Abstract

We design, fabricate and experimentally demonstrate a highly efficient adiabatic mode converter for coupling light into a silicon slot waveguide with a slot width as large as 320nm. This strip-to-slot mode converter is optimized to provide a measured insertion loss as low as 0.08dB. Our mode converter provides 0.1dB lower loss compared to a conventional V-shape mode converter. This mode converter is used to couple light into and out of a 320nm slot photonic crystal waveguide, and it is experimentally shown to improve the coupling efficiency up to 3.5dB compared to the V-shape mode converter, over the slow-light wavelength region.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2014 (4)

2013 (5)

J. Ding, R. Ji, L. Zhang, and L. Yang, “Electro-optical response analysis of a 40 Gb/s silicon Mach-Zehnder optical modulator,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31(14), 2434–2440 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. Palmer, L. Alloatti, D. Korn, P. C. Schindler, M. Baier, J. Bolten, T. Wahlbrink, M. Waldow, R. Dinu, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “Low power mach-zehnder modulator in silicon-organic hybrid technology,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(13), 1226–1229 (2013).

X. Zhang, A. Hosseini, X. Lin, H. Subbaraman, and R. T. Chen, “Polymer-based Hybrid Integrated Photonic Devices for Silicon On-chip Modulation and Board-level Optical Interconnects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(6), 196–210 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. Lin, T. Ling, H. Subbaraman, X. Zhang, K. Byun, L. J. Guo, and R. T. Chen, “Ultraviolet imprinting and aligned ink-jet printing for multilayer patterning of electro-optic polymer modulators,” Opt. Lett. 38(10), 1597–1599 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Zhang, A. Hosseini, S. Chakravarty, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and R. T. Chen, “Wide optical spectrum range, subvolt, compact modulator based on an electro-optic polymer refilled silicon slot photonic crystal waveguide,” Opt. Lett. 38(22), 4931–4934 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (5)

X. Zhang, B. Lee, C.-y. Lin, A. X. Wang, A. Hosseini, and R. T. Chen, “Highly Linear Broadband Optical Modulator Based on Electro-Optic Polymer,” IEEE Photon. J. 4(6), 2214–2228 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. Dai, J. Bauters, and J. E. Bowers, “Passive technologies for future large-scale photonic integrated circuits on silicon: polarization handling, light non-reciprocity and loss reduction,” Light: Sci. Appl. 1(3), e1 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Hosseini, X. Xu, H. Subbaraman, C.-Y. Lin, S. Rahimi, and R. T. Chen, “Large optical spectral range dispersion engineered silicon-based photonic crystal waveguide modulator,” Opt. Express 20(11), 12318–12325 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Subbaraman, X. Xu, J. Covey, and R. T. Chen, “Efficient light coupling into in-plane semiconductor nanomembrane photonic devices utilizing a sub-wavelength grating coupler,” Opt. Express 20(18), 20659–20665 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Xu, H. Subbaraman, J. Covey, D. Kwong, A. Hosseini, and R. T. Chen, “Complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor compatible high efficiency subwavelength grating couplers for silicon integrated photonics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 031109 (2012).

2011 (9)

Y. Liu, T. Baehr-Jones, J. Li, A. Pomerene, and M. Hochberg, “Efficient Strip to Strip-Loaded Slot Mode Converter in Silicon-on-Insulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(20), 1496–1498 (2011).
[Crossref]

W.-C. Lai, S. Chakravarty, X. Wang, C. Lin, and R. T. Chen, “On-chip methane sensing by near-IR absorption signatures in a photonic crystal slot waveguide,” Opt. Lett. 36(6), 984–986 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. C. Nguyen, Y. Sakai, M. Shinkawa, N. Ishikura, and T. Baba, “10 Gb/s operation of photonic crystal silicon optical modulators,” Opt. Express 19(14), 13000–13007 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Hosseini, X. Xu, D. N. Kwong, H. Subbaraman, W. Jiang, and R. T. Chen, “On the role of evanescent modes and group index tapering in slow light photonic crystal waveguide coupling efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 031107 (2011).

R. Ding, T. Baehr-Jones, W.-J. Kim, B. Boyko, R. Bojko, A. Spott, A. Pomerene, C. Hill, W. Reinhardt, and M. Hochberg, “Low-loss asymmetric strip-loaded slot waveguides in silicon-on-insulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(23), 233303 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Spott, T. Baehr-Jones, R. Ding, Y. Liu, R. Bojko, T. O’Malley, A. Pomerene, C. Hill, W. Reinhardt, and M. Hochberg, “Photolithographically fabricated low-loss asymmetric silicon slot waveguides,” Opt. Express 19(11), 10950–10958 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, K. W. Goossen, W. Jan, X. Zheng, R. Ho, G. Li, R. Rozier, F. Liu, D. Patil, J. Lexau, H. Schwetman, D. Feng, M. Asghari, T. Pinguet, and J. E. Cunningham, “Progress in low-power switched optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron 17(2), 357–376 (2011).
[Crossref]

X. Wang, C.-Y. Lin, S. Chakravarty, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and R. T. Chen, “Effective in-device r33 of 735 pm/V on electro-optic polymer infiltrated silicon photonic crystal slot waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 36(6), 882–884 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C.-Y. Lin, A. X. Wang, B. S. Lee, X. Zhang, and R. T. Chen, “High dynamic range electric field sensor for electromagnetic pulse detection,” Opt. Express 19(18), 17372–17377 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (4)

A. B. Matsko, A. A. Savchenkov, V. S. Ilchenko, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, “On the sensitivity of all-dielectric microwave photonic receivers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28, 3427–3438 (2010).

C.-Y. Lin, X. Wang, S. Chakravarty, B. S. Lee, W. Lai, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and R. T. Chen, “Electro-optic polymer infiltrated silicon photonic crystal slot waveguide modulator with 23 dB slow light enhancement,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(9), 093304 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. Huang, T.-D. Kim, J. Luo, S. K. Hau, Z. Shi, X.-H. Zhou, H.-L. Yip, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Highly efficient electro-optic polymers through improved poling using a thin TiO 2-modified transparent electrode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(24), 243311 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Witzens, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “Design of transmission line driven slot waveguide Mach-Zehnder interferometers and application to analog optical links,” Opt. Express 18(16), 16902–16928 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (5)

F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. W. Baks, D. M. Kuchta, P. Pepeljugoski, L. Schares, R. Budd, F. Libsch, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, and J. A. Kash, “160 Gb/s bidirectional polymer-waveguide board-level optical interconnects using CMOS-based transceivers,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 32(2), 345–359 (2009).
[Crossref]

Z. Yuan, A. Anopchenko, N. Daldosso, R. Guider, D. Navarro-Urrios, A. Pitanti, R. Spano, and L. Pavesi, “Silicon nanocrystals as an enabling material for silicon photonics,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1250–1268 (2009).
[Crossref]

Z. Wang, N. Zhu, Y. Tang, L. Wosinski, D. Dai, and S. He, “Ultracompact low-loss coupler between strip and slot waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 34(10), 1498–1500 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. H. Wülbern, J. Hampe, A. Petrov, M. Eich, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, A. Di Falco, T. F. Krauss, and J. Bruns, “Electro-optic modulation in slotted resonant photonic crystal heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(24), 241107 (2009).
[Crossref]

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon–organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 216–219 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (4)

A. Di Falco, L. O’Faolain, and T. Krauss, “Dispersion control and slow light in slotted photonic crystal waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(8), 083501 (2008).
[Crossref]

J.-M. Brosi, C. Koos, L. C. Andreani, M. Waldow, J. Leuthold, and W. Freude, “High-speed low-voltage electro-optic modulator with a polymer-infiltrated silicon photonic crystal waveguide,” Opt. Express 16(6), 4177–4191 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Chen, B. Chen, D. Huang, D. Jin, J. Luo, A.-Y. Jen, and R. Dinu, “Broadband electro-optic polymer modulators with high electro-optic activity and low poling induced optical loss,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(4), 043507 (2008).
[Crossref]

T. Baehr-Jones, B. Penkov, J. Huang, P. Sullivan, J. Davies, J. Takayesu, J. Luo, T.-D. Kim, L. Dalton, A. Jen, M. Hochberg, and A. Scherer, “Nonlinear polymer-clad silicon slot waveguide modulator with a half wave voltage of 0.25 V,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(16), 163303 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

2005 (2)

Y. A. Vlasov, M. O’Boyle, H. F. Hamann, and S. J. McNab, “Active control of slow light on a chip with photonic crystal waveguides,” Nature 438(7064), 65–69 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jiang, W. Jiang, L. Gu, X. Chen, and R. T. Chen, “80-micron interaction length silicon photonic crystal waveguide modulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(22), 221105 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

1998 (1)

Alloatti, L.

R. Palmer, L. Alloatti, D. Korn, P. C. Schindler, M. Baier, J. Bolten, T. Wahlbrink, M. Waldow, R. Dinu, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “Low power mach-zehnder modulator in silicon-organic hybrid technology,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(13), 1226–1229 (2013).

Almeida, V. R.

Amberg, P.

Andreani, L. C.

Anopchenko, A.

Z. Yuan, A. Anopchenko, N. Daldosso, R. Guider, D. Navarro-Urrios, A. Pitanti, R. Spano, and L. Pavesi, “Silicon nanocrystals as an enabling material for silicon photonics,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1250–1268 (2009).
[Crossref]

Asghari, M.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, K. W. Goossen, W. Jan, X. Zheng, R. Ho, G. Li, R. Rozier, F. Liu, D. Patil, J. Lexau, H. Schwetman, D. Feng, M. Asghari, T. Pinguet, and J. E. Cunningham, “Progress in low-power switched optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron 17(2), 357–376 (2011).
[Crossref]

Assefa, S.

Baba, T.

Baehr-Jones, T.

A. Spott, T. Baehr-Jones, R. Ding, Y. Liu, R. Bojko, T. O’Malley, A. Pomerene, C. Hill, W. Reinhardt, and M. Hochberg, “Photolithographically fabricated low-loss asymmetric silicon slot waveguides,” Opt. Express 19(11), 10950–10958 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Liu, T. Baehr-Jones, J. Li, A. Pomerene, and M. Hochberg, “Efficient Strip to Strip-Loaded Slot Mode Converter in Silicon-on-Insulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(20), 1496–1498 (2011).
[Crossref]

R. Ding, T. Baehr-Jones, W.-J. Kim, B. Boyko, R. Bojko, A. Spott, A. Pomerene, C. Hill, W. Reinhardt, and M. Hochberg, “Low-loss asymmetric strip-loaded slot waveguides in silicon-on-insulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(23), 233303 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Witzens, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “Design of transmission line driven slot waveguide Mach-Zehnder interferometers and application to analog optical links,” Opt. Express 18(16), 16902–16928 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Baehr-Jones, B. Penkov, J. Huang, P. Sullivan, J. Davies, J. Takayesu, J. Luo, T.-D. Kim, L. Dalton, A. Jen, M. Hochberg, and A. Scherer, “Nonlinear polymer-clad silicon slot waveguide modulator with a half wave voltage of 0.25 V,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(16), 163303 (2008).
[Crossref]

Baets, R.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon–organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 216–219 (2009).
[Crossref]

Baier, M.

R. Palmer, L. Alloatti, D. Korn, P. C. Schindler, M. Baier, J. Bolten, T. Wahlbrink, M. Waldow, R. Dinu, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “Low power mach-zehnder modulator in silicon-organic hybrid technology,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(13), 1226–1229 (2013).

Baks, C. W.

B. G. Lee, A. V. Rylyakov, W. M. Green, S. Assefa, C. W. Baks, R. Rimolo-Donadio, D. M. Kuchta, M. H. Khater, T. Barwicz, C. Reinholm, E. Kiewra, S. M. Shank, C. L. Schow, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Monolithic Silicon Integration of Scaled Photonic Switch Fabrics, CMOS Logic, and Device Driver Circuits,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(4), 743–751 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. W. Baks, D. M. Kuchta, P. Pepeljugoski, L. Schares, R. Budd, F. Libsch, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, and J. A. Kash, “160 Gb/s bidirectional polymer-waveguide board-level optical interconnects using CMOS-based transceivers,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 32(2), 345–359 (2009).
[Crossref]

Barrios, C. A.

Barwicz, T.

Bauters, J.

D. Dai, J. Bauters, and J. E. Bowers, “Passive technologies for future large-scale photonic integrated circuits on silicon: polarization handling, light non-reciprocity and loss reduction,” Light: Sci. Appl. 1(3), e1 (2012).
[Crossref]

Biaggio, I.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon–organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 216–219 (2009).
[Crossref]

Blum, R.

Bogaerts, W.

R. Palmer, S. Koeber, D. L. Elder, M. Woessner, W. Heni, D. Korn, M. Lauermann, W. Bogaerts, L. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “High-Speed, Low Drive-Voltage Silicon-Organic Hybrid Modulator Based on a Binary-Chromophore Electro-Optic Material,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(16), 2726–2734 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon–organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 216–219 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bojko, R.

R. Ding, T. Baehr-Jones, W.-J. Kim, B. Boyko, R. Bojko, A. Spott, A. Pomerene, C. Hill, W. Reinhardt, and M. Hochberg, “Low-loss asymmetric strip-loaded slot waveguides in silicon-on-insulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(23), 233303 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Spott, T. Baehr-Jones, R. Ding, Y. Liu, R. Bojko, T. O’Malley, A. Pomerene, C. Hill, W. Reinhardt, and M. Hochberg, “Photolithographically fabricated low-loss asymmetric silicon slot waveguides,” Opt. Express 19(11), 10950–10958 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bolten, J.

R. Palmer, L. Alloatti, D. Korn, P. C. Schindler, M. Baier, J. Bolten, T. Wahlbrink, M. Waldow, R. Dinu, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “Low power mach-zehnder modulator in silicon-organic hybrid technology,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(13), 1226–1229 (2013).

Bowers, J. E.

D. Dai, J. Bauters, and J. E. Bowers, “Passive technologies for future large-scale photonic integrated circuits on silicon: polarization handling, light non-reciprocity and loss reduction,” Light: Sci. Appl. 1(3), e1 (2012).
[Crossref]

Boyko, B.

R. Ding, T. Baehr-Jones, W.-J. Kim, B. Boyko, R. Bojko, A. Spott, A. Pomerene, C. Hill, W. Reinhardt, and M. Hochberg, “Low-loss asymmetric strip-loaded slot waveguides in silicon-on-insulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(23), 233303 (2011).
[Crossref]

Brosi, J.-M.

Bruns, J.

J. H. Wülbern, J. Hampe, A. Petrov, M. Eich, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, A. Di Falco, T. F. Krauss, and J. Bruns, “Electro-optic modulation in slotted resonant photonic crystal heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(24), 241107 (2009).
[Crossref]

Budd, R.

F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. W. Baks, D. M. Kuchta, P. Pepeljugoski, L. Schares, R. Budd, F. Libsch, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, and J. A. Kash, “160 Gb/s bidirectional polymer-waveguide board-level optical interconnects using CMOS-based transceivers,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 32(2), 345–359 (2009).
[Crossref]

Byun, K.

Chakravarty, S.

Chang, E.

Chen, B.

H. Chen, B. Chen, D. Huang, D. Jin, J. Luo, A.-Y. Jen, and R. Dinu, “Broadband electro-optic polymer modulators with high electro-optic activity and low poling induced optical loss,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(4), 043507 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chen, H.

H. Chen, B. Chen, D. Huang, D. Jin, J. Luo, A.-Y. Jen, and R. Dinu, “Broadband electro-optic polymer modulators with high electro-optic activity and low poling induced optical loss,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(4), 043507 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chen, R.

X. Zhang, A. Hosseini, H. Subbaraman, S. Wang, Q. Zhan, J. Luo, A. Jen, and R. Chen, “Integrated Photonic Electromagnetic Field Sensor Based on Broadband Bowtie Antenna Coupled Silicon Organic Hybrid Modulator,” J. Lightwave Technol. PP(99), 1 (2014), http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/articleDetails.jsp?arnumber=6803876 .

Chen, R. T.

X. Zhang, A. Hosseini, X. Lin, H. Subbaraman, and R. T. Chen, “Polymer-based Hybrid Integrated Photonic Devices for Silicon On-chip Modulation and Board-level Optical Interconnects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(6), 196–210 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. Zhang, A. Hosseini, S. Chakravarty, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and R. T. Chen, “Wide optical spectrum range, subvolt, compact modulator based on an electro-optic polymer refilled silicon slot photonic crystal waveguide,” Opt. Lett. 38(22), 4931–4934 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Lin, T. Ling, H. Subbaraman, X. Zhang, K. Byun, L. J. Guo, and R. T. Chen, “Ultraviolet imprinting and aligned ink-jet printing for multilayer patterning of electro-optic polymer modulators,” Opt. Lett. 38(10), 1597–1599 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Hosseini, X. Xu, H. Subbaraman, C.-Y. Lin, S. Rahimi, and R. T. Chen, “Large optical spectral range dispersion engineered silicon-based photonic crystal waveguide modulator,” Opt. Express 20(11), 12318–12325 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Subbaraman, X. Xu, J. Covey, and R. T. Chen, “Efficient light coupling into in-plane semiconductor nanomembrane photonic devices utilizing a sub-wavelength grating coupler,” Opt. Express 20(18), 20659–20665 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Zhang, B. Lee, C.-y. Lin, A. X. Wang, A. Hosseini, and R. T. Chen, “Highly Linear Broadband Optical Modulator Based on Electro-Optic Polymer,” IEEE Photon. J. 4(6), 2214–2228 (2012).
[Crossref]

X. Xu, H. Subbaraman, J. Covey, D. Kwong, A. Hosseini, and R. T. Chen, “Complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor compatible high efficiency subwavelength grating couplers for silicon integrated photonics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 031109 (2012).

A. Hosseini, X. Xu, D. N. Kwong, H. Subbaraman, W. Jiang, and R. T. Chen, “On the role of evanescent modes and group index tapering in slow light photonic crystal waveguide coupling efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 031107 (2011).

C.-Y. Lin, A. X. Wang, B. S. Lee, X. Zhang, and R. T. Chen, “High dynamic range electric field sensor for electromagnetic pulse detection,” Opt. Express 19(18), 17372–17377 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Wang, C.-Y. Lin, S. Chakravarty, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and R. T. Chen, “Effective in-device r33 of 735 pm/V on electro-optic polymer infiltrated silicon photonic crystal slot waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 36(6), 882–884 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W.-C. Lai, S. Chakravarty, X. Wang, C. Lin, and R. T. Chen, “On-chip methane sensing by near-IR absorption signatures in a photonic crystal slot waveguide,” Opt. Lett. 36(6), 984–986 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C.-Y. Lin, X. Wang, S. Chakravarty, B. S. Lee, W. Lai, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and R. T. Chen, “Electro-optic polymer infiltrated silicon photonic crystal slot waveguide modulator with 23 dB slow light enhancement,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(9), 093304 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. Jiang, W. Jiang, L. Gu, X. Chen, and R. T. Chen, “80-micron interaction length silicon photonic crystal waveguide modulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(22), 221105 (2005).
[Crossref]

X. Zhang, A. Hosseini, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and R. T. Chen, “Ultraperformance Nanophotonic Modulator Based On Silicon Organic Hybrid Technology,” in Optical Interconnects Conference(IEEE, 2014), p. MD2.

Chen, X.

Y. Jiang, W. Jiang, L. Gu, X. Chen, and R. T. Chen, “80-micron interaction length silicon photonic crystal waveguide modulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(22), 221105 (2005).
[Crossref]

Covey, J.

X. Xu, H. Subbaraman, J. Covey, D. Kwong, A. Hosseini, and R. T. Chen, “Complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor compatible high efficiency subwavelength grating couplers for silicon integrated photonics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 031109 (2012).

H. Subbaraman, X. Xu, J. Covey, and R. T. Chen, “Efficient light coupling into in-plane semiconductor nanomembrane photonic devices utilizing a sub-wavelength grating coupler,” Opt. Express 20(18), 20659–20665 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cunningham, J. E.

X. Zheng, E. Chang, P. Amberg, I. Shubin, J. Lexau, F. Liu, H. Thacker, S. S. Djordjevic, S. Lin, Y. Luo, J. Yao, J. H. Lee, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “A high-speed, tunable silicon photonic ring modulator integrated with ultra-efficient active wavelength control,” Opt. Express 22(10), 12628–12633 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, K. W. Goossen, W. Jan, X. Zheng, R. Ho, G. Li, R. Rozier, F. Liu, D. Patil, J. Lexau, H. Schwetman, D. Feng, M. Asghari, T. Pinguet, and J. E. Cunningham, “Progress in low-power switched optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron 17(2), 357–376 (2011).
[Crossref]

Dai, D.

D. Dai, J. Bauters, and J. E. Bowers, “Passive technologies for future large-scale photonic integrated circuits on silicon: polarization handling, light non-reciprocity and loss reduction,” Light: Sci. Appl. 1(3), e1 (2012).
[Crossref]

Z. Wang, N. Zhu, Y. Tang, L. Wosinski, D. Dai, and S. He, “Ultracompact low-loss coupler between strip and slot waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 34(10), 1498–1500 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Daldosso, N.

Z. Yuan, A. Anopchenko, N. Daldosso, R. Guider, D. Navarro-Urrios, A. Pitanti, R. Spano, and L. Pavesi, “Silicon nanocrystals as an enabling material for silicon photonics,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1250–1268 (2009).
[Crossref]

Dalton, L.

R. Palmer, S. Koeber, D. L. Elder, M. Woessner, W. Heni, D. Korn, M. Lauermann, W. Bogaerts, L. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “High-Speed, Low Drive-Voltage Silicon-Organic Hybrid Modulator Based on a Binary-Chromophore Electro-Optic Material,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(16), 2726–2734 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Baehr-Jones, B. Penkov, J. Huang, P. Sullivan, J. Davies, J. Takayesu, J. Luo, T.-D. Kim, L. Dalton, A. Jen, M. Hochberg, and A. Scherer, “Nonlinear polymer-clad silicon slot waveguide modulator with a half wave voltage of 0.25 V,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(16), 163303 (2008).
[Crossref]

Dangel, R.

F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. W. Baks, D. M. Kuchta, P. Pepeljugoski, L. Schares, R. Budd, F. Libsch, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, and J. A. Kash, “160 Gb/s bidirectional polymer-waveguide board-level optical interconnects using CMOS-based transceivers,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 32(2), 345–359 (2009).
[Crossref]

Davies, J.

T. Baehr-Jones, B. Penkov, J. Huang, P. Sullivan, J. Davies, J. Takayesu, J. Luo, T.-D. Kim, L. Dalton, A. Jen, M. Hochberg, and A. Scherer, “Nonlinear polymer-clad silicon slot waveguide modulator with a half wave voltage of 0.25 V,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(16), 163303 (2008).
[Crossref]

Di Falco, A.

J. H. Wülbern, J. Hampe, A. Petrov, M. Eich, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, A. Di Falco, T. F. Krauss, and J. Bruns, “Electro-optic modulation in slotted resonant photonic crystal heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(24), 241107 (2009).
[Crossref]

A. Di Falco, L. O’Faolain, and T. Krauss, “Dispersion control and slow light in slotted photonic crystal waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(8), 083501 (2008).
[Crossref]

Diederich, F.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon–organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 216–219 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ding, J.

Ding, R.

A. Spott, T. Baehr-Jones, R. Ding, Y. Liu, R. Bojko, T. O’Malley, A. Pomerene, C. Hill, W. Reinhardt, and M. Hochberg, “Photolithographically fabricated low-loss asymmetric silicon slot waveguides,” Opt. Express 19(11), 10950–10958 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Ding, T. Baehr-Jones, W.-J. Kim, B. Boyko, R. Bojko, A. Spott, A. Pomerene, C. Hill, W. Reinhardt, and M. Hochberg, “Low-loss asymmetric strip-loaded slot waveguides in silicon-on-insulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(23), 233303 (2011).
[Crossref]

Dinu, R.

R. Palmer, L. Alloatti, D. Korn, P. C. Schindler, M. Baier, J. Bolten, T. Wahlbrink, M. Waldow, R. Dinu, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “Low power mach-zehnder modulator in silicon-organic hybrid technology,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(13), 1226–1229 (2013).

H. Chen, B. Chen, D. Huang, D. Jin, J. Luo, A.-Y. Jen, and R. Dinu, “Broadband electro-optic polymer modulators with high electro-optic activity and low poling induced optical loss,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(4), 043507 (2008).
[Crossref]

Djordjevic, S. S.

Doany, F. E.

F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. W. Baks, D. M. Kuchta, P. Pepeljugoski, L. Schares, R. Budd, F. Libsch, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, and J. A. Kash, “160 Gb/s bidirectional polymer-waveguide board-level optical interconnects using CMOS-based transceivers,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 32(2), 345–359 (2009).
[Crossref]

Dumon, P.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon–organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 216–219 (2009).
[Crossref]

Eich, M.

J. H. Wülbern, J. Hampe, A. Petrov, M. Eich, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, A. Di Falco, T. F. Krauss, and J. Bruns, “Electro-optic modulation in slotted resonant photonic crystal heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(24), 241107 (2009).
[Crossref]

R. Blum, M. Sprave, J. Sablotny, and M. Eich, “High-electric-field poling of nonlinear optical polymers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15(1), 318–328 (1998).
[Crossref]

Elder, D. L.

Esembeson, B.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon–organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 216–219 (2009).
[Crossref]

Feng, D.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, K. W. Goossen, W. Jan, X. Zheng, R. Ho, G. Li, R. Rozier, F. Liu, D. Patil, J. Lexau, H. Schwetman, D. Feng, M. Asghari, T. Pinguet, and J. E. Cunningham, “Progress in low-power switched optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron 17(2), 357–376 (2011).
[Crossref]

Freude, W.

R. Palmer, S. Koeber, D. L. Elder, M. Woessner, W. Heni, D. Korn, M. Lauermann, W. Bogaerts, L. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “High-Speed, Low Drive-Voltage Silicon-Organic Hybrid Modulator Based on a Binary-Chromophore Electro-Optic Material,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(16), 2726–2734 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. Palmer, L. Alloatti, D. Korn, P. C. Schindler, M. Baier, J. Bolten, T. Wahlbrink, M. Waldow, R. Dinu, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “Low power mach-zehnder modulator in silicon-organic hybrid technology,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(13), 1226–1229 (2013).

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon–organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 216–219 (2009).
[Crossref]

J.-M. Brosi, C. Koos, L. C. Andreani, M. Waldow, J. Leuthold, and W. Freude, “High-speed low-voltage electro-optic modulator with a polymer-infiltrated silicon photonic crystal waveguide,” Opt. Express 16(6), 4177–4191 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Goossen, K. W.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, K. W. Goossen, W. Jan, X. Zheng, R. Ho, G. Li, R. Rozier, F. Liu, D. Patil, J. Lexau, H. Schwetman, D. Feng, M. Asghari, T. Pinguet, and J. E. Cunningham, “Progress in low-power switched optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron 17(2), 357–376 (2011).
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Green, W. M.

Gu, L.

Y. Jiang, W. Jiang, L. Gu, X. Chen, and R. T. Chen, “80-micron interaction length silicon photonic crystal waveguide modulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(22), 221105 (2005).
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J. H. Wülbern, J. Hampe, A. Petrov, M. Eich, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, A. Di Falco, T. F. Krauss, and J. Bruns, “Electro-optic modulation in slotted resonant photonic crystal heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(24), 241107 (2009).
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Hau, S. K.

S. Huang, T.-D. Kim, J. Luo, S. K. Hau, Z. Shi, X.-H. Zhou, H.-L. Yip, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Highly efficient electro-optic polymers through improved poling using a thin TiO 2-modified transparent electrode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(24), 243311 (2010).
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He, S.

Heni, W.

Hill, C.

A. Spott, T. Baehr-Jones, R. Ding, Y. Liu, R. Bojko, T. O’Malley, A. Pomerene, C. Hill, W. Reinhardt, and M. Hochberg, “Photolithographically fabricated low-loss asymmetric silicon slot waveguides,” Opt. Express 19(11), 10950–10958 (2011).
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R. Ding, T. Baehr-Jones, W.-J. Kim, B. Boyko, R. Bojko, A. Spott, A. Pomerene, C. Hill, W. Reinhardt, and M. Hochberg, “Low-loss asymmetric strip-loaded slot waveguides in silicon-on-insulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(23), 233303 (2011).
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Ho, R.

X. Zheng, E. Chang, P. Amberg, I. Shubin, J. Lexau, F. Liu, H. Thacker, S. S. Djordjevic, S. Lin, Y. Luo, J. Yao, J. H. Lee, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “A high-speed, tunable silicon photonic ring modulator integrated with ultra-efficient active wavelength control,” Opt. Express 22(10), 12628–12633 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, K. W. Goossen, W. Jan, X. Zheng, R. Ho, G. Li, R. Rozier, F. Liu, D. Patil, J. Lexau, H. Schwetman, D. Feng, M. Asghari, T. Pinguet, and J. E. Cunningham, “Progress in low-power switched optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron 17(2), 357–376 (2011).
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R. Ding, T. Baehr-Jones, W.-J. Kim, B. Boyko, R. Bojko, A. Spott, A. Pomerene, C. Hill, W. Reinhardt, and M. Hochberg, “Low-loss asymmetric strip-loaded slot waveguides in silicon-on-insulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(23), 233303 (2011).
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Y. Liu, T. Baehr-Jones, J. Li, A. Pomerene, and M. Hochberg, “Efficient Strip to Strip-Loaded Slot Mode Converter in Silicon-on-Insulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(20), 1496–1498 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Spott, T. Baehr-Jones, R. Ding, Y. Liu, R. Bojko, T. O’Malley, A. Pomerene, C. Hill, W. Reinhardt, and M. Hochberg, “Photolithographically fabricated low-loss asymmetric silicon slot waveguides,” Opt. Express 19(11), 10950–10958 (2011).
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J. Witzens, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “Design of transmission line driven slot waveguide Mach-Zehnder interferometers and application to analog optical links,” Opt. Express 18(16), 16902–16928 (2010).
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T. Baehr-Jones, B. Penkov, J. Huang, P. Sullivan, J. Davies, J. Takayesu, J. Luo, T.-D. Kim, L. Dalton, A. Jen, M. Hochberg, and A. Scherer, “Nonlinear polymer-clad silicon slot waveguide modulator with a half wave voltage of 0.25 V,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(16), 163303 (2008).
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Horst, F.

F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. W. Baks, D. M. Kuchta, P. Pepeljugoski, L. Schares, R. Budd, F. Libsch, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, and J. A. Kash, “160 Gb/s bidirectional polymer-waveguide board-level optical interconnects using CMOS-based transceivers,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 32(2), 345–359 (2009).
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Hosseini, A.

X. Zhang, A. Hosseini, H. Subbaraman, S. Wang, Q. Zhan, J. Luo, A. Jen, and R. Chen, “Integrated Photonic Electromagnetic Field Sensor Based on Broadband Bowtie Antenna Coupled Silicon Organic Hybrid Modulator,” J. Lightwave Technol. PP(99), 1 (2014), http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/articleDetails.jsp?arnumber=6803876 .

X. Zhang, A. Hosseini, X. Lin, H. Subbaraman, and R. T. Chen, “Polymer-based Hybrid Integrated Photonic Devices for Silicon On-chip Modulation and Board-level Optical Interconnects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(6), 196–210 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. Zhang, A. Hosseini, S. Chakravarty, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and R. T. Chen, “Wide optical spectrum range, subvolt, compact modulator based on an electro-optic polymer refilled silicon slot photonic crystal waveguide,” Opt. Lett. 38(22), 4931–4934 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Hosseini, X. Xu, H. Subbaraman, C.-Y. Lin, S. Rahimi, and R. T. Chen, “Large optical spectral range dispersion engineered silicon-based photonic crystal waveguide modulator,” Opt. Express 20(11), 12318–12325 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Zhang, B. Lee, C.-y. Lin, A. X. Wang, A. Hosseini, and R. T. Chen, “Highly Linear Broadband Optical Modulator Based on Electro-Optic Polymer,” IEEE Photon. J. 4(6), 2214–2228 (2012).
[Crossref]

X. Xu, H. Subbaraman, J. Covey, D. Kwong, A. Hosseini, and R. T. Chen, “Complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor compatible high efficiency subwavelength grating couplers for silicon integrated photonics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 031109 (2012).

A. Hosseini, X. Xu, D. N. Kwong, H. Subbaraman, W. Jiang, and R. T. Chen, “On the role of evanescent modes and group index tapering in slow light photonic crystal waveguide coupling efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 031107 (2011).

X. Zhang, A. Hosseini, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and R. T. Chen, “Ultraperformance Nanophotonic Modulator Based On Silicon Organic Hybrid Technology,” in Optical Interconnects Conference(IEEE, 2014), p. MD2.

Huang, D.

H. Chen, B. Chen, D. Huang, D. Jin, J. Luo, A.-Y. Jen, and R. Dinu, “Broadband electro-optic polymer modulators with high electro-optic activity and low poling induced optical loss,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(4), 043507 (2008).
[Crossref]

Huang, J.

T. Baehr-Jones, B. Penkov, J. Huang, P. Sullivan, J. Davies, J. Takayesu, J. Luo, T.-D. Kim, L. Dalton, A. Jen, M. Hochberg, and A. Scherer, “Nonlinear polymer-clad silicon slot waveguide modulator with a half wave voltage of 0.25 V,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(16), 163303 (2008).
[Crossref]

Huang, S.

S. Huang, T.-D. Kim, J. Luo, S. K. Hau, Z. Shi, X.-H. Zhou, H.-L. Yip, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Highly efficient electro-optic polymers through improved poling using a thin TiO 2-modified transparent electrode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(24), 243311 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ilchenko, V. S.

Ishikura, N.

Jan, W.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, K. W. Goossen, W. Jan, X. Zheng, R. Ho, G. Li, R. Rozier, F. Liu, D. Patil, J. Lexau, H. Schwetman, D. Feng, M. Asghari, T. Pinguet, and J. E. Cunningham, “Progress in low-power switched optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron 17(2), 357–376 (2011).
[Crossref]

Jen, A.

X. Zhang, A. Hosseini, H. Subbaraman, S. Wang, Q. Zhan, J. Luo, A. Jen, and R. Chen, “Integrated Photonic Electromagnetic Field Sensor Based on Broadband Bowtie Antenna Coupled Silicon Organic Hybrid Modulator,” J. Lightwave Technol. PP(99), 1 (2014), http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/articleDetails.jsp?arnumber=6803876 .

T. Baehr-Jones, B. Penkov, J. Huang, P. Sullivan, J. Davies, J. Takayesu, J. Luo, T.-D. Kim, L. Dalton, A. Jen, M. Hochberg, and A. Scherer, “Nonlinear polymer-clad silicon slot waveguide modulator with a half wave voltage of 0.25 V,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(16), 163303 (2008).
[Crossref]

Jen, A. K.-Y.

X. Zhang, A. Hosseini, S. Chakravarty, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and R. T. Chen, “Wide optical spectrum range, subvolt, compact modulator based on an electro-optic polymer refilled silicon slot photonic crystal waveguide,” Opt. Lett. 38(22), 4931–4934 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Wang, C.-Y. Lin, S. Chakravarty, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and R. T. Chen, “Effective in-device r33 of 735 pm/V on electro-optic polymer infiltrated silicon photonic crystal slot waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 36(6), 882–884 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Huang, T.-D. Kim, J. Luo, S. K. Hau, Z. Shi, X.-H. Zhou, H.-L. Yip, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Highly efficient electro-optic polymers through improved poling using a thin TiO 2-modified transparent electrode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(24), 243311 (2010).
[Crossref]

C.-Y. Lin, X. Wang, S. Chakravarty, B. S. Lee, W. Lai, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and R. T. Chen, “Electro-optic polymer infiltrated silicon photonic crystal slot waveguide modulator with 23 dB slow light enhancement,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(9), 093304 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. H. Wülbern, J. Hampe, A. Petrov, M. Eich, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, A. Di Falco, T. F. Krauss, and J. Bruns, “Electro-optic modulation in slotted resonant photonic crystal heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(24), 241107 (2009).
[Crossref]

X. Zhang, A. Hosseini, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and R. T. Chen, “Ultraperformance Nanophotonic Modulator Based On Silicon Organic Hybrid Technology,” in Optical Interconnects Conference(IEEE, 2014), p. MD2.

Jen, A.-Y.

H. Chen, B. Chen, D. Huang, D. Jin, J. Luo, A.-Y. Jen, and R. Dinu, “Broadband electro-optic polymer modulators with high electro-optic activity and low poling induced optical loss,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(4), 043507 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ji, R.

Jiang, W.

A. Hosseini, X. Xu, D. N. Kwong, H. Subbaraman, W. Jiang, and R. T. Chen, “On the role of evanescent modes and group index tapering in slow light photonic crystal waveguide coupling efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 031107 (2011).

Y. Jiang, W. Jiang, L. Gu, X. Chen, and R. T. Chen, “80-micron interaction length silicon photonic crystal waveguide modulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(22), 221105 (2005).
[Crossref]

Jiang, Y.

Y. Jiang, W. Jiang, L. Gu, X. Chen, and R. T. Chen, “80-micron interaction length silicon photonic crystal waveguide modulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(22), 221105 (2005).
[Crossref]

Jin, D.

H. Chen, B. Chen, D. Huang, D. Jin, J. Luo, A.-Y. Jen, and R. Dinu, “Broadband electro-optic polymer modulators with high electro-optic activity and low poling induced optical loss,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(4), 043507 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kash, J. A.

F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. W. Baks, D. M. Kuchta, P. Pepeljugoski, L. Schares, R. Budd, F. Libsch, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, and J. A. Kash, “160 Gb/s bidirectional polymer-waveguide board-level optical interconnects using CMOS-based transceivers,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 32(2), 345–359 (2009).
[Crossref]

Khater, M. H.

Kiewra, E.

Kim, T.-D.

S. Huang, T.-D. Kim, J. Luo, S. K. Hau, Z. Shi, X.-H. Zhou, H.-L. Yip, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Highly efficient electro-optic polymers through improved poling using a thin TiO 2-modified transparent electrode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(24), 243311 (2010).
[Crossref]

T. Baehr-Jones, B. Penkov, J. Huang, P. Sullivan, J. Davies, J. Takayesu, J. Luo, T.-D. Kim, L. Dalton, A. Jen, M. Hochberg, and A. Scherer, “Nonlinear polymer-clad silicon slot waveguide modulator with a half wave voltage of 0.25 V,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(16), 163303 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kim, W.-J.

R. Ding, T. Baehr-Jones, W.-J. Kim, B. Boyko, R. Bojko, A. Spott, A. Pomerene, C. Hill, W. Reinhardt, and M. Hochberg, “Low-loss asymmetric strip-loaded slot waveguides in silicon-on-insulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(23), 233303 (2011).
[Crossref]

Koeber, S.

Koos, C.

R. Palmer, S. Koeber, D. L. Elder, M. Woessner, W. Heni, D. Korn, M. Lauermann, W. Bogaerts, L. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “High-Speed, Low Drive-Voltage Silicon-Organic Hybrid Modulator Based on a Binary-Chromophore Electro-Optic Material,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(16), 2726–2734 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. Palmer, L. Alloatti, D. Korn, P. C. Schindler, M. Baier, J. Bolten, T. Wahlbrink, M. Waldow, R. Dinu, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “Low power mach-zehnder modulator in silicon-organic hybrid technology,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(13), 1226–1229 (2013).

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon–organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 216–219 (2009).
[Crossref]

J.-M. Brosi, C. Koos, L. C. Andreani, M. Waldow, J. Leuthold, and W. Freude, “High-speed low-voltage electro-optic modulator with a polymer-infiltrated silicon photonic crystal waveguide,” Opt. Express 16(6), 4177–4191 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Korn, D.

R. Palmer, S. Koeber, D. L. Elder, M. Woessner, W. Heni, D. Korn, M. Lauermann, W. Bogaerts, L. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “High-Speed, Low Drive-Voltage Silicon-Organic Hybrid Modulator Based on a Binary-Chromophore Electro-Optic Material,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(16), 2726–2734 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. Palmer, L. Alloatti, D. Korn, P. C. Schindler, M. Baier, J. Bolten, T. Wahlbrink, M. Waldow, R. Dinu, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “Low power mach-zehnder modulator in silicon-organic hybrid technology,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(13), 1226–1229 (2013).

Krauss, T.

A. Di Falco, L. O’Faolain, and T. Krauss, “Dispersion control and slow light in slotted photonic crystal waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(8), 083501 (2008).
[Crossref]

Krauss, T. F.

J. H. Wülbern, J. Hampe, A. Petrov, M. Eich, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, A. Di Falco, T. F. Krauss, and J. Bruns, “Electro-optic modulation in slotted resonant photonic crystal heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(24), 241107 (2009).
[Crossref]

Krishnamoorthy, A. V.

X. Zheng, E. Chang, P. Amberg, I. Shubin, J. Lexau, F. Liu, H. Thacker, S. S. Djordjevic, S. Lin, Y. Luo, J. Yao, J. H. Lee, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “A high-speed, tunable silicon photonic ring modulator integrated with ultra-efficient active wavelength control,” Opt. Express 22(10), 12628–12633 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, K. W. Goossen, W. Jan, X. Zheng, R. Ho, G. Li, R. Rozier, F. Liu, D. Patil, J. Lexau, H. Schwetman, D. Feng, M. Asghari, T. Pinguet, and J. E. Cunningham, “Progress in low-power switched optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron 17(2), 357–376 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kuchta, D. M.

B. G. Lee, A. V. Rylyakov, W. M. Green, S. Assefa, C. W. Baks, R. Rimolo-Donadio, D. M. Kuchta, M. H. Khater, T. Barwicz, C. Reinholm, E. Kiewra, S. M. Shank, C. L. Schow, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Monolithic Silicon Integration of Scaled Photonic Switch Fabrics, CMOS Logic, and Device Driver Circuits,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(4), 743–751 (2014).
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F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. W. Baks, D. M. Kuchta, P. Pepeljugoski, L. Schares, R. Budd, F. Libsch, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, and J. A. Kash, “160 Gb/s bidirectional polymer-waveguide board-level optical interconnects using CMOS-based transceivers,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 32(2), 345–359 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kwong, D.

X. Xu, H. Subbaraman, J. Covey, D. Kwong, A. Hosseini, and R. T. Chen, “Complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor compatible high efficiency subwavelength grating couplers for silicon integrated photonics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 031109 (2012).

Kwong, D. N.

A. Hosseini, X. Xu, D. N. Kwong, H. Subbaraman, W. Jiang, and R. T. Chen, “On the role of evanescent modes and group index tapering in slow light photonic crystal waveguide coupling efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 031107 (2011).

Lai, W.

C.-Y. Lin, X. Wang, S. Chakravarty, B. S. Lee, W. Lai, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and R. T. Chen, “Electro-optic polymer infiltrated silicon photonic crystal slot waveguide modulator with 23 dB slow light enhancement,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(9), 093304 (2010).
[Crossref]

Lai, W.-C.

Lauermann, M.

Lee, B.

X. Zhang, B. Lee, C.-y. Lin, A. X. Wang, A. Hosseini, and R. T. Chen, “Highly Linear Broadband Optical Modulator Based on Electro-Optic Polymer,” IEEE Photon. J. 4(6), 2214–2228 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lee, B. G.

Lee, B. S.

C.-Y. Lin, A. X. Wang, B. S. Lee, X. Zhang, and R. T. Chen, “High dynamic range electric field sensor for electromagnetic pulse detection,” Opt. Express 19(18), 17372–17377 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C.-Y. Lin, X. Wang, S. Chakravarty, B. S. Lee, W. Lai, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and R. T. Chen, “Electro-optic polymer infiltrated silicon photonic crystal slot waveguide modulator with 23 dB slow light enhancement,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(9), 093304 (2010).
[Crossref]

Lee, J. H.

Leuthold, J.

R. Palmer, S. Koeber, D. L. Elder, M. Woessner, W. Heni, D. Korn, M. Lauermann, W. Bogaerts, L. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “High-Speed, Low Drive-Voltage Silicon-Organic Hybrid Modulator Based on a Binary-Chromophore Electro-Optic Material,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(16), 2726–2734 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. Palmer, L. Alloatti, D. Korn, P. C. Schindler, M. Baier, J. Bolten, T. Wahlbrink, M. Waldow, R. Dinu, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “Low power mach-zehnder modulator in silicon-organic hybrid technology,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(13), 1226–1229 (2013).

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon–organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 216–219 (2009).
[Crossref]

J.-M. Brosi, C. Koos, L. C. Andreani, M. Waldow, J. Leuthold, and W. Freude, “High-speed low-voltage electro-optic modulator with a polymer-infiltrated silicon photonic crystal waveguide,” Opt. Express 16(6), 4177–4191 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lexau, J.

X. Zheng, E. Chang, P. Amberg, I. Shubin, J. Lexau, F. Liu, H. Thacker, S. S. Djordjevic, S. Lin, Y. Luo, J. Yao, J. H. Lee, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “A high-speed, tunable silicon photonic ring modulator integrated with ultra-efficient active wavelength control,” Opt. Express 22(10), 12628–12633 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, K. W. Goossen, W. Jan, X. Zheng, R. Ho, G. Li, R. Rozier, F. Liu, D. Patil, J. Lexau, H. Schwetman, D. Feng, M. Asghari, T. Pinguet, and J. E. Cunningham, “Progress in low-power switched optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron 17(2), 357–376 (2011).
[Crossref]

Li, G.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, K. W. Goossen, W. Jan, X. Zheng, R. Ho, G. Li, R. Rozier, F. Liu, D. Patil, J. Lexau, H. Schwetman, D. Feng, M. Asghari, T. Pinguet, and J. E. Cunningham, “Progress in low-power switched optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron 17(2), 357–376 (2011).
[Crossref]

Li, J.

Y. Liu, T. Baehr-Jones, J. Li, A. Pomerene, and M. Hochberg, “Efficient Strip to Strip-Loaded Slot Mode Converter in Silicon-on-Insulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(20), 1496–1498 (2011).
[Crossref]

Libsch, F.

F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. W. Baks, D. M. Kuchta, P. Pepeljugoski, L. Schares, R. Budd, F. Libsch, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, and J. A. Kash, “160 Gb/s bidirectional polymer-waveguide board-level optical interconnects using CMOS-based transceivers,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 32(2), 345–359 (2009).
[Crossref]

Lin, C.

Lin, C.-Y.

Lin, S.

Lin, X.

X. Zhang, A. Hosseini, X. Lin, H. Subbaraman, and R. T. Chen, “Polymer-based Hybrid Integrated Photonic Devices for Silicon On-chip Modulation and Board-level Optical Interconnects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(6), 196–210 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. Lin, T. Ling, H. Subbaraman, X. Zhang, K. Byun, L. J. Guo, and R. T. Chen, “Ultraviolet imprinting and aligned ink-jet printing for multilayer patterning of electro-optic polymer modulators,” Opt. Lett. 38(10), 1597–1599 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ling, T.

Lipson, M.

Liu, F.

X. Zheng, E. Chang, P. Amberg, I. Shubin, J. Lexau, F. Liu, H. Thacker, S. S. Djordjevic, S. Lin, Y. Luo, J. Yao, J. H. Lee, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “A high-speed, tunable silicon photonic ring modulator integrated with ultra-efficient active wavelength control,” Opt. Express 22(10), 12628–12633 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, K. W. Goossen, W. Jan, X. Zheng, R. Ho, G. Li, R. Rozier, F. Liu, D. Patil, J. Lexau, H. Schwetman, D. Feng, M. Asghari, T. Pinguet, and J. E. Cunningham, “Progress in low-power switched optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron 17(2), 357–376 (2011).
[Crossref]

Liu, Y.

A. Spott, T. Baehr-Jones, R. Ding, Y. Liu, R. Bojko, T. O’Malley, A. Pomerene, C. Hill, W. Reinhardt, and M. Hochberg, “Photolithographically fabricated low-loss asymmetric silicon slot waveguides,” Opt. Express 19(11), 10950–10958 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Liu, T. Baehr-Jones, J. Li, A. Pomerene, and M. Hochberg, “Efficient Strip to Strip-Loaded Slot Mode Converter in Silicon-on-Insulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(20), 1496–1498 (2011).
[Crossref]

Luo, J.

X. Zhang, A. Hosseini, H. Subbaraman, S. Wang, Q. Zhan, J. Luo, A. Jen, and R. Chen, “Integrated Photonic Electromagnetic Field Sensor Based on Broadband Bowtie Antenna Coupled Silicon Organic Hybrid Modulator,” J. Lightwave Technol. PP(99), 1 (2014), http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/articleDetails.jsp?arnumber=6803876 .

X. Zhang, A. Hosseini, S. Chakravarty, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and R. T. Chen, “Wide optical spectrum range, subvolt, compact modulator based on an electro-optic polymer refilled silicon slot photonic crystal waveguide,” Opt. Lett. 38(22), 4931–4934 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Wang, C.-Y. Lin, S. Chakravarty, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and R. T. Chen, “Effective in-device r33 of 735 pm/V on electro-optic polymer infiltrated silicon photonic crystal slot waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 36(6), 882–884 (2011).
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S. Huang, T.-D. Kim, J. Luo, S. K. Hau, Z. Shi, X.-H. Zhou, H.-L. Yip, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Highly efficient electro-optic polymers through improved poling using a thin TiO 2-modified transparent electrode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(24), 243311 (2010).
[Crossref]

C.-Y. Lin, X. Wang, S. Chakravarty, B. S. Lee, W. Lai, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and R. T. Chen, “Electro-optic polymer infiltrated silicon photonic crystal slot waveguide modulator with 23 dB slow light enhancement,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(9), 093304 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. H. Wülbern, J. Hampe, A. Petrov, M. Eich, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, A. Di Falco, T. F. Krauss, and J. Bruns, “Electro-optic modulation in slotted resonant photonic crystal heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(24), 241107 (2009).
[Crossref]

T. Baehr-Jones, B. Penkov, J. Huang, P. Sullivan, J. Davies, J. Takayesu, J. Luo, T.-D. Kim, L. Dalton, A. Jen, M. Hochberg, and A. Scherer, “Nonlinear polymer-clad silicon slot waveguide modulator with a half wave voltage of 0.25 V,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(16), 163303 (2008).
[Crossref]

H. Chen, B. Chen, D. Huang, D. Jin, J. Luo, A.-Y. Jen, and R. Dinu, “Broadband electro-optic polymer modulators with high electro-optic activity and low poling induced optical loss,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(4), 043507 (2008).
[Crossref]

X. Zhang, A. Hosseini, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and R. T. Chen, “Ultraperformance Nanophotonic Modulator Based On Silicon Organic Hybrid Technology,” in Optical Interconnects Conference(IEEE, 2014), p. MD2.

Luo, Y.

Maleki, L.

Matsko, A. B.

McNab, S. J.

Y. A. Vlasov, M. O’Boyle, H. F. Hamann, and S. J. McNab, “Active control of slow light on a chip with photonic crystal waveguides,” Nature 438(7064), 65–69 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Michinobu, T.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon–organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 216–219 (2009).
[Crossref]

Navarro-Urrios, D.

Z. Yuan, A. Anopchenko, N. Daldosso, R. Guider, D. Navarro-Urrios, A. Pitanti, R. Spano, and L. Pavesi, “Silicon nanocrystals as an enabling material for silicon photonics,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1250–1268 (2009).
[Crossref]

Nguyen, H. C.

O’Boyle, M.

Y. A. Vlasov, M. O’Boyle, H. F. Hamann, and S. J. McNab, “Active control of slow light on a chip with photonic crystal waveguides,” Nature 438(7064), 65–69 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O’Faolain, L.

A. Di Falco, L. O’Faolain, and T. Krauss, “Dispersion control and slow light in slotted photonic crystal waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(8), 083501 (2008).
[Crossref]

O’Malley, T.

Offrein, B. J.

F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. W. Baks, D. M. Kuchta, P. Pepeljugoski, L. Schares, R. Budd, F. Libsch, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, and J. A. Kash, “160 Gb/s bidirectional polymer-waveguide board-level optical interconnects using CMOS-based transceivers,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 32(2), 345–359 (2009).
[Crossref]

Palmer, R.

R. Palmer, S. Koeber, D. L. Elder, M. Woessner, W. Heni, D. Korn, M. Lauermann, W. Bogaerts, L. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “High-Speed, Low Drive-Voltage Silicon-Organic Hybrid Modulator Based on a Binary-Chromophore Electro-Optic Material,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(16), 2726–2734 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. Palmer, L. Alloatti, D. Korn, P. C. Schindler, M. Baier, J. Bolten, T. Wahlbrink, M. Waldow, R. Dinu, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “Low power mach-zehnder modulator in silicon-organic hybrid technology,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(13), 1226–1229 (2013).

Panepucci, R. R.

Patil, D.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, K. W. Goossen, W. Jan, X. Zheng, R. Ho, G. Li, R. Rozier, F. Liu, D. Patil, J. Lexau, H. Schwetman, D. Feng, M. Asghari, T. Pinguet, and J. E. Cunningham, “Progress in low-power switched optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron 17(2), 357–376 (2011).
[Crossref]

Pavesi, L.

Z. Yuan, A. Anopchenko, N. Daldosso, R. Guider, D. Navarro-Urrios, A. Pitanti, R. Spano, and L. Pavesi, “Silicon nanocrystals as an enabling material for silicon photonics,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1250–1268 (2009).
[Crossref]

Penkov, B.

T. Baehr-Jones, B. Penkov, J. Huang, P. Sullivan, J. Davies, J. Takayesu, J. Luo, T.-D. Kim, L. Dalton, A. Jen, M. Hochberg, and A. Scherer, “Nonlinear polymer-clad silicon slot waveguide modulator with a half wave voltage of 0.25 V,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(16), 163303 (2008).
[Crossref]

Pepeljugoski, P.

F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. W. Baks, D. M. Kuchta, P. Pepeljugoski, L. Schares, R. Budd, F. Libsch, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, and J. A. Kash, “160 Gb/s bidirectional polymer-waveguide board-level optical interconnects using CMOS-based transceivers,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 32(2), 345–359 (2009).
[Crossref]

Petrov, A.

J. H. Wülbern, J. Hampe, A. Petrov, M. Eich, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, A. Di Falco, T. F. Krauss, and J. Bruns, “Electro-optic modulation in slotted resonant photonic crystal heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(24), 241107 (2009).
[Crossref]

Pinguet, T.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, K. W. Goossen, W. Jan, X. Zheng, R. Ho, G. Li, R. Rozier, F. Liu, D. Patil, J. Lexau, H. Schwetman, D. Feng, M. Asghari, T. Pinguet, and J. E. Cunningham, “Progress in low-power switched optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron 17(2), 357–376 (2011).
[Crossref]

Pitanti, A.

Z. Yuan, A. Anopchenko, N. Daldosso, R. Guider, D. Navarro-Urrios, A. Pitanti, R. Spano, and L. Pavesi, “Silicon nanocrystals as an enabling material for silicon photonics,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1250–1268 (2009).
[Crossref]

Pomerene, A.

R. Ding, T. Baehr-Jones, W.-J. Kim, B. Boyko, R. Bojko, A. Spott, A. Pomerene, C. Hill, W. Reinhardt, and M. Hochberg, “Low-loss asymmetric strip-loaded slot waveguides in silicon-on-insulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(23), 233303 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Spott, T. Baehr-Jones, R. Ding, Y. Liu, R. Bojko, T. O’Malley, A. Pomerene, C. Hill, W. Reinhardt, and M. Hochberg, “Photolithographically fabricated low-loss asymmetric silicon slot waveguides,” Opt. Express 19(11), 10950–10958 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Liu, T. Baehr-Jones, J. Li, A. Pomerene, and M. Hochberg, “Efficient Strip to Strip-Loaded Slot Mode Converter in Silicon-on-Insulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(20), 1496–1498 (2011).
[Crossref]

Rahimi, S.

Raj, K.

Reinhardt, W.

A. Spott, T. Baehr-Jones, R. Ding, Y. Liu, R. Bojko, T. O’Malley, A. Pomerene, C. Hill, W. Reinhardt, and M. Hochberg, “Photolithographically fabricated low-loss asymmetric silicon slot waveguides,” Opt. Express 19(11), 10950–10958 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Ding, T. Baehr-Jones, W.-J. Kim, B. Boyko, R. Bojko, A. Spott, A. Pomerene, C. Hill, W. Reinhardt, and M. Hochberg, “Low-loss asymmetric strip-loaded slot waveguides in silicon-on-insulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(23), 233303 (2011).
[Crossref]

Reinholm, C.

Rimolo-Donadio, R.

Rooks, M. J.

Rozier, R.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, K. W. Goossen, W. Jan, X. Zheng, R. Ho, G. Li, R. Rozier, F. Liu, D. Patil, J. Lexau, H. Schwetman, D. Feng, M. Asghari, T. Pinguet, and J. E. Cunningham, “Progress in low-power switched optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron 17(2), 357–376 (2011).
[Crossref]

Rylyakov, A. V.

Sablotny, J.

Sakai, Y.

Savchenkov, A. A.

Schares, L.

F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. W. Baks, D. M. Kuchta, P. Pepeljugoski, L. Schares, R. Budd, F. Libsch, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, and J. A. Kash, “160 Gb/s bidirectional polymer-waveguide board-level optical interconnects using CMOS-based transceivers,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 32(2), 345–359 (2009).
[Crossref]

Scherer, A.

T. Baehr-Jones, B. Penkov, J. Huang, P. Sullivan, J. Davies, J. Takayesu, J. Luo, T.-D. Kim, L. Dalton, A. Jen, M. Hochberg, and A. Scherer, “Nonlinear polymer-clad silicon slot waveguide modulator with a half wave voltage of 0.25 V,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(16), 163303 (2008).
[Crossref]

Schindler, P. C.

R. Palmer, L. Alloatti, D. Korn, P. C. Schindler, M. Baier, J. Bolten, T. Wahlbrink, M. Waldow, R. Dinu, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “Low power mach-zehnder modulator in silicon-organic hybrid technology,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(13), 1226–1229 (2013).

Schow, C. L.

B. G. Lee, A. V. Rylyakov, W. M. Green, S. Assefa, C. W. Baks, R. Rimolo-Donadio, D. M. Kuchta, M. H. Khater, T. Barwicz, C. Reinholm, E. Kiewra, S. M. Shank, C. L. Schow, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Monolithic Silicon Integration of Scaled Photonic Switch Fabrics, CMOS Logic, and Device Driver Circuits,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(4), 743–751 (2014).
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F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. W. Baks, D. M. Kuchta, P. Pepeljugoski, L. Schares, R. Budd, F. Libsch, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, and J. A. Kash, “160 Gb/s bidirectional polymer-waveguide board-level optical interconnects using CMOS-based transceivers,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 32(2), 345–359 (2009).
[Crossref]

Schwetman, H.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, K. W. Goossen, W. Jan, X. Zheng, R. Ho, G. Li, R. Rozier, F. Liu, D. Patil, J. Lexau, H. Schwetman, D. Feng, M. Asghari, T. Pinguet, and J. E. Cunningham, “Progress in low-power switched optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron 17(2), 357–376 (2011).
[Crossref]

Seidel, D.

Sekaric, L.

Shank, S. M.

Shi, Z.

S. Huang, T.-D. Kim, J. Luo, S. K. Hau, Z. Shi, X.-H. Zhou, H.-L. Yip, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Highly efficient electro-optic polymers through improved poling using a thin TiO 2-modified transparent electrode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(24), 243311 (2010).
[Crossref]

Shinkawa, M.

Shubin, I.

Spano, R.

Z. Yuan, A. Anopchenko, N. Daldosso, R. Guider, D. Navarro-Urrios, A. Pitanti, R. Spano, and L. Pavesi, “Silicon nanocrystals as an enabling material for silicon photonics,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1250–1268 (2009).
[Crossref]

Spott, A.

A. Spott, T. Baehr-Jones, R. Ding, Y. Liu, R. Bojko, T. O’Malley, A. Pomerene, C. Hill, W. Reinhardt, and M. Hochberg, “Photolithographically fabricated low-loss asymmetric silicon slot waveguides,” Opt. Express 19(11), 10950–10958 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Ding, T. Baehr-Jones, W.-J. Kim, B. Boyko, R. Bojko, A. Spott, A. Pomerene, C. Hill, W. Reinhardt, and M. Hochberg, “Low-loss asymmetric strip-loaded slot waveguides in silicon-on-insulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(23), 233303 (2011).
[Crossref]

Sprave, M.

Subbaraman, H.

X. Zhang, A. Hosseini, H. Subbaraman, S. Wang, Q. Zhan, J. Luo, A. Jen, and R. Chen, “Integrated Photonic Electromagnetic Field Sensor Based on Broadband Bowtie Antenna Coupled Silicon Organic Hybrid Modulator,” J. Lightwave Technol. PP(99), 1 (2014), http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/articleDetails.jsp?arnumber=6803876 .

X. Zhang, A. Hosseini, X. Lin, H. Subbaraman, and R. T. Chen, “Polymer-based Hybrid Integrated Photonic Devices for Silicon On-chip Modulation and Board-level Optical Interconnects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(6), 196–210 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. Lin, T. Ling, H. Subbaraman, X. Zhang, K. Byun, L. J. Guo, and R. T. Chen, “Ultraviolet imprinting and aligned ink-jet printing for multilayer patterning of electro-optic polymer modulators,” Opt. Lett. 38(10), 1597–1599 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Hosseini, X. Xu, H. Subbaraman, C.-Y. Lin, S. Rahimi, and R. T. Chen, “Large optical spectral range dispersion engineered silicon-based photonic crystal waveguide modulator,” Opt. Express 20(11), 12318–12325 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Subbaraman, X. Xu, J. Covey, and R. T. Chen, “Efficient light coupling into in-plane semiconductor nanomembrane photonic devices utilizing a sub-wavelength grating coupler,” Opt. Express 20(18), 20659–20665 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Xu, H. Subbaraman, J. Covey, D. Kwong, A. Hosseini, and R. T. Chen, “Complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor compatible high efficiency subwavelength grating couplers for silicon integrated photonics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 031109 (2012).

A. Hosseini, X. Xu, D. N. Kwong, H. Subbaraman, W. Jiang, and R. T. Chen, “On the role of evanescent modes and group index tapering in slow light photonic crystal waveguide coupling efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 031107 (2011).

Sullivan, P.

T. Baehr-Jones, B. Penkov, J. Huang, P. Sullivan, J. Davies, J. Takayesu, J. Luo, T.-D. Kim, L. Dalton, A. Jen, M. Hochberg, and A. Scherer, “Nonlinear polymer-clad silicon slot waveguide modulator with a half wave voltage of 0.25 V,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(16), 163303 (2008).
[Crossref]

Takayesu, J.

T. Baehr-Jones, B. Penkov, J. Huang, P. Sullivan, J. Davies, J. Takayesu, J. Luo, T.-D. Kim, L. Dalton, A. Jen, M. Hochberg, and A. Scherer, “Nonlinear polymer-clad silicon slot waveguide modulator with a half wave voltage of 0.25 V,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(16), 163303 (2008).
[Crossref]

Tang, Y.

Thacker, H.

Vallaitis, T.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon–organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 216–219 (2009).
[Crossref]

Vlasov, Y. A.

Vorreau, P.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon–organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 216–219 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wahlbrink, T.

R. Palmer, L. Alloatti, D. Korn, P. C. Schindler, M. Baier, J. Bolten, T. Wahlbrink, M. Waldow, R. Dinu, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “Low power mach-zehnder modulator in silicon-organic hybrid technology,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(13), 1226–1229 (2013).

Waldow, M.

R. Palmer, L. Alloatti, D. Korn, P. C. Schindler, M. Baier, J. Bolten, T. Wahlbrink, M. Waldow, R. Dinu, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “Low power mach-zehnder modulator in silicon-organic hybrid technology,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(13), 1226–1229 (2013).

J.-M. Brosi, C. Koos, L. C. Andreani, M. Waldow, J. Leuthold, and W. Freude, “High-speed low-voltage electro-optic modulator with a polymer-infiltrated silicon photonic crystal waveguide,” Opt. Express 16(6), 4177–4191 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, A. X.

X. Zhang, B. Lee, C.-y. Lin, A. X. Wang, A. Hosseini, and R. T. Chen, “Highly Linear Broadband Optical Modulator Based on Electro-Optic Polymer,” IEEE Photon. J. 4(6), 2214–2228 (2012).
[Crossref]

C.-Y. Lin, A. X. Wang, B. S. Lee, X. Zhang, and R. T. Chen, “High dynamic range electric field sensor for electromagnetic pulse detection,” Opt. Express 19(18), 17372–17377 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, S.

X. Zhang, A. Hosseini, H. Subbaraman, S. Wang, Q. Zhan, J. Luo, A. Jen, and R. Chen, “Integrated Photonic Electromagnetic Field Sensor Based on Broadband Bowtie Antenna Coupled Silicon Organic Hybrid Modulator,” J. Lightwave Technol. PP(99), 1 (2014), http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/articleDetails.jsp?arnumber=6803876 .

Wang, X.

Wang, Z.

Witzens, J.

Woessner, M.

Wosinski, L.

Wülbern, J. H.

J. H. Wülbern, J. Hampe, A. Petrov, M. Eich, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, A. Di Falco, T. F. Krauss, and J. Bruns, “Electro-optic modulation in slotted resonant photonic crystal heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(24), 241107 (2009).
[Crossref]

Xu, Q.

Xu, X.

A. Hosseini, X. Xu, H. Subbaraman, C.-Y. Lin, S. Rahimi, and R. T. Chen, “Large optical spectral range dispersion engineered silicon-based photonic crystal waveguide modulator,” Opt. Express 20(11), 12318–12325 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Subbaraman, X. Xu, J. Covey, and R. T. Chen, “Efficient light coupling into in-plane semiconductor nanomembrane photonic devices utilizing a sub-wavelength grating coupler,” Opt. Express 20(18), 20659–20665 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Xu, H. Subbaraman, J. Covey, D. Kwong, A. Hosseini, and R. T. Chen, “Complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor compatible high efficiency subwavelength grating couplers for silicon integrated photonics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 031109 (2012).

A. Hosseini, X. Xu, D. N. Kwong, H. Subbaraman, W. Jiang, and R. T. Chen, “On the role of evanescent modes and group index tapering in slow light photonic crystal waveguide coupling efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 031107 (2011).

Yang, L.

Yao, J.

Yip, H.-L.

S. Huang, T.-D. Kim, J. Luo, S. K. Hau, Z. Shi, X.-H. Zhou, H.-L. Yip, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Highly efficient electro-optic polymers through improved poling using a thin TiO 2-modified transparent electrode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(24), 243311 (2010).
[Crossref]

Yuan, Z.

Z. Yuan, A. Anopchenko, N. Daldosso, R. Guider, D. Navarro-Urrios, A. Pitanti, R. Spano, and L. Pavesi, “Silicon nanocrystals as an enabling material for silicon photonics,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1250–1268 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zhan, Q.

X. Zhang, A. Hosseini, H. Subbaraman, S. Wang, Q. Zhan, J. Luo, A. Jen, and R. Chen, “Integrated Photonic Electromagnetic Field Sensor Based on Broadband Bowtie Antenna Coupled Silicon Organic Hybrid Modulator,” J. Lightwave Technol. PP(99), 1 (2014), http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/articleDetails.jsp?arnumber=6803876 .

Zhang, L.

Zhang, X.

X. Zhang, A. Hosseini, H. Subbaraman, S. Wang, Q. Zhan, J. Luo, A. Jen, and R. Chen, “Integrated Photonic Electromagnetic Field Sensor Based on Broadband Bowtie Antenna Coupled Silicon Organic Hybrid Modulator,” J. Lightwave Technol. PP(99), 1 (2014), http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/articleDetails.jsp?arnumber=6803876 .

X. Zhang, A. Hosseini, X. Lin, H. Subbaraman, and R. T. Chen, “Polymer-based Hybrid Integrated Photonic Devices for Silicon On-chip Modulation and Board-level Optical Interconnects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(6), 196–210 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. Zhang, A. Hosseini, S. Chakravarty, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and R. T. Chen, “Wide optical spectrum range, subvolt, compact modulator based on an electro-optic polymer refilled silicon slot photonic crystal waveguide,” Opt. Lett. 38(22), 4931–4934 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Lin, T. Ling, H. Subbaraman, X. Zhang, K. Byun, L. J. Guo, and R. T. Chen, “Ultraviolet imprinting and aligned ink-jet printing for multilayer patterning of electro-optic polymer modulators,” Opt. Lett. 38(10), 1597–1599 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Zhang, B. Lee, C.-y. Lin, A. X. Wang, A. Hosseini, and R. T. Chen, “Highly Linear Broadband Optical Modulator Based on Electro-Optic Polymer,” IEEE Photon. J. 4(6), 2214–2228 (2012).
[Crossref]

C.-Y. Lin, A. X. Wang, B. S. Lee, X. Zhang, and R. T. Chen, “High dynamic range electric field sensor for electromagnetic pulse detection,” Opt. Express 19(18), 17372–17377 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Zhang, A. Hosseini, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and R. T. Chen, “Ultraperformance Nanophotonic Modulator Based On Silicon Organic Hybrid Technology,” in Optical Interconnects Conference(IEEE, 2014), p. MD2.

Zheng, X.

X. Zheng, E. Chang, P. Amberg, I. Shubin, J. Lexau, F. Liu, H. Thacker, S. S. Djordjevic, S. Lin, Y. Luo, J. Yao, J. H. Lee, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “A high-speed, tunable silicon photonic ring modulator integrated with ultra-efficient active wavelength control,” Opt. Express 22(10), 12628–12633 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, K. W. Goossen, W. Jan, X. Zheng, R. Ho, G. Li, R. Rozier, F. Liu, D. Patil, J. Lexau, H. Schwetman, D. Feng, M. Asghari, T. Pinguet, and J. E. Cunningham, “Progress in low-power switched optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron 17(2), 357–376 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zhou, X.-H.

S. Huang, T.-D. Kim, J. Luo, S. K. Hau, Z. Shi, X.-H. Zhou, H.-L. Yip, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Highly efficient electro-optic polymers through improved poling using a thin TiO 2-modified transparent electrode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(24), 243311 (2010).
[Crossref]

Zhu, N.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (10)

J. H. Wülbern, J. Hampe, A. Petrov, M. Eich, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, A. Di Falco, T. F. Krauss, and J. Bruns, “Electro-optic modulation in slotted resonant photonic crystal heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(24), 241107 (2009).
[Crossref]

Y. Jiang, W. Jiang, L. Gu, X. Chen, and R. T. Chen, “80-micron interaction length silicon photonic crystal waveguide modulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(22), 221105 (2005).
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A. Di Falco, L. O’Faolain, and T. Krauss, “Dispersion control and slow light in slotted photonic crystal waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(8), 083501 (2008).
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C.-Y. Lin, X. Wang, S. Chakravarty, B. S. Lee, W. Lai, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and R. T. Chen, “Electro-optic polymer infiltrated silicon photonic crystal slot waveguide modulator with 23 dB slow light enhancement,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(9), 093304 (2010).
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A. Hosseini, X. Xu, D. N. Kwong, H. Subbaraman, W. Jiang, and R. T. Chen, “On the role of evanescent modes and group index tapering in slow light photonic crystal waveguide coupling efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 031107 (2011).

R. Ding, T. Baehr-Jones, W.-J. Kim, B. Boyko, R. Bojko, A. Spott, A. Pomerene, C. Hill, W. Reinhardt, and M. Hochberg, “Low-loss asymmetric strip-loaded slot waveguides in silicon-on-insulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(23), 233303 (2011).
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X. Xu, H. Subbaraman, J. Covey, D. Kwong, A. Hosseini, and R. T. Chen, “Complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor compatible high efficiency subwavelength grating couplers for silicon integrated photonics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 031109 (2012).

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X. Zhang, B. Lee, C.-y. Lin, A. X. Wang, A. Hosseini, and R. T. Chen, “Highly Linear Broadband Optical Modulator Based on Electro-Optic Polymer,” IEEE Photon. J. 4(6), 2214–2228 (2012).
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A. Hosseini, X. Xu, H. Subbaraman, C.-Y. Lin, S. Rahimi, and R. T. Chen, “Large optical spectral range dispersion engineered silicon-based photonic crystal waveguide modulator,” Opt. Express 20(11), 12318–12325 (2012).
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H. Subbaraman, X. Xu, J. Covey, and R. T. Chen, “Efficient light coupling into in-plane semiconductor nanomembrane photonic devices utilizing a sub-wavelength grating coupler,” Opt. Express 20(18), 20659–20665 (2012).
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C. DeRose, “Integrated RF Silicon Photonics from High Power Photodiodes to Linear Modulators,” in Integrated Photonics Research, Silicon and Nanophotonics(Optical Society of America, 2014), p. IW2A.1.

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X. Zhang, A. Hosseini, C.-y. Lin, J. Luo, A. K. Jen, and R. T. Chen, “Demonstration of Effective In-device r33 over 1000 pmV in Electro-optic Polymer Refilled Silicon Slot Photonic Crystal Waveguide Modulator,” in CLEO: Science and Innovations(Optical Society of America, 2013), p. CTu2F. 6.

X. Zhang, A. Hosseini, X. Xu, S. Wang, Q. Zhan, Y. Zou, S. Chakravarty, and R. T. Chen, “Electric field sensor based on electro-optic polymer refilled silicon slot photonic crystal waveguide coupled with bowtie antenna,” in SPIE Photonic West 2013(International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2013), pp. 862418.

X. Zhang, A. Hosseini, H. Subbaraman, S. Wang, Q. Zhan, J. Luo, A. Jen, and R. T. Chen, “Electro-optic polymer infiltrated silicon slot photonic crystal waveguide for broadband electromagnetic field sensing,” in Conference on Integrated Photonics Research, Silicon and Nanophotics, San Diego, California (2014), paper IW2A.3.

X. Zhang, A. Hosseini, H. Subbaraman, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, R. L. Nelson, and R. T. Chen, “Broadband energy-efficient optical modulation by hybrid integration of silicon nanophotonics and organic electro-optic polymer,”. to be presented at the SPIE Photonics West Conference, February 2015 (submitted).

C.-Y. Lin, A. X. Wang, X. Zhang, B. S. Lee, and R. T. Chen, “EO-polymer waveguide based high dynamic range EM wave sensors,” in SPIE OPTO(International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2012), pp. 82580Y–82580Y–82587.

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X. Zhang, A. Hosseini, H. Subbaraman, J. Luo, A. Jen, and R. Chen, “Broadband Low-power Optical Modulator Based on Electro-optic Polymer Infiltrated Silicon Slot Photonic Crystal Waveguide,” Frontiers in Optics/Laser Science Conference, Optical Society of America, 2014), p. FTu1D.4.

X. Zhang, A. Hosseini, J. Luo, A. Jen, and R. Chen, “Ultralow Power Consumption of 1.5 nW Over Wide Optical Spectrum Range in Silicon Organic Hybrid Modulator,” in CLEO: Science and Innovations(Optical Society of America, 2014), p. SM2G. 4.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic of our mode converter used for coupling light between a strip waveguide and a slot PCW on an SOI substrate. The top inset shows a magnified image of the coupling interface between the slot waveguide and the slot PCW. The bottom insets show the cross-sectional fundamental TE mode profile of the strip waveguide and the slot waveguide, respectively. (b) Top view of the mode converter between the strip waveguide and the slot PCW, consisting of two linearly tapered sections. Length of Sections I is fixed at 4μm, and the length of Section II is optimized to achieve highest conversion efficiency. (c) Top view of magnified image of the coupling interface between the slot waveguide and the slot PCW. Sw: slot width; Rw: rail width; WG: waveguide; SPCW: slot photonic crystal waveguide; L: length of section II of the mode converter.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Confinement factor within the slot (red curve marked with squares) and neff (green curve marked with circles) plotted as a function of rail width (Rw), overlaid with the cross-sectional fundamental TE mode profiles for different Rw. The slot width (Sw) is 320nm, and the wavelength is 1550nm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) SEM images of fabricated test structures consisting of cascaded pairs of mode converters with L = 5µm, 15µm, 20µm and 30µm, respectively. Note: here polymer claddings are not shown for better visualization. (b) Measured insertion loss (indicated by dots) averaged from three groups of fabricated samples as a function of number of mode converters in the measured arm. The loss is measured at 1550nm. (c) Simulated (blue curve) and measured (red dots) mode converter loss v.s. mode converter length. The error bars indicate the variation range of data in three groups of measurements. (d) Normalized transmission spectrum of one adiabatic mode converter. The simulation results are from FIMMWAVE simulation of a single mode converter, and the testing results are from the measured normalized transmission spectrum of 8 mode converters divided by 8.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The simulated neff transition along (a) our mode converter and (b) a conventional V-shape mode converter, respectively, overlaid with mode profiles transformation (cross-sectional view) and FDTD simulation of mode propagation (top view), at the wavelength of 1550nm. For our adiabatic mode converter, Sw = 320nm, Rw = 225nm, L = 30µm. For V-shape mode converter, Sw = 320nm, Rw = 225nm, L = 5µm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

SEM images of (a) our adiabatic mode converter (S1), (b) mode converter (S2) as presented in Ref [11], (c) V-shape mode converter with Rw = 225nm (V1), and (d) V-shape mode converter with Rw = 300nm (V2). The Sw = 320nm for all four mode converters. L = 30µm for S1 and S2, and L = 5µm for V1 and V2. Note: here polymer claddings in (a)-(d) are not shown for better visualization. (e) Comparison of measured loss of our mode converter and conventional V-shape mode converter at 1550nm. S1: loss = 0.080dB; S2: loss = 0.075dB; V1: loss = 0.182 dB; V2: loss = 0.981dB.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Simulated loss of mode converter S2 and V2, as a function of mode converter length at the wavelength of 1550nm.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) An SEM image of our adiabatic mode converter used for a slot PCW. (b) An SEM image of a V-shape mode converter used for a slot PCW. Note: here polymer claddings in (a) and (b) are not shown for better visualization. Only the input ends are shown in (a) and (b), and the output ends are similar but in a reversed direction. (c) Normalized transmission spectrum of the slot PCW using our mode converter (red curve), overlaid with that using V-shape mode converter (blue curve). Inset: magnified portion of the spectrum in the slow-light wavelength region, showing that the total insertion loss in the slow-light wavelength region is lower using our adiabatic mode converter than that using V-shape mode converter.

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