigment biomarkers zeaxanthin and alloxanthin. The data for sub-surface layer (0.3-12 m) sampled at stations A-E (Fig. 1) are displayed in panels A,B; panel C shows the data from 0.3 to 19 m layer.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

An example of underway measurements with the ALFA instrument during the outbound ship transient between the sampling stations E and D (Fig. 1).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(A): The regression relationship between the photosynthetically active radiation, PAR, and the ALFA underway measurements of phytoplankton photochemical efficiency, PY514, measured underway between the sampling stations D and E (Fig. 1). (B, C): The regression relationships between the ALFA underway measurements of phytoplankton photochemical efficiency, PY, and CDOM fluorescence normalized to WR scattering, FCDOM, measured with 405 and 514 nm laser excitation. The data for all transects shown in Fig. 1 are displayed.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Spatial distributions of the key fluorescence characteristics in the Northern Gulf of Mexico during the spring phytoplankton bloom in April, 2012 built using the ALFA underway measurements [Fig. 1] with 514 nm excitation.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Abbreviations used in text.

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