Abstract

A compact airborne Raman lidar system, which can perform water vapor and aerosol measurements both during nighttime and daytime is described. The system design, setup and the data processing methods are described in the paper. The Raman lidar was tested on University of Wyoming King Air research aircraft (UWKA) during the Wyoming King Air PBL Exploratory Experiment (KAPEE) in 2010. An observation showing clouds, aerosols and a dry line is presented to illustrate the lidar detection capabilities. Comparisons of the water vapor and aerosol measurements using the Raman lidar and other in situ airborne instruments show good agreement.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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References

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2013 (2)

C. Kiemle, A. Schäfler, M. Wirth, A. Fix, and S. Rahm, “Detection and Analysis of Water Vapor Transport by Airborne Lidars,” IEEE J-STARS 6(3), 1189–1193 (2013).

B. Liu and Z. Wang, “Improved calibration method for depolarization lidar measurement,” Opt. Express 21(12), 14583–14590 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (1)

Z. Wang, J. French, G. Vali, P. J. Wechsler, S. Haimov, A. Rodi, M. Deng, D. Leon, J. R. Snider, L. Peng, and A. Pazmany, “Single aircraft integration of remote sensing and in situ sampling for the study of cloud microphysics and dynamics,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 93(5), 653–668 (2012).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

D. N. Whiteman, K. Rush, S. Rabenhorst, W. Welch, M. Cadirola, G. Mcintire, F. Russo, M. Adam, D. Venable, R. Connell, I. Veselovskii, R. Forno, B. Mielke, B. Stein, T. Leblanc, S. Mcdermid, and H. Voemel, “Airborne and Ground-Based Measurements Using a High-Performance Raman Lidar,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 27(11), 1781–1801 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

2007 (1)

B. Liu, Z. Zhong, and J. Zhou, “Development of a Mie scattering lidar system for measuring whole tropospheric aerosols,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 9(10), 828–832 (2007).
[Crossref]

2003 (2)

J. R. Snider, S. Guibert, J. L. Brenguier, and J. P. Putaud, “Aerosol activation in marine stratocumulus clouds: 2. Köhler and parcel theory closure studies,” J. Geophys. Res. 108(D15), 8629 (2003).
[Crossref]

D. N. Whiteman, “Examination of the traditional Raman lidar technique. II. Evaluating the ratios for water vapor and aerosols,” Appl. Opt. 42(15), 2593–2608 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

D. N. Whiteman, K. D. Evans, B. Demoz, D. O. C. Starr, E. W. Eloranta, D. Tobin, W. Feltz, G. J. Jedlovec, S. I. Gutman, G. K. Schwemmer, M. Cadirola, S. H. Melfi, and F. J. Schmidlin, “Raman lidar measurements of water vapor and cirrus clouds during the passage of Hurricane Bonnie,” J. Geophys. Res. 106(D6), 5211–5225 (2001).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

1996 (1)

1994 (1)

C. R. Philbrick, “Raman lidar measurements of atmospheric properties,” Proc. SPIE 2222, 922–931 (1994).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

1990 (1)

Adam, M.

D. N. Whiteman, K. Rush, S. Rabenhorst, W. Welch, M. Cadirola, G. Mcintire, F. Russo, M. Adam, D. Venable, R. Connell, I. Veselovskii, R. Forno, B. Mielke, B. Stein, T. Leblanc, S. Mcdermid, and H. Voemel, “Airborne and Ground-Based Measurements Using a High-Performance Raman Lidar,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 27(11), 1781–1801 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ansmann, A.

Bergmaier, P. T.

P. T. Bergmaier, B. Geerts, Z. Wang, B. Liu, and P. Campbell, “A Dryline in Southeast Wyoming. Part II: Airborne In Situ and Raman Lidar Observations,” Mon. Weather Rev.in press.

Bisson, S. E.

Blair, F. H.

Brenguier, J. L.

J. R. Snider, S. Guibert, J. L. Brenguier, and J. P. Putaud, “Aerosol activation in marine stratocumulus clouds: 2. Köhler and parcel theory closure studies,” J. Geophys. Res. 108(D15), 8629 (2003).
[Crossref]

Burris, J.

Cadirola, M.

D. N. Whiteman, K. Rush, S. Rabenhorst, W. Welch, M. Cadirola, G. Mcintire, F. Russo, M. Adam, D. Venable, R. Connell, I. Veselovskii, R. Forno, B. Mielke, B. Stein, T. Leblanc, S. Mcdermid, and H. Voemel, “Airborne and Ground-Based Measurements Using a High-Performance Raman Lidar,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 27(11), 1781–1801 (2010).
[Crossref]

D. N. Whiteman, K. D. Evans, B. Demoz, D. O. C. Starr, E. W. Eloranta, D. Tobin, W. Feltz, G. J. Jedlovec, S. I. Gutman, G. K. Schwemmer, M. Cadirola, S. H. Melfi, and F. J. Schmidlin, “Raman lidar measurements of water vapor and cirrus clouds during the passage of Hurricane Bonnie,” J. Geophys. Res. 106(D6), 5211–5225 (2001).
[Crossref]

Campbell, P.

P. T. Bergmaier, B. Geerts, Z. Wang, B. Liu, and P. Campbell, “A Dryline in Southeast Wyoming. Part II: Airborne In Situ and Raman Lidar Observations,” Mon. Weather Rev.in press.

Clayton, M.

Connell, R.

D. N. Whiteman, K. Rush, S. Rabenhorst, W. Welch, M. Cadirola, G. Mcintire, F. Russo, M. Adam, D. Venable, R. Connell, I. Veselovskii, R. Forno, B. Mielke, B. Stein, T. Leblanc, S. Mcdermid, and H. Voemel, “Airborne and Ground-Based Measurements Using a High-Performance Raman Lidar,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 27(11), 1781–1801 (2010).
[Crossref]

Demoz, B.

D. N. Whiteman, K. D. Evans, B. Demoz, D. O. C. Starr, E. W. Eloranta, D. Tobin, W. Feltz, G. J. Jedlovec, S. I. Gutman, G. K. Schwemmer, M. Cadirola, S. H. Melfi, and F. J. Schmidlin, “Raman lidar measurements of water vapor and cirrus clouds during the passage of Hurricane Bonnie,” J. Geophys. Res. 106(D6), 5211–5225 (2001).
[Crossref]

Deng, M.

Z. Wang, J. French, G. Vali, P. J. Wechsler, S. Haimov, A. Rodi, M. Deng, D. Leon, J. R. Snider, L. Peng, and A. Pazmany, “Single aircraft integration of remote sensing and in situ sampling for the study of cloud microphysics and dynamics,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 93(5), 653–668 (2012).
[Crossref]

Eloranta, E. W.

D. N. Whiteman, K. D. Evans, B. Demoz, D. O. C. Starr, E. W. Eloranta, D. Tobin, W. Feltz, G. J. Jedlovec, S. I. Gutman, G. K. Schwemmer, M. Cadirola, S. H. Melfi, and F. J. Schmidlin, “Raman lidar measurements of water vapor and cirrus clouds during the passage of Hurricane Bonnie,” J. Geophys. Res. 106(D6), 5211–5225 (2001).
[Crossref]

Evans, K. D.

D. N. Whiteman, K. D. Evans, B. Demoz, D. O. C. Starr, E. W. Eloranta, D. Tobin, W. Feltz, G. J. Jedlovec, S. I. Gutman, G. K. Schwemmer, M. Cadirola, S. H. Melfi, and F. J. Schmidlin, “Raman lidar measurements of water vapor and cirrus clouds during the passage of Hurricane Bonnie,” J. Geophys. Res. 106(D6), 5211–5225 (2001).
[Crossref]

Feltz, W.

D. N. Whiteman, K. D. Evans, B. Demoz, D. O. C. Starr, E. W. Eloranta, D. Tobin, W. Feltz, G. J. Jedlovec, S. I. Gutman, G. K. Schwemmer, M. Cadirola, S. H. Melfi, and F. J. Schmidlin, “Raman lidar measurements of water vapor and cirrus clouds during the passage of Hurricane Bonnie,” J. Geophys. Res. 106(D6), 5211–5225 (2001).
[Crossref]

Ferrare, R.

Ferrare, R. A.

Fix, A.

C. Kiemle, A. Schäfler, M. Wirth, A. Fix, and S. Rahm, “Detection and Analysis of Water Vapor Transport by Airborne Lidars,” IEEE J-STARS 6(3), 1189–1193 (2013).

Forno, R.

D. N. Whiteman, K. Rush, S. Rabenhorst, W. Welch, M. Cadirola, G. Mcintire, F. Russo, M. Adam, D. Venable, R. Connell, I. Veselovskii, R. Forno, B. Mielke, B. Stein, T. Leblanc, S. Mcdermid, and H. Voemel, “Airborne and Ground-Based Measurements Using a High-Performance Raman Lidar,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 27(11), 1781–1801 (2010).
[Crossref]

French, J.

Z. Wang, J. French, G. Vali, P. J. Wechsler, S. Haimov, A. Rodi, M. Deng, D. Leon, J. R. Snider, L. Peng, and A. Pazmany, “Single aircraft integration of remote sensing and in situ sampling for the study of cloud microphysics and dynamics,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 93(5), 653–668 (2012).
[Crossref]

Geerts, B.

P. T. Bergmaier, B. Geerts, Z. Wang, B. Liu, and P. Campbell, “A Dryline in Southeast Wyoming. Part II: Airborne In Situ and Raman Lidar Observations,” Mon. Weather Rev.in press.

Goldsmith, J. E.

Guibert, S.

J. R. Snider, S. Guibert, J. L. Brenguier, and J. P. Putaud, “Aerosol activation in marine stratocumulus clouds: 2. Köhler and parcel theory closure studies,” J. Geophys. Res. 108(D15), 8629 (2003).
[Crossref]

Gutman, S. I.

D. N. Whiteman, K. D. Evans, B. Demoz, D. O. C. Starr, E. W. Eloranta, D. Tobin, W. Feltz, G. J. Jedlovec, S. I. Gutman, G. K. Schwemmer, M. Cadirola, S. H. Melfi, and F. J. Schmidlin, “Raman lidar measurements of water vapor and cirrus clouds during the passage of Hurricane Bonnie,” J. Geophys. Res. 106(D6), 5211–5225 (2001).
[Crossref]

Haimov, S.

Z. Wang, J. French, G. Vali, P. J. Wechsler, S. Haimov, A. Rodi, M. Deng, D. Leon, J. R. Snider, L. Peng, and A. Pazmany, “Single aircraft integration of remote sensing and in situ sampling for the study of cloud microphysics and dynamics,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 93(5), 653–668 (2012).
[Crossref]

Heaps, W. S.

Jedlovec, G. J.

D. N. Whiteman, K. D. Evans, B. Demoz, D. O. C. Starr, E. W. Eloranta, D. Tobin, W. Feltz, G. J. Jedlovec, S. I. Gutman, G. K. Schwemmer, M. Cadirola, S. H. Melfi, and F. J. Schmidlin, “Raman lidar measurements of water vapor and cirrus clouds during the passage of Hurricane Bonnie,” J. Geophys. Res. 106(D6), 5211–5225 (2001).
[Crossref]

Kiemle, C.

C. Kiemle, A. Schäfler, M. Wirth, A. Fix, and S. Rahm, “Detection and Analysis of Water Vapor Transport by Airborne Lidars,” IEEE J-STARS 6(3), 1189–1193 (2013).

Leblanc, T.

D. N. Whiteman, K. Rush, S. Rabenhorst, W. Welch, M. Cadirola, G. Mcintire, F. Russo, M. Adam, D. Venable, R. Connell, I. Veselovskii, R. Forno, B. Mielke, B. Stein, T. Leblanc, S. Mcdermid, and H. Voemel, “Airborne and Ground-Based Measurements Using a High-Performance Raman Lidar,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 27(11), 1781–1801 (2010).
[Crossref]

Leon, D.

Z. Wang, J. French, G. Vali, P. J. Wechsler, S. Haimov, A. Rodi, M. Deng, D. Leon, J. R. Snider, L. Peng, and A. Pazmany, “Single aircraft integration of remote sensing and in situ sampling for the study of cloud microphysics and dynamics,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 93(5), 653–668 (2012).
[Crossref]

Liu, B.

B. Liu and Z. Wang, “Improved calibration method for depolarization lidar measurement,” Opt. Express 21(12), 14583–14590 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Liu, Z. Zhong, and J. Zhou, “Development of a Mie scattering lidar system for measuring whole tropospheric aerosols,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 9(10), 828–832 (2007).
[Crossref]

P. T. Bergmaier, B. Geerts, Z. Wang, B. Liu, and P. Campbell, “A Dryline in Southeast Wyoming. Part II: Airborne In Situ and Raman Lidar Observations,” Mon. Weather Rev.in press.

Mcdermid, S.

D. N. Whiteman, K. Rush, S. Rabenhorst, W. Welch, M. Cadirola, G. Mcintire, F. Russo, M. Adam, D. Venable, R. Connell, I. Veselovskii, R. Forno, B. Mielke, B. Stein, T. Leblanc, S. Mcdermid, and H. Voemel, “Airborne and Ground-Based Measurements Using a High-Performance Raman Lidar,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 27(11), 1781–1801 (2010).
[Crossref]

Mcintire, G.

D. N. Whiteman, K. Rush, S. Rabenhorst, W. Welch, M. Cadirola, G. Mcintire, F. Russo, M. Adam, D. Venable, R. Connell, I. Veselovskii, R. Forno, B. Mielke, B. Stein, T. Leblanc, S. Mcdermid, and H. Voemel, “Airborne and Ground-Based Measurements Using a High-Performance Raman Lidar,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 27(11), 1781–1801 (2010).
[Crossref]

Melfi, S. H.

D. N. Whiteman, K. D. Evans, B. Demoz, D. O. C. Starr, E. W. Eloranta, D. Tobin, W. Feltz, G. J. Jedlovec, S. I. Gutman, G. K. Schwemmer, M. Cadirola, S. H. Melfi, and F. J. Schmidlin, “Raman lidar measurements of water vapor and cirrus clouds during the passage of Hurricane Bonnie,” J. Geophys. Res. 106(D6), 5211–5225 (2001).
[Crossref]

D. N. Whiteman, S. H. Melfi, and R. A. Ferrare, “Raman lidar system for the measurement of water vapor and aerosols in the Earth’s atmosphere,” Appl. Opt. 31(16), 3068–3082 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mielke, B.

D. N. Whiteman, K. Rush, S. Rabenhorst, W. Welch, M. Cadirola, G. Mcintire, F. Russo, M. Adam, D. Venable, R. Connell, I. Veselovskii, R. Forno, B. Mielke, B. Stein, T. Leblanc, S. Mcdermid, and H. Voemel, “Airborne and Ground-Based Measurements Using a High-Performance Raman Lidar,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 27(11), 1781–1801 (2010).
[Crossref]

R. K. Newsom, D. D. Turner, B. Mielke, M. Clayton, R. Ferrare, and C. Sivaraman, “Simultaneous analog and photon counting detection for Raman lidar,” Appl. Opt. 48(20), 3903–3914 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Newsom, R. K.

Pazmany, A.

Z. Wang, J. French, G. Vali, P. J. Wechsler, S. Haimov, A. Rodi, M. Deng, D. Leon, J. R. Snider, L. Peng, and A. Pazmany, “Single aircraft integration of remote sensing and in situ sampling for the study of cloud microphysics and dynamics,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 93(5), 653–668 (2012).
[Crossref]

Peng, L.

Z. Wang, J. French, G. Vali, P. J. Wechsler, S. Haimov, A. Rodi, M. Deng, D. Leon, J. R. Snider, L. Peng, and A. Pazmany, “Single aircraft integration of remote sensing and in situ sampling for the study of cloud microphysics and dynamics,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 93(5), 653–668 (2012).
[Crossref]

Philbrick, C. R.

C. R. Philbrick, “Raman lidar measurements of atmospheric properties,” Proc. SPIE 2222, 922–931 (1994).
[Crossref]

Putaud, J. P.

J. R. Snider, S. Guibert, J. L. Brenguier, and J. P. Putaud, “Aerosol activation in marine stratocumulus clouds: 2. Köhler and parcel theory closure studies,” J. Geophys. Res. 108(D15), 8629 (2003).
[Crossref]

Rabenhorst, S.

D. N. Whiteman, K. Rush, S. Rabenhorst, W. Welch, M. Cadirola, G. Mcintire, F. Russo, M. Adam, D. Venable, R. Connell, I. Veselovskii, R. Forno, B. Mielke, B. Stein, T. Leblanc, S. Mcdermid, and H. Voemel, “Airborne and Ground-Based Measurements Using a High-Performance Raman Lidar,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 27(11), 1781–1801 (2010).
[Crossref]

Rahm, S.

C. Kiemle, A. Schäfler, M. Wirth, A. Fix, and S. Rahm, “Detection and Analysis of Water Vapor Transport by Airborne Lidars,” IEEE J-STARS 6(3), 1189–1193 (2013).

Riebesell, M.

Rodi, A.

Z. Wang, J. French, G. Vali, P. J. Wechsler, S. Haimov, A. Rodi, M. Deng, D. Leon, J. R. Snider, L. Peng, and A. Pazmany, “Single aircraft integration of remote sensing and in situ sampling for the study of cloud microphysics and dynamics,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 93(5), 653–668 (2012).
[Crossref]

Rush, K.

D. N. Whiteman, K. Rush, S. Rabenhorst, W. Welch, M. Cadirola, G. Mcintire, F. Russo, M. Adam, D. Venable, R. Connell, I. Veselovskii, R. Forno, B. Mielke, B. Stein, T. Leblanc, S. Mcdermid, and H. Voemel, “Airborne and Ground-Based Measurements Using a High-Performance Raman Lidar,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 27(11), 1781–1801 (2010).
[Crossref]

Russo, F.

D. N. Whiteman, K. Rush, S. Rabenhorst, W. Welch, M. Cadirola, G. Mcintire, F. Russo, M. Adam, D. Venable, R. Connell, I. Veselovskii, R. Forno, B. Mielke, B. Stein, T. Leblanc, S. Mcdermid, and H. Voemel, “Airborne and Ground-Based Measurements Using a High-Performance Raman Lidar,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 27(11), 1781–1801 (2010).
[Crossref]

Schäfler, A.

C. Kiemle, A. Schäfler, M. Wirth, A. Fix, and S. Rahm, “Detection and Analysis of Water Vapor Transport by Airborne Lidars,” IEEE J-STARS 6(3), 1189–1193 (2013).

Schmidlin, F. J.

D. N. Whiteman, K. D. Evans, B. Demoz, D. O. C. Starr, E. W. Eloranta, D. Tobin, W. Feltz, G. J. Jedlovec, S. I. Gutman, G. K. Schwemmer, M. Cadirola, S. H. Melfi, and F. J. Schmidlin, “Raman lidar measurements of water vapor and cirrus clouds during the passage of Hurricane Bonnie,” J. Geophys. Res. 106(D6), 5211–5225 (2001).
[Crossref]

Schwemmer, G. K.

D. N. Whiteman, K. D. Evans, B. Demoz, D. O. C. Starr, E. W. Eloranta, D. Tobin, W. Feltz, G. J. Jedlovec, S. I. Gutman, G. K. Schwemmer, M. Cadirola, S. H. Melfi, and F. J. Schmidlin, “Raman lidar measurements of water vapor and cirrus clouds during the passage of Hurricane Bonnie,” J. Geophys. Res. 106(D6), 5211–5225 (2001).
[Crossref]

Sivaraman, C.

Snider, J. R.

Z. Wang, J. French, G. Vali, P. J. Wechsler, S. Haimov, A. Rodi, M. Deng, D. Leon, J. R. Snider, L. Peng, and A. Pazmany, “Single aircraft integration of remote sensing and in situ sampling for the study of cloud microphysics and dynamics,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 93(5), 653–668 (2012).
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J. R. Snider, S. Guibert, J. L. Brenguier, and J. P. Putaud, “Aerosol activation in marine stratocumulus clouds: 2. Köhler and parcel theory closure studies,” J. Geophys. Res. 108(D15), 8629 (2003).
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D. N. Whiteman, K. D. Evans, B. Demoz, D. O. C. Starr, E. W. Eloranta, D. Tobin, W. Feltz, G. J. Jedlovec, S. I. Gutman, G. K. Schwemmer, M. Cadirola, S. H. Melfi, and F. J. Schmidlin, “Raman lidar measurements of water vapor and cirrus clouds during the passage of Hurricane Bonnie,” J. Geophys. Res. 106(D6), 5211–5225 (2001).
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Stein, B.

D. N. Whiteman, K. Rush, S. Rabenhorst, W. Welch, M. Cadirola, G. Mcintire, F. Russo, M. Adam, D. Venable, R. Connell, I. Veselovskii, R. Forno, B. Mielke, B. Stein, T. Leblanc, S. Mcdermid, and H. Voemel, “Airborne and Ground-Based Measurements Using a High-Performance Raman Lidar,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 27(11), 1781–1801 (2010).
[Crossref]

Tobin, D.

D. N. Whiteman, K. D. Evans, B. Demoz, D. O. C. Starr, E. W. Eloranta, D. Tobin, W. Feltz, G. J. Jedlovec, S. I. Gutman, G. K. Schwemmer, M. Cadirola, S. H. Melfi, and F. J. Schmidlin, “Raman lidar measurements of water vapor and cirrus clouds during the passage of Hurricane Bonnie,” J. Geophys. Res. 106(D6), 5211–5225 (2001).
[Crossref]

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Vali, G.

Z. Wang, J. French, G. Vali, P. J. Wechsler, S. Haimov, A. Rodi, M. Deng, D. Leon, J. R. Snider, L. Peng, and A. Pazmany, “Single aircraft integration of remote sensing and in situ sampling for the study of cloud microphysics and dynamics,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 93(5), 653–668 (2012).
[Crossref]

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D. N. Whiteman, K. Rush, S. Rabenhorst, W. Welch, M. Cadirola, G. Mcintire, F. Russo, M. Adam, D. Venable, R. Connell, I. Veselovskii, R. Forno, B. Mielke, B. Stein, T. Leblanc, S. Mcdermid, and H. Voemel, “Airborne and Ground-Based Measurements Using a High-Performance Raman Lidar,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 27(11), 1781–1801 (2010).
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Veselovskii, I.

D. N. Whiteman, K. Rush, S. Rabenhorst, W. Welch, M. Cadirola, G. Mcintire, F. Russo, M. Adam, D. Venable, R. Connell, I. Veselovskii, R. Forno, B. Mielke, B. Stein, T. Leblanc, S. Mcdermid, and H. Voemel, “Airborne and Ground-Based Measurements Using a High-Performance Raman Lidar,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 27(11), 1781–1801 (2010).
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Voemel, H.

D. N. Whiteman, K. Rush, S. Rabenhorst, W. Welch, M. Cadirola, G. Mcintire, F. Russo, M. Adam, D. Venable, R. Connell, I. Veselovskii, R. Forno, B. Mielke, B. Stein, T. Leblanc, S. Mcdermid, and H. Voemel, “Airborne and Ground-Based Measurements Using a High-Performance Raman Lidar,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 27(11), 1781–1801 (2010).
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P. T. Bergmaier, B. Geerts, Z. Wang, B. Liu, and P. Campbell, “A Dryline in Southeast Wyoming. Part II: Airborne In Situ and Raman Lidar Observations,” Mon. Weather Rev.in press.

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Z. Wang, J. French, G. Vali, P. J. Wechsler, S. Haimov, A. Rodi, M. Deng, D. Leon, J. R. Snider, L. Peng, and A. Pazmany, “Single aircraft integration of remote sensing and in situ sampling for the study of cloud microphysics and dynamics,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 93(5), 653–668 (2012).
[Crossref]

Weitkamp, C.

Welch, W.

D. N. Whiteman, K. Rush, S. Rabenhorst, W. Welch, M. Cadirola, G. Mcintire, F. Russo, M. Adam, D. Venable, R. Connell, I. Veselovskii, R. Forno, B. Mielke, B. Stein, T. Leblanc, S. Mcdermid, and H. Voemel, “Airborne and Ground-Based Measurements Using a High-Performance Raman Lidar,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 27(11), 1781–1801 (2010).
[Crossref]

Whiteman, D. N.

D. N. Whiteman, K. Rush, S. Rabenhorst, W. Welch, M. Cadirola, G. Mcintire, F. Russo, M. Adam, D. Venable, R. Connell, I. Veselovskii, R. Forno, B. Mielke, B. Stein, T. Leblanc, S. Mcdermid, and H. Voemel, “Airborne and Ground-Based Measurements Using a High-Performance Raman Lidar,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 27(11), 1781–1801 (2010).
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D. N. Whiteman, “Examination of the traditional Raman lidar technique. II. Evaluating the ratios for water vapor and aerosols,” Appl. Opt. 42(15), 2593–2608 (2003).
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D. N. Whiteman, K. D. Evans, B. Demoz, D. O. C. Starr, E. W. Eloranta, D. Tobin, W. Feltz, G. J. Jedlovec, S. I. Gutman, G. K. Schwemmer, M. Cadirola, S. H. Melfi, and F. J. Schmidlin, “Raman lidar measurements of water vapor and cirrus clouds during the passage of Hurricane Bonnie,” J. Geophys. Res. 106(D6), 5211–5225 (2001).
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D. N. Whiteman, S. H. Melfi, and R. A. Ferrare, “Raman lidar system for the measurement of water vapor and aerosols in the Earth’s atmosphere,” Appl. Opt. 31(16), 3068–3082 (1992).
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C. Kiemle, A. Schäfler, M. Wirth, A. Fix, and S. Rahm, “Detection and Analysis of Water Vapor Transport by Airborne Lidars,” IEEE J-STARS 6(3), 1189–1193 (2013).

Zhong, Z.

B. Liu, Z. Zhong, and J. Zhou, “Development of a Mie scattering lidar system for measuring whole tropospheric aerosols,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 9(10), 828–832 (2007).
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Zhou, J.

B. Liu, Z. Zhong, and J. Zhou, “Development of a Mie scattering lidar system for measuring whole tropospheric aerosols,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 9(10), 828–832 (2007).
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Appl. Opt. (5)

Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. (1)

Z. Wang, J. French, G. Vali, P. J. Wechsler, S. Haimov, A. Rodi, M. Deng, D. Leon, J. R. Snider, L. Peng, and A. Pazmany, “Single aircraft integration of remote sensing and in situ sampling for the study of cloud microphysics and dynamics,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 93(5), 653–668 (2012).
[Crossref]

IEEE J-STARS (1)

C. Kiemle, A. Schäfler, M. Wirth, A. Fix, and S. Rahm, “Detection and Analysis of Water Vapor Transport by Airborne Lidars,” IEEE J-STARS 6(3), 1189–1193 (2013).

J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. (1)

D. N. Whiteman, K. Rush, S. Rabenhorst, W. Welch, M. Cadirola, G. Mcintire, F. Russo, M. Adam, D. Venable, R. Connell, I. Veselovskii, R. Forno, B. Mielke, B. Stein, T. Leblanc, S. Mcdermid, and H. Voemel, “Airborne and Ground-Based Measurements Using a High-Performance Raman Lidar,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 27(11), 1781–1801 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Geophys. Res. (2)

J. R. Snider, S. Guibert, J. L. Brenguier, and J. P. Putaud, “Aerosol activation in marine stratocumulus clouds: 2. Köhler and parcel theory closure studies,” J. Geophys. Res. 108(D15), 8629 (2003).
[Crossref]

D. N. Whiteman, K. D. Evans, B. Demoz, D. O. C. Starr, E. W. Eloranta, D. Tobin, W. Feltz, G. J. Jedlovec, S. I. Gutman, G. K. Schwemmer, M. Cadirola, S. H. Melfi, and F. J. Schmidlin, “Raman lidar measurements of water vapor and cirrus clouds during the passage of Hurricane Bonnie,” J. Geophys. Res. 106(D6), 5211–5225 (2001).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

B. Liu, Z. Zhong, and J. Zhou, “Development of a Mie scattering lidar system for measuring whole tropospheric aerosols,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 9(10), 828–832 (2007).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

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P. T. Bergmaier, B. Geerts, Z. Wang, B. Liu, and P. Campbell, “A Dryline in Southeast Wyoming. Part II: Airborne In Situ and Raman Lidar Observations,” Mon. Weather Rev.in press.

LI–COR, Inc., “LI-6262 CO2/H2O Analyzer Instruction Manual,” http://www.mmm.ucar.edu/abl/forest/docs/licor_6262.pdf .

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Photograph of the Raman lidar inner structure.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic diagram of the compact airborne Raman lidar.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

A ten-minute segment of Raman lidar observations on June 21, 2010: (a) aerosol backscattering coefficients (β, km−1) plotted as10log10(β); (b) depolarization ratios; (c) water vapor mixing ratios; (d) vertical wind velocity (black) and temperature at the flight level. The two-abscissa axes are UTC time (upper) and distance (lower). The extending black region in a, b, and c indicate the surface below and the top line is just below the aircraft flight level. The wind was blowing from left to right at ~7 m/s while aircraft flying from south to north almost along the wind.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Lidar measured profiles of (a) water vapor mixing ratios and (b) aerosol backscattering coefficients measured at 17:41:30 June 21, 2010. Error bars show the standard deviation of measurement uncertainty. Note that the y-axis is range from the aircraft.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Comparisons of (a) water vapor mixing ratios and (b) aerosol backscattering coefficients measured by lidar (black) and in situ instruments (red) for the whole flight on June 22, 2010. (c) and (d) are scatter plots for the two comparisons measured 30 to 37.5 m below the aircraft.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 System parameters of the compact airborne Raman lidar

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

P = η P L β τ 2 r 2 , P = η P L β τ 2 r 2 ,
δ V = β β = C A P P ,
P E = K E ( β a + β m ) τ E 2 r 2 , P N = K N β N τ N 2 r 2 ,
β a = R P β N R K R T β m ,
WVM=C τ N P V τ V P N ,
σ β a 2 β a 2 = σ R P 2 R P 2 + σ R K 2 R K 2 + σ R T 2 R T 2 , σ WVM 2 WV M 2 = σ C 2 C 2 + σ P V 2 P V 2 + σ P N 2 P N 2 ,
W(f)={ 1,iff f C1 1 (f f C1 ) 2 ( f C2 f C1 ) 2 ,if f C1 f f C2 0iff f C1

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