Abstract

We employ a Genetic Algorithm for the purpose of minimization of the maximum differential modal gain (DMG) over all the supported signal modes (at the same wavelength) of cladding-pumped four-mode and six-mode-group EDFAs. The optimal EDFA designs found through the algorithm provide less than 1 dB DMG across the C-band (1530-1565 nm) whilst achieving more than 20 dB gain per mode. We then analyze the sensitivity of the DMG to small variations from the optimal value of the erbium doping concentration and the structural parameters, and estimate the fabrication tolerance for reliable amplifier performance.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. D. J. Richardson, J. M. Fini, and L. E. Nelson, “Space-division multiplexing in optical fibers,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 354–362 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  2. T. Kobayashi, H. Takara, A. Sano, T. Mizuno, H. Kawakami, Y. Miyamoto, K. Hiraga, Y. Abe, H. Ono, M. Wada, Y. Sasaki, I. Ishida, K. Takenaga, S. Matsuo, K. Saitoh, M. Yamada, H. Masuda, and T. Morioka, “2 x 344 Tb/s propagation-direction interleaved transmission over 1500-km MCF enhanced by multicarrier full electric-field digital back-propagation,” ECOC’13, Paper PD3 (2013).
  3. M. Salsi, R. Ryf, G. Le Cocq, L. Bigot, D. Peyrot, G. Charlet, S. Bigo, N. K. Fontaine, M. A. Mestre, S. Randel, X. Palou, C. Bolle, B. Guan, and Y. Quiquempois, “A six-mode erbium-doped fiber amplifier”, ECOC’12, Paper Th.3.A.6 (2012).
  4. E. Ip, M. J. Li, K. Bennett, S. Bickham, Y. K. Huang, A. Tanaka, E. Mateo, and J. Hu, “146λ×6×19-Gbaud wavelength- and mode-division multiplexed transmission over 10×50-km spans of few-mode fiber with a gain-equalized few-mode EDFA,” OFC’13, Paper PD 2, 5A (2013).
  5. V. A. J. M. Sleiffer, Y. Jung, V. Veljanovski, R. G. H. van Uden, M. Kuschnerov, H. Chen, B. Inan, L. G. Nielsen, Y. Sun, D. J. Richardson, S. U. Alam, F. Poletti, J. K. Sahu, A. Dhar, A. M. J. Koonen, B. Corbett, R. Winfield, A. D. Ellis, and H. de Waardt, “73.7 Tb/s (96 x 3 x 256-Gb/s) mode-division-multiplexed DP-16QAM transmission with inline MM-EDFA,” Opt. Express 20(26), B428–B438 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. Y. Jung, Q. Kang, J. K. Sahu, B. Corbett, R. Winfield, F. Poletti, S. Alam, and D. J. Richardson, “Reconfigurable modal gain control of a few-mode EDFA supporting six spatial modes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26(11), 1100–1103 (2014).
  7. E. Ip, “Gain Equalization for Few-Mode Fiber Amplifiers Beyond Two Propagating Mode Groups,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(21), 1933–1936 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  8. G. L. Cocq, “Gradient descent optimization for few-mode Er3+ doped fiber amplifiers with micro-structured core”, IEEE Summer Topicals Meeting’14, Paper ME2.3 (2014).
  9. A. Herbster and M. A. Romero, “On the design of few-mode Er-doped fiber amplifiers for space-division multiplexing optical communications systems”, Proc. SPIE9131, Optical Modelling and Design III, Paper 91310Y (2014).
  10. K. S. Abedin, T. F. Taunay, M. Fishteyn, D. J. DiGiovanni, V. R. Supradeepa, J. M. Fini, M. F. Yan, B. Zhu, E. M. Monberg, and F. V. Dimarcello, “Cladding-pumped erbium-doped multicore fiber amplifier,” Opt. Express 20(18), 20191–20200 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. E. Lim, Y. Jung, Q. Kang, T. M. Smith, N. H. L. Wong, R. Standish, F. Poletti, J. Sahu, S. Alam, and D. J. Richardson, “First demonstration of cladding pumped few-moded EDFA for mode division multiplexed transmission,” OFC’14, Paper M2J.2, (2014).
  12. D. J. Richardson, J. Nilsson, and W. A. Clarkson, “High power fiber lasers: current status and future perspectives,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27(11), B63–B92 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  13. A. Hardy and R. Oron, “Signal amplification in strongly pumped fiber amplifiers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33(3), 307–313 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  14. Z. Jiang and J. R. Marciante, “Impact of transverse spatial-hole burning on beam quality in large-mode-area Yb-doped fibers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25(2), 247–254 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  15. M. Gong, Y. Yuan, C. Li, P. Yan, H. Zhang, and S. Liao, “Numerical modeling of transverse mode competition in strongly pumped multimode fiber lasers and amplifiers,” Opt. Express 15(6), 3236–3246 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. Q. Kang, E. L. Lim, F. Poletti, Y. Jung, S. U. Alam, D. J. Richardson,“Minimizing differential modal gain in cladding pumped MM-EDFAs for mode division multiplexing in C and L Bands”, POEM’14, Paper FTh4F.1 (2014).
  17. Q. Kang, E. L. Lim, Y. Jung, J. K. Sahu, F. Poletti, C. Baskiotis, S. U. Alam, and D. J. Richardson, “Accurate modal gain control in a multimode erbium doped fiber amplifier incorporating ring doping and a simple LP₀₁ pump configuration,” Opt. Express 20(19), 20835–20843 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. W. L. Barnes, R. I. Laming, E. J. Tarbox, and P. R. Morkel, “Absorption and emission cross section of Er3+ doped silica fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27(4), 1004–1010 (1991).
    [Crossref]
  19. D. E. Goldberg, Genetic algorithms in search, optimization and machine learning (Addison-Wesley, New York, 1989).
  20. F. Poletti, V. Finazzi, T. M. Monro, N. G. R. Broderick, V. Tse, and D. J. Richardson, “Inverse design and fabrication tolerances of ultra-flattened dispersion holey fibers,” Opt. Express 13(10), 3728–3736 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. J. Skaar and K. M. Risvik, “A genetic algorithm for the inverse problem in synthesis of fiber gratings,” J. Lightwave Technol. 16(10), 1928–1932 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  22. K. S. Abedin, J. M. Fini, T. F. Thierry, B. Zhu, M. F. Yan, L. Bansal, F. V. Dimarcello, E. M. Monberg, and D. J. DiGiovanni, “Seven-core erbium-doped double-clad fiber amplifier pumped simultaneously by side-coupled multimode fiber,” Opt. Lett. 39(4), 993–996 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  23. G. Le Cocq, Y. Quiquempois, A. Le Rouge, G. Bouwmans, H. El Hamzaoui, K. Delplace, M. Bouazaoui, and L. Bigot, “Few mode Er3+-doped fiber with micro-structured core for mode division multiplexing in the C-band,” Opt. Express 21(25), 31646–31659 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  24. S. Unger, F. Lindner, C. Aichele, M. Leich, A. Schwuchow, J. Kobelke, J. Dellith, K. Schuster, and H. Bartelt, “A highly efficient Yb-doped silica laser fiber prepared by gas phase doping technology,” Laser Phys. 24(3), 035103 (2014).
    [Crossref]

2014 (3)

Y. Jung, Q. Kang, J. K. Sahu, B. Corbett, R. Winfield, F. Poletti, S. Alam, and D. J. Richardson, “Reconfigurable modal gain control of a few-mode EDFA supporting six spatial modes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26(11), 1100–1103 (2014).

K. S. Abedin, J. M. Fini, T. F. Thierry, B. Zhu, M. F. Yan, L. Bansal, F. V. Dimarcello, E. M. Monberg, and D. J. DiGiovanni, “Seven-core erbium-doped double-clad fiber amplifier pumped simultaneously by side-coupled multimode fiber,” Opt. Lett. 39(4), 993–996 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Unger, F. Lindner, C. Aichele, M. Leich, A. Schwuchow, J. Kobelke, J. Dellith, K. Schuster, and H. Bartelt, “A highly efficient Yb-doped silica laser fiber prepared by gas phase doping technology,” Laser Phys. 24(3), 035103 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

2012 (4)

2010 (1)

2008 (1)

2007 (1)

2005 (1)

1998 (1)

1997 (1)

A. Hardy and R. Oron, “Signal amplification in strongly pumped fiber amplifiers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33(3), 307–313 (1997).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

W. L. Barnes, R. I. Laming, E. J. Tarbox, and P. R. Morkel, “Absorption and emission cross section of Er3+ doped silica fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27(4), 1004–1010 (1991).
[Crossref]

Abedin, K. S.

Aichele, C.

S. Unger, F. Lindner, C. Aichele, M. Leich, A. Schwuchow, J. Kobelke, J. Dellith, K. Schuster, and H. Bartelt, “A highly efficient Yb-doped silica laser fiber prepared by gas phase doping technology,” Laser Phys. 24(3), 035103 (2014).
[Crossref]

Alam, S.

Y. Jung, Q. Kang, J. K. Sahu, B. Corbett, R. Winfield, F. Poletti, S. Alam, and D. J. Richardson, “Reconfigurable modal gain control of a few-mode EDFA supporting six spatial modes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26(11), 1100–1103 (2014).

Alam, S. U.

Bansal, L.

Barnes, W. L.

W. L. Barnes, R. I. Laming, E. J. Tarbox, and P. R. Morkel, “Absorption and emission cross section of Er3+ doped silica fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27(4), 1004–1010 (1991).
[Crossref]

Bartelt, H.

S. Unger, F. Lindner, C. Aichele, M. Leich, A. Schwuchow, J. Kobelke, J. Dellith, K. Schuster, and H. Bartelt, “A highly efficient Yb-doped silica laser fiber prepared by gas phase doping technology,” Laser Phys. 24(3), 035103 (2014).
[Crossref]

Baskiotis, C.

Bigot, L.

Bouazaoui, M.

Bouwmans, G.

Broderick, N. G. R.

Chen, H.

Clarkson, W. A.

Corbett, B.

de Waardt, H.

Dellith, J.

S. Unger, F. Lindner, C. Aichele, M. Leich, A. Schwuchow, J. Kobelke, J. Dellith, K. Schuster, and H. Bartelt, “A highly efficient Yb-doped silica laser fiber prepared by gas phase doping technology,” Laser Phys. 24(3), 035103 (2014).
[Crossref]

Delplace, K.

Dhar, A.

DiGiovanni, D. J.

Dimarcello, F. V.

El Hamzaoui, H.

Ellis, A. D.

Finazzi, V.

Fini, J. M.

Fishteyn, M.

Gong, M.

Hardy, A.

A. Hardy and R. Oron, “Signal amplification in strongly pumped fiber amplifiers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33(3), 307–313 (1997).
[Crossref]

Inan, B.

Ip, E.

E. Ip, “Gain Equalization for Few-Mode Fiber Amplifiers Beyond Two Propagating Mode Groups,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(21), 1933–1936 (2012).
[Crossref]

Jiang, Z.

Jung, Y.

Kang, Q.

Y. Jung, Q. Kang, J. K. Sahu, B. Corbett, R. Winfield, F. Poletti, S. Alam, and D. J. Richardson, “Reconfigurable modal gain control of a few-mode EDFA supporting six spatial modes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26(11), 1100–1103 (2014).

Q. Kang, E. L. Lim, Y. Jung, J. K. Sahu, F. Poletti, C. Baskiotis, S. U. Alam, and D. J. Richardson, “Accurate modal gain control in a multimode erbium doped fiber amplifier incorporating ring doping and a simple LP₀₁ pump configuration,” Opt. Express 20(19), 20835–20843 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kobelke, J.

S. Unger, F. Lindner, C. Aichele, M. Leich, A. Schwuchow, J. Kobelke, J. Dellith, K. Schuster, and H. Bartelt, “A highly efficient Yb-doped silica laser fiber prepared by gas phase doping technology,” Laser Phys. 24(3), 035103 (2014).
[Crossref]

Koonen, A. M. J.

Kuschnerov, M.

Laming, R. I.

W. L. Barnes, R. I. Laming, E. J. Tarbox, and P. R. Morkel, “Absorption and emission cross section of Er3+ doped silica fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27(4), 1004–1010 (1991).
[Crossref]

Le Cocq, G.

Le Rouge, A.

Leich, M.

S. Unger, F. Lindner, C. Aichele, M. Leich, A. Schwuchow, J. Kobelke, J. Dellith, K. Schuster, and H. Bartelt, “A highly efficient Yb-doped silica laser fiber prepared by gas phase doping technology,” Laser Phys. 24(3), 035103 (2014).
[Crossref]

Li, C.

Liao, S.

Lim, E. L.

Lindner, F.

S. Unger, F. Lindner, C. Aichele, M. Leich, A. Schwuchow, J. Kobelke, J. Dellith, K. Schuster, and H. Bartelt, “A highly efficient Yb-doped silica laser fiber prepared by gas phase doping technology,” Laser Phys. 24(3), 035103 (2014).
[Crossref]

Marciante, J. R.

Monberg, E. M.

Monro, T. M.

Morkel, P. R.

W. L. Barnes, R. I. Laming, E. J. Tarbox, and P. R. Morkel, “Absorption and emission cross section of Er3+ doped silica fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27(4), 1004–1010 (1991).
[Crossref]

Nelson, L. E.

D. J. Richardson, J. M. Fini, and L. E. Nelson, “Space-division multiplexing in optical fibers,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 354–362 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nielsen, L. G.

Nilsson, J.

Oron, R.

A. Hardy and R. Oron, “Signal amplification in strongly pumped fiber amplifiers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33(3), 307–313 (1997).
[Crossref]

Poletti, F.

Quiquempois, Y.

Richardson, D. J.

Y. Jung, Q. Kang, J. K. Sahu, B. Corbett, R. Winfield, F. Poletti, S. Alam, and D. J. Richardson, “Reconfigurable modal gain control of a few-mode EDFA supporting six spatial modes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26(11), 1100–1103 (2014).

D. J. Richardson, J. M. Fini, and L. E. Nelson, “Space-division multiplexing in optical fibers,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 354–362 (2013).
[Crossref]

V. A. J. M. Sleiffer, Y. Jung, V. Veljanovski, R. G. H. van Uden, M. Kuschnerov, H. Chen, B. Inan, L. G. Nielsen, Y. Sun, D. J. Richardson, S. U. Alam, F. Poletti, J. K. Sahu, A. Dhar, A. M. J. Koonen, B. Corbett, R. Winfield, A. D. Ellis, and H. de Waardt, “73.7 Tb/s (96 x 3 x 256-Gb/s) mode-division-multiplexed DP-16QAM transmission with inline MM-EDFA,” Opt. Express 20(26), B428–B438 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Kang, E. L. Lim, Y. Jung, J. K. Sahu, F. Poletti, C. Baskiotis, S. U. Alam, and D. J. Richardson, “Accurate modal gain control in a multimode erbium doped fiber amplifier incorporating ring doping and a simple LP₀₁ pump configuration,” Opt. Express 20(19), 20835–20843 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. J. Richardson, J. Nilsson, and W. A. Clarkson, “High power fiber lasers: current status and future perspectives,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27(11), B63–B92 (2010).
[Crossref]

F. Poletti, V. Finazzi, T. M. Monro, N. G. R. Broderick, V. Tse, and D. J. Richardson, “Inverse design and fabrication tolerances of ultra-flattened dispersion holey fibers,” Opt. Express 13(10), 3728–3736 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Risvik, K. M.

Sahu, J. K.

Schuster, K.

S. Unger, F. Lindner, C. Aichele, M. Leich, A. Schwuchow, J. Kobelke, J. Dellith, K. Schuster, and H. Bartelt, “A highly efficient Yb-doped silica laser fiber prepared by gas phase doping technology,” Laser Phys. 24(3), 035103 (2014).
[Crossref]

Schwuchow, A.

S. Unger, F. Lindner, C. Aichele, M. Leich, A. Schwuchow, J. Kobelke, J. Dellith, K. Schuster, and H. Bartelt, “A highly efficient Yb-doped silica laser fiber prepared by gas phase doping technology,” Laser Phys. 24(3), 035103 (2014).
[Crossref]

Skaar, J.

Sleiffer, V. A. J. M.

Sun, Y.

Supradeepa, V. R.

Tarbox, E. J.

W. L. Barnes, R. I. Laming, E. J. Tarbox, and P. R. Morkel, “Absorption and emission cross section of Er3+ doped silica fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27(4), 1004–1010 (1991).
[Crossref]

Taunay, T. F.

Thierry, T. F.

Tse, V.

Unger, S.

S. Unger, F. Lindner, C. Aichele, M. Leich, A. Schwuchow, J. Kobelke, J. Dellith, K. Schuster, and H. Bartelt, “A highly efficient Yb-doped silica laser fiber prepared by gas phase doping technology,” Laser Phys. 24(3), 035103 (2014).
[Crossref]

van Uden, R. G. H.

Veljanovski, V.

Winfield, R.

Yan, M. F.

Yan, P.

Yuan, Y.

Zhang, H.

Zhu, B.

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

A. Hardy and R. Oron, “Signal amplification in strongly pumped fiber amplifiers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33(3), 307–313 (1997).
[Crossref]

W. L. Barnes, R. I. Laming, E. J. Tarbox, and P. R. Morkel, “Absorption and emission cross section of Er3+ doped silica fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27(4), 1004–1010 (1991).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

Y. Jung, Q. Kang, J. K. Sahu, B. Corbett, R. Winfield, F. Poletti, S. Alam, and D. J. Richardson, “Reconfigurable modal gain control of a few-mode EDFA supporting six spatial modes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26(11), 1100–1103 (2014).

E. Ip, “Gain Equalization for Few-Mode Fiber Amplifiers Beyond Two Propagating Mode Groups,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(21), 1933–1936 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Laser Phys. (1)

S. Unger, F. Lindner, C. Aichele, M. Leich, A. Schwuchow, J. Kobelke, J. Dellith, K. Schuster, and H. Bartelt, “A highly efficient Yb-doped silica laser fiber prepared by gas phase doping technology,” Laser Phys. 24(3), 035103 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (1)

D. J. Richardson, J. M. Fini, and L. E. Nelson, “Space-division multiplexing in optical fibers,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 354–362 (2013).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (6)

K. S. Abedin, T. F. Taunay, M. Fishteyn, D. J. DiGiovanni, V. R. Supradeepa, J. M. Fini, M. F. Yan, B. Zhu, E. M. Monberg, and F. V. Dimarcello, “Cladding-pumped erbium-doped multicore fiber amplifier,” Opt. Express 20(18), 20191–20200 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Kang, E. L. Lim, Y. Jung, J. K. Sahu, F. Poletti, C. Baskiotis, S. U. Alam, and D. J. Richardson, “Accurate modal gain control in a multimode erbium doped fiber amplifier incorporating ring doping and a simple LP₀₁ pump configuration,” Opt. Express 20(19), 20835–20843 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. A. J. M. Sleiffer, Y. Jung, V. Veljanovski, R. G. H. van Uden, M. Kuschnerov, H. Chen, B. Inan, L. G. Nielsen, Y. Sun, D. J. Richardson, S. U. Alam, F. Poletti, J. K. Sahu, A. Dhar, A. M. J. Koonen, B. Corbett, R. Winfield, A. D. Ellis, and H. de Waardt, “73.7 Tb/s (96 x 3 x 256-Gb/s) mode-division-multiplexed DP-16QAM transmission with inline MM-EDFA,” Opt. Express 20(26), B428–B438 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Le Cocq, Y. Quiquempois, A. Le Rouge, G. Bouwmans, H. El Hamzaoui, K. Delplace, M. Bouazaoui, and L. Bigot, “Few mode Er3+-doped fiber with micro-structured core for mode division multiplexing in the C-band,” Opt. Express 21(25), 31646–31659 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Poletti, V. Finazzi, T. M. Monro, N. G. R. Broderick, V. Tse, and D. J. Richardson, “Inverse design and fabrication tolerances of ultra-flattened dispersion holey fibers,” Opt. Express 13(10), 3728–3736 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Gong, Y. Yuan, C. Li, P. Yan, H. Zhang, and S. Liao, “Numerical modeling of transverse mode competition in strongly pumped multimode fiber lasers and amplifiers,” Opt. Express 15(6), 3236–3246 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (8)

D. E. Goldberg, Genetic algorithms in search, optimization and machine learning (Addison-Wesley, New York, 1989).

Q. Kang, E. L. Lim, F. Poletti, Y. Jung, S. U. Alam, D. J. Richardson,“Minimizing differential modal gain in cladding pumped MM-EDFAs for mode division multiplexing in C and L Bands”, POEM’14, Paper FTh4F.1 (2014).

T. Kobayashi, H. Takara, A. Sano, T. Mizuno, H. Kawakami, Y. Miyamoto, K. Hiraga, Y. Abe, H. Ono, M. Wada, Y. Sasaki, I. Ishida, K. Takenaga, S. Matsuo, K. Saitoh, M. Yamada, H. Masuda, and T. Morioka, “2 x 344 Tb/s propagation-direction interleaved transmission over 1500-km MCF enhanced by multicarrier full electric-field digital back-propagation,” ECOC’13, Paper PD3 (2013).

M. Salsi, R. Ryf, G. Le Cocq, L. Bigot, D. Peyrot, G. Charlet, S. Bigo, N. K. Fontaine, M. A. Mestre, S. Randel, X. Palou, C. Bolle, B. Guan, and Y. Quiquempois, “A six-mode erbium-doped fiber amplifier”, ECOC’12, Paper Th.3.A.6 (2012).

E. Ip, M. J. Li, K. Bennett, S. Bickham, Y. K. Huang, A. Tanaka, E. Mateo, and J. Hu, “146λ×6×19-Gbaud wavelength- and mode-division multiplexed transmission over 10×50-km spans of few-mode fiber with a gain-equalized few-mode EDFA,” OFC’13, Paper PD 2, 5A (2013).

G. L. Cocq, “Gradient descent optimization for few-mode Er3+ doped fiber amplifiers with micro-structured core”, IEEE Summer Topicals Meeting’14, Paper ME2.3 (2014).

A. Herbster and M. A. Romero, “On the design of few-mode Er-doped fiber amplifiers for space-division multiplexing optical communications systems”, Proc. SPIE9131, Optical Modelling and Design III, Paper 91310Y (2014).

E. Lim, Y. Jung, Q. Kang, T. M. Smith, N. H. L. Wong, R. Standish, F. Poletti, J. Sahu, S. Alam, and D. J. Richardson, “First demonstration of cladding pumped few-moded EDFA for mode division multiplexed transmission,” OFC’14, Paper M2J.2, (2014).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 The fiber refractive index profile, the signal mode intensity distributions, and the doping profile of (a) 4M-EDFA, denoted as ‘F1’ and (b) 6M- EDFA, denoted as ‘F2’, to be optimized through the GA; where ρi (m−3) is the doping concentration of the i-th core layer.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 The modal gain (continuous line), noise figure (dashed line) and DMG (red dotted line) characteristics of the best (a) 4-mode-group EDFA and (b) 6-mode-group EDFA calculated by the GA.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Variation of the DMG versus signal wavelength as the doping concentration of (a) the 1st, (b) the 2nd and (c) the 3rd core layer is changed for fiber F1. Continuous lines represent a “+” variation, while dashed lines represent a “-” variation.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Variation of the DMG versus signal wavelength as the doping concentration of (a) the 1st, (b) the 2nd, (c) the 3rd and (d) the 4th core layer is changed for the fiber F2. Continuous lines represent a “+” variation, while dashed lines represent a “-” variation.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Variation of the DMG against signal wavelength as the structural parameter (a) a1, (b) a2 is changed for the fiber F1. Continuous lines represent a “+” variation, while dashed lines represent a “-” variation.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Variation of the DMG versus signal wavelength as the structural parameter (a) a1, (b) a2, (c) a3 is changed for the fiber F2. Continuous lines represent a “+” variation, while dashed lines represent a “-” variation.

Equations (1)

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F = λ i = 1530 n m 1565 n m D M G ( λ i ) G a v e ( λ i )

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