Abstract

We propose a coupling-modulated microring in an add-drop configuration for binary phase-shift keying (BPSK), where data is encoded as 0 and π radian phase-shifts on the optical carrier. The device uses the π radian phase-flip across the zero coupling point in a 2 × 2 Mach-Zehnder interferometer coupler to produce the modulation. The coupling-modulated microring combines the drive power reduction of resonant modulators with the digital phase response of Mach-Zehnder BPSK modulators. A proof-of-concept device was demonstrated in silicon-on-insulator, showing differential binary phase-shift keying operation at 5 and 10 Gb/s.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2014 (2)

2013 (2)

2012 (5)

2011 (1)

2010 (2)

2009 (2)

2008 (2)

2007 (3)

2005 (2)

2002 (1)

A. Yariv, “Critical coupling and its control in optical waveguide-ring resonator systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 483–485 (2002).
[Crossref]

Asghari, M.

Assefa, S.

W. D. Sacher, W. M. J. Green, S. Assefa, T. Barwicz, P. Pan, S. M. Shank, Y. A. Vlasov, and J. K. S. Poon, “Coupling modulation of microrings at rates beyond the linewidth limit,” Opt. Express 21, 9722–9733 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. C. Rosenberg, W. M. J. Green, S. Assefa, D. M. Gill, T. Barwicz, M. Yang, S. M. Shank, and Y. A. Vlasov, “A 25 Gbps silicon microring modulator based on an interleaved junction,” Opt. Express 20, 26411–26423 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Sacher, W. M. Green, S. Assefa, D. M. Gill, T. Barwicz, M. H. Khater, E. Kiewra, C. Reinholm, S. M. Shank, Y. A. Vlasov, and J. K. Poon, “Coupling-modulated microrings for DPSK modulation,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest (2013), paper CTu2F.3.

W. Sacher, W. Green, S. Assefa, T. Barwicz, S. Shank, Y. Vlasov, and J. Poon, “Controlled coupling in silicon microrings for high-speed, high extinction ratio, and low-chirp modulation,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) (2011), paper PDPA8.

S. Assefa, S. Shank, W. Green, M. Khater, E. Kiewra, C. Reinholm, S. Kamlapurkar, A. Rylyakov, C. Schow, F. Horst, H. Pan, T. Topuria, P. Rice, D. M. Gill, J. Rosenberg, T. Barwicz, M. Yang, J. Proesel, J. Hofrichter, B. Offrein, X. Gu, W. Haensch, J. Ellis-Monaghan, and Y. Vlasov, “A 90 nm CMOS integrated nano-photonics technology for 25Gbps WDM optical communications applications,” IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM) (2012), paper 33.8.

Barwicz, T.

W. D. Sacher, W. M. J. Green, S. Assefa, T. Barwicz, P. Pan, S. M. Shank, Y. A. Vlasov, and J. K. S. Poon, “Coupling modulation of microrings at rates beyond the linewidth limit,” Opt. Express 21, 9722–9733 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. C. Rosenberg, W. M. J. Green, S. Assefa, D. M. Gill, T. Barwicz, M. Yang, S. M. Shank, and Y. A. Vlasov, “A 25 Gbps silicon microring modulator based on an interleaved junction,” Opt. Express 20, 26411–26423 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Assefa, S. Shank, W. Green, M. Khater, E. Kiewra, C. Reinholm, S. Kamlapurkar, A. Rylyakov, C. Schow, F. Horst, H. Pan, T. Topuria, P. Rice, D. M. Gill, J. Rosenberg, T. Barwicz, M. Yang, J. Proesel, J. Hofrichter, B. Offrein, X. Gu, W. Haensch, J. Ellis-Monaghan, and Y. Vlasov, “A 90 nm CMOS integrated nano-photonics technology for 25Gbps WDM optical communications applications,” IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM) (2012), paper 33.8.

W. Sacher, W. Green, S. Assefa, T. Barwicz, S. Shank, Y. Vlasov, and J. Poon, “Controlled coupling in silicon microrings for high-speed, high extinction ratio, and low-chirp modulation,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) (2011), paper PDPA8.

W. Sacher, W. M. Green, S. Assefa, D. M. Gill, T. Barwicz, M. H. Khater, E. Kiewra, C. Reinholm, S. M. Shank, Y. A. Vlasov, and J. K. Poon, “Coupling-modulated microrings for DPSK modulation,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest (2013), paper CTu2F.3.

Beausoleil, R. G.

Bergman, K.

K. Padmaraju, N. Ophir, Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, J. Shakya, S. Manipatruni, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, “Error-free transmission of microring-modulated BPSK,” Opt. Express 20, 8681–8688 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Padmaraju, N. Ophir, S. Manipatruni, C. B. Poitras, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, “DPSK modulation using a microring modulator,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest (2011), paper CTuN4.

Chen, L.

Chen, Y. K.

Chu, T.

X. Xiao, H. Xu, X. Li, Y. Hu, K. Xiong, Z. Li, T. Chu, Y. Yu, and J. Yu, “25 Gbit/s silicon microring modulator based on misalignment-tolerant interleaved PN junctions,” Opt. Express 20, 2507–2515 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Xiao, X. Li, H. Xu, Y. Hu, K. Xiong, Z. Li, T. Chu, J. Yu, and Y. Yu, “44-Gb/s silicon microring modulators based on zigzag PN junctions,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 1712–1714 (2012).
[Crossref]

Cunningham, J. E.

DeRose, G. A.

Dong, P.

Ellis-Monaghan, J.

S. Assefa, S. Shank, W. Green, M. Khater, E. Kiewra, C. Reinholm, S. Kamlapurkar, A. Rylyakov, C. Schow, F. Horst, H. Pan, T. Topuria, P. Rice, D. M. Gill, J. Rosenberg, T. Barwicz, M. Yang, J. Proesel, J. Hofrichter, B. Offrein, X. Gu, W. Haensch, J. Ellis-Monaghan, and Y. Vlasov, “A 90 nm CMOS integrated nano-photonics technology for 25Gbps WDM optical communications applications,” IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM) (2012), paper 33.8.

Feng, D.

Feng, N.-N.

Fontaine, N. K.

Gill, D. M.

J. C. Rosenberg, W. M. J. Green, S. Assefa, D. M. Gill, T. Barwicz, M. Yang, S. M. Shank, and Y. A. Vlasov, “A 25 Gbps silicon microring modulator based on an interleaved junction,” Opt. Express 20, 26411–26423 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Assefa, S. Shank, W. Green, M. Khater, E. Kiewra, C. Reinholm, S. Kamlapurkar, A. Rylyakov, C. Schow, F. Horst, H. Pan, T. Topuria, P. Rice, D. M. Gill, J. Rosenberg, T. Barwicz, M. Yang, J. Proesel, J. Hofrichter, B. Offrein, X. Gu, W. Haensch, J. Ellis-Monaghan, and Y. Vlasov, “A 90 nm CMOS integrated nano-photonics technology for 25Gbps WDM optical communications applications,” IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM) (2012), paper 33.8.

W. Sacher, W. M. Green, S. Assefa, D. M. Gill, T. Barwicz, M. H. Khater, E. Kiewra, C. Reinholm, S. M. Shank, Y. A. Vlasov, and J. K. Poon, “Coupling-modulated microrings for DPSK modulation,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest (2013), paper CTu2F.3.

Gnauck, A.

Green, W.

S. Assefa, S. Shank, W. Green, M. Khater, E. Kiewra, C. Reinholm, S. Kamlapurkar, A. Rylyakov, C. Schow, F. Horst, H. Pan, T. Topuria, P. Rice, D. M. Gill, J. Rosenberg, T. Barwicz, M. Yang, J. Proesel, J. Hofrichter, B. Offrein, X. Gu, W. Haensch, J. Ellis-Monaghan, and Y. Vlasov, “A 90 nm CMOS integrated nano-photonics technology for 25Gbps WDM optical communications applications,” IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM) (2012), paper 33.8.

W. Sacher, W. Green, S. Assefa, T. Barwicz, S. Shank, Y. Vlasov, and J. Poon, “Controlled coupling in silicon microrings for high-speed, high extinction ratio, and low-chirp modulation,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) (2011), paper PDPA8.

Green, W. M.

W. Sacher, W. M. Green, S. Assefa, D. M. Gill, T. Barwicz, M. H. Khater, E. Kiewra, C. Reinholm, S. M. Shank, Y. A. Vlasov, and J. K. Poon, “Coupling-modulated microrings for DPSK modulation,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest (2013), paper CTu2F.3.

Green, W. M. J.

Gu, X.

S. Assefa, S. Shank, W. Green, M. Khater, E. Kiewra, C. Reinholm, S. Kamlapurkar, A. Rylyakov, C. Schow, F. Horst, H. Pan, T. Topuria, P. Rice, D. M. Gill, J. Rosenberg, T. Barwicz, M. Yang, J. Proesel, J. Hofrichter, B. Offrein, X. Gu, W. Haensch, J. Ellis-Monaghan, and Y. Vlasov, “A 90 nm CMOS integrated nano-photonics technology for 25Gbps WDM optical communications applications,” IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM) (2012), paper 33.8.

Haensch, W.

S. Assefa, S. Shank, W. Green, M. Khater, E. Kiewra, C. Reinholm, S. Kamlapurkar, A. Rylyakov, C. Schow, F. Horst, H. Pan, T. Topuria, P. Rice, D. M. Gill, J. Rosenberg, T. Barwicz, M. Yang, J. Proesel, J. Hofrichter, B. Offrein, X. Gu, W. Haensch, J. Ellis-Monaghan, and Y. Vlasov, “A 90 nm CMOS integrated nano-photonics technology for 25Gbps WDM optical communications applications,” IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM) (2012), paper 33.8.

Ho, K.-P.

K.-P. Ho, Phase-Modulated Optical Communication Systems (Springer, 2005).

Hofrichter, J.

S. Assefa, S. Shank, W. Green, M. Khater, E. Kiewra, C. Reinholm, S. Kamlapurkar, A. Rylyakov, C. Schow, F. Horst, H. Pan, T. Topuria, P. Rice, D. M. Gill, J. Rosenberg, T. Barwicz, M. Yang, J. Proesel, J. Hofrichter, B. Offrein, X. Gu, W. Haensch, J. Ellis-Monaghan, and Y. Vlasov, “A 90 nm CMOS integrated nano-photonics technology for 25Gbps WDM optical communications applications,” IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM) (2012), paper 33.8.

Horst, F.

S. Assefa, S. Shank, W. Green, M. Khater, E. Kiewra, C. Reinholm, S. Kamlapurkar, A. Rylyakov, C. Schow, F. Horst, H. Pan, T. Topuria, P. Rice, D. M. Gill, J. Rosenberg, T. Barwicz, M. Yang, J. Proesel, J. Hofrichter, B. Offrein, X. Gu, W. Haensch, J. Ellis-Monaghan, and Y. Vlasov, “A 90 nm CMOS integrated nano-photonics technology for 25Gbps WDM optical communications applications,” IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM) (2012), paper 33.8.

Hosseini, E.

Hu, Y.

X. Xiao, X. Li, H. Xu, Y. Hu, K. Xiong, Z. Li, T. Chu, J. Yu, and Y. Yu, “44-Gb/s silicon microring modulators based on zigzag PN junctions,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 1712–1714 (2012).
[Crossref]

X. Xiao, H. Xu, X. Li, Y. Hu, K. Xiong, Z. Li, T. Chu, Y. Yu, and J. Yu, “25 Gbit/s silicon microring modulator based on misalignment-tolerant interleaved PN junctions,” Opt. Express 20, 2507–2515 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kamlapurkar, S.

S. Assefa, S. Shank, W. Green, M. Khater, E. Kiewra, C. Reinholm, S. Kamlapurkar, A. Rylyakov, C. Schow, F. Horst, H. Pan, T. Topuria, P. Rice, D. M. Gill, J. Rosenberg, T. Barwicz, M. Yang, J. Proesel, J. Hofrichter, B. Offrein, X. Gu, W. Haensch, J. Ellis-Monaghan, and Y. Vlasov, “A 90 nm CMOS integrated nano-photonics technology for 25Gbps WDM optical communications applications,” IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM) (2012), paper 33.8.

Khater, M.

S. Assefa, S. Shank, W. Green, M. Khater, E. Kiewra, C. Reinholm, S. Kamlapurkar, A. Rylyakov, C. Schow, F. Horst, H. Pan, T. Topuria, P. Rice, D. M. Gill, J. Rosenberg, T. Barwicz, M. Yang, J. Proesel, J. Hofrichter, B. Offrein, X. Gu, W. Haensch, J. Ellis-Monaghan, and Y. Vlasov, “A 90 nm CMOS integrated nano-photonics technology for 25Gbps WDM optical communications applications,” IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM) (2012), paper 33.8.

Khater, M. H.

W. Sacher, W. M. Green, S. Assefa, D. M. Gill, T. Barwicz, M. H. Khater, E. Kiewra, C. Reinholm, S. M. Shank, Y. A. Vlasov, and J. K. Poon, “Coupling-modulated microrings for DPSK modulation,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest (2013), paper CTu2F.3.

Kiewra, E.

W. Sacher, W. M. Green, S. Assefa, D. M. Gill, T. Barwicz, M. H. Khater, E. Kiewra, C. Reinholm, S. M. Shank, Y. A. Vlasov, and J. K. Poon, “Coupling-modulated microrings for DPSK modulation,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest (2013), paper CTu2F.3.

S. Assefa, S. Shank, W. Green, M. Khater, E. Kiewra, C. Reinholm, S. Kamlapurkar, A. Rylyakov, C. Schow, F. Horst, H. Pan, T. Topuria, P. Rice, D. M. Gill, J. Rosenberg, T. Barwicz, M. Yang, J. Proesel, J. Hofrichter, B. Offrein, X. Gu, W. Haensch, J. Ellis-Monaghan, and Y. Vlasov, “A 90 nm CMOS integrated nano-photonics technology for 25Gbps WDM optical communications applications,” IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM) (2012), paper 33.8.

Krishnamoorthy, A. V.

Kruger, B. A.

Lee, R. K.

Li, G.

Li, X.

X. Xiao, H. Xu, X. Li, Y. Hu, K. Xiong, Z. Li, T. Chu, Y. Yu, and J. Yu, “25 Gbit/s silicon microring modulator based on misalignment-tolerant interleaved PN junctions,” Opt. Express 20, 2507–2515 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Xiao, X. Li, H. Xu, Y. Hu, K. Xiong, Z. Li, T. Chu, J. Yu, and Y. Yu, “44-Gb/s silicon microring modulators based on zigzag PN junctions,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 1712–1714 (2012).
[Crossref]

Li, Y.

Li, Z.

X. Xiao, H. Xu, X. Li, Y. Hu, K. Xiong, Z. Li, T. Chu, Y. Yu, and J. Yu, “25 Gbit/s silicon microring modulator based on misalignment-tolerant interleaved PN junctions,” Opt. Express 20, 2507–2515 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Xiao, X. Li, H. Xu, Y. Hu, K. Xiong, Z. Li, T. Chu, J. Yu, and Y. Yu, “44-Gb/s silicon microring modulators based on zigzag PN junctions,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 1712–1714 (2012).
[Crossref]

Liang, H.

Liao, S.

Lipson, M.

Luo, Y.

Manipatruni, S.

Mikkelsen, J. C.

Offrein, B.

S. Assefa, S. Shank, W. Green, M. Khater, E. Kiewra, C. Reinholm, S. Kamlapurkar, A. Rylyakov, C. Schow, F. Horst, H. Pan, T. Topuria, P. Rice, D. M. Gill, J. Rosenberg, T. Barwicz, M. Yang, J. Proesel, J. Hofrichter, B. Offrein, X. Gu, W. Haensch, J. Ellis-Monaghan, and Y. Vlasov, “A 90 nm CMOS integrated nano-photonics technology for 25Gbps WDM optical communications applications,” IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM) (2012), paper 33.8.

Ophir, N.

K. Padmaraju, N. Ophir, Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, J. Shakya, S. Manipatruni, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, “Error-free transmission of microring-modulated BPSK,” Opt. Express 20, 8681–8688 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Padmaraju, N. Ophir, S. Manipatruni, C. B. Poitras, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, “DPSK modulation using a microring modulator,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest (2011), paper CTuN4.

Padmaraju, K.

K. Padmaraju, N. Ophir, Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, J. Shakya, S. Manipatruni, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, “Error-free transmission of microring-modulated BPSK,” Opt. Express 20, 8681–8688 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Padmaraju, N. Ophir, S. Manipatruni, C. B. Poitras, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, “DPSK modulation using a microring modulator,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest (2011), paper CTuN4.

Pan, H.

S. Assefa, S. Shank, W. Green, M. Khater, E. Kiewra, C. Reinholm, S. Kamlapurkar, A. Rylyakov, C. Schow, F. Horst, H. Pan, T. Topuria, P. Rice, D. M. Gill, J. Rosenberg, T. Barwicz, M. Yang, J. Proesel, J. Hofrichter, B. Offrein, X. Gu, W. Haensch, J. Ellis-Monaghan, and Y. Vlasov, “A 90 nm CMOS integrated nano-photonics technology for 25Gbps WDM optical communications applications,” IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM) (2012), paper 33.8.

Pan, P.

Pile, B.

Poitras, C. B.

K. Padmaraju, N. Ophir, S. Manipatruni, C. B. Poitras, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, “DPSK modulation using a microring modulator,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest (2011), paper CTuN4.

Poon, A. W.

Poon, J.

W. Sacher, W. Green, S. Assefa, T. Barwicz, S. Shank, Y. Vlasov, and J. Poon, “Controlled coupling in silicon microrings for high-speed, high extinction ratio, and low-chirp modulation,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) (2011), paper PDPA8.

Poon, J. K.

W. Sacher, W. M. Green, S. Assefa, D. M. Gill, T. Barwicz, M. H. Khater, E. Kiewra, C. Reinholm, S. M. Shank, Y. A. Vlasov, and J. K. Poon, “Coupling-modulated microrings for DPSK modulation,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest (2013), paper CTu2F.3.

Poon, J. K. S.

Proesel, J.

S. Assefa, S. Shank, W. Green, M. Khater, E. Kiewra, C. Reinholm, S. Kamlapurkar, A. Rylyakov, C. Schow, F. Horst, H. Pan, T. Topuria, P. Rice, D. M. Gill, J. Rosenberg, T. Barwicz, M. Yang, J. Proesel, J. Hofrichter, B. Offrein, X. Gu, W. Haensch, J. Ellis-Monaghan, and Y. Vlasov, “A 90 nm CMOS integrated nano-photonics technology for 25Gbps WDM optical communications applications,” IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM) (2012), paper 33.8.

Raj, K.

Reinholm, C.

S. Assefa, S. Shank, W. Green, M. Khater, E. Kiewra, C. Reinholm, S. Kamlapurkar, A. Rylyakov, C. Schow, F. Horst, H. Pan, T. Topuria, P. Rice, D. M. Gill, J. Rosenberg, T. Barwicz, M. Yang, J. Proesel, J. Hofrichter, B. Offrein, X. Gu, W. Haensch, J. Ellis-Monaghan, and Y. Vlasov, “A 90 nm CMOS integrated nano-photonics technology for 25Gbps WDM optical communications applications,” IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM) (2012), paper 33.8.

W. Sacher, W. M. Green, S. Assefa, D. M. Gill, T. Barwicz, M. H. Khater, E. Kiewra, C. Reinholm, S. M. Shank, Y. A. Vlasov, and J. K. Poon, “Coupling-modulated microrings for DPSK modulation,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest (2013), paper CTu2F.3.

Rice, P.

S. Assefa, S. Shank, W. Green, M. Khater, E. Kiewra, C. Reinholm, S. Kamlapurkar, A. Rylyakov, C. Schow, F. Horst, H. Pan, T. Topuria, P. Rice, D. M. Gill, J. Rosenberg, T. Barwicz, M. Yang, J. Proesel, J. Hofrichter, B. Offrein, X. Gu, W. Haensch, J. Ellis-Monaghan, and Y. Vlasov, “A 90 nm CMOS integrated nano-photonics technology for 25Gbps WDM optical communications applications,” IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM) (2012), paper 33.8.

Rosenberg, J.

S. Assefa, S. Shank, W. Green, M. Khater, E. Kiewra, C. Reinholm, S. Kamlapurkar, A. Rylyakov, C. Schow, F. Horst, H. Pan, T. Topuria, P. Rice, D. M. Gill, J. Rosenberg, T. Barwicz, M. Yang, J. Proesel, J. Hofrichter, B. Offrein, X. Gu, W. Haensch, J. Ellis-Monaghan, and Y. Vlasov, “A 90 nm CMOS integrated nano-photonics technology for 25Gbps WDM optical communications applications,” IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM) (2012), paper 33.8.

Rosenberg, J. C.

Rylyakov, A.

S. Assefa, S. Shank, W. Green, M. Khater, E. Kiewra, C. Reinholm, S. Kamlapurkar, A. Rylyakov, C. Schow, F. Horst, H. Pan, T. Topuria, P. Rice, D. M. Gill, J. Rosenberg, T. Barwicz, M. Yang, J. Proesel, J. Hofrichter, B. Offrein, X. Gu, W. Haensch, J. Ellis-Monaghan, and Y. Vlasov, “A 90 nm CMOS integrated nano-photonics technology for 25Gbps WDM optical communications applications,” IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM) (2012), paper 33.8.

Sacher, W.

W. Sacher, W. Green, S. Assefa, T. Barwicz, S. Shank, Y. Vlasov, and J. Poon, “Controlled coupling in silicon microrings for high-speed, high extinction ratio, and low-chirp modulation,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) (2011), paper PDPA8.

W. Sacher, W. M. Green, S. Assefa, D. M. Gill, T. Barwicz, M. H. Khater, E. Kiewra, C. Reinholm, S. M. Shank, Y. A. Vlasov, and J. K. Poon, “Coupling-modulated microrings for DPSK modulation,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest (2013), paper CTu2F.3.

Sacher, W. D.

Scherer, A.

Schmidt, B.

Schow, C.

S. Assefa, S. Shank, W. Green, M. Khater, E. Kiewra, C. Reinholm, S. Kamlapurkar, A. Rylyakov, C. Schow, F. Horst, H. Pan, T. Topuria, P. Rice, D. M. Gill, J. Rosenberg, T. Barwicz, M. Yang, J. Proesel, J. Hofrichter, B. Offrein, X. Gu, W. Haensch, J. Ellis-Monaghan, and Y. Vlasov, “A 90 nm CMOS integrated nano-photonics technology for 25Gbps WDM optical communications applications,” IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM) (2012), paper 33.8.

Shafiiha, R.

Shakya, J.

Shank, S.

S. Assefa, S. Shank, W. Green, M. Khater, E. Kiewra, C. Reinholm, S. Kamlapurkar, A. Rylyakov, C. Schow, F. Horst, H. Pan, T. Topuria, P. Rice, D. M. Gill, J. Rosenberg, T. Barwicz, M. Yang, J. Proesel, J. Hofrichter, B. Offrein, X. Gu, W. Haensch, J. Ellis-Monaghan, and Y. Vlasov, “A 90 nm CMOS integrated nano-photonics technology for 25Gbps WDM optical communications applications,” IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM) (2012), paper 33.8.

W. Sacher, W. Green, S. Assefa, T. Barwicz, S. Shank, Y. Vlasov, and J. Poon, “Controlled coupling in silicon microrings for high-speed, high extinction ratio, and low-chirp modulation,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) (2011), paper PDPA8.

Shank, S. M.

Shubin, I.

Song, M.

Sorace-Agaskar, C.

Taylor, G.

Thacker, H.

Timurdogan, E.

Topuria, T.

S. Assefa, S. Shank, W. Green, M. Khater, E. Kiewra, C. Reinholm, S. Kamlapurkar, A. Rylyakov, C. Schow, F. Horst, H. Pan, T. Topuria, P. Rice, D. M. Gill, J. Rosenberg, T. Barwicz, M. Yang, J. Proesel, J. Hofrichter, B. Offrein, X. Gu, W. Haensch, J. Ellis-Monaghan, and Y. Vlasov, “A 90 nm CMOS integrated nano-photonics technology for 25Gbps WDM optical communications applications,” IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM) (2012), paper 33.8.

Vlasov, Y.

S. Assefa, S. Shank, W. Green, M. Khater, E. Kiewra, C. Reinholm, S. Kamlapurkar, A. Rylyakov, C. Schow, F. Horst, H. Pan, T. Topuria, P. Rice, D. M. Gill, J. Rosenberg, T. Barwicz, M. Yang, J. Proesel, J. Hofrichter, B. Offrein, X. Gu, W. Haensch, J. Ellis-Monaghan, and Y. Vlasov, “A 90 nm CMOS integrated nano-photonics technology for 25Gbps WDM optical communications applications,” IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM) (2012), paper 33.8.

W. Sacher, W. Green, S. Assefa, T. Barwicz, S. Shank, Y. Vlasov, and J. Poon, “Controlled coupling in silicon microrings for high-speed, high extinction ratio, and low-chirp modulation,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) (2011), paper PDPA8.

Vlasov, Y. A.

Watts, M.

Willner, A. E.

Winzer, P.

Xiao, X.

X. Xiao, X. Li, H. Xu, Y. Hu, K. Xiong, Z. Li, T. Chu, J. Yu, and Y. Yu, “44-Gb/s silicon microring modulators based on zigzag PN junctions,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 1712–1714 (2012).
[Crossref]

X. Xiao, H. Xu, X. Li, Y. Hu, K. Xiong, Z. Li, T. Chu, Y. Yu, and J. Yu, “25 Gbit/s silicon microring modulator based on misalignment-tolerant interleaved PN junctions,” Opt. Express 20, 2507–2515 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xie, C.

Xiong, K.

X. Xiao, H. Xu, X. Li, Y. Hu, K. Xiong, Z. Li, T. Chu, Y. Yu, and J. Yu, “25 Gbit/s silicon microring modulator based on misalignment-tolerant interleaved PN junctions,” Opt. Express 20, 2507–2515 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Xiao, X. Li, H. Xu, Y. Hu, K. Xiong, Z. Li, T. Chu, J. Yu, and Y. Yu, “44-Gb/s silicon microring modulators based on zigzag PN junctions,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 1712–1714 (2012).
[Crossref]

Xu, H.

X. Xiao, X. Li, H. Xu, Y. Hu, K. Xiong, Z. Li, T. Chu, J. Yu, and Y. Yu, “44-Gb/s silicon microring modulators based on zigzag PN junctions,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 1712–1714 (2012).
[Crossref]

X. Xiao, H. Xu, X. Li, Y. Hu, K. Xiong, Z. Li, T. Chu, Y. Yu, and J. Yu, “25 Gbit/s silicon microring modulator based on misalignment-tolerant interleaved PN junctions,” Opt. Express 20, 2507–2515 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, Q.

Xu, Q. F.

Yang, J.-Y.

Yang, M.

J. C. Rosenberg, W. M. J. Green, S. Assefa, D. M. Gill, T. Barwicz, M. Yang, S. M. Shank, and Y. A. Vlasov, “A 25 Gbps silicon microring modulator based on an interleaved junction,” Opt. Express 20, 26411–26423 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Assefa, S. Shank, W. Green, M. Khater, E. Kiewra, C. Reinholm, S. Kamlapurkar, A. Rylyakov, C. Schow, F. Horst, H. Pan, T. Topuria, P. Rice, D. M. Gill, J. Rosenberg, T. Barwicz, M. Yang, J. Proesel, J. Hofrichter, B. Offrein, X. Gu, W. Haensch, J. Ellis-Monaghan, and Y. Vlasov, “A 90 nm CMOS integrated nano-photonics technology for 25Gbps WDM optical communications applications,” IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM) (2012), paper 33.8.

Yao, J.

Yariv, A.

Yu, J.

X. Xiao, X. Li, H. Xu, Y. Hu, K. Xiong, Z. Li, T. Chu, J. Yu, and Y. Yu, “44-Gb/s silicon microring modulators based on zigzag PN junctions,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 1712–1714 (2012).
[Crossref]

X. Xiao, H. Xu, X. Li, Y. Hu, K. Xiong, Z. Li, T. Chu, Y. Yu, and J. Yu, “25 Gbit/s silicon microring modulator based on misalignment-tolerant interleaved PN junctions,” Opt. Express 20, 2507–2515 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, Y.

X. Xiao, H. Xu, X. Li, Y. Hu, K. Xiong, Z. Li, T. Chu, Y. Yu, and J. Yu, “25 Gbit/s silicon microring modulator based on misalignment-tolerant interleaved PN junctions,” Opt. Express 20, 2507–2515 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Xiao, X. Li, H. Xu, Y. Hu, K. Xiong, Z. Li, T. Chu, J. Yu, and Y. Yu, “44-Gb/s silicon microring modulators based on zigzag PN junctions,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 1712–1714 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhang, B.

Zhang, E. J.

Zhang, L.

Zheng, X.

Zhou, L.

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

X. Xiao, X. Li, H. Xu, Y. Hu, K. Xiong, Z. Li, T. Chu, J. Yu, and Y. Yu, “44-Gb/s silicon microring modulators based on zigzag PN junctions,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 1712–1714 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Yariv, “Critical coupling and its control in optical waveguide-ring resonator systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 483–485 (2002).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (3)

Opt. Express (14)

K. Padmaraju, N. Ophir, Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, J. Shakya, S. Manipatruni, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, “Error-free transmission of microring-modulated BPSK,” Opt. Express 20, 8681–8688 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Zhang, J.-Y. Yang, M. Song, Y. Li, B. Zhang, R. G. Beausoleil, and A. E. Willner, “Microring-based modulation and demodulation of DPSK signal,” Opt. Express 15, 11564–11569 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. F. Xu, S. Manipatruni, B. Schmidt, J. Shakya, and M. Lipson, “12.5 Gbit/s carrier-injection-based silicon micro-ring silicon modulators,” Opt. Express 15, 430–436 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Zhou and A. W. Poon, “Electrically reconfigurable silicon microring resonator-based filter with waveguide-coupled feedback,” Opt. Express 15, 9194–9204 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Dong, R. Shafiiha, S. Liao, H. Liang, N.-N. Feng, D. Feng, G. Li, X. Zheng, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “Wavelength-tunable silicon microring modulator,” Opt. Express 18, 10941–10946 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Li, X. Zheng, J. Yao, H. Thacker, I. Shubin, Y. Luo, K. Raj, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “25 Gb/s 1 V-driving cmos ring modulator with integrated thermal tuning,” Opt. Express 19, 20435–20443 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. C. Rosenberg, W. M. J. Green, S. Assefa, D. M. Gill, T. Barwicz, M. Yang, S. M. Shank, and Y. A. Vlasov, “A 25 Gbps silicon microring modulator based on an interleaved junction,” Opt. Express 20, 26411–26423 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Xiao, H. Xu, X. Li, Y. Hu, K. Xiong, Z. Li, T. Chu, Y. Yu, and J. Yu, “25 Gbit/s silicon microring modulator based on misalignment-tolerant interleaved PN junctions,” Opt. Express 20, 2507–2515 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. M. J. Green, R. K. Lee, G. A. DeRose, A. Scherer, and A. Yariv, “Hybrid InGaAsP-InP Mach-Zehnder racetrack resonator for thermooptic switching and coupling control,” Opt. Express 13, 1651–1659 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. D. Sacher, W. M. J. Green, S. Assefa, T. Barwicz, P. Pan, S. M. Shank, Y. A. Vlasov, and J. K. S. Poon, “Coupling modulation of microrings at rates beyond the linewidth limit,” Opt. Express 21, 9722–9733 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Pile and G. Taylor, “Small-signal analysis of microring resonator modulators,” Opt. Express 22, 14913–14928 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. C. Mikkelsen, W. D. Sacher, and J. K. S. Poon, “Dimensional variation tolerant silicon-on-insulator directional couplers,” Opt. Express 22, 3145–3150 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. D. Sacher, E. J. Zhang, B. A. Kruger, and J. K. S. Poon, “High-speed laser modulation beyond the relaxation resonance frequency limit,” Opt. Express 18, 7047–7054 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. D. Sacher and J. K. S. Poon, “Dynamics of microring resonator modulators,” Opt. Express 16, 15741–15753 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Other (5)

W. Sacher, W. Green, S. Assefa, T. Barwicz, S. Shank, Y. Vlasov, and J. Poon, “Controlled coupling in silicon microrings for high-speed, high extinction ratio, and low-chirp modulation,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) (2011), paper PDPA8.

K.-P. Ho, Phase-Modulated Optical Communication Systems (Springer, 2005).

W. Sacher, W. M. Green, S. Assefa, D. M. Gill, T. Barwicz, M. H. Khater, E. Kiewra, C. Reinholm, S. M. Shank, Y. A. Vlasov, and J. K. Poon, “Coupling-modulated microrings for DPSK modulation,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest (2013), paper CTu2F.3.

K. Padmaraju, N. Ophir, S. Manipatruni, C. B. Poitras, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, “DPSK modulation using a microring modulator,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest (2011), paper CTuN4.

S. Assefa, S. Shank, W. Green, M. Khater, E. Kiewra, C. Reinholm, S. Kamlapurkar, A. Rylyakov, C. Schow, F. Horst, H. Pan, T. Topuria, P. Rice, D. M. Gill, J. Rosenberg, T. Barwicz, M. Yang, J. Proesel, J. Hofrichter, B. Offrein, X. Gu, W. Haensch, J. Ellis-Monaghan, and Y. Vlasov, “A 90 nm CMOS integrated nano-photonics technology for 25Gbps WDM optical communications applications,” IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM) (2012), paper 33.8.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Illustrations of BPSK modulation using (a) a phase modulator, (b) a MZI modulator, (c) an intracavity-modulated microring, and (d) a coupling-modulated microring. The illustrations show the similarities between MZI modulators and coupling-modulated microrings, as well as the similarities between phase modulators and intracavity-modulated microrings. Constellation diagrams and output intensity (|T|2) and phase (∠T) versus applied phase-shift (Δθ) are shown. For the intracavity-modulated microring, the input wavelength is on resonance for Δθ = 0; modulating Δθ shifts the resonance wavelength. For the coupling-modulated microring, the input wavelength is on resonance, and the drop port coupler is modulated; the ‘1’ and ‘0’ symbols correspond to the two critical coupling conditions.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic of a coupling-modulated microring for BPSK. The microring is in an add-drop configuration with MZI-couplers at the through and drop sides. Either MZI-coupler can be modulated through its zero transmission point to achieve BPSK. Here, only the MZI-coupler at the drop side is modulated, and the MZI-coupler on the through side acts as a tunable coupler. This configuration matches the experimentally demonstrated device.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Optical micrograph of the fabricated device. The thermal tuners are 50 μm long, and the PN diode phase-shifters are 200 μm long. PN diode phase-shifters are only present in the MZI-coupler at the drop side. (b) Measured transmission spectra at the through (thru) and drop ports. The thermal tuners were set for critical coupling with a drop port transmission of 30% on-resonance relative to the off-resonance through port transmission.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measured eye diagrams of the DPSK microring modulator at 5 and 10 Gb/s before and after the fiber delay line interferometer demodulator. The open eye diagrams with large extinction ratios confirm DPSK operation. The drive signals were NRZ PRBS 231 − 1. The vertical scales differ between the 5 and 10 Gb/s eye diagrams and between the DPSK modulated and demodulated eye diagrams; accurate amplitude comparisons between the eye diagrams are difficult due to the different fiber paths and losses for each set of measurements.

Equations (6)

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T drop = κ 1 * κ 2 * a exp ( i ϕ / 2 ) 1 a σ 1 * σ 2 exp ( i ϕ ) ,
T thru = σ 1 σ 2 a exp ( i ϕ ) 1 a σ 1 * σ 2 exp ( i ϕ ) ,
σ 1 , 2 ( t ) = i cos ( θ 0 1 , 2 + Δ θ 1 , 2 ( t ) 2 ) , κ 1 , 2 ( t ) = i sin ( θ 0 1 , 2 + Δ θ 1 , 2 ( t ) 2 ) ,
σ 1 , 2 ( t ) i [ 1 Δ θ 1 , 2 2 ( t ) 2 ] , κ 1 , 2 ( t ) i Δ θ 1 , 2 ( t ) 2 ,
η 1 = 2 π Δ θ 1 π 2 1 a 2 σ 2 2 π F 4 for a 1 ,
η 2 = 2 π Δ θ 2 π 2 1 σ 1 2 / a 2 π F 4 for a 1 .

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