Abstract

We have investigated the photoelectron spectra from ionization of diatomic molecules by an attosecond XUV pulse in a strong infrared laser field by quantum calculations. A clear holographic interference structure is observed in the two-dimensional photoelectron momentum spectrum. Moreover, this holographic structure depends sensitively on the electron orbitals and internuclear distance of diatomic molecules. Based on the orbital dependence of the holographic structure, one can identify the symmetries and electron density distributions of molecular orbitals. This indicates that the photoelectron holography by an attosecond XUV pulse in a strong infrared field can be used as an efficient tool for molecular imaging.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  1. F. Krausz and M. Ivanov, “Attosecond physics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81, 163–234 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  3. A. Becker, R. Dörner, and R. Moshammer, “Multiple fragmentation of atoms in femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Phys. B 38, S753–S772 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  4. Y. Zhou, C. Huang, Q. Liao, and P. Lu, “Classical simulations including electron correlations for sequential double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 053004 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. J. Itatani, J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, H. Niikura, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Tomographic imaging of molecular obitals,” Nature 432, 867–871 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. X. Zhu, M. Qin, Q. Zhang, Y. Li, Z. Xu, and P. Lu, “Influence of large permanent dipoles on molecular obital tomography,” Opt. Express 21, 5255–5268 (2013).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. X. Zhu, M. Qin, Y. Li, Q. Zhang, Z. Xu, and P. Lu, “Tomographic reconstruction of molecular orbitals with twofold mirror antisymmetry: overcoming the nodal plane problem,” Phys. Rev. A 87, 045402 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  8. T. Zuo, A. D. Bandrauk, and P. B. Corkum, “Laser-induced electron diffraction: a new tool for probing ultrafast molecular dynamics,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 259313–320 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  9. C. I. Blaga, J. L. Xu, A. D. DiChiara, E. Sistrunk, K. Zhang, P. Agostini, T. A. Miller, L. F. DiMauro, and C. D. Lin, “Imaging ultrafast molecular dynamics with laser-induced electron diffraction,” Nature 483, 194–197 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. Y. Huismans, A. Rouzée, A. Gijsbertsen, J. H. Jungmann, A. S. Smolkowska, P. S. W. M. Logman, F. Lépine, C. Cauchy, S. Zamith, T. Marchenko, J. M. Bakker, G. Berden, B. Redlich, A. F. G. van der Meer, H. G. Muller, W. Vermin, K. J. Schafer, M. Spanner, M. Y. Ivanov, O. Smirnova, D. Bauer, S. V. Popruzhenko, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Time-resolved holography with photoelectron,” Science 331, 61–64 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  11. X. B. Bian, Y. Huismans, O. Smirnova, Y. J. Yuan, M. J. J. Vrakking, and A. D. Bandrauk, “Subcycle interference dynamics of time-resolved photoelectron holography with midinfrared laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 043420 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  12. T. Marchenko, Y. Huismans, K. J. Schafer, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Criteria for the observation of strong-field photoelectron holography,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 053427 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  13. X. B. Bian and A. D. Bandrauk, “Attosecond time-resolved imaging of molecular structure by photoelectron holography,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 263003 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. F. Lindner, M. G. Schätzel, H. Walther, A. Baltuška, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, D. B. Milošević, D. Bauer, W. Becker, and G. G. Paulus, “Attosecond double-slit experiment,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 040401 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. R. Gopal, K. Simeonidis, R. Moshammer, Th. Ergler, M. Dürr, M. Kurka, K. U. Kühnel, S. Tschuch, C. D. Schröter, D. Bauer, J. Ullrich, A. Rudenko, O. Herrwerth, Th. Uphues, M. Schultze, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, M. Lezius, and M. F. Kling, “Three-dimensional momentum imaging of electron wave packet interference in few-cycle laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 053001 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. D. G. Arbó, K. L. Ishikawa, K. Schiessl, E. Persson, and J. Burgdörfer, “Intracycle and intercycle interferences in above-threshold ionization: the time grating,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 021403(R) (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  17. G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. D. Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314, 443–446 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. P. Lan, P. Lu, W. Cao, Y. Li, and X. Wang, “Isolated sub-100-as pulse generation via controlling electron dynamics,” Phys. Rev. A 76, 011402(R) (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  19. E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. Q. Zhang, E. J. Takahashi, O. D. Mucke, P. Lu, and K. Midorikawa, Dual-chirped optical parametric amplification scheme for generating few hundred mJ infrared pulses, Opt. Express 19, 7190–7212 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. R. Kienberger, M. Hentschel, M. Uiberacker, Ch. Spielmann, M. Kitzler, A. Scrinzi, M. Wieland, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Steering attosecond electron wave packets with light,” Science 297, 1144–1148 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. L. Y. Peng, E. A. Pronin, and A. F. Starace, “Attosecond pulse carrier-envelope phase effects on ionized electron momentum and energy distributions: roles of frequency, intensity and an additional IR pulse,” New J. Phys. 10, 025030 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  23. M. H. Xu, L. Y. Peng, Z. Zhang, Q. Gong, X. M. Tong, E. A. Pronin, and A. F. Starace, “Attosecond streaking in the low-energy region as a probe of rescattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 183001 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. M. D. Feit, J. A. Fleck, and A. Steiger, “Solution of the Schrödinger equation by a spectral method,” J. Comput. Phys. 47, 412–433 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  25. S. Chelkowski, C. Foisy, and A. D. Bandrauk, “Electron-nuclear dynamics of multiphoton H2+ dissociative ionization in intense laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 57, 1176–1185 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  26. Q. Liao, P. Lu, P. Lan, W. Cao, and Y. Li, “Phase-dependence of high-order above-threshold ionization in asymmetric molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 013408 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  27. X. M. Tong, K. Hino, and N. Toshima, “Phase-dependent atomic ionization in few-cycle intense laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 74, 031405 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  28. C. Huang, Q. Liao, Y. Zhou, and P. Lu, “Role of Coulomb focusing on the electron transverse momentum of above-threshold ionization,” Opt. Express 18, 14293–14300 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. J. Itatani, F. Quéré, G. L. Yudin, M. Y. Ivanov, F. Krausz, and P. B. Corkum, “Attosecond streak camera,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173903 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. S. Nagele, R. Pazourek, J. Feist, K. Doblhoff-Dier, C. Lemell, K. Tőkési, and J. Burgdörfer, “Time-resolved photoemission by attosecond streaking: extraction of time information,” J. Phys. B 88, 081001 (2011).
    [CrossRef]

2013

X. Zhu, M. Qin, Y. Li, Q. Zhang, Z. Xu, and P. Lu, “Tomographic reconstruction of molecular orbitals with twofold mirror antisymmetry: overcoming the nodal plane problem,” Phys. Rev. A 87, 045402 (2013).
[CrossRef]

X. Zhu, M. Qin, Q. Zhang, Y. Li, Z. Xu, and P. Lu, “Influence of large permanent dipoles on molecular obital tomography,” Opt. Express 21, 5255–5268 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012

Y. Zhou, C. Huang, Q. Liao, and P. Lu, “Classical simulations including electron correlations for sequential double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 053004 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. B. Bian and A. D. Bandrauk, “Attosecond time-resolved imaging of molecular structure by photoelectron holography,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 263003 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. I. Blaga, J. L. Xu, A. D. DiChiara, E. Sistrunk, K. Zhang, P. Agostini, T. A. Miller, L. F. DiMauro, and C. D. Lin, “Imaging ultrafast molecular dynamics with laser-induced electron diffraction,” Nature 483, 194–197 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011

Y. Huismans, A. Rouzée, A. Gijsbertsen, J. H. Jungmann, A. S. Smolkowska, P. S. W. M. Logman, F. Lépine, C. Cauchy, S. Zamith, T. Marchenko, J. M. Bakker, G. Berden, B. Redlich, A. F. G. van der Meer, H. G. Muller, W. Vermin, K. J. Schafer, M. Spanner, M. Y. Ivanov, O. Smirnova, D. Bauer, S. V. Popruzhenko, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Time-resolved holography with photoelectron,” Science 331, 61–64 (2011).
[CrossRef]

X. B. Bian, Y. Huismans, O. Smirnova, Y. J. Yuan, M. J. J. Vrakking, and A. D. Bandrauk, “Subcycle interference dynamics of time-resolved photoelectron holography with midinfrared laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 043420 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Marchenko, Y. Huismans, K. J. Schafer, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Criteria for the observation of strong-field photoelectron holography,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 053427 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Xu, L. Y. Peng, Z. Zhang, Q. Gong, X. M. Tong, E. A. Pronin, and A. F. Starace, “Attosecond streaking in the low-energy region as a probe of rescattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 183001 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Nagele, R. Pazourek, J. Feist, K. Doblhoff-Dier, C. Lemell, K. Tőkési, and J. Burgdörfer, “Time-resolved photoemission by attosecond streaking: extraction of time information,” J. Phys. B 88, 081001 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Q. Zhang, E. J. Takahashi, O. D. Mucke, P. Lu, and K. Midorikawa, Dual-chirped optical parametric amplification scheme for generating few hundred mJ infrared pulses, Opt. Express 19, 7190–7212 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

C. Huang, Q. Liao, Y. Zhou, and P. Lu, “Role of Coulomb focusing on the electron transverse momentum of above-threshold ionization,” Opt. Express 18, 14293–14300 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. G. Arbó, K. L. Ishikawa, K. Schiessl, E. Persson, and J. Burgdörfer, “Intracycle and intercycle interferences in above-threshold ionization: the time grating,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 021403(R) (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

R. Gopal, K. Simeonidis, R. Moshammer, Th. Ergler, M. Dürr, M. Kurka, K. U. Kühnel, S. Tschuch, C. D. Schröter, D. Bauer, J. Ullrich, A. Rudenko, O. Herrwerth, Th. Uphues, M. Schultze, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, M. Lezius, and M. F. Kling, “Three-dimensional momentum imaging of electron wave packet interference in few-cycle laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 053001 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Krausz and M. Ivanov, “Attosecond physics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81, 163–234 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

L. Y. Peng, E. A. Pronin, and A. F. Starace, “Attosecond pulse carrier-envelope phase effects on ionized electron momentum and energy distributions: roles of frequency, intensity and an additional IR pulse,” New J. Phys. 10, 025030 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Q. Liao, P. Lu, P. Lan, W. Cao, and Y. Li, “Phase-dependence of high-order above-threshold ionization in asymmetric molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 013408 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

P. Lan, P. Lu, W. Cao, Y. Li, and X. Wang, “Isolated sub-100-as pulse generation via controlling electron dynamics,” Phys. Rev. A 76, 011402(R) (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. D. Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314, 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. M. Tong, K. Hino, and N. Toshima, “Phase-dependent atomic ionization in few-cycle intense laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 74, 031405 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

A. Becker, R. Dörner, and R. Moshammer, “Multiple fragmentation of atoms in femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Phys. B 38, S753–S772 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. Lindner, M. G. Schätzel, H. Walther, A. Baltuška, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, D. B. Milošević, D. Bauer, W. Becker, and G. G. Paulus, “Attosecond double-slit experiment,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 040401 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

J. Itatani, J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, H. Niikura, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Tomographic imaging of molecular obitals,” Nature 432, 867–871 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

J. Itatani, F. Quéré, G. L. Yudin, M. Y. Ivanov, F. Krausz, and P. B. Corkum, “Attosecond streak camera,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173903 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Becker, F. Grasbon, R. Kopold, D. B. Milošević, G. G. Paulus, and H. Walther, “Above-threshold ionization: from classical features to quantum effects,” Adv. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 48, 35–98 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Kienberger, M. Hentschel, M. Uiberacker, Ch. Spielmann, M. Kitzler, A. Scrinzi, M. Wieland, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Steering attosecond electron wave packets with light,” Science 297, 1144–1148 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998

S. Chelkowski, C. Foisy, and A. D. Bandrauk, “Electron-nuclear dynamics of multiphoton H2+ dissociative ionization in intense laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 57, 1176–1185 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996

T. Zuo, A. D. Bandrauk, and P. B. Corkum, “Laser-induced electron diffraction: a new tool for probing ultrafast molecular dynamics,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 259313–320 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1982

M. D. Feit, J. A. Fleck, and A. Steiger, “Solution of the Schrödinger equation by a spectral method,” J. Comput. Phys. 47, 412–433 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Agostini, P.

C. I. Blaga, J. L. Xu, A. D. DiChiara, E. Sistrunk, K. Zhang, P. Agostini, T. A. Miller, L. F. DiMauro, and C. D. Lin, “Imaging ultrafast molecular dynamics with laser-induced electron diffraction,” Nature 483, 194–197 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Altucci, C.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. D. Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314, 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aquila, A. L.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arbó, D. G.

D. G. Arbó, K. L. Ishikawa, K. Schiessl, E. Persson, and J. Burgdörfer, “Intracycle and intercycle interferences in above-threshold ionization: the time grating,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 021403(R) (2010).
[CrossRef]

Attwood, D. T.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Avaldi, L.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. D. Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314, 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bakker, J. M.

Y. Huismans, A. Rouzée, A. Gijsbertsen, J. H. Jungmann, A. S. Smolkowska, P. S. W. M. Logman, F. Lépine, C. Cauchy, S. Zamith, T. Marchenko, J. M. Bakker, G. Berden, B. Redlich, A. F. G. van der Meer, H. G. Muller, W. Vermin, K. J. Schafer, M. Spanner, M. Y. Ivanov, O. Smirnova, D. Bauer, S. V. Popruzhenko, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Time-resolved holography with photoelectron,” Science 331, 61–64 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Baltuška, A.

F. Lindner, M. G. Schätzel, H. Walther, A. Baltuška, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, D. B. Milošević, D. Bauer, W. Becker, and G. G. Paulus, “Attosecond double-slit experiment,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 040401 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bandrauk, A. D.

X. B. Bian and A. D. Bandrauk, “Attosecond time-resolved imaging of molecular structure by photoelectron holography,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 263003 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. B. Bian, Y. Huismans, O. Smirnova, Y. J. Yuan, M. J. J. Vrakking, and A. D. Bandrauk, “Subcycle interference dynamics of time-resolved photoelectron holography with midinfrared laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 043420 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Chelkowski, C. Foisy, and A. D. Bandrauk, “Electron-nuclear dynamics of multiphoton H2+ dissociative ionization in intense laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 57, 1176–1185 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. Zuo, A. D. Bandrauk, and P. B. Corkum, “Laser-induced electron diffraction: a new tool for probing ultrafast molecular dynamics,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 259313–320 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bauer, D.

Y. Huismans, A. Rouzée, A. Gijsbertsen, J. H. Jungmann, A. S. Smolkowska, P. S. W. M. Logman, F. Lépine, C. Cauchy, S. Zamith, T. Marchenko, J. M. Bakker, G. Berden, B. Redlich, A. F. G. van der Meer, H. G. Muller, W. Vermin, K. J. Schafer, M. Spanner, M. Y. Ivanov, O. Smirnova, D. Bauer, S. V. Popruzhenko, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Time-resolved holography with photoelectron,” Science 331, 61–64 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Gopal, K. Simeonidis, R. Moshammer, Th. Ergler, M. Dürr, M. Kurka, K. U. Kühnel, S. Tschuch, C. D. Schröter, D. Bauer, J. Ullrich, A. Rudenko, O. Herrwerth, Th. Uphues, M. Schultze, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, M. Lezius, and M. F. Kling, “Three-dimensional momentum imaging of electron wave packet interference in few-cycle laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 053001 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Lindner, M. G. Schätzel, H. Walther, A. Baltuška, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, D. B. Milošević, D. Bauer, W. Becker, and G. G. Paulus, “Attosecond double-slit experiment,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 040401 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Becker, A.

A. Becker, R. Dörner, and R. Moshammer, “Multiple fragmentation of atoms in femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Phys. B 38, S753–S772 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Becker, W.

F. Lindner, M. G. Schätzel, H. Walther, A. Baltuška, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, D. B. Milošević, D. Bauer, W. Becker, and G. G. Paulus, “Attosecond double-slit experiment,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 040401 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Becker, F. Grasbon, R. Kopold, D. B. Milošević, G. G. Paulus, and H. Walther, “Above-threshold ionization: from classical features to quantum effects,” Adv. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 48, 35–98 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Benedetti, E.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. D. Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314, 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berden, G.

Y. Huismans, A. Rouzée, A. Gijsbertsen, J. H. Jungmann, A. S. Smolkowska, P. S. W. M. Logman, F. Lépine, C. Cauchy, S. Zamith, T. Marchenko, J. M. Bakker, G. Berden, B. Redlich, A. F. G. van der Meer, H. G. Muller, W. Vermin, K. J. Schafer, M. Spanner, M. Y. Ivanov, O. Smirnova, D. Bauer, S. V. Popruzhenko, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Time-resolved holography with photoelectron,” Science 331, 61–64 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bian, X. B.

X. B. Bian and A. D. Bandrauk, “Attosecond time-resolved imaging of molecular structure by photoelectron holography,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 263003 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. B. Bian, Y. Huismans, O. Smirnova, Y. J. Yuan, M. J. J. Vrakking, and A. D. Bandrauk, “Subcycle interference dynamics of time-resolved photoelectron holography with midinfrared laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 043420 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Blaga, C. I.

C. I. Blaga, J. L. Xu, A. D. DiChiara, E. Sistrunk, K. Zhang, P. Agostini, T. A. Miller, L. F. DiMauro, and C. D. Lin, “Imaging ultrafast molecular dynamics with laser-induced electron diffraction,” Nature 483, 194–197 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burgdörfer, J.

S. Nagele, R. Pazourek, J. Feist, K. Doblhoff-Dier, C. Lemell, K. Tőkési, and J. Burgdörfer, “Time-resolved photoemission by attosecond streaking: extraction of time information,” J. Phys. B 88, 081001 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Arbó, K. L. Ishikawa, K. Schiessl, E. Persson, and J. Burgdörfer, “Intracycle and intercycle interferences in above-threshold ionization: the time grating,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 021403(R) (2010).
[CrossRef]

Calegari, F.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. D. Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314, 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cao, W.

Q. Liao, P. Lu, P. Lan, W. Cao, and Y. Li, “Phase-dependence of high-order above-threshold ionization in asymmetric molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 013408 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Lan, P. Lu, W. Cao, Y. Li, and X. Wang, “Isolated sub-100-as pulse generation via controlling electron dynamics,” Phys. Rev. A 76, 011402(R) (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cauchy, C.

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C. Huang, Q. Liao, Y. Zhou, and P. Lu, “Role of Coulomb focusing on the electron transverse momentum of above-threshold ionization,” Opt. Express 18, 14293–14300 (2010).
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J. Itatani, J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, H. Niikura, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Tomographic imaging of molecular obitals,” Nature 432, 867–871 (2004).
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J. Itatani, F. Quéré, G. L. Yudin, M. Y. Ivanov, F. Krausz, and P. B. Corkum, “Attosecond streak camera,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173903 (2002).
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F. Krausz and M. Ivanov, “Attosecond physics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81, 163–234 (2009).
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Y. Huismans, A. Rouzée, A. Gijsbertsen, J. H. Jungmann, A. S. Smolkowska, P. S. W. M. Logman, F. Lépine, C. Cauchy, S. Zamith, T. Marchenko, J. M. Bakker, G. Berden, B. Redlich, A. F. G. van der Meer, H. G. Muller, W. Vermin, K. J. Schafer, M. Spanner, M. Y. Ivanov, O. Smirnova, D. Bauer, S. V. Popruzhenko, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Time-resolved holography with photoelectron,” Science 331, 61–64 (2011).
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J. Itatani, F. Quéré, G. L. Yudin, M. Y. Ivanov, F. Krausz, and P. B. Corkum, “Attosecond streak camera,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173903 (2002).
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Y. Huismans, A. Rouzée, A. Gijsbertsen, J. H. Jungmann, A. S. Smolkowska, P. S. W. M. Logman, F. Lépine, C. Cauchy, S. Zamith, T. Marchenko, J. M. Bakker, G. Berden, B. Redlich, A. F. G. van der Meer, H. G. Muller, W. Vermin, K. J. Schafer, M. Spanner, M. Y. Ivanov, O. Smirnova, D. Bauer, S. V. Popruzhenko, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Time-resolved holography with photoelectron,” Science 331, 61–64 (2011).
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J. Itatani, J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, H. Niikura, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Tomographic imaging of molecular obitals,” Nature 432, 867–871 (2004).
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Kienberger, R.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Kienberger, M. Hentschel, M. Uiberacker, Ch. Spielmann, M. Kitzler, A. Scrinzi, M. Wieland, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Steering attosecond electron wave packets with light,” Science 297, 1144–1148 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kitzler, M.

R. Kienberger, M. Hentschel, M. Uiberacker, Ch. Spielmann, M. Kitzler, A. Scrinzi, M. Wieland, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Steering attosecond electron wave packets with light,” Science 297, 1144–1148 (2002).
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Kleineberg, U.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Kienberger, M. Hentschel, M. Uiberacker, Ch. Spielmann, M. Kitzler, A. Scrinzi, M. Wieland, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Steering attosecond electron wave packets with light,” Science 297, 1144–1148 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kling, M. F.

R. Gopal, K. Simeonidis, R. Moshammer, Th. Ergler, M. Dürr, M. Kurka, K. U. Kühnel, S. Tschuch, C. D. Schröter, D. Bauer, J. Ullrich, A. Rudenko, O. Herrwerth, Th. Uphues, M. Schultze, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, M. Lezius, and M. F. Kling, “Three-dimensional momentum imaging of electron wave packet interference in few-cycle laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 053001 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kopold, R.

W. Becker, F. Grasbon, R. Kopold, D. B. Milošević, G. G. Paulus, and H. Walther, “Above-threshold ionization: from classical features to quantum effects,” Adv. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 48, 35–98 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Krausz, F.

F. Krausz and M. Ivanov, “Attosecond physics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81, 163–234 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Lindner, M. G. Schätzel, H. Walther, A. Baltuška, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, D. B. Milošević, D. Bauer, W. Becker, and G. G. Paulus, “Attosecond double-slit experiment,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 040401 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Kienberger, M. Hentschel, M. Uiberacker, Ch. Spielmann, M. Kitzler, A. Scrinzi, M. Wieland, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Steering attosecond electron wave packets with light,” Science 297, 1144–1148 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Itatani, F. Quéré, G. L. Yudin, M. Y. Ivanov, F. Krausz, and P. B. Corkum, “Attosecond streak camera,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173903 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kühnel, K. U.

R. Gopal, K. Simeonidis, R. Moshammer, Th. Ergler, M. Dürr, M. Kurka, K. U. Kühnel, S. Tschuch, C. D. Schröter, D. Bauer, J. Ullrich, A. Rudenko, O. Herrwerth, Th. Uphues, M. Schultze, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, M. Lezius, and M. F. Kling, “Three-dimensional momentum imaging of electron wave packet interference in few-cycle laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 053001 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kurka, M.

R. Gopal, K. Simeonidis, R. Moshammer, Th. Ergler, M. Dürr, M. Kurka, K. U. Kühnel, S. Tschuch, C. D. Schröter, D. Bauer, J. Ullrich, A. Rudenko, O. Herrwerth, Th. Uphues, M. Schultze, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, M. Lezius, and M. F. Kling, “Three-dimensional momentum imaging of electron wave packet interference in few-cycle laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 053001 (2009).
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Lan, P.

Q. Liao, P. Lu, P. Lan, W. Cao, and Y. Li, “Phase-dependence of high-order above-threshold ionization in asymmetric molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 013408 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Lan, P. Lu, W. Cao, Y. Li, and X. Wang, “Isolated sub-100-as pulse generation via controlling electron dynamics,” Phys. Rev. A 76, 011402(R) (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lemell, C.

S. Nagele, R. Pazourek, J. Feist, K. Doblhoff-Dier, C. Lemell, K. Tőkési, and J. Burgdörfer, “Time-resolved photoemission by attosecond streaking: extraction of time information,” J. Phys. B 88, 081001 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lépine, F.

Y. Huismans, A. Rouzée, A. Gijsbertsen, J. H. Jungmann, A. S. Smolkowska, P. S. W. M. Logman, F. Lépine, C. Cauchy, S. Zamith, T. Marchenko, J. M. Bakker, G. Berden, B. Redlich, A. F. G. van der Meer, H. G. Muller, W. Vermin, K. J. Schafer, M. Spanner, M. Y. Ivanov, O. Smirnova, D. Bauer, S. V. Popruzhenko, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Time-resolved holography with photoelectron,” Science 331, 61–64 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Levesque, J.

J. Itatani, J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, H. Niikura, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Tomographic imaging of molecular obitals,” Nature 432, 867–871 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lezius, M.

R. Gopal, K. Simeonidis, R. Moshammer, Th. Ergler, M. Dürr, M. Kurka, K. U. Kühnel, S. Tschuch, C. D. Schröter, D. Bauer, J. Ullrich, A. Rudenko, O. Herrwerth, Th. Uphues, M. Schultze, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, M. Lezius, and M. F. Kling, “Three-dimensional momentum imaging of electron wave packet interference in few-cycle laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 053001 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, Y.

X. Zhu, M. Qin, Y. Li, Q. Zhang, Z. Xu, and P. Lu, “Tomographic reconstruction of molecular orbitals with twofold mirror antisymmetry: overcoming the nodal plane problem,” Phys. Rev. A 87, 045402 (2013).
[CrossRef]

X. Zhu, M. Qin, Q. Zhang, Y. Li, Z. Xu, and P. Lu, “Influence of large permanent dipoles on molecular obital tomography,” Opt. Express 21, 5255–5268 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Liao, P. Lu, P. Lan, W. Cao, and Y. Li, “Phase-dependence of high-order above-threshold ionization in asymmetric molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 013408 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Lan, P. Lu, W. Cao, Y. Li, and X. Wang, “Isolated sub-100-as pulse generation via controlling electron dynamics,” Phys. Rev. A 76, 011402(R) (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liao, Q.

Y. Zhou, C. Huang, Q. Liao, and P. Lu, “Classical simulations including electron correlations for sequential double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 053004 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Huang, Q. Liao, Y. Zhou, and P. Lu, “Role of Coulomb focusing on the electron transverse momentum of above-threshold ionization,” Opt. Express 18, 14293–14300 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Liao, P. Lu, P. Lan, W. Cao, and Y. Li, “Phase-dependence of high-order above-threshold ionization in asymmetric molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 013408 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C. D.

C. I. Blaga, J. L. Xu, A. D. DiChiara, E. Sistrunk, K. Zhang, P. Agostini, T. A. Miller, L. F. DiMauro, and C. D. Lin, “Imaging ultrafast molecular dynamics with laser-induced electron diffraction,” Nature 483, 194–197 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lindner, F.

F. Lindner, M. G. Schätzel, H. Walther, A. Baltuška, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, D. B. Milošević, D. Bauer, W. Becker, and G. G. Paulus, “Attosecond double-slit experiment,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 040401 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Logman, P. S. W. M.

Y. Huismans, A. Rouzée, A. Gijsbertsen, J. H. Jungmann, A. S. Smolkowska, P. S. W. M. Logman, F. Lépine, C. Cauchy, S. Zamith, T. Marchenko, J. M. Bakker, G. Berden, B. Redlich, A. F. G. van der Meer, H. G. Muller, W. Vermin, K. J. Schafer, M. Spanner, M. Y. Ivanov, O. Smirnova, D. Bauer, S. V. Popruzhenko, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Time-resolved holography with photoelectron,” Science 331, 61–64 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lu, P.

X. Zhu, M. Qin, Y. Li, Q. Zhang, Z. Xu, and P. Lu, “Tomographic reconstruction of molecular orbitals with twofold mirror antisymmetry: overcoming the nodal plane problem,” Phys. Rev. A 87, 045402 (2013).
[CrossRef]

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F. Lindner, M. G. Schätzel, H. Walther, A. Baltuška, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, D. B. Milošević, D. Bauer, W. Becker, and G. G. Paulus, “Attosecond double-slit experiment,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 040401 (2005).
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S. Nagele, R. Pazourek, J. Feist, K. Doblhoff-Dier, C. Lemell, K. Tőkési, and J. Burgdörfer, “Time-resolved photoemission by attosecond streaking: extraction of time information,” J. Phys. B 88, 081001 (2011).
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M. H. Xu, L. Y. Peng, Z. Zhang, Q. Gong, X. M. Tong, E. A. Pronin, and A. F. Starace, “Attosecond streaking in the low-energy region as a probe of rescattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 183001 (2011).
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L. Y. Peng, E. A. Pronin, and A. F. Starace, “Attosecond pulse carrier-envelope phase effects on ionized electron momentum and energy distributions: roles of frequency, intensity and an additional IR pulse,” New J. Phys. 10, 025030 (2008).
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G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. D. Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314, 443–446 (2006).
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M. H. Xu, L. Y. Peng, Z. Zhang, Q. Gong, X. M. Tong, E. A. Pronin, and A. F. Starace, “Attosecond streaking in the low-energy region as a probe of rescattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 183001 (2011).
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T. Marchenko, Y. Huismans, K. J. Schafer, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Criteria for the observation of strong-field photoelectron holography,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 053427 (2011).
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Y. Huismans, A. Rouzée, A. Gijsbertsen, J. H. Jungmann, A. S. Smolkowska, P. S. W. M. Logman, F. Lépine, C. Cauchy, S. Zamith, T. Marchenko, J. M. Bakker, G. Berden, B. Redlich, A. F. G. van der Meer, H. G. Muller, W. Vermin, K. J. Schafer, M. Spanner, M. Y. Ivanov, O. Smirnova, D. Bauer, S. V. Popruzhenko, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Time-resolved holography with photoelectron,” Science 331, 61–64 (2011).
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X. B. Bian, Y. Huismans, O. Smirnova, Y. J. Yuan, M. J. J. Vrakking, and A. D. Bandrauk, “Subcycle interference dynamics of time-resolved photoelectron holography with midinfrared laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 043420 (2011).
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Y. Huismans, A. Rouzée, A. Gijsbertsen, J. H. Jungmann, A. S. Smolkowska, P. S. W. M. Logman, F. Lépine, C. Cauchy, S. Zamith, T. Marchenko, J. M. Bakker, G. Berden, B. Redlich, A. F. G. van der Meer, H. G. Muller, W. Vermin, K. J. Schafer, M. Spanner, M. Y. Ivanov, O. Smirnova, D. Bauer, S. V. Popruzhenko, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Time-resolved holography with photoelectron,” Science 331, 61–64 (2011).
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R. Kienberger, M. Hentschel, M. Uiberacker, Ch. Spielmann, M. Kitzler, A. Scrinzi, M. Wieland, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Steering attosecond electron wave packets with light,” Science 297, 1144–1148 (2002).
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Stagira, S.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. D. Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314, 443–446 (2006).
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Starace, A. F.

M. H. Xu, L. Y. Peng, Z. Zhang, Q. Gong, X. M. Tong, E. A. Pronin, and A. F. Starace, “Attosecond streaking in the low-energy region as a probe of rescattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 183001 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Y. Peng, E. A. Pronin, and A. F. Starace, “Attosecond pulse carrier-envelope phase effects on ionized electron momentum and energy distributions: roles of frequency, intensity and an additional IR pulse,” New J. Phys. 10, 025030 (2008).
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M. D. Feit, J. A. Fleck, and A. Steiger, “Solution of the Schrödinger equation by a spectral method,” J. Comput. Phys. 47, 412–433 (1982).
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Tokési, K.

S. Nagele, R. Pazourek, J. Feist, K. Doblhoff-Dier, C. Lemell, K. Tőkési, and J. Burgdörfer, “Time-resolved photoemission by attosecond streaking: extraction of time information,” J. Phys. B 88, 081001 (2011).
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Tong, X. M.

M. H. Xu, L. Y. Peng, Z. Zhang, Q. Gong, X. M. Tong, E. A. Pronin, and A. F. Starace, “Attosecond streaking in the low-energy region as a probe of rescattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 183001 (2011).
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X. M. Tong, K. Hino, and N. Toshima, “Phase-dependent atomic ionization in few-cycle intense laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 74, 031405 (2006).
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R. Gopal, K. Simeonidis, R. Moshammer, Th. Ergler, M. Dürr, M. Kurka, K. U. Kühnel, S. Tschuch, C. D. Schröter, D. Bauer, J. Ullrich, A. Rudenko, O. Herrwerth, Th. Uphues, M. Schultze, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, M. Lezius, and M. F. Kling, “Three-dimensional momentum imaging of electron wave packet interference in few-cycle laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 053001 (2009).
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Uiberacker, M.

R. Gopal, K. Simeonidis, R. Moshammer, Th. Ergler, M. Dürr, M. Kurka, K. U. Kühnel, S. Tschuch, C. D. Schröter, D. Bauer, J. Ullrich, A. Rudenko, O. Herrwerth, Th. Uphues, M. Schultze, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, M. Lezius, and M. F. Kling, “Three-dimensional momentum imaging of electron wave packet interference in few-cycle laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 053001 (2009).
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E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Kienberger, M. Hentschel, M. Uiberacker, Ch. Spielmann, M. Kitzler, A. Scrinzi, M. Wieland, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Steering attosecond electron wave packets with light,” Science 297, 1144–1148 (2002).
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Ullrich, J.

R. Gopal, K. Simeonidis, R. Moshammer, Th. Ergler, M. Dürr, M. Kurka, K. U. Kühnel, S. Tschuch, C. D. Schröter, D. Bauer, J. Ullrich, A. Rudenko, O. Herrwerth, Th. Uphues, M. Schultze, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, M. Lezius, and M. F. Kling, “Three-dimensional momentum imaging of electron wave packet interference in few-cycle laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 053001 (2009).
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Uphues, Th.

R. Gopal, K. Simeonidis, R. Moshammer, Th. Ergler, M. Dürr, M. Kurka, K. U. Kühnel, S. Tschuch, C. D. Schröter, D. Bauer, J. Ullrich, A. Rudenko, O. Herrwerth, Th. Uphues, M. Schultze, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, M. Lezius, and M. F. Kling, “Three-dimensional momentum imaging of electron wave packet interference in few-cycle laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 053001 (2009).
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van der Meer, A. F. G.

Y. Huismans, A. Rouzée, A. Gijsbertsen, J. H. Jungmann, A. S. Smolkowska, P. S. W. M. Logman, F. Lépine, C. Cauchy, S. Zamith, T. Marchenko, J. M. Bakker, G. Berden, B. Redlich, A. F. G. van der Meer, H. G. Muller, W. Vermin, K. J. Schafer, M. Spanner, M. Y. Ivanov, O. Smirnova, D. Bauer, S. V. Popruzhenko, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Time-resolved holography with photoelectron,” Science 331, 61–64 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Velotta, R.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. D. Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314, 443–446 (2006).
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Vermin, W.

Y. Huismans, A. Rouzée, A. Gijsbertsen, J. H. Jungmann, A. S. Smolkowska, P. S. W. M. Logman, F. Lépine, C. Cauchy, S. Zamith, T. Marchenko, J. M. Bakker, G. Berden, B. Redlich, A. F. G. van der Meer, H. G. Muller, W. Vermin, K. J. Schafer, M. Spanner, M. Y. Ivanov, O. Smirnova, D. Bauer, S. V. Popruzhenko, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Time-resolved holography with photoelectron,” Science 331, 61–64 (2011).
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Villeneuve, D. M.

J. Itatani, J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, H. Niikura, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Tomographic imaging of molecular obitals,” Nature 432, 867–871 (2004).
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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Itatani, F. Quéré, G. L. Yudin, M. Y. Ivanov, F. Krausz, and P. B. Corkum, “Attosecond streak camera,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173903 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Kienberger, M. Hentschel, M. Uiberacker, Ch. Spielmann, M. Kitzler, A. Scrinzi, M. Wieland, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Steering attosecond electron wave packets with light,” Science 297, 1144–1148 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. D. Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314, 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Huismans, A. Rouzée, A. Gijsbertsen, J. H. Jungmann, A. S. Smolkowska, P. S. W. M. Logman, F. Lépine, C. Cauchy, S. Zamith, T. Marchenko, J. M. Bakker, G. Berden, B. Redlich, A. F. G. van der Meer, H. G. Muller, W. Vermin, K. J. Schafer, M. Spanner, M. Y. Ivanov, O. Smirnova, D. Bauer, S. V. Popruzhenko, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Time-resolved holography with photoelectron,” Science 331, 61–64 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The photoelectron momentum distributions from the ionization of diatomic molecules by an attosecond XUV pulse in the presence of a strong IR field for molecular orbitals 1g, 2u and 2g, respectively. The internuclear distance of molecules is fixed to be 3 a.u.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The photoelectron spectra resulting from the electron interference with the recollision momentum pr = 0.4 a.u. for molecular orbitals 1g, 2u and 2g, respectively.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The photoelectron spectrum as a function of the recollision momentum pr for molecular orbitals 1g, 2u and 2g, respectively.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The photoelectron momentum distributions from the ionization of diatomic molecules by an attosecond XUV pulse in the presence of a strong IR field for molecular orbitals 2u and 2g, respectively. The internuclear distance of molecules is fixed to be 3 a.u.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The photoelectron spectrum as a function of the recollision momentum pr for molecular orbitals 2u and 2g, respectively.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

The 2D photoelectron momentum distributions from the ionization of diatomic molecules at the internuclear distance R = 2 a.u. (a), 4 a.u. (b), 6 a.u. (c) and 8 a.u. (d), respectively. The molecular orbital is fixed to be 1g.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

The photoelectron momentum distributions along the laser polarization direction from the ionization of diatomic molecules at the internuclear distance R = 2 a.u. (a), 4 a.u. (b), 6 a.u (c). and 8 a.u. (d), respectively. The molecular orbital is fixed to be 1g.

Equations (10)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

i t ψ ( x , y , t ) = [ 1 2 ( 2 x 2 + 2 y 2 ) + V ( x , y ) + x E ( t ) ] ψ ( x , y , t ) ,
V ( x , y ) = Z ( x + R / 2 ) 2 + y 2 + a Z ( x R / 2 ) 2 + y 2 + a ,
E i ( t ) = a i cos 2 ( π t / π i ) cos ( ω i t ) ,
ψ ( t i ) = ψ ( t i ) [ 1 F s ( R c ) ] + ψ ( t i ) F s ( R c ) = ψ I ( t i ) + ψ I I ( t i ) .
C ( p , t i ) = ψ II ( t i ) e i [ p + A ( t i ) ] r 2 π d 2 r ,
ψ ( , t i ) = C ¯ ( p , t i ) e i p r 2 π d 2 p ,
d P ( p ) d E d θ = | i C ¯ ( p , t i ) | 2 ,
v x = v 0 x A I R ( t 0 ) + A I R ( t ) ,
x = x 0 + [ v 0 x A I R ( t 0 ) ] ( t t 0 ) + t 0 t A IR ( τ ) d τ ,
p r = t 0 t r A IR ( τ ) d τ t r t 0 + A ( t r ) .

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