Abstract

We demonstrate a reconfigurable metamaterial developed by surface micromachining technique on a low loss quartz substrate for a tunable terahertz filter application. The device implements a reconfigurable RF-MEMS (radio frequency – micro electro mechanical systems) capacitor within a split-ring resonator (SRR). Time-domain spectroscopy confirms that the tunability of the SRR resonance and thus the terahertz transmittance are electrostatically controlled by the RF-MEMS capacitor. Due to the high transparency and low loss of quartz used as a substrate, the device exhibits a high contrast switching performance of 16.5 dB at 480 GHz, which is also supported by the terahertz dynamic modulation measurement results. The device shows promise for tunable transmission terahertz optics.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref]

2014 (4)

S. Savo, D. Shrekenhamer, and W. J. Padilla, “Liquid crystal metamaterial absorber spatial light modulator for THz applications,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2(3), 275–279 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. Ma, Y.-S. Lin, X. Zhang, and C. Lee, “Tunable multiband terahertz metamaterials using a reconfigurable electric split-ring resonator array,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(5), 1–8 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y.-S. Lin and C. Lee, “Tuning characteristics of mirrorlike T-shape terahertz metamaterial using out-of-plane actuated cantilevers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(25), 251914 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. P. Ho, P. Pitchappa, Y.-S. Lin, C.-Y. Huang, P. Kropelnicki, and C. Lee, “Electrothermally actuated microelectromechanical systems based omega-ring terahertz metamaterial with polarization dependent characteristics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(16), 161104 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

J.-Y. Ou, E. Plum, J. Zhang, and N. I. Zheludev, “An electromechanically reconfigurable plasmonic metamaterial operating in the near-infrared,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 8(4), 252–255 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Ma, Y. Qian, Y.-S. Lin, H. Liu, X. Zhang, Z. Liu, J. M.-L. Tsai, and C. Lee, “Polarization-sensitive microelectromechanical systems based tunable terahertz metamaterials using three dimensional electric split-ring,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(16), 161912 (2013).
[Crossref]

2011 (6)

H. Tao, E. A. Kadlec, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, W. J. Padilla, R. D. Averitt, E. A. Shaner, and X. Zhang, “Microwave and terahertz wave sensing with metamaterials,” Opt. Express 19(22), 21620–21626 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Shrekenhamer, S. Rout, A. C. Strikwerda, C. Bingham, R. D. Averitt, S. Sonkusale, and W. J. Padilla, “High speed terahertz modulation from metamaterials with embedded high electron mobility transistors,” Opt. Express 19(10), 9968–9975 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. M. Zhu, A. Q. Liu, W. Zhang, J. F. Tao, T. Bourouina, J. H. Teng, X. H. Zhang, Q. Y. Wu, H. Tanoto, H. C. Guo, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Polarization dependent state to polarization independent state change in THz metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(22), 221102 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. H. Fu, A. Q. Liu, W. M. Zhu, X. M. Zhang, D. P. Tsai, J. B. Zhang, T. Mei, J. F. Tao, H. C. Guo, X. H. Zhang, J. H. Teng, N. I. Zheludev, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “A micromachined reconfigurable metamaterial via reconfiguration of asymmetric split-ring resonators,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(18), 3589–3594 (2011).
[Crossref]

W. M. Zhu, A. Q. Liu, X. M. Zhang, D. P. Tsai, T. Bourouina, J. H. Teng, X. H. Zhang, H. C. Guo, H. Tanoto, T. Mei, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Switchable magnetic metamaterials using micromachining processes,” Adv. Mater. 23(15), 1792–1796 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Singh, A. K. Azad, Q. X. Jia, A. J. Taylor, and H.-T. Chen, “Thermal tunability in terahertz metamaterials fabricated on strontium titanate single-crystal substrates,” Opt. Lett. 36(7), 1230–1232 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

2009 (2)

E. Plum, J. Zhou, J. Dong, V. A. Fedotov, T. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, and N. I. Zheludev, “Metamaterial with negative index due to chirality,” Phys. Rev. B 79(3), 035407 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, W. J. Padilla, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “Reconfigurable terahertz metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(14), 147401 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

H.-T. Chen, S. Palit, T. Tyler, C. M. Bingham, J. M. O. Zide, J. F. O’Hara, D. R. Smith, A. C. Gossard, R. D. Averitt, W. J. Padilla, N. M. Jokerst, and A. J. Taylor, “Hybrid metamaterials enable fast electrical modulation of freely propagating terahertz waves,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(9), 091117 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

2006 (2)

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. J. Padilla, A. J. Taylor, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and R. D. Averitt, “Dynamical electric and magnetic metamaterial response at terahertz frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(10), 107401 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (3)

S. Zhang, W. Fan, B. K. Minhas, A. Frauenglass, K. J. Malloy, and S. R. J. Brueck, “Midinfrared resonant magnetic nanostructures exhibiting a negative permeability,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(3), 037402 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Sub-diffraction-limited optical imaging with a silver superlens,” Science 308(5721), 534–537 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Zhou, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, J. B. Pendry, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Saturation of the magnetic response of split-ring resonators at optical frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(22), 223902 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, “Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials,” Science 303(5663), 1494–1496 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science 292(5514), 77–79 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (2)

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, “Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(18), 4184–4187 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry, “Negative refraction makes a perfect lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(18), 3966–3969 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Averitt, R. D.

H. Tao, E. A. Kadlec, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, W. J. Padilla, R. D. Averitt, E. A. Shaner, and X. Zhang, “Microwave and terahertz wave sensing with metamaterials,” Opt. Express 19(22), 21620–21626 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Shrekenhamer, S. Rout, A. C. Strikwerda, C. Bingham, R. D. Averitt, S. Sonkusale, and W. J. Padilla, “High speed terahertz modulation from metamaterials with embedded high electron mobility transistors,” Opt. Express 19(10), 9968–9975 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, W. J. Padilla, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “Reconfigurable terahertz metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(14), 147401 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H.-T. Chen, S. Palit, T. Tyler, C. M. Bingham, J. M. O. Zide, J. F. O’Hara, D. R. Smith, A. C. Gossard, R. D. Averitt, W. J. Padilla, N. M. Jokerst, and A. J. Taylor, “Hybrid metamaterials enable fast electrical modulation of freely propagating terahertz waves,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(9), 091117 (2008).
[Crossref]

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. J. Padilla, A. J. Taylor, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and R. D. Averitt, “Dynamical electric and magnetic metamaterial response at terahertz frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(10), 107401 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Azad, A. K.

Basov, D. N.

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, “Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials,” Science 303(5663), 1494–1496 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bingham, C.

Bingham, C. M.

H.-T. Chen, S. Palit, T. Tyler, C. M. Bingham, J. M. O. Zide, J. F. O’Hara, D. R. Smith, A. C. Gossard, R. D. Averitt, W. J. Padilla, N. M. Jokerst, and A. J. Taylor, “Hybrid metamaterials enable fast electrical modulation of freely propagating terahertz waves,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(9), 091117 (2008).
[Crossref]

Bourouina, T.

W. M. Zhu, A. Q. Liu, W. Zhang, J. F. Tao, T. Bourouina, J. H. Teng, X. H. Zhang, Q. Y. Wu, H. Tanoto, H. C. Guo, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Polarization dependent state to polarization independent state change in THz metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(22), 221102 (2011).
[Crossref]

W. M. Zhu, A. Q. Liu, X. M. Zhang, D. P. Tsai, T. Bourouina, J. H. Teng, X. H. Zhang, H. C. Guo, H. Tanoto, T. Mei, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Switchable magnetic metamaterials using micromachining processes,” Adv. Mater. 23(15), 1792–1796 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brueck, S. R. J.

S. Zhang, W. Fan, B. K. Minhas, A. Frauenglass, K. J. Malloy, and S. R. J. Brueck, “Midinfrared resonant magnetic nanostructures exhibiting a negative permeability,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(3), 037402 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cao, C.

Chen, H.-T.

R. Singh, A. K. Azad, Q. X. Jia, A. J. Taylor, and H.-T. Chen, “Thermal tunability in terahertz metamaterials fabricated on strontium titanate single-crystal substrates,” Opt. Lett. 36(7), 1230–1232 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H.-T. Chen, S. Palit, T. Tyler, C. M. Bingham, J. M. O. Zide, J. F. O’Hara, D. R. Smith, A. C. Gossard, R. D. Averitt, W. J. Padilla, N. M. Jokerst, and A. J. Taylor, “Hybrid metamaterials enable fast electrical modulation of freely propagating terahertz waves,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(9), 091117 (2008).
[Crossref]

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, J.

Dolling, G.

Dong, J.

E. Plum, J. Zhou, J. Dong, V. A. Fedotov, T. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, and N. I. Zheludev, “Metamaterial with negative index due to chirality,” Phys. Rev. B 79(3), 035407 (2009).
[Crossref]

Economou, E. N.

J. Zhou, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, J. B. Pendry, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Saturation of the magnetic response of split-ring resonators at optical frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(22), 223902 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Engelbrecht, S.

Fan, K.

H. Tao, E. A. Kadlec, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, W. J. Padilla, R. D. Averitt, E. A. Shaner, and X. Zhang, “Microwave and terahertz wave sensing with metamaterials,” Opt. Express 19(22), 21620–21626 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, W. J. Padilla, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “Reconfigurable terahertz metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(14), 147401 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fan, W.

S. Zhang, W. Fan, B. K. Minhas, A. Frauenglass, K. J. Malloy, and S. R. J. Brueck, “Midinfrared resonant magnetic nanostructures exhibiting a negative permeability,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(3), 037402 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fang, N.

N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Sub-diffraction-limited optical imaging with a silver superlens,” Science 308(5721), 534–537 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, “Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials,” Science 303(5663), 1494–1496 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fedotov, V. A.

E. Plum, J. Zhou, J. Dong, V. A. Fedotov, T. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, and N. I. Zheludev, “Metamaterial with negative index due to chirality,” Phys. Rev. B 79(3), 035407 (2009).
[Crossref]

Frauenglass, A.

S. Zhang, W. Fan, B. K. Minhas, A. Frauenglass, K. J. Malloy, and S. R. J. Brueck, “Midinfrared resonant magnetic nanostructures exhibiting a negative permeability,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(3), 037402 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fu, Y. H.

Y. H. Fu, A. Q. Liu, W. M. Zhu, X. M. Zhang, D. P. Tsai, J. B. Zhang, T. Mei, J. F. Tao, H. C. Guo, X. H. Zhang, J. H. Teng, N. I. Zheludev, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “A micromachined reconfigurable metamaterial via reconfiguration of asymmetric split-ring resonators,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(18), 3589–3594 (2011).
[Crossref]

Gossard, A. C.

H.-T. Chen, S. Palit, T. Tyler, C. M. Bingham, J. M. O. Zide, J. F. O’Hara, D. R. Smith, A. C. Gossard, R. D. Averitt, W. J. Padilla, N. M. Jokerst, and A. J. Taylor, “Hybrid metamaterials enable fast electrical modulation of freely propagating terahertz waves,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(9), 091117 (2008).
[Crossref]

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guo, H. C.

W. M. Zhu, A. Q. Liu, W. Zhang, J. F. Tao, T. Bourouina, J. H. Teng, X. H. Zhang, Q. Y. Wu, H. Tanoto, H. C. Guo, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Polarization dependent state to polarization independent state change in THz metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(22), 221102 (2011).
[Crossref]

W. M. Zhu, A. Q. Liu, X. M. Zhang, D. P. Tsai, T. Bourouina, J. H. Teng, X. H. Zhang, H. C. Guo, H. Tanoto, T. Mei, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Switchable magnetic metamaterials using micromachining processes,” Adv. Mater. 23(15), 1792–1796 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. H. Fu, A. Q. Liu, W. M. Zhu, X. M. Zhang, D. P. Tsai, J. B. Zhang, T. Mei, J. F. Tao, H. C. Guo, X. H. Zhang, J. H. Teng, N. I. Zheludev, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “A micromachined reconfigurable metamaterial via reconfiguration of asymmetric split-ring resonators,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(18), 3589–3594 (2011).
[Crossref]

Highstrete, C.

W. J. Padilla, A. J. Taylor, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and R. D. Averitt, “Dynamical electric and magnetic metamaterial response at terahertz frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(10), 107401 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ho, C. P.

C. P. Ho, P. Pitchappa, Y.-S. Lin, C.-Y. Huang, P. Kropelnicki, and C. Lee, “Electrothermally actuated microelectromechanical systems based omega-ring terahertz metamaterial with polarization dependent characteristics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(16), 161104 (2014).
[Crossref]

Huang, C.-Y.

C. P. Ho, P. Pitchappa, Y.-S. Lin, C.-Y. Huang, P. Kropelnicki, and C. Lee, “Electrothermally actuated microelectromechanical systems based omega-ring terahertz metamaterial with polarization dependent characteristics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(16), 161104 (2014).
[Crossref]

Jia, Q. X.

Jin, B.

Jokerst, N. M.

H.-T. Chen, S. Palit, T. Tyler, C. M. Bingham, J. M. O. Zide, J. F. O’Hara, D. R. Smith, A. C. Gossard, R. D. Averitt, W. J. Padilla, N. M. Jokerst, and A. J. Taylor, “Hybrid metamaterials enable fast electrical modulation of freely propagating terahertz waves,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(9), 091117 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kadlec, E. A.

Kafesaki, M.

J. Zhou, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, J. B. Pendry, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Saturation of the magnetic response of split-ring resonators at optical frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(22), 223902 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kang, L.

Koschny, T.

E. Plum, J. Zhou, J. Dong, V. A. Fedotov, T. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, and N. I. Zheludev, “Metamaterial with negative index due to chirality,” Phys. Rev. B 79(3), 035407 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Zhou, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, J. B. Pendry, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Saturation of the magnetic response of split-ring resonators at optical frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(22), 223902 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kropelnicki, P.

C. P. Ho, P. Pitchappa, Y.-S. Lin, C.-Y. Huang, P. Kropelnicki, and C. Lee, “Electrothermally actuated microelectromechanical systems based omega-ring terahertz metamaterial with polarization dependent characteristics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(16), 161104 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kwong, D. L.

W. M. Zhu, A. Q. Liu, X. M. Zhang, D. P. Tsai, T. Bourouina, J. H. Teng, X. H. Zhang, H. C. Guo, H. Tanoto, T. Mei, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Switchable magnetic metamaterials using micromachining processes,” Adv. Mater. 23(15), 1792–1796 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. H. Fu, A. Q. Liu, W. M. Zhu, X. M. Zhang, D. P. Tsai, J. B. Zhang, T. Mei, J. F. Tao, H. C. Guo, X. H. Zhang, J. H. Teng, N. I. Zheludev, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “A micromachined reconfigurable metamaterial via reconfiguration of asymmetric split-ring resonators,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(18), 3589–3594 (2011).
[Crossref]

W. M. Zhu, A. Q. Liu, W. Zhang, J. F. Tao, T. Bourouina, J. H. Teng, X. H. Zhang, Q. Y. Wu, H. Tanoto, H. C. Guo, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Polarization dependent state to polarization independent state change in THz metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(22), 221102 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lee, C.

F. Ma, Y.-S. Lin, X. Zhang, and C. Lee, “Tunable multiband terahertz metamaterials using a reconfigurable electric split-ring resonator array,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(5), 1–8 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y.-S. Lin and C. Lee, “Tuning characteristics of mirrorlike T-shape terahertz metamaterial using out-of-plane actuated cantilevers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(25), 251914 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. P. Ho, P. Pitchappa, Y.-S. Lin, C.-Y. Huang, P. Kropelnicki, and C. Lee, “Electrothermally actuated microelectromechanical systems based omega-ring terahertz metamaterial with polarization dependent characteristics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(16), 161104 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. Ma, Y. Qian, Y.-S. Lin, H. Liu, X. Zhang, Z. Liu, J. M.-L. Tsai, and C. Lee, “Polarization-sensitive microelectromechanical systems based tunable terahertz metamaterials using three dimensional electric split-ring,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(16), 161912 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lee, H.

N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Sub-diffraction-limited optical imaging with a silver superlens,” Science 308(5721), 534–537 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, M.

W. J. Padilla, A. J. Taylor, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and R. D. Averitt, “Dynamical electric and magnetic metamaterial response at terahertz frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(10), 107401 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lin, Y.-S.

F. Ma, Y.-S. Lin, X. Zhang, and C. Lee, “Tunable multiband terahertz metamaterials using a reconfigurable electric split-ring resonator array,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(5), 1–8 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y.-S. Lin and C. Lee, “Tuning characteristics of mirrorlike T-shape terahertz metamaterial using out-of-plane actuated cantilevers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(25), 251914 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. P. Ho, P. Pitchappa, Y.-S. Lin, C.-Y. Huang, P. Kropelnicki, and C. Lee, “Electrothermally actuated microelectromechanical systems based omega-ring terahertz metamaterial with polarization dependent characteristics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(16), 161104 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. Ma, Y. Qian, Y.-S. Lin, H. Liu, X. Zhang, Z. Liu, J. M.-L. Tsai, and C. Lee, “Polarization-sensitive microelectromechanical systems based tunable terahertz metamaterials using three dimensional electric split-ring,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(16), 161912 (2013).
[Crossref]

Linden, S.

Liu, A. Q.

Y. H. Fu, A. Q. Liu, W. M. Zhu, X. M. Zhang, D. P. Tsai, J. B. Zhang, T. Mei, J. F. Tao, H. C. Guo, X. H. Zhang, J. H. Teng, N. I. Zheludev, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “A micromachined reconfigurable metamaterial via reconfiguration of asymmetric split-ring resonators,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(18), 3589–3594 (2011).
[Crossref]

W. M. Zhu, A. Q. Liu, W. Zhang, J. F. Tao, T. Bourouina, J. H. Teng, X. H. Zhang, Q. Y. Wu, H. Tanoto, H. C. Guo, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Polarization dependent state to polarization independent state change in THz metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(22), 221102 (2011).
[Crossref]

W. M. Zhu, A. Q. Liu, X. M. Zhang, D. P. Tsai, T. Bourouina, J. H. Teng, X. H. Zhang, H. C. Guo, H. Tanoto, T. Mei, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Switchable magnetic metamaterials using micromachining processes,” Adv. Mater. 23(15), 1792–1796 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, H.

F. Ma, Y. Qian, Y.-S. Lin, H. Liu, X. Zhang, Z. Liu, J. M.-L. Tsai, and C. Lee, “Polarization-sensitive microelectromechanical systems based tunable terahertz metamaterials using three dimensional electric split-ring,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(16), 161912 (2013).
[Crossref]

Liu, Z.

F. Ma, Y. Qian, Y.-S. Lin, H. Liu, X. Zhang, Z. Liu, J. M.-L. Tsai, and C. Lee, “Polarization-sensitive microelectromechanical systems based tunable terahertz metamaterials using three dimensional electric split-ring,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(16), 161912 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lo, G. Q.

W. M. Zhu, A. Q. Liu, X. M. Zhang, D. P. Tsai, T. Bourouina, J. H. Teng, X. H. Zhang, H. C. Guo, H. Tanoto, T. Mei, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Switchable magnetic metamaterials using micromachining processes,” Adv. Mater. 23(15), 1792–1796 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. H. Fu, A. Q. Liu, W. M. Zhu, X. M. Zhang, D. P. Tsai, J. B. Zhang, T. Mei, J. F. Tao, H. C. Guo, X. H. Zhang, J. H. Teng, N. I. Zheludev, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “A micromachined reconfigurable metamaterial via reconfiguration of asymmetric split-ring resonators,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(18), 3589–3594 (2011).
[Crossref]

W. M. Zhu, A. Q. Liu, W. Zhang, J. F. Tao, T. Bourouina, J. H. Teng, X. H. Zhang, Q. Y. Wu, H. Tanoto, H. C. Guo, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Polarization dependent state to polarization independent state change in THz metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(22), 221102 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ma, F.

F. Ma, Y.-S. Lin, X. Zhang, and C. Lee, “Tunable multiband terahertz metamaterials using a reconfigurable electric split-ring resonator array,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(5), 1–8 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. Ma, Y. Qian, Y.-S. Lin, H. Liu, X. Zhang, Z. Liu, J. M.-L. Tsai, and C. Lee, “Polarization-sensitive microelectromechanical systems based tunable terahertz metamaterials using three dimensional electric split-ring,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(16), 161912 (2013).
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Malloy, K. J.

S. Zhang, W. Fan, B. K. Minhas, A. Frauenglass, K. J. Malloy, and S. R. J. Brueck, “Midinfrared resonant magnetic nanostructures exhibiting a negative permeability,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(3), 037402 (2005).
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Mei, T.

W. M. Zhu, A. Q. Liu, X. M. Zhang, D. P. Tsai, T. Bourouina, J. H. Teng, X. H. Zhang, H. C. Guo, H. Tanoto, T. Mei, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Switchable magnetic metamaterials using micromachining processes,” Adv. Mater. 23(15), 1792–1796 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. H. Fu, A. Q. Liu, W. M. Zhu, X. M. Zhang, D. P. Tsai, J. B. Zhang, T. Mei, J. F. Tao, H. C. Guo, X. H. Zhang, J. H. Teng, N. I. Zheludev, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “A micromachined reconfigurable metamaterial via reconfiguration of asymmetric split-ring resonators,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(18), 3589–3594 (2011).
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Minhas, B. K.

S. Zhang, W. Fan, B. K. Minhas, A. Frauenglass, K. J. Malloy, and S. R. J. Brueck, “Midinfrared resonant magnetic nanostructures exhibiting a negative permeability,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(3), 037402 (2005).
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Nemat-Nasser, S. C.

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, “Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(18), 4184–4187 (2000).
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H.-T. Chen, S. Palit, T. Tyler, C. M. Bingham, J. M. O. Zide, J. F. O’Hara, D. R. Smith, A. C. Gossard, R. D. Averitt, W. J. Padilla, N. M. Jokerst, and A. J. Taylor, “Hybrid metamaterials enable fast electrical modulation of freely propagating terahertz waves,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(9), 091117 (2008).
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Ou, J.-Y.

J.-Y. Ou, E. Plum, J. Zhang, and N. I. Zheludev, “An electromechanically reconfigurable plasmonic metamaterial operating in the near-infrared,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 8(4), 252–255 (2013).
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Padilla, W. J.

S. Savo, D. Shrekenhamer, and W. J. Padilla, “Liquid crystal metamaterial absorber spatial light modulator for THz applications,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2(3), 275–279 (2014).
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H. Tao, E. A. Kadlec, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, W. J. Padilla, R. D. Averitt, E. A. Shaner, and X. Zhang, “Microwave and terahertz wave sensing with metamaterials,” Opt. Express 19(22), 21620–21626 (2011).
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D. Shrekenhamer, S. Rout, A. C. Strikwerda, C. Bingham, R. D. Averitt, S. Sonkusale, and W. J. Padilla, “High speed terahertz modulation from metamaterials with embedded high electron mobility transistors,” Opt. Express 19(10), 9968–9975 (2011).
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H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, W. J. Padilla, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “Reconfigurable terahertz metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(14), 147401 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H.-T. Chen, S. Palit, T. Tyler, C. M. Bingham, J. M. O. Zide, J. F. O’Hara, D. R. Smith, A. C. Gossard, R. D. Averitt, W. J. Padilla, N. M. Jokerst, and A. J. Taylor, “Hybrid metamaterials enable fast electrical modulation of freely propagating terahertz waves,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(9), 091117 (2008).
[Crossref]

W. J. Padilla, A. J. Taylor, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and R. D. Averitt, “Dynamical electric and magnetic metamaterial response at terahertz frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(10), 107401 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
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T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, “Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials,” Science 303(5663), 1494–1496 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, “Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(18), 4184–4187 (2000).
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Palit, S.

H.-T. Chen, S. Palit, T. Tyler, C. M. Bingham, J. M. O. Zide, J. F. O’Hara, D. R. Smith, A. C. Gossard, R. D. Averitt, W. J. Padilla, N. M. Jokerst, and A. J. Taylor, “Hybrid metamaterials enable fast electrical modulation of freely propagating terahertz waves,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(9), 091117 (2008).
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Pendry, J. B.

J. Zhou, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, J. B. Pendry, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Saturation of the magnetic response of split-ring resonators at optical frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(22), 223902 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, “Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials,” Science 303(5663), 1494–1496 (2004).
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J. B. Pendry, “Negative refraction makes a perfect lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(18), 3966–3969 (2000).
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Pimenov, A.

Pitchappa, P.

C. P. Ho, P. Pitchappa, Y.-S. Lin, C.-Y. Huang, P. Kropelnicki, and C. Lee, “Electrothermally actuated microelectromechanical systems based omega-ring terahertz metamaterial with polarization dependent characteristics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(16), 161104 (2014).
[Crossref]

Plum, E.

J.-Y. Ou, E. Plum, J. Zhang, and N. I. Zheludev, “An electromechanically reconfigurable plasmonic metamaterial operating in the near-infrared,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 8(4), 252–255 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Plum, J. Zhou, J. Dong, V. A. Fedotov, T. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, and N. I. Zheludev, “Metamaterial with negative index due to chirality,” Phys. Rev. B 79(3), 035407 (2009).
[Crossref]

Qian, Y.

F. Ma, Y. Qian, Y.-S. Lin, H. Liu, X. Zhang, Z. Liu, J. M.-L. Tsai, and C. Lee, “Polarization-sensitive microelectromechanical systems based tunable terahertz metamaterials using three dimensional electric split-ring,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(16), 161912 (2013).
[Crossref]

Rout, S.

Savo, S.

S. Savo, D. Shrekenhamer, and W. J. Padilla, “Liquid crystal metamaterial absorber spatial light modulator for THz applications,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2(3), 275–279 (2014).
[Crossref]

Schultz, S.

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science 292(5514), 77–79 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, “Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(18), 4184–4187 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shaner, E. A.

Shelby, R. A.

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science 292(5514), 77–79 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shrekenhamer, D.

Singh, R.

Smith, D. R.

H.-T. Chen, S. Palit, T. Tyler, C. M. Bingham, J. M. O. Zide, J. F. O’Hara, D. R. Smith, A. C. Gossard, R. D. Averitt, W. J. Padilla, N. M. Jokerst, and A. J. Taylor, “Hybrid metamaterials enable fast electrical modulation of freely propagating terahertz waves,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(9), 091117 (2008).
[Crossref]

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, “Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials,” Science 303(5663), 1494–1496 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science 292(5514), 77–79 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, “Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(18), 4184–4187 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sonkusale, S.

Soukoulis, C. M.

E. Plum, J. Zhou, J. Dong, V. A. Fedotov, T. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, and N. I. Zheludev, “Metamaterial with negative index due to chirality,” Phys. Rev. B 79(3), 035407 (2009).
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G. Dolling, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, “Negative-index metamaterial at 780 nm wavelength,” Opt. Lett. 32(1), 53–55 (2007).
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J. Zhou, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, J. B. Pendry, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Saturation of the magnetic response of split-ring resonators at optical frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(22), 223902 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Strikwerda, A. C.

Sun, C.

N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Sub-diffraction-limited optical imaging with a silver superlens,” Science 308(5721), 534–537 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tanoto, H.

W. M. Zhu, A. Q. Liu, W. Zhang, J. F. Tao, T. Bourouina, J. H. Teng, X. H. Zhang, Q. Y. Wu, H. Tanoto, H. C. Guo, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Polarization dependent state to polarization independent state change in THz metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(22), 221102 (2011).
[Crossref]

W. M. Zhu, A. Q. Liu, X. M. Zhang, D. P. Tsai, T. Bourouina, J. H. Teng, X. H. Zhang, H. C. Guo, H. Tanoto, T. Mei, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Switchable magnetic metamaterials using micromachining processes,” Adv. Mater. 23(15), 1792–1796 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tao, H.

H. Tao, E. A. Kadlec, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, W. J. Padilla, R. D. Averitt, E. A. Shaner, and X. Zhang, “Microwave and terahertz wave sensing with metamaterials,” Opt. Express 19(22), 21620–21626 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, W. J. Padilla, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “Reconfigurable terahertz metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(14), 147401 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tao, J. F.

Y. H. Fu, A. Q. Liu, W. M. Zhu, X. M. Zhang, D. P. Tsai, J. B. Zhang, T. Mei, J. F. Tao, H. C. Guo, X. H. Zhang, J. H. Teng, N. I. Zheludev, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “A micromachined reconfigurable metamaterial via reconfiguration of asymmetric split-ring resonators,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(18), 3589–3594 (2011).
[Crossref]

W. M. Zhu, A. Q. Liu, W. Zhang, J. F. Tao, T. Bourouina, J. H. Teng, X. H. Zhang, Q. Y. Wu, H. Tanoto, H. C. Guo, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Polarization dependent state to polarization independent state change in THz metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(22), 221102 (2011).
[Crossref]

Taylor, A. J.

R. Singh, A. K. Azad, Q. X. Jia, A. J. Taylor, and H.-T. Chen, “Thermal tunability in terahertz metamaterials fabricated on strontium titanate single-crystal substrates,” Opt. Lett. 36(7), 1230–1232 (2011).
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H.-T. Chen, S. Palit, T. Tyler, C. M. Bingham, J. M. O. Zide, J. F. O’Hara, D. R. Smith, A. C. Gossard, R. D. Averitt, W. J. Padilla, N. M. Jokerst, and A. J. Taylor, “Hybrid metamaterials enable fast electrical modulation of freely propagating terahertz waves,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(9), 091117 (2008).
[Crossref]

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. J. Padilla, A. J. Taylor, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and R. D. Averitt, “Dynamical electric and magnetic metamaterial response at terahertz frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(10), 107401 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Teng, J. H.

W. M. Zhu, A. Q. Liu, W. Zhang, J. F. Tao, T. Bourouina, J. H. Teng, X. H. Zhang, Q. Y. Wu, H. Tanoto, H. C. Guo, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Polarization dependent state to polarization independent state change in THz metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(22), 221102 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. H. Fu, A. Q. Liu, W. M. Zhu, X. M. Zhang, D. P. Tsai, J. B. Zhang, T. Mei, J. F. Tao, H. C. Guo, X. H. Zhang, J. H. Teng, N. I. Zheludev, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “A micromachined reconfigurable metamaterial via reconfiguration of asymmetric split-ring resonators,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(18), 3589–3594 (2011).
[Crossref]

W. M. Zhu, A. Q. Liu, X. M. Zhang, D. P. Tsai, T. Bourouina, J. H. Teng, X. H. Zhang, H. C. Guo, H. Tanoto, T. Mei, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Switchable magnetic metamaterials using micromachining processes,” Adv. Mater. 23(15), 1792–1796 (2011).
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M. Tonouchi, “Cutting-edge terahertz technology,” Nat. Photon. 1(2), 97–105 (2007).
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Y. H. Fu, A. Q. Liu, W. M. Zhu, X. M. Zhang, D. P. Tsai, J. B. Zhang, T. Mei, J. F. Tao, H. C. Guo, X. H. Zhang, J. H. Teng, N. I. Zheludev, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “A micromachined reconfigurable metamaterial via reconfiguration of asymmetric split-ring resonators,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(18), 3589–3594 (2011).
[Crossref]

W. M. Zhu, A. Q. Liu, X. M. Zhang, D. P. Tsai, T. Bourouina, J. H. Teng, X. H. Zhang, H. C. Guo, H. Tanoto, T. Mei, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Switchable magnetic metamaterials using micromachining processes,” Adv. Mater. 23(15), 1792–1796 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tsai, J. M.-L.

F. Ma, Y. Qian, Y.-S. Lin, H. Liu, X. Zhang, Z. Liu, J. M.-L. Tsai, and C. Lee, “Polarization-sensitive microelectromechanical systems based tunable terahertz metamaterials using three dimensional electric split-ring,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(16), 161912 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tyler, T.

H.-T. Chen, S. Palit, T. Tyler, C. M. Bingham, J. M. O. Zide, J. F. O’Hara, D. R. Smith, A. C. Gossard, R. D. Averitt, W. J. Padilla, N. M. Jokerst, and A. J. Taylor, “Hybrid metamaterials enable fast electrical modulation of freely propagating terahertz waves,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(9), 091117 (2008).
[Crossref]

Vier, D. C.

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, “Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials,” Science 303(5663), 1494–1496 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, “Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(18), 4184–4187 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wegener, M.

Wu, J.

Wu, P.

Wu, Q. Y.

W. M. Zhu, A. Q. Liu, W. Zhang, J. F. Tao, T. Bourouina, J. H. Teng, X. H. Zhang, Q. Y. Wu, H. Tanoto, H. C. Guo, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Polarization dependent state to polarization independent state change in THz metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(22), 221102 (2011).
[Crossref]

Xu, Q.

Xu, W.

Yen, T. J.

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, “Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials,” Science 303(5663), 1494–1496 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, C.

Zhang, J.

J.-Y. Ou, E. Plum, J. Zhang, and N. I. Zheludev, “An electromechanically reconfigurable plasmonic metamaterial operating in the near-infrared,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 8(4), 252–255 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, J. B.

Y. H. Fu, A. Q. Liu, W. M. Zhu, X. M. Zhang, D. P. Tsai, J. B. Zhang, T. Mei, J. F. Tao, H. C. Guo, X. H. Zhang, J. H. Teng, N. I. Zheludev, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “A micromachined reconfigurable metamaterial via reconfiguration of asymmetric split-ring resonators,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(18), 3589–3594 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zhang, S.

S. Zhang, W. Fan, B. K. Minhas, A. Frauenglass, K. J. Malloy, and S. R. J. Brueck, “Midinfrared resonant magnetic nanostructures exhibiting a negative permeability,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(3), 037402 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, W.

W. M. Zhu, A. Q. Liu, W. Zhang, J. F. Tao, T. Bourouina, J. H. Teng, X. H. Zhang, Q. Y. Wu, H. Tanoto, H. C. Guo, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Polarization dependent state to polarization independent state change in THz metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(22), 221102 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X.

F. Ma, Y.-S. Lin, X. Zhang, and C. Lee, “Tunable multiband terahertz metamaterials using a reconfigurable electric split-ring resonator array,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(5), 1–8 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. Ma, Y. Qian, Y.-S. Lin, H. Liu, X. Zhang, Z. Liu, J. M.-L. Tsai, and C. Lee, “Polarization-sensitive microelectromechanical systems based tunable terahertz metamaterials using three dimensional electric split-ring,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(16), 161912 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Tao, E. A. Kadlec, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, W. J. Padilla, R. D. Averitt, E. A. Shaner, and X. Zhang, “Microwave and terahertz wave sensing with metamaterials,” Opt. Express 19(22), 21620–21626 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, W. J. Padilla, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “Reconfigurable terahertz metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(14), 147401 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Sub-diffraction-limited optical imaging with a silver superlens,” Science 308(5721), 534–537 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, “Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials,” Science 303(5663), 1494–1496 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, X. H.

W. M. Zhu, A. Q. Liu, W. Zhang, J. F. Tao, T. Bourouina, J. H. Teng, X. H. Zhang, Q. Y. Wu, H. Tanoto, H. C. Guo, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Polarization dependent state to polarization independent state change in THz metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(22), 221102 (2011).
[Crossref]

W. M. Zhu, A. Q. Liu, X. M. Zhang, D. P. Tsai, T. Bourouina, J. H. Teng, X. H. Zhang, H. C. Guo, H. Tanoto, T. Mei, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Switchable magnetic metamaterials using micromachining processes,” Adv. Mater. 23(15), 1792–1796 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. H. Fu, A. Q. Liu, W. M. Zhu, X. M. Zhang, D. P. Tsai, J. B. Zhang, T. Mei, J. F. Tao, H. C. Guo, X. H. Zhang, J. H. Teng, N. I. Zheludev, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “A micromachined reconfigurable metamaterial via reconfiguration of asymmetric split-ring resonators,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(18), 3589–3594 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X. M.

Y. H. Fu, A. Q. Liu, W. M. Zhu, X. M. Zhang, D. P. Tsai, J. B. Zhang, T. Mei, J. F. Tao, H. C. Guo, X. H. Zhang, J. H. Teng, N. I. Zheludev, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “A micromachined reconfigurable metamaterial via reconfiguration of asymmetric split-ring resonators,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(18), 3589–3594 (2011).
[Crossref]

W. M. Zhu, A. Q. Liu, X. M. Zhang, D. P. Tsai, T. Bourouina, J. H. Teng, X. H. Zhang, H. C. Guo, H. Tanoto, T. Mei, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Switchable magnetic metamaterials using micromachining processes,” Adv. Mater. 23(15), 1792–1796 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zheludev, N. I.

J.-Y. Ou, E. Plum, J. Zhang, and N. I. Zheludev, “An electromechanically reconfigurable plasmonic metamaterial operating in the near-infrared,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 8(4), 252–255 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. H. Fu, A. Q. Liu, W. M. Zhu, X. M. Zhang, D. P. Tsai, J. B. Zhang, T. Mei, J. F. Tao, H. C. Guo, X. H. Zhang, J. H. Teng, N. I. Zheludev, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “A micromachined reconfigurable metamaterial via reconfiguration of asymmetric split-ring resonators,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(18), 3589–3594 (2011).
[Crossref]

E. Plum, J. Zhou, J. Dong, V. A. Fedotov, T. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, and N. I. Zheludev, “Metamaterial with negative index due to chirality,” Phys. Rev. B 79(3), 035407 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zhou, J.

E. Plum, J. Zhou, J. Dong, V. A. Fedotov, T. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, and N. I. Zheludev, “Metamaterial with negative index due to chirality,” Phys. Rev. B 79(3), 035407 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Zhou, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, J. B. Pendry, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Saturation of the magnetic response of split-ring resonators at optical frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(22), 223902 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhu, W. M.

W. M. Zhu, A. Q. Liu, X. M. Zhang, D. P. Tsai, T. Bourouina, J. H. Teng, X. H. Zhang, H. C. Guo, H. Tanoto, T. Mei, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Switchable magnetic metamaterials using micromachining processes,” Adv. Mater. 23(15), 1792–1796 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. M. Zhu, A. Q. Liu, W. Zhang, J. F. Tao, T. Bourouina, J. H. Teng, X. H. Zhang, Q. Y. Wu, H. Tanoto, H. C. Guo, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Polarization dependent state to polarization independent state change in THz metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(22), 221102 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. H. Fu, A. Q. Liu, W. M. Zhu, X. M. Zhang, D. P. Tsai, J. B. Zhang, T. Mei, J. F. Tao, H. C. Guo, X. H. Zhang, J. H. Teng, N. I. Zheludev, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “A micromachined reconfigurable metamaterial via reconfiguration of asymmetric split-ring resonators,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(18), 3589–3594 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zide, J. M. O.

H.-T. Chen, S. Palit, T. Tyler, C. M. Bingham, J. M. O. Zide, J. F. O’Hara, D. R. Smith, A. C. Gossard, R. D. Averitt, W. J. Padilla, N. M. Jokerst, and A. J. Taylor, “Hybrid metamaterials enable fast electrical modulation of freely propagating terahertz waves,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(9), 091117 (2008).
[Crossref]

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adv. Funct. Mater. (1)

Y. H. Fu, A. Q. Liu, W. M. Zhu, X. M. Zhang, D. P. Tsai, J. B. Zhang, T. Mei, J. F. Tao, H. C. Guo, X. H. Zhang, J. H. Teng, N. I. Zheludev, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “A micromachined reconfigurable metamaterial via reconfiguration of asymmetric split-ring resonators,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(18), 3589–3594 (2011).
[Crossref]

Adv. Mater. (1)

W. M. Zhu, A. Q. Liu, X. M. Zhang, D. P. Tsai, T. Bourouina, J. H. Teng, X. H. Zhang, H. C. Guo, H. Tanoto, T. Mei, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Switchable magnetic metamaterials using micromachining processes,” Adv. Mater. 23(15), 1792–1796 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adv. Opt. Mater. (1)

S. Savo, D. Shrekenhamer, and W. J. Padilla, “Liquid crystal metamaterial absorber spatial light modulator for THz applications,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2(3), 275–279 (2014).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

W. M. Zhu, A. Q. Liu, W. Zhang, J. F. Tao, T. Bourouina, J. H. Teng, X. H. Zhang, Q. Y. Wu, H. Tanoto, H. C. Guo, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Polarization dependent state to polarization independent state change in THz metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(22), 221102 (2011).
[Crossref]

F. Ma, Y. Qian, Y.-S. Lin, H. Liu, X. Zhang, Z. Liu, J. M.-L. Tsai, and C. Lee, “Polarization-sensitive microelectromechanical systems based tunable terahertz metamaterials using three dimensional electric split-ring,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(16), 161912 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y.-S. Lin and C. Lee, “Tuning characteristics of mirrorlike T-shape terahertz metamaterial using out-of-plane actuated cantilevers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(25), 251914 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. P. Ho, P. Pitchappa, Y.-S. Lin, C.-Y. Huang, P. Kropelnicki, and C. Lee, “Electrothermally actuated microelectromechanical systems based omega-ring terahertz metamaterial with polarization dependent characteristics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(16), 161104 (2014).
[Crossref]

H.-T. Chen, S. Palit, T. Tyler, C. M. Bingham, J. M. O. Zide, J. F. O’Hara, D. R. Smith, A. C. Gossard, R. D. Averitt, W. J. Padilla, N. M. Jokerst, and A. J. Taylor, “Hybrid metamaterials enable fast electrical modulation of freely propagating terahertz waves,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(9), 091117 (2008).
[Crossref]

Light Sci. Appl. (1)

F. Ma, Y.-S. Lin, X. Zhang, and C. Lee, “Tunable multiband terahertz metamaterials using a reconfigurable electric split-ring resonator array,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(5), 1–8 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nat. Nanotechnol. (1)

J.-Y. Ou, E. Plum, J. Zhang, and N. I. Zheludev, “An electromechanically reconfigurable plasmonic metamaterial operating in the near-infrared,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 8(4), 252–255 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photon. (1)

M. Tonouchi, “Cutting-edge terahertz technology,” Nat. Photon. 1(2), 97–105 (2007).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

E. Plum, J. Zhou, J. Dong, V. A. Fedotov, T. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, and N. I. Zheludev, “Metamaterial with negative index due to chirality,” Phys. Rev. B 79(3), 035407 (2009).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (6)

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, “Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(18), 4184–4187 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry, “Negative refraction makes a perfect lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(18), 3966–3969 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. J. Padilla, A. J. Taylor, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and R. D. Averitt, “Dynamical electric and magnetic metamaterial response at terahertz frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(10), 107401 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Zhou, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, J. B. Pendry, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Saturation of the magnetic response of split-ring resonators at optical frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(22), 223902 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Zhang, W. Fan, B. K. Minhas, A. Frauenglass, K. J. Malloy, and S. R. J. Brueck, “Midinfrared resonant magnetic nanostructures exhibiting a negative permeability,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(3), 037402 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, W. J. Padilla, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “Reconfigurable terahertz metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(14), 147401 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Science (3)

N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Sub-diffraction-limited optical imaging with a silver superlens,” Science 308(5721), 534–537 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science 292(5514), 77–79 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, “Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials,” Science 303(5663), 1494–1496 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (1)

H. Toshiyoshi, “Electrostatic actuation,” in Comprehensive Microsystems, Y. B. Gianchandani, O. Tabata, H. Zappe, eds. (Elsevier, 2008).

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Figures (14)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Reconfigurable MEMS-SRR metamaterial design. (a) OFF-state of SRR. The capacitor within the SRR is electrostatically tuned to control the resonant frequency. (b) ON-state of SRR. (c) Arrayed SRR that could be electrostatically actuated by using the lateral connections between SRRs as an electrical interconnection.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Simulation results of electromagnetic transmission through the MEMS-SRR. (a) Electric field in parallel with and (b) perpendicular to the MEMS-SRR cantilever.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Electromagnetic simulation results with the electric field in parallel with the cantilever. The simulation source has a power of 1 Watt per area of (100 um)^2. (a) Electric field distribution and (b) surface current distribution both for the ON-state resonance at 461 GHz. (c) Electric field distribution and (d) surface current distribution both for the OFF-state resonance at 696 GHz.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Fabrication process of MEMS-SRR.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

SEM images of developed MEMS-SRR. (a) Close-up view of the unit cell and (b) the array.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Laser Doppler vibrometry result of the electrostatically actuated MEMS cantilever.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Mechanical frequency response of the MEMS-SRR cantilever. up: phase an down: gain.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

THz-TDS setup for the tunable filter measurement.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Operation voltage for the ON-state during THz-TDS measurement.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

THz-TDS measurement results of MEMS-SRR under electrostatic ON/OFF operation. (a) Electric field in parallel with and (b) perpendicular to the cantilever.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

THz-TDS signals of the quartz wafer (a, b) and air background (c, d), and the normalized transmission coefficient of quartz wafer (e). (a) and (c) are time-domain signal; (b) and (d) are frequency-domain signal.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

THz-TDS setup for the modulation measurement.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Drive voltage for MEMS-SRR during modulation measurement.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Modulation performance of the MEMS-SRR. (a) Time domain signal and (b) Frequency domain signal

Equations (1)

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T(f)= H quartz (f) H air (f) ,

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