Abstract

We suggest a new type of grating reflector denoted hybrid grating (HG) which shows large reflectivity in a broad wavelength range and has a structure suitable for realizing a vertical cavity laser with ultra-small modal volume. The properties of the grating reflector are investigated numerically and explained. The HG consists of an un-patterned III–V layer and a Si grating. The III–V layer has a thickness comparable to the grating layer, introduces more guided mode resonances and significantly increases the bandwidth of the reflector compared to the well-known high-index-contrast grating (HCG). By using an active III–V layer, a laser can be realized where the gain region is integrated into the mirror itself.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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2012 (3)

C. Sciancalepore, B. B. Bakir, X. Letartre, J. Harduin, N. Olivier, C. Seassal, J. Fedeli, and P. Viktorovitch, “CMOS-compatible ultra-compact 1.55 μm emitting VCSELs using double photonic crystal mirrors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(6), 455–457 (2012).
[CrossRef]

V. Karagodsky and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “Physics of near-wavelength high contrast gratings,” Opt. Express 20(10), 10888–10895 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Estruch, F. Pardo, B. Portier, J. Jaeck, S. Derelle, and R. Haidar, “Masons rule and Signal Flow Graphs applied to subwavelength resonant structures,” Opt. Express 20(24), 27155–27162 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

2010 (3)

D. Fattal, J. Li, Z. Peng, M. Fiorentino, and R. G. Beausoleil, “Flat dielectric grating reflectors with focusing abilities,” Nat. Photonics 4(7), 466–470 (2010).
[CrossRef]

I.-S. Chung, V. Iakovlev, A. Sirbu, A. Mereuta, A. Caliman, E. Kapon, and J. Mørk, “Broadband MEMS-tunable high-index-contrast subwavelength grating long-wavelength VCSEL,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(9), 1245–1253 (2010).
[CrossRef]

I.-S. Chung and J. Mørk, “Silicon-photonics light source realized by III–V/Si-grating-mirror laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(15), 151–153 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

I.-S. Chung, J. Mørk, P. Gilet, and A. Chelnokov, “Subwavelength grating-mirror VCSEL with a thin oxide gap,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(2), 105–107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Magnusson and M. Shokooh-Saremi, “Physical basis for wideband resonant reflectors,” Opt. Express 16(5), 3456–3462 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (3)

M. C.Y. Huang, Y. Zhou, and Connie J. Chang-Hasnain, “Nano electro-mechanical optoelectronic tunable VCSEL,” Opt. Express 15, 1222 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. C.Y. Huang, Y. Zhou, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “A surface-emitting laser incorporating a high index-contrast subwavelength grating,” Nat. Photonics 1(2), 119–122 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Boutami, B. Benbakir, J. L. Leclercq, and P. Viktorovitch, “Compact and polarization controlled 1.55 μm vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser using single-layer photonic crystal mirror,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 071105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

2004 (3)

Y. Ding and R. Magnusson, “Resonant leaky-mode spectral-band engineering and device applications,” Opt. Express 12(23), 5661–5674 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. F. R. Mateus, M. C. Y. Huang, Y. Deng, A. R. Neureuther, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “Ultrabroadband mirror using low-index cladded subwavelength grating,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(2), 518–520 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. F. R. Mateus, M. C. Y. Huang, L. Chen, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “Broad-band mirror (1.12–1.62 μm) using a subwavelength grating,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(7), 1676–1678 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

1997 (1)

D. Rosenblatt, A. Sharon, and A. A. Friesem, “Resonant grating waveguide structures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33(11), 2038–2059 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

1995 (1)

Bakir, B. B.

C. Sciancalepore, B. B. Bakir, X. Letartre, J. Harduin, N. Olivier, C. Seassal, J. Fedeli, and P. Viktorovitch, “CMOS-compatible ultra-compact 1.55 μm emitting VCSELs using double photonic crystal mirrors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(6), 455–457 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Beausoleil, R. G.

D. Fattal, J. Li, Z. Peng, M. Fiorentino, and R. G. Beausoleil, “Flat dielectric grating reflectors with focusing abilities,” Nat. Photonics 4(7), 466–470 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Benbakir, B.

S. Boutami, B. Benbakir, J. L. Leclercq, and P. Viktorovitch, “Compact and polarization controlled 1.55 μm vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser using single-layer photonic crystal mirror,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 071105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Boutami, S.

S. Boutami, B. Benbakir, J. L. Leclercq, and P. Viktorovitch, “Compact and polarization controlled 1.55 μm vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser using single-layer photonic crystal mirror,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 071105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Caliman, A.

I.-S. Chung, V. Iakovlev, A. Sirbu, A. Mereuta, A. Caliman, E. Kapon, and J. Mørk, “Broadband MEMS-tunable high-index-contrast subwavelength grating long-wavelength VCSEL,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(9), 1245–1253 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cao, Q.

Carletti, L.

Chang-Hasnain, C. J.

V. Karagodsky and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “Physics of near-wavelength high contrast gratings,” Opt. Express 20(10), 10888–10895 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. C.Y. Huang, Y. Zhou, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “A surface-emitting laser incorporating a high index-contrast subwavelength grating,” Nat. Photonics 1(2), 119–122 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. F. R. Mateus, M. C. Y. Huang, L. Chen, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “Broad-band mirror (1.12–1.62 μm) using a subwavelength grating,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(7), 1676–1678 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. F. R. Mateus, M. C. Y. Huang, Y. Deng, A. R. Neureuther, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “Ultrabroadband mirror using low-index cladded subwavelength grating,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(2), 518–520 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chang-Hasnain, Connie J.

Chavel, P.

Chelnokov, A.

I.-S. Chung, J. Mørk, P. Gilet, and A. Chelnokov, “Subwavelength grating-mirror VCSEL with a thin oxide gap,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(2), 105–107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L.

C. F. R. Mateus, M. C. Y. Huang, L. Chen, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “Broad-band mirror (1.12–1.62 μm) using a subwavelength grating,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(7), 1676–1678 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chung, I.-S.

L. Carletti, R. Malureanu, J. Mørk, and I.-S. Chung, “High-index-contrast grating reflector with beam steering ability for the transmitted beam,” Opt. Express 19(23), 23567 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I.-S. Chung, V. Iakovlev, A. Sirbu, A. Mereuta, A. Caliman, E. Kapon, and J. Mørk, “Broadband MEMS-tunable high-index-contrast subwavelength grating long-wavelength VCSEL,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(9), 1245–1253 (2010).
[CrossRef]

I.-S. Chung and J. Mørk, “Silicon-photonics light source realized by III–V/Si-grating-mirror laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(15), 151–153 (2010).
[CrossRef]

I.-S. Chung, J. Mørk, P. Gilet, and A. Chelnokov, “Subwavelength grating-mirror VCSEL with a thin oxide gap,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(2), 105–107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Deng, Y.

C. F. R. Mateus, M. C. Y. Huang, Y. Deng, A. R. Neureuther, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “Ultrabroadband mirror using low-index cladded subwavelength grating,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(2), 518–520 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Derelle, S.

Ding, Y.

Estruch, T.

Fattal, D.

D. Fattal, J. Li, Z. Peng, M. Fiorentino, and R. G. Beausoleil, “Flat dielectric grating reflectors with focusing abilities,” Nat. Photonics 4(7), 466–470 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fedeli, J.

C. Sciancalepore, B. B. Bakir, X. Letartre, J. Harduin, N. Olivier, C. Seassal, J. Fedeli, and P. Viktorovitch, “CMOS-compatible ultra-compact 1.55 μm emitting VCSELs using double photonic crystal mirrors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(6), 455–457 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Fiorentino, M.

D. Fattal, J. Li, Z. Peng, M. Fiorentino, and R. G. Beausoleil, “Flat dielectric grating reflectors with focusing abilities,” Nat. Photonics 4(7), 466–470 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Friesem, A. A.

D. Rosenblatt, A. Sharon, and A. A. Friesem, “Resonant grating waveguide structures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33(11), 2038–2059 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gaylord, T. K.

Gilet, P.

I.-S. Chung, J. Mørk, P. Gilet, and A. Chelnokov, “Subwavelength grating-mirror VCSEL with a thin oxide gap,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(2), 105–107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Granet, G.

Grann, E. B.

Guizal, B.

Haidar, R.

Harduin, J.

C. Sciancalepore, B. B. Bakir, X. Letartre, J. Harduin, N. Olivier, C. Seassal, J. Fedeli, and P. Viktorovitch, “CMOS-compatible ultra-compact 1.55 μm emitting VCSELs using double photonic crystal mirrors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(6), 455–457 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Huang, M. C. Y.

C. F. R. Mateus, M. C. Y. Huang, Y. Deng, A. R. Neureuther, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “Ultrabroadband mirror using low-index cladded subwavelength grating,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(2), 518–520 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. F. R. Mateus, M. C. Y. Huang, L. Chen, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “Broad-band mirror (1.12–1.62 μm) using a subwavelength grating,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(7), 1676–1678 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Huang, M. C.Y.

M. C.Y. Huang, Y. Zhou, and Connie J. Chang-Hasnain, “Nano electro-mechanical optoelectronic tunable VCSEL,” Opt. Express 15, 1222 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. C.Y. Huang, Y. Zhou, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “A surface-emitting laser incorporating a high index-contrast subwavelength grating,” Nat. Photonics 1(2), 119–122 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hugonin, J. P.

Iakovlev, V.

I.-S. Chung, V. Iakovlev, A. Sirbu, A. Mereuta, A. Caliman, E. Kapon, and J. Mørk, “Broadband MEMS-tunable high-index-contrast subwavelength grating long-wavelength VCSEL,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(9), 1245–1253 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jaeck, J.

Kapon, E.

I.-S. Chung, V. Iakovlev, A. Sirbu, A. Mereuta, A. Caliman, E. Kapon, and J. Mørk, “Broadband MEMS-tunable high-index-contrast subwavelength grating long-wavelength VCSEL,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(9), 1245–1253 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Karagodsky, V.

Lalanne, P.

Leclercq, J. L.

S. Boutami, B. Benbakir, J. L. Leclercq, and P. Viktorovitch, “Compact and polarization controlled 1.55 μm vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser using single-layer photonic crystal mirror,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 071105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Letartre, X.

C. Sciancalepore, B. B. Bakir, X. Letartre, J. Harduin, N. Olivier, C. Seassal, J. Fedeli, and P. Viktorovitch, “CMOS-compatible ultra-compact 1.55 μm emitting VCSELs using double photonic crystal mirrors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(6), 455–457 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Li, J.

D. Fattal, J. Li, Z. Peng, M. Fiorentino, and R. G. Beausoleil, “Flat dielectric grating reflectors with focusing abilities,” Nat. Photonics 4(7), 466–470 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Li, L.

Magnusson, R.

Malureanu, R.

Mateus, C. F. R.

C. F. R. Mateus, M. C. Y. Huang, L. Chen, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “Broad-band mirror (1.12–1.62 μm) using a subwavelength grating,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(7), 1676–1678 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. F. R. Mateus, M. C. Y. Huang, Y. Deng, A. R. Neureuther, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “Ultrabroadband mirror using low-index cladded subwavelength grating,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(2), 518–520 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mereuta, A.

I.-S. Chung, V. Iakovlev, A. Sirbu, A. Mereuta, A. Caliman, E. Kapon, and J. Mørk, “Broadband MEMS-tunable high-index-contrast subwavelength grating long-wavelength VCSEL,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(9), 1245–1253 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Moharam, M. G.

Mørk, J.

L. Carletti, R. Malureanu, J. Mørk, and I.-S. Chung, “High-index-contrast grating reflector with beam steering ability for the transmitted beam,” Opt. Express 19(23), 23567 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I.-S. Chung and J. Mørk, “Silicon-photonics light source realized by III–V/Si-grating-mirror laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(15), 151–153 (2010).
[CrossRef]

I.-S. Chung, V. Iakovlev, A. Sirbu, A. Mereuta, A. Caliman, E. Kapon, and J. Mørk, “Broadband MEMS-tunable high-index-contrast subwavelength grating long-wavelength VCSEL,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(9), 1245–1253 (2010).
[CrossRef]

I.-S. Chung, J. Mørk, P. Gilet, and A. Chelnokov, “Subwavelength grating-mirror VCSEL with a thin oxide gap,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(2), 105–107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Neureuther, A. R.

C. F. R. Mateus, M. C. Y. Huang, Y. Deng, A. R. Neureuther, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “Ultrabroadband mirror using low-index cladded subwavelength grating,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(2), 518–520 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Olivier, N.

C. Sciancalepore, B. B. Bakir, X. Letartre, J. Harduin, N. Olivier, C. Seassal, J. Fedeli, and P. Viktorovitch, “CMOS-compatible ultra-compact 1.55 μm emitting VCSELs using double photonic crystal mirrors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(6), 455–457 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Pardo, F.

Peng, Z.

D. Fattal, J. Li, Z. Peng, M. Fiorentino, and R. G. Beausoleil, “Flat dielectric grating reflectors with focusing abilities,” Nat. Photonics 4(7), 466–470 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Pommet, D. A.

Portier, B.

Rosenblatt, D.

D. Rosenblatt, A. Sharon, and A. A. Friesem, “Resonant grating waveguide structures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33(11), 2038–2059 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sciancalepore, C.

C. Sciancalepore, B. B. Bakir, X. Letartre, J. Harduin, N. Olivier, C. Seassal, J. Fedeli, and P. Viktorovitch, “CMOS-compatible ultra-compact 1.55 μm emitting VCSELs using double photonic crystal mirrors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(6), 455–457 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Seassal, C.

C. Sciancalepore, B. B. Bakir, X. Letartre, J. Harduin, N. Olivier, C. Seassal, J. Fedeli, and P. Viktorovitch, “CMOS-compatible ultra-compact 1.55 μm emitting VCSELs using double photonic crystal mirrors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(6), 455–457 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Sharon, A.

D. Rosenblatt, A. Sharon, and A. A. Friesem, “Resonant grating waveguide structures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33(11), 2038–2059 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Shokooh-Saremi, M.

Silberstein, E.

Sirbu, A.

I.-S. Chung, V. Iakovlev, A. Sirbu, A. Mereuta, A. Caliman, E. Kapon, and J. Mørk, “Broadband MEMS-tunable high-index-contrast subwavelength grating long-wavelength VCSEL,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(9), 1245–1253 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Viktorovitch, P.

C. Sciancalepore, B. B. Bakir, X. Letartre, J. Harduin, N. Olivier, C. Seassal, J. Fedeli, and P. Viktorovitch, “CMOS-compatible ultra-compact 1.55 μm emitting VCSELs using double photonic crystal mirrors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(6), 455–457 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Boutami, B. Benbakir, J. L. Leclercq, and P. Viktorovitch, “Compact and polarization controlled 1.55 μm vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser using single-layer photonic crystal mirror,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 071105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, Y.

M. C.Y. Huang, Y. Zhou, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “A surface-emitting laser incorporating a high index-contrast subwavelength grating,” Nat. Photonics 1(2), 119–122 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. C.Y. Huang, Y. Zhou, and Connie J. Chang-Hasnain, “Nano electro-mechanical optoelectronic tunable VCSEL,” Opt. Express 15, 1222 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

S. Boutami, B. Benbakir, J. L. Leclercq, and P. Viktorovitch, “Compact and polarization controlled 1.55 μm vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser using single-layer photonic crystal mirror,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 071105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

I.-S. Chung and J. Mørk, “Silicon-photonics light source realized by III–V/Si-grating-mirror laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(15), 151–153 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

I.-S. Chung, V. Iakovlev, A. Sirbu, A. Mereuta, A. Caliman, E. Kapon, and J. Mørk, “Broadband MEMS-tunable high-index-contrast subwavelength grating long-wavelength VCSEL,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(9), 1245–1253 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Rosenblatt, A. Sharon, and A. A. Friesem, “Resonant grating waveguide structures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33(11), 2038–2059 (1997).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (4)

I.-S. Chung, J. Mørk, P. Gilet, and A. Chelnokov, “Subwavelength grating-mirror VCSEL with a thin oxide gap,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(2), 105–107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. F. R. Mateus, M. C. Y. Huang, Y. Deng, A. R. Neureuther, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “Ultrabroadband mirror using low-index cladded subwavelength grating,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(2), 518–520 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. F. R. Mateus, M. C. Y. Huang, L. Chen, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “Broad-band mirror (1.12–1.62 μm) using a subwavelength grating,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(7), 1676–1678 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Sciancalepore, B. B. Bakir, X. Letartre, J. Harduin, N. Olivier, C. Seassal, J. Fedeli, and P. Viktorovitch, “CMOS-compatible ultra-compact 1.55 μm emitting VCSELs using double photonic crystal mirrors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(6), 455–457 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (4)

Nat. Photonics (2)

M. C.Y. Huang, Y. Zhou, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “A surface-emitting laser incorporating a high index-contrast subwavelength grating,” Nat. Photonics 1(2), 119–122 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Fattal, J. Li, Z. Peng, M. Fiorentino, and R. G. Beausoleil, “Flat dielectric grating reflectors with focusing abilities,” Nat. Photonics 4(7), 466–470 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (6)

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