Abstract

We report here the optical manipulation of the director and topological defect structures of nematic liquid crystals around a silica microparticle with azobenzene-containing dendrimers (azo-dendrimers) on its surface. We successfully demonstrate the successive switching processes from hedgehog, to boojum, and further to Saturn ring configurations by ultraviolet (UV) light irradiation and termination. The switching time between these defect structures depends on the UV light intensity and attains about 50 ms. Since the pretreatment of microparticles is not necessary and the surface modification is spontaneously performed just by dissolving the azo-dendrimers in liquid crystals, this dendrimer supplies us with a variety of possible applications.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  4. A. Golemme, S. Zumer, J. W. Doane, and M. E. Neubert, “Deuterium NMR of polymer dispersed liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. A 37(2), 559–569 (1988).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. E. M. Terentjev, “Disclination loops, standing alone and around solid particles, in nematic liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 51(2), 1330–1337 (1995).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. H. Stark, “Physics of colloidal dispersions in nematic liquid crystals,” Phys. Rep. 351(6), 387–474 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  7. R. P. Trivedi, D. Engstrom, and I. I. Smalyukh, “Optical manipulation of colloids and defect structures in anisotropic liquid crystal fluids,” J. Opt. 13(4), 044001 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  8. U. Tkalec and I. Musevic, “Topology of nematic liquid crystal colloids confined to two dimensions,” Soft Matter 9(34), 8140–8150 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  9. C. Blanc, D. Coursault, and E. Lacaze, “Ordering nano- and microparticles assemblies with liquid crystals,” Liq. Cryst. Rev. 1(2), 83–109 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  10. O. D. Lavrentovich, “Transport of particles in liquid crystals,” Soft Matter 10(9), 1264–1283 (2014).
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    [Crossref]
  13. O. Mondain-Monval, J. C. Dedieu, T. Gulik-Krzywicki, and P. Poulin, “Weak surface energy in nematic dispersions: Saturn ring defects and quadrupolar interactions,” Eur. Phys. J. B 12(2), 167–170 (1999).
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. I. Musevic, M. Skarabot, U. Tkalec, M. Ravnik, and S. Zumer, “Two-dimensional nematic colloidal crystals self-assembled by topological defects,” Science 313(5789), 954–958 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. M. Ravnik, M. Skarabot, S. Zumer, U. Tkalec, I. Poberaj, D. Babic, N. Osterman, and I. Musevic, “Entangled nematic colloidal dimers and wires,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(24), 247801 (2007).
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  18. P. Poulin, H. Stark, T. C. Lubensky, and D. A. Weitz, “Novel colloidal interactions in anisotropic fluids,” Science 275(5307), 1770–1773 (1997).
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  20. F. Mondiot, R. Botet, P. Snabre, O. Mondain-Monval, and J.-C. Loudet, “Colloidal aggregation and dynamics in anisotropic fluids,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 111(16), 5831–5836 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
  22. C. P. Lapointe, T. G. Mason, and I. I. Smalyukh, “Shape-controlled colloidal interactions in nematic liquid crystals,” Science 326(5956), 1083–1086 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  23. Y.-K. Kim, B. Senyuk, S.-T. Shin, A. Kohlmeier, G. H. Mehl, and O. D. Lavrentovich, “Surface alignment, anchoring transitions, optical properties, and topological defects in the thermotropic nematic phase of organo-siloxane tetrapodes,” Soft Matter 10(3), 500–509 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  26. O. P. Pishnyak, S. Tang, J. R. Kelly, S. V. Shiyanovskii, and O. D. Lavrentovich, “Levitation, lift, and bidirectional motion of colloidal particles in an electrically driven nematic liquid crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(12), 127802 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  27. T. Araki and H. Tanaka, “Surface-sensitive particle selection by driving particles in a nematic solvent,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 18(15), L193–L203 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  28. T. Yamamoto, Y. Tabe, and H. Yokoyama, “Photochemical transformation of topological defects formed around colloidal droplets dispersed in azobenzene-containing liquid crystals,” Colloids Surf. A Physicochem. Eng. Asp. 334(1–3), 155–159 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  29. T. Yamamoto, Y. Tabe, and H. Yokoyama, “Photochemical manipulation of topological defects in liquid-crystal emulsions doped with azobenzene derivatives,” Thin Solid Films 509(1–2), 81–84 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  30. B. Senyuk, D. Glugla, and I. I. Smalyukh, “Rotational and translational diffusion of anisotropic gold nanoparticles in liquid crystals controlled by varying surface anchoring,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 88(6), 062507 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  31. K. Yonetake, T. Masuko, T. Morishita, K. Suzuki, M. Ueda, and R. Nagahata, “Poly(propyleneimine) dendrimers peripherally modified with mesogens,” Macromolecules 32(20), 6578–6586 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  32. Y. Momoi, M. Kwak, D. Choi, Y. Choi, K. Jeong, T. Koda, O. Haba, and K. Yonetake, “Polyimide-free LCD by dissolving dendrimers,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 20(9), 486–492 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  33. W. Li, T. Dohi, M. Hara, S. Nagano, O. Haba, K. Yonetake, and T. Seki, “Phototriggered mass migration consorted with surface dewetting in thin films of a liquid crystalline azobenzene-containing dendrimer,” Macromolecules 45(16), 6618–6627 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  34. T. Ikeda, S. Aya, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, O. Haba, K. Yonetake, Y. Momoi, and H. Takezoe, “Novel bistable device using anchoring transition and command surface,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(6), 061701 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  35. G. Lee, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, Y. Momoi, O. Haba, K. Yonetake, and H. Takezoe, “Photo-induced ordering transition in microdroplets of liquid crystals with azo-dendrimer,” Part. Part. Syst. Charact. 30, 847 (2013).
  36. K. Ichimura, Y. Suzuki, T. Seki, A. Hosoki, and K. Aoki, “Reversible change in alignment mode of nematic liquid crystals regulated photochemically by “command surfaces” modified with an azobenzene monolayer,” Langmuir 4(5), 1214–1216 (1988).
    [Crossref]
  37. J. Fukuda, M. Yoneya, and H. Yokoyama, “Nematic liquid crystal around a spherical particle: Investigation of the defect structure and its stability using adaptive mesh refinement,” Eur. Phys. J. E Soft Matter 13(1), 87–98 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  38. S. G. Odulov, Yu. A. Reznikov, M. S. Soskin, and A. I. Khizhnyak, “Photostimulated change of phase-transition temperature and “giant” optical nonlinearity of liquid crystals,” Sov. Phys. JETP 58, 1154–1156 (1983).
  39. D. Statman and I. Janossy, “Study of photoisomerization of azo dyes in liquid crystals,” J. Chem. Phys. 118(7), 3222–3232 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  40. T. Ikeda and O. Tsutsumi, “Optical switching and image storage by means of azobenzene liquid-crystal films,” Science 268(5219), 1873–1875 (1995).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  41. H. Knobloch, H. Orendi, M. Buchel, T. Seki, S. Ito, and W. Knoll, “Photochromic command surface induced switching of liquid crystal optical waveguide structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 77(2), 481 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  42. A. Shishido, O. Tsutsumi, A. Kanazawa, T. Shiono, T. Ikeda, and N. Tamai, “Rapid optical switching by means of photoinduced change in refractive index of azobenzene liquid crystals detected by reflection-mode analysis,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 119(33), 7791–7796 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  43. N. Murazawa, S. Juodkazis, and H. Misawa, “Laser manipulation based on a light-induced molecular reordering,” Opt. Express 14(6), 2481–2486 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  44. J. Bajc and S. Zumer, “Structural transition in chiral nematic liquid crystal droplets in an electric field,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 55(3), 2925–2937 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  45. M. Humar and I. Musevic, “3D microlasers from self-assembled cholesteric liquid-crystal microdroplets,” Opt. Express 18(26), 26995–27003 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  46. T. C. Lubensky, D. Pettey, N. Currier, and H. Stark, “Topological defects and interactions in nematic emulsions,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 57(1), 610–625 (1998).
    [Crossref]

2014 (3)

O. D. Lavrentovich, “Transport of particles in liquid crystals,” Soft Matter 10(9), 1264–1283 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Mondiot, R. Botet, P. Snabre, O. Mondain-Monval, and J.-C. Loudet, “Colloidal aggregation and dynamics in anisotropic fluids,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 111(16), 5831–5836 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y.-K. Kim, B. Senyuk, S.-T. Shin, A. Kohlmeier, G. H. Mehl, and O. D. Lavrentovich, “Surface alignment, anchoring transitions, optical properties, and topological defects in the thermotropic nematic phase of organo-siloxane tetrapodes,” Soft Matter 10(3), 500–509 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (7)

M. Škarabot, Z. Lokar, and I. Muševič, “Transport of particles by a thermally induced gradient of the order parameter in nematic liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 87(6), 062501 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Senyuk, D. Glugla, and I. I. Smalyukh, “Rotational and translational diffusion of anisotropic gold nanoparticles in liquid crystals controlled by varying surface anchoring,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 88(6), 062507 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Ikeda, S. Aya, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, O. Haba, K. Yonetake, Y. Momoi, and H. Takezoe, “Novel bistable device using anchoring transition and command surface,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(6), 061701 (2013).
[Crossref]

G. Lee, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, Y. Momoi, O. Haba, K. Yonetake, and H. Takezoe, “Photo-induced ordering transition in microdroplets of liquid crystals with azo-dendrimer,” Part. Part. Syst. Charact. 30, 847 (2013).

N. L. Abbott, “Applied physics. Colloid science collides with liquid crystals,” Science 342(6164), 1326–1327 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

U. Tkalec and I. Musevic, “Topology of nematic liquid crystal colloids confined to two dimensions,” Soft Matter 9(34), 8140–8150 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Blanc, D. Coursault, and E. Lacaze, “Ordering nano- and microparticles assemblies with liquid crystals,” Liq. Cryst. Rev. 1(2), 83–109 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

Y. Momoi, M. Kwak, D. Choi, Y. Choi, K. Jeong, T. Koda, O. Haba, and K. Yonetake, “Polyimide-free LCD by dissolving dendrimers,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 20(9), 486–492 (2012).
[Crossref]

W. Li, T. Dohi, M. Hara, S. Nagano, O. Haba, K. Yonetake, and T. Seki, “Phototriggered mass migration consorted with surface dewetting in thin films of a liquid crystalline azobenzene-containing dendrimer,” Macromolecules 45(16), 6618–6627 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

R. P. Trivedi, D. Engstrom, and I. I. Smalyukh, “Optical manipulation of colloids and defect structures in anisotropic liquid crystal fluids,” J. Opt. 13(4), 044001 (2011).
[Crossref]

O. P. Pishnyak, S. V. Shiyanovskii, and O. D. Lavrentovich, “Aggregation of colloidal particles in a non-equilibrium backflow induced by electrically-driven reorientation of the nematic liquid crystal,” J. Mol. Liq. 164(1–2), 132–142 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

2009 (2)

C. P. Lapointe, T. G. Mason, and I. I. Smalyukh, “Shape-controlled colloidal interactions in nematic liquid crystals,” Science 326(5956), 1083–1086 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Yamamoto, Y. Tabe, and H. Yokoyama, “Photochemical transformation of topological defects formed around colloidal droplets dispersed in azobenzene-containing liquid crystals,” Colloids Surf. A Physicochem. Eng. Asp. 334(1–3), 155–159 (2009).
[Crossref]

2007 (3)

O. P. Pishnyak, S. Tang, J. R. Kelly, S. V. Shiyanovskii, and O. D. Lavrentovich, “Levitation, lift, and bidirectional motion of colloidal particles in an electrically driven nematic liquid crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(12), 127802 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. I. Smalyukh, D. S. Kaputa, A. V. Kachynski, A. N. Kuzmin, and P. N. Prasad, “Optical trapping of director structures and defects in liquid crystals using laser tweezers,” Opt. Express 15(7), 4359–4371 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Ravnik, M. Skarabot, S. Zumer, U. Tkalec, I. Poberaj, D. Babic, N. Osterman, and I. Musevic, “Entangled nematic colloidal dimers and wires,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(24), 247801 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (5)

I. Musevic, M. Skarabot, U. Tkalec, M. Ravnik, and S. Zumer, “Two-dimensional nematic colloidal crystals self-assembled by topological defects,” Science 313(5789), 954–958 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Kleman and O. D. Lavrentovich, “Topological point defects in nematic liquid crystals,” Phys. Mag. 86(25–26), 4117–4137 (2006).
[Crossref]

T. Araki and H. Tanaka, “Surface-sensitive particle selection by driving particles in a nematic solvent,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 18(15), L193–L203 (2006).
[Crossref]

T. Yamamoto, Y. Tabe, and H. Yokoyama, “Photochemical manipulation of topological defects in liquid-crystal emulsions doped with azobenzene derivatives,” Thin Solid Films 509(1–2), 81–84 (2006).
[Crossref]

N. Murazawa, S. Juodkazis, and H. Misawa, “Laser manipulation based on a light-induced molecular reordering,” Opt. Express 14(6), 2481–2486 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

I. I. Smalyukh, A. N. Kuzmin, A. V. Kachynski, P. N. Prasad, and O. D. Lavrentovich, “Optical trapping of colloidal particles and measurement of the defect line tension and colloidal forces in a thermotropic nematic liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(2), 021913 (2005).
[Crossref]

I. I. Smalyukh, O. D. Lavrentovich, A. N. Kuzmin, A. V. Kachynski, and P. N. Prasad, “Elasticity-mediated self-organization and colloidal interactions of solid spheres with tangential anchoring in a nematic liquid crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(15), 157801 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

J. Fukuda, M. Yoneya, and H. Yokoyama, “Nematic liquid crystal around a spherical particle: Investigation of the defect structure and its stability using adaptive mesh refinement,” Eur. Phys. J. E Soft Matter 13(1), 87–98 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

D. Statman and I. Janossy, “Study of photoisomerization of azo dyes in liquid crystals,” J. Chem. Phys. 118(7), 3222–3232 (2003).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

H. Stark, “Physics of colloidal dispersions in nematic liquid crystals,” Phys. Rep. 351(6), 387–474 (2001).
[Crossref]

1999 (2)

O. Mondain-Monval, J. C. Dedieu, T. Gulik-Krzywicki, and P. Poulin, “Weak surface energy in nematic dispersions: Saturn ring defects and quadrupolar interactions,” Eur. Phys. J. B 12(2), 167–170 (1999).
[Crossref]

K. Yonetake, T. Masuko, T. Morishita, K. Suzuki, M. Ueda, and R. Nagahata, “Poly(propyleneimine) dendrimers peripherally modified with mesogens,” Macromolecules 32(20), 6578–6586 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (2)

P. Poulin and D. A. Weitz, “Inverted and multiple nematic emulsions,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 57(1), 626–637 (1998).
[Crossref]

T. C. Lubensky, D. Pettey, N. Currier, and H. Stark, “Topological defects and interactions in nematic emulsions,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 57(1), 610–625 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (4)

J. Bajc and S. Zumer, “Structural transition in chiral nematic liquid crystal droplets in an electric field,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 55(3), 2925–2937 (1997).
[Crossref]

A. Shishido, O. Tsutsumi, A. Kanazawa, T. Shiono, T. Ikeda, and N. Tamai, “Rapid optical switching by means of photoinduced change in refractive index of azobenzene liquid crystals detected by reflection-mode analysis,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 119(33), 7791–7796 (1997).
[Crossref]

P. Poulin, H. Stark, T. C. Lubensky, and D. A. Weitz, “Novel colloidal interactions in anisotropic fluids,” Science 275(5307), 1770–1773 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Poulin, V. Cabuil, and D. A. Weitz, “Direct measurement of colloidal forces in an anisotropic solvent,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79(24), 4862–4865 (1997).
[Crossref]

1995 (3)

E. M. Terentjev, “Disclination loops, standing alone and around solid particles, in nematic liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 51(2), 1330–1337 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Ikeda and O. Tsutsumi, “Optical switching and image storage by means of azobenzene liquid-crystal films,” Science 268(5219), 1873–1875 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Knobloch, H. Orendi, M. Buchel, T. Seki, S. Ito, and W. Knoll, “Photochromic command surface induced switching of liquid crystal optical waveguide structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 77(2), 481 (1995).
[Crossref]

1988 (2)

A. Golemme, S. Zumer, J. W. Doane, and M. E. Neubert, “Deuterium NMR of polymer dispersed liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. A 37(2), 559–569 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Ichimura, Y. Suzuki, T. Seki, A. Hosoki, and K. Aoki, “Reversible change in alignment mode of nematic liquid crystals regulated photochemically by “command surfaces” modified with an azobenzene monolayer,” Langmuir 4(5), 1214–1216 (1988).
[Crossref]

1983 (1)

S. G. Odulov, Yu. A. Reznikov, M. S. Soskin, and A. I. Khizhnyak, “Photostimulated change of phase-transition temperature and “giant” optical nonlinearity of liquid crystals,” Sov. Phys. JETP 58, 1154–1156 (1983).

1973 (1)

C. E. Williams, P. E. Cladis, and M. Kleman, “Screw disclinations in nematic samples with cylindrical symmetry,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 21(3–4), 355–373 (1973).
[Crossref]

Abbott, N. L.

N. L. Abbott, “Applied physics. Colloid science collides with liquid crystals,” Science 342(6164), 1326–1327 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aoki, K.

K. Ichimura, Y. Suzuki, T. Seki, A. Hosoki, and K. Aoki, “Reversible change in alignment mode of nematic liquid crystals regulated photochemically by “command surfaces” modified with an azobenzene monolayer,” Langmuir 4(5), 1214–1216 (1988).
[Crossref]

Araki, T.

T. Araki and H. Tanaka, “Surface-sensitive particle selection by driving particles in a nematic solvent,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 18(15), L193–L203 (2006).
[Crossref]

Araoka, F.

T. Ikeda, S. Aya, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, O. Haba, K. Yonetake, Y. Momoi, and H. Takezoe, “Novel bistable device using anchoring transition and command surface,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(6), 061701 (2013).
[Crossref]

G. Lee, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, Y. Momoi, O. Haba, K. Yonetake, and H. Takezoe, “Photo-induced ordering transition in microdroplets of liquid crystals with azo-dendrimer,” Part. Part. Syst. Charact. 30, 847 (2013).

Aya, S.

T. Ikeda, S. Aya, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, O. Haba, K. Yonetake, Y. Momoi, and H. Takezoe, “Novel bistable device using anchoring transition and command surface,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(6), 061701 (2013).
[Crossref]

Babic, D.

M. Ravnik, M. Skarabot, S. Zumer, U. Tkalec, I. Poberaj, D. Babic, N. Osterman, and I. Musevic, “Entangled nematic colloidal dimers and wires,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(24), 247801 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bajc, J.

J. Bajc and S. Zumer, “Structural transition in chiral nematic liquid crystal droplets in an electric field,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 55(3), 2925–2937 (1997).
[Crossref]

Blanc, C.

C. Blanc, D. Coursault, and E. Lacaze, “Ordering nano- and microparticles assemblies with liquid crystals,” Liq. Cryst. Rev. 1(2), 83–109 (2013).
[Crossref]

Botet, R.

F. Mondiot, R. Botet, P. Snabre, O. Mondain-Monval, and J.-C. Loudet, “Colloidal aggregation and dynamics in anisotropic fluids,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 111(16), 5831–5836 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Buchel, M.

H. Knobloch, H. Orendi, M. Buchel, T. Seki, S. Ito, and W. Knoll, “Photochromic command surface induced switching of liquid crystal optical waveguide structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 77(2), 481 (1995).
[Crossref]

Cabuil, V.

P. Poulin, V. Cabuil, and D. A. Weitz, “Direct measurement of colloidal forces in an anisotropic solvent,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79(24), 4862–4865 (1997).
[Crossref]

Choi, D.

Y. Momoi, M. Kwak, D. Choi, Y. Choi, K. Jeong, T. Koda, O. Haba, and K. Yonetake, “Polyimide-free LCD by dissolving dendrimers,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 20(9), 486–492 (2012).
[Crossref]

Choi, Y.

Y. Momoi, M. Kwak, D. Choi, Y. Choi, K. Jeong, T. Koda, O. Haba, and K. Yonetake, “Polyimide-free LCD by dissolving dendrimers,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 20(9), 486–492 (2012).
[Crossref]

Cladis, P. E.

C. E. Williams, P. E. Cladis, and M. Kleman, “Screw disclinations in nematic samples with cylindrical symmetry,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 21(3–4), 355–373 (1973).
[Crossref]

Coursault, D.

C. Blanc, D. Coursault, and E. Lacaze, “Ordering nano- and microparticles assemblies with liquid crystals,” Liq. Cryst. Rev. 1(2), 83–109 (2013).
[Crossref]

Currier, N.

T. C. Lubensky, D. Pettey, N. Currier, and H. Stark, “Topological defects and interactions in nematic emulsions,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 57(1), 610–625 (1998).
[Crossref]

Dedieu, J. C.

O. Mondain-Monval, J. C. Dedieu, T. Gulik-Krzywicki, and P. Poulin, “Weak surface energy in nematic dispersions: Saturn ring defects and quadrupolar interactions,” Eur. Phys. J. B 12(2), 167–170 (1999).
[Crossref]

Doane, J. W.

A. Golemme, S. Zumer, J. W. Doane, and M. E. Neubert, “Deuterium NMR of polymer dispersed liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. A 37(2), 559–569 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dohi, T.

W. Li, T. Dohi, M. Hara, S. Nagano, O. Haba, K. Yonetake, and T. Seki, “Phototriggered mass migration consorted with surface dewetting in thin films of a liquid crystalline azobenzene-containing dendrimer,” Macromolecules 45(16), 6618–6627 (2012).
[Crossref]

Engstrom, D.

R. P. Trivedi, D. Engstrom, and I. I. Smalyukh, “Optical manipulation of colloids and defect structures in anisotropic liquid crystal fluids,” J. Opt. 13(4), 044001 (2011).
[Crossref]

Fukuda, J.

J. Fukuda, M. Yoneya, and H. Yokoyama, “Nematic liquid crystal around a spherical particle: Investigation of the defect structure and its stability using adaptive mesh refinement,” Eur. Phys. J. E Soft Matter 13(1), 87–98 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Glugla, D.

B. Senyuk, D. Glugla, and I. I. Smalyukh, “Rotational and translational diffusion of anisotropic gold nanoparticles in liquid crystals controlled by varying surface anchoring,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 88(6), 062507 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Golemme, A.

A. Golemme, S. Zumer, J. W. Doane, and M. E. Neubert, “Deuterium NMR of polymer dispersed liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. A 37(2), 559–569 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gulik-Krzywicki, T.

O. Mondain-Monval, J. C. Dedieu, T. Gulik-Krzywicki, and P. Poulin, “Weak surface energy in nematic dispersions: Saturn ring defects and quadrupolar interactions,” Eur. Phys. J. B 12(2), 167–170 (1999).
[Crossref]

Haba, O.

G. Lee, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, Y. Momoi, O. Haba, K. Yonetake, and H. Takezoe, “Photo-induced ordering transition in microdroplets of liquid crystals with azo-dendrimer,” Part. Part. Syst. Charact. 30, 847 (2013).

T. Ikeda, S. Aya, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, O. Haba, K. Yonetake, Y. Momoi, and H. Takezoe, “Novel bistable device using anchoring transition and command surface,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(6), 061701 (2013).
[Crossref]

W. Li, T. Dohi, M. Hara, S. Nagano, O. Haba, K. Yonetake, and T. Seki, “Phototriggered mass migration consorted with surface dewetting in thin films of a liquid crystalline azobenzene-containing dendrimer,” Macromolecules 45(16), 6618–6627 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. Momoi, M. Kwak, D. Choi, Y. Choi, K. Jeong, T. Koda, O. Haba, and K. Yonetake, “Polyimide-free LCD by dissolving dendrimers,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 20(9), 486–492 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hara, M.

W. Li, T. Dohi, M. Hara, S. Nagano, O. Haba, K. Yonetake, and T. Seki, “Phototriggered mass migration consorted with surface dewetting in thin films of a liquid crystalline azobenzene-containing dendrimer,” Macromolecules 45(16), 6618–6627 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hosoki, A.

K. Ichimura, Y. Suzuki, T. Seki, A. Hosoki, and K. Aoki, “Reversible change in alignment mode of nematic liquid crystals regulated photochemically by “command surfaces” modified with an azobenzene monolayer,” Langmuir 4(5), 1214–1216 (1988).
[Crossref]

Humar, M.

Ichimura, K.

K. Ichimura, Y. Suzuki, T. Seki, A. Hosoki, and K. Aoki, “Reversible change in alignment mode of nematic liquid crystals regulated photochemically by “command surfaces” modified with an azobenzene monolayer,” Langmuir 4(5), 1214–1216 (1988).
[Crossref]

Ikeda, T.

T. Ikeda, S. Aya, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, O. Haba, K. Yonetake, Y. Momoi, and H. Takezoe, “Novel bistable device using anchoring transition and command surface,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(6), 061701 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Shishido, O. Tsutsumi, A. Kanazawa, T. Shiono, T. Ikeda, and N. Tamai, “Rapid optical switching by means of photoinduced change in refractive index of azobenzene liquid crystals detected by reflection-mode analysis,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 119(33), 7791–7796 (1997).
[Crossref]

T. Ikeda and O. Tsutsumi, “Optical switching and image storage by means of azobenzene liquid-crystal films,” Science 268(5219), 1873–1875 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ishikawa, K.

T. Ikeda, S. Aya, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, O. Haba, K. Yonetake, Y. Momoi, and H. Takezoe, “Novel bistable device using anchoring transition and command surface,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(6), 061701 (2013).
[Crossref]

G. Lee, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, Y. Momoi, O. Haba, K. Yonetake, and H. Takezoe, “Photo-induced ordering transition in microdroplets of liquid crystals with azo-dendrimer,” Part. Part. Syst. Charact. 30, 847 (2013).

Ito, S.

H. Knobloch, H. Orendi, M. Buchel, T. Seki, S. Ito, and W. Knoll, “Photochromic command surface induced switching of liquid crystal optical waveguide structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 77(2), 481 (1995).
[Crossref]

Janossy, I.

D. Statman and I. Janossy, “Study of photoisomerization of azo dyes in liquid crystals,” J. Chem. Phys. 118(7), 3222–3232 (2003).
[Crossref]

Jeong, K.

Y. Momoi, M. Kwak, D. Choi, Y. Choi, K. Jeong, T. Koda, O. Haba, and K. Yonetake, “Polyimide-free LCD by dissolving dendrimers,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 20(9), 486–492 (2012).
[Crossref]

Juodkazis, S.

Kachynski, A. V.

I. I. Smalyukh, D. S. Kaputa, A. V. Kachynski, A. N. Kuzmin, and P. N. Prasad, “Optical trapping of director structures and defects in liquid crystals using laser tweezers,” Opt. Express 15(7), 4359–4371 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. I. Smalyukh, O. D. Lavrentovich, A. N. Kuzmin, A. V. Kachynski, and P. N. Prasad, “Elasticity-mediated self-organization and colloidal interactions of solid spheres with tangential anchoring in a nematic liquid crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(15), 157801 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. I. Smalyukh, A. N. Kuzmin, A. V. Kachynski, P. N. Prasad, and O. D. Lavrentovich, “Optical trapping of colloidal particles and measurement of the defect line tension and colloidal forces in a thermotropic nematic liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(2), 021913 (2005).
[Crossref]

Kanazawa, A.

A. Shishido, O. Tsutsumi, A. Kanazawa, T. Shiono, T. Ikeda, and N. Tamai, “Rapid optical switching by means of photoinduced change in refractive index of azobenzene liquid crystals detected by reflection-mode analysis,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 119(33), 7791–7796 (1997).
[Crossref]

Kaputa, D. S.

Kelly, J. R.

O. P. Pishnyak, S. Tang, J. R. Kelly, S. V. Shiyanovskii, and O. D. Lavrentovich, “Levitation, lift, and bidirectional motion of colloidal particles in an electrically driven nematic liquid crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(12), 127802 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Khizhnyak, A. I.

S. G. Odulov, Yu. A. Reznikov, M. S. Soskin, and A. I. Khizhnyak, “Photostimulated change of phase-transition temperature and “giant” optical nonlinearity of liquid crystals,” Sov. Phys. JETP 58, 1154–1156 (1983).

Kim, Y.-K.

Y.-K. Kim, B. Senyuk, S.-T. Shin, A. Kohlmeier, G. H. Mehl, and O. D. Lavrentovich, “Surface alignment, anchoring transitions, optical properties, and topological defects in the thermotropic nematic phase of organo-siloxane tetrapodes,” Soft Matter 10(3), 500–509 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kleman, M.

M. Kleman and O. D. Lavrentovich, “Topological point defects in nematic liquid crystals,” Phys. Mag. 86(25–26), 4117–4137 (2006).
[Crossref]

C. E. Williams, P. E. Cladis, and M. Kleman, “Screw disclinations in nematic samples with cylindrical symmetry,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 21(3–4), 355–373 (1973).
[Crossref]

Knobloch, H.

H. Knobloch, H. Orendi, M. Buchel, T. Seki, S. Ito, and W. Knoll, “Photochromic command surface induced switching of liquid crystal optical waveguide structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 77(2), 481 (1995).
[Crossref]

Knoll, W.

H. Knobloch, H. Orendi, M. Buchel, T. Seki, S. Ito, and W. Knoll, “Photochromic command surface induced switching of liquid crystal optical waveguide structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 77(2), 481 (1995).
[Crossref]

Koda, T.

Y. Momoi, M. Kwak, D. Choi, Y. Choi, K. Jeong, T. Koda, O. Haba, and K. Yonetake, “Polyimide-free LCD by dissolving dendrimers,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 20(9), 486–492 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kohlmeier, A.

Y.-K. Kim, B. Senyuk, S.-T. Shin, A. Kohlmeier, G. H. Mehl, and O. D. Lavrentovich, “Surface alignment, anchoring transitions, optical properties, and topological defects in the thermotropic nematic phase of organo-siloxane tetrapodes,” Soft Matter 10(3), 500–509 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kuzmin, A. N.

I. I. Smalyukh, D. S. Kaputa, A. V. Kachynski, A. N. Kuzmin, and P. N. Prasad, “Optical trapping of director structures and defects in liquid crystals using laser tweezers,” Opt. Express 15(7), 4359–4371 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. I. Smalyukh, A. N. Kuzmin, A. V. Kachynski, P. N. Prasad, and O. D. Lavrentovich, “Optical trapping of colloidal particles and measurement of the defect line tension and colloidal forces in a thermotropic nematic liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(2), 021913 (2005).
[Crossref]

I. I. Smalyukh, O. D. Lavrentovich, A. N. Kuzmin, A. V. Kachynski, and P. N. Prasad, “Elasticity-mediated self-organization and colloidal interactions of solid spheres with tangential anchoring in a nematic liquid crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(15), 157801 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kwak, M.

Y. Momoi, M. Kwak, D. Choi, Y. Choi, K. Jeong, T. Koda, O. Haba, and K. Yonetake, “Polyimide-free LCD by dissolving dendrimers,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 20(9), 486–492 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lacaze, E.

C. Blanc, D. Coursault, and E. Lacaze, “Ordering nano- and microparticles assemblies with liquid crystals,” Liq. Cryst. Rev. 1(2), 83–109 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lapointe, C. P.

C. P. Lapointe, T. G. Mason, and I. I. Smalyukh, “Shape-controlled colloidal interactions in nematic liquid crystals,” Science 326(5956), 1083–1086 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lavrentovich, O. D.

Y.-K. Kim, B. Senyuk, S.-T. Shin, A. Kohlmeier, G. H. Mehl, and O. D. Lavrentovich, “Surface alignment, anchoring transitions, optical properties, and topological defects in the thermotropic nematic phase of organo-siloxane tetrapodes,” Soft Matter 10(3), 500–509 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. D. Lavrentovich, “Transport of particles in liquid crystals,” Soft Matter 10(9), 1264–1283 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. P. Pishnyak, S. V. Shiyanovskii, and O. D. Lavrentovich, “Aggregation of colloidal particles in a non-equilibrium backflow induced by electrically-driven reorientation of the nematic liquid crystal,” J. Mol. Liq. 164(1–2), 132–142 (2011).
[Crossref]

O. P. Pishnyak, S. Tang, J. R. Kelly, S. V. Shiyanovskii, and O. D. Lavrentovich, “Levitation, lift, and bidirectional motion of colloidal particles in an electrically driven nematic liquid crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(12), 127802 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Kleman and O. D. Lavrentovich, “Topological point defects in nematic liquid crystals,” Phys. Mag. 86(25–26), 4117–4137 (2006).
[Crossref]

I. I. Smalyukh, O. D. Lavrentovich, A. N. Kuzmin, A. V. Kachynski, and P. N. Prasad, “Elasticity-mediated self-organization and colloidal interactions of solid spheres with tangential anchoring in a nematic liquid crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(15), 157801 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. I. Smalyukh, A. N. Kuzmin, A. V. Kachynski, P. N. Prasad, and O. D. Lavrentovich, “Optical trapping of colloidal particles and measurement of the defect line tension and colloidal forces in a thermotropic nematic liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(2), 021913 (2005).
[Crossref]

Lee, G.

G. Lee, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, Y. Momoi, O. Haba, K. Yonetake, and H. Takezoe, “Photo-induced ordering transition in microdroplets of liquid crystals with azo-dendrimer,” Part. Part. Syst. Charact. 30, 847 (2013).

Li, W.

W. Li, T. Dohi, M. Hara, S. Nagano, O. Haba, K. Yonetake, and T. Seki, “Phototriggered mass migration consorted with surface dewetting in thin films of a liquid crystalline azobenzene-containing dendrimer,” Macromolecules 45(16), 6618–6627 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lokar, Z.

M. Škarabot, Z. Lokar, and I. Muševič, “Transport of particles by a thermally induced gradient of the order parameter in nematic liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 87(6), 062501 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Loudet, J.-C.

F. Mondiot, R. Botet, P. Snabre, O. Mondain-Monval, and J.-C. Loudet, “Colloidal aggregation and dynamics in anisotropic fluids,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 111(16), 5831–5836 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lubensky, T. C.

T. C. Lubensky, D. Pettey, N. Currier, and H. Stark, “Topological defects and interactions in nematic emulsions,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 57(1), 610–625 (1998).
[Crossref]

P. Poulin, H. Stark, T. C. Lubensky, and D. A. Weitz, “Novel colloidal interactions in anisotropic fluids,” Science 275(5307), 1770–1773 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mason, T. G.

C. P. Lapointe, T. G. Mason, and I. I. Smalyukh, “Shape-controlled colloidal interactions in nematic liquid crystals,” Science 326(5956), 1083–1086 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Masuko, T.

K. Yonetake, T. Masuko, T. Morishita, K. Suzuki, M. Ueda, and R. Nagahata, “Poly(propyleneimine) dendrimers peripherally modified with mesogens,” Macromolecules 32(20), 6578–6586 (1999).
[Crossref]

Mehl, G. H.

Y.-K. Kim, B. Senyuk, S.-T. Shin, A. Kohlmeier, G. H. Mehl, and O. D. Lavrentovich, “Surface alignment, anchoring transitions, optical properties, and topological defects in the thermotropic nematic phase of organo-siloxane tetrapodes,” Soft Matter 10(3), 500–509 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Misawa, H.

Momoi, Y.

G. Lee, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, Y. Momoi, O. Haba, K. Yonetake, and H. Takezoe, “Photo-induced ordering transition in microdroplets of liquid crystals with azo-dendrimer,” Part. Part. Syst. Charact. 30, 847 (2013).

T. Ikeda, S. Aya, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, O. Haba, K. Yonetake, Y. Momoi, and H. Takezoe, “Novel bistable device using anchoring transition and command surface,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(6), 061701 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Momoi, M. Kwak, D. Choi, Y. Choi, K. Jeong, T. Koda, O. Haba, and K. Yonetake, “Polyimide-free LCD by dissolving dendrimers,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 20(9), 486–492 (2012).
[Crossref]

Mondain-Monval, O.

F. Mondiot, R. Botet, P. Snabre, O. Mondain-Monval, and J.-C. Loudet, “Colloidal aggregation and dynamics in anisotropic fluids,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 111(16), 5831–5836 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Mondain-Monval, J. C. Dedieu, T. Gulik-Krzywicki, and P. Poulin, “Weak surface energy in nematic dispersions: Saturn ring defects and quadrupolar interactions,” Eur. Phys. J. B 12(2), 167–170 (1999).
[Crossref]

Mondiot, F.

F. Mondiot, R. Botet, P. Snabre, O. Mondain-Monval, and J.-C. Loudet, “Colloidal aggregation and dynamics in anisotropic fluids,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 111(16), 5831–5836 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Morishita, T.

K. Yonetake, T. Masuko, T. Morishita, K. Suzuki, M. Ueda, and R. Nagahata, “Poly(propyleneimine) dendrimers peripherally modified with mesogens,” Macromolecules 32(20), 6578–6586 (1999).
[Crossref]

Murazawa, N.

Musevic, I.

U. Tkalec and I. Musevic, “Topology of nematic liquid crystal colloids confined to two dimensions,” Soft Matter 9(34), 8140–8150 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Humar and I. Musevic, “3D microlasers from self-assembled cholesteric liquid-crystal microdroplets,” Opt. Express 18(26), 26995–27003 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Ravnik, M. Skarabot, S. Zumer, U. Tkalec, I. Poberaj, D. Babic, N. Osterman, and I. Musevic, “Entangled nematic colloidal dimers and wires,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(24), 247801 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Musevic, M. Skarabot, U. Tkalec, M. Ravnik, and S. Zumer, “Two-dimensional nematic colloidal crystals self-assembled by topological defects,” Science 313(5789), 954–958 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Muševic, I.

M. Škarabot, Z. Lokar, and I. Muševič, “Transport of particles by a thermally induced gradient of the order parameter in nematic liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 87(6), 062501 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nagahata, R.

K. Yonetake, T. Masuko, T. Morishita, K. Suzuki, M. Ueda, and R. Nagahata, “Poly(propyleneimine) dendrimers peripherally modified with mesogens,” Macromolecules 32(20), 6578–6586 (1999).
[Crossref]

Nagano, S.

W. Li, T. Dohi, M. Hara, S. Nagano, O. Haba, K. Yonetake, and T. Seki, “Phototriggered mass migration consorted with surface dewetting in thin films of a liquid crystalline azobenzene-containing dendrimer,” Macromolecules 45(16), 6618–6627 (2012).
[Crossref]

Neubert, M. E.

A. Golemme, S. Zumer, J. W. Doane, and M. E. Neubert, “Deuterium NMR of polymer dispersed liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. A 37(2), 559–569 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Odulov, S. G.

S. G. Odulov, Yu. A. Reznikov, M. S. Soskin, and A. I. Khizhnyak, “Photostimulated change of phase-transition temperature and “giant” optical nonlinearity of liquid crystals,” Sov. Phys. JETP 58, 1154–1156 (1983).

Orendi, H.

H. Knobloch, H. Orendi, M. Buchel, T. Seki, S. Ito, and W. Knoll, “Photochromic command surface induced switching of liquid crystal optical waveguide structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 77(2), 481 (1995).
[Crossref]

Osterman, N.

M. Ravnik, M. Skarabot, S. Zumer, U. Tkalec, I. Poberaj, D. Babic, N. Osterman, and I. Musevic, “Entangled nematic colloidal dimers and wires,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(24), 247801 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pettey, D.

T. C. Lubensky, D. Pettey, N. Currier, and H. Stark, “Topological defects and interactions in nematic emulsions,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 57(1), 610–625 (1998).
[Crossref]

Pishnyak, O. P.

O. P. Pishnyak, S. V. Shiyanovskii, and O. D. Lavrentovich, “Aggregation of colloidal particles in a non-equilibrium backflow induced by electrically-driven reorientation of the nematic liquid crystal,” J. Mol. Liq. 164(1–2), 132–142 (2011).
[Crossref]

O. P. Pishnyak, S. Tang, J. R. Kelly, S. V. Shiyanovskii, and O. D. Lavrentovich, “Levitation, lift, and bidirectional motion of colloidal particles in an electrically driven nematic liquid crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(12), 127802 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Poberaj, I.

M. Ravnik, M. Skarabot, S. Zumer, U. Tkalec, I. Poberaj, D. Babic, N. Osterman, and I. Musevic, “Entangled nematic colloidal dimers and wires,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(24), 247801 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Poulin, P.

O. Mondain-Monval, J. C. Dedieu, T. Gulik-Krzywicki, and P. Poulin, “Weak surface energy in nematic dispersions: Saturn ring defects and quadrupolar interactions,” Eur. Phys. J. B 12(2), 167–170 (1999).
[Crossref]

P. Poulin and D. A. Weitz, “Inverted and multiple nematic emulsions,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 57(1), 626–637 (1998).
[Crossref]

P. Poulin, V. Cabuil, and D. A. Weitz, “Direct measurement of colloidal forces in an anisotropic solvent,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79(24), 4862–4865 (1997).
[Crossref]

P. Poulin, H. Stark, T. C. Lubensky, and D. A. Weitz, “Novel colloidal interactions in anisotropic fluids,” Science 275(5307), 1770–1773 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Prasad, P. N.

I. I. Smalyukh, D. S. Kaputa, A. V. Kachynski, A. N. Kuzmin, and P. N. Prasad, “Optical trapping of director structures and defects in liquid crystals using laser tweezers,” Opt. Express 15(7), 4359–4371 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. I. Smalyukh, A. N. Kuzmin, A. V. Kachynski, P. N. Prasad, and O. D. Lavrentovich, “Optical trapping of colloidal particles and measurement of the defect line tension and colloidal forces in a thermotropic nematic liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(2), 021913 (2005).
[Crossref]

I. I. Smalyukh, O. D. Lavrentovich, A. N. Kuzmin, A. V. Kachynski, and P. N. Prasad, “Elasticity-mediated self-organization and colloidal interactions of solid spheres with tangential anchoring in a nematic liquid crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(15), 157801 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ravnik, M.

M. Ravnik, M. Skarabot, S. Zumer, U. Tkalec, I. Poberaj, D. Babic, N. Osterman, and I. Musevic, “Entangled nematic colloidal dimers and wires,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(24), 247801 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Musevic, M. Skarabot, U. Tkalec, M. Ravnik, and S. Zumer, “Two-dimensional nematic colloidal crystals self-assembled by topological defects,” Science 313(5789), 954–958 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Reznikov, Yu. A.

S. G. Odulov, Yu. A. Reznikov, M. S. Soskin, and A. I. Khizhnyak, “Photostimulated change of phase-transition temperature and “giant” optical nonlinearity of liquid crystals,” Sov. Phys. JETP 58, 1154–1156 (1983).

Seki, T.

W. Li, T. Dohi, M. Hara, S. Nagano, O. Haba, K. Yonetake, and T. Seki, “Phototriggered mass migration consorted with surface dewetting in thin films of a liquid crystalline azobenzene-containing dendrimer,” Macromolecules 45(16), 6618–6627 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. Knobloch, H. Orendi, M. Buchel, T. Seki, S. Ito, and W. Knoll, “Photochromic command surface induced switching of liquid crystal optical waveguide structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 77(2), 481 (1995).
[Crossref]

K. Ichimura, Y. Suzuki, T. Seki, A. Hosoki, and K. Aoki, “Reversible change in alignment mode of nematic liquid crystals regulated photochemically by “command surfaces” modified with an azobenzene monolayer,” Langmuir 4(5), 1214–1216 (1988).
[Crossref]

Senyuk, B.

Y.-K. Kim, B. Senyuk, S.-T. Shin, A. Kohlmeier, G. H. Mehl, and O. D. Lavrentovich, “Surface alignment, anchoring transitions, optical properties, and topological defects in the thermotropic nematic phase of organo-siloxane tetrapodes,” Soft Matter 10(3), 500–509 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Senyuk, D. Glugla, and I. I. Smalyukh, “Rotational and translational diffusion of anisotropic gold nanoparticles in liquid crystals controlled by varying surface anchoring,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 88(6), 062507 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shin, S.-T.

Y.-K. Kim, B. Senyuk, S.-T. Shin, A. Kohlmeier, G. H. Mehl, and O. D. Lavrentovich, “Surface alignment, anchoring transitions, optical properties, and topological defects in the thermotropic nematic phase of organo-siloxane tetrapodes,” Soft Matter 10(3), 500–509 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shiono, T.

A. Shishido, O. Tsutsumi, A. Kanazawa, T. Shiono, T. Ikeda, and N. Tamai, “Rapid optical switching by means of photoinduced change in refractive index of azobenzene liquid crystals detected by reflection-mode analysis,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 119(33), 7791–7796 (1997).
[Crossref]

Shishido, A.

A. Shishido, O. Tsutsumi, A. Kanazawa, T. Shiono, T. Ikeda, and N. Tamai, “Rapid optical switching by means of photoinduced change in refractive index of azobenzene liquid crystals detected by reflection-mode analysis,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 119(33), 7791–7796 (1997).
[Crossref]

Shiyanovskii, S. V.

O. P. Pishnyak, S. V. Shiyanovskii, and O. D. Lavrentovich, “Aggregation of colloidal particles in a non-equilibrium backflow induced by electrically-driven reorientation of the nematic liquid crystal,” J. Mol. Liq. 164(1–2), 132–142 (2011).
[Crossref]

O. P. Pishnyak, S. Tang, J. R. Kelly, S. V. Shiyanovskii, and O. D. Lavrentovich, “Levitation, lift, and bidirectional motion of colloidal particles in an electrically driven nematic liquid crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(12), 127802 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Skarabot, M.

M. Ravnik, M. Skarabot, S. Zumer, U. Tkalec, I. Poberaj, D. Babic, N. Osterman, and I. Musevic, “Entangled nematic colloidal dimers and wires,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(24), 247801 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Musevic, M. Skarabot, U. Tkalec, M. Ravnik, and S. Zumer, “Two-dimensional nematic colloidal crystals self-assembled by topological defects,” Science 313(5789), 954–958 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Škarabot, M.

M. Škarabot, Z. Lokar, and I. Muševič, “Transport of particles by a thermally induced gradient of the order parameter in nematic liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 87(6), 062501 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Smalyukh, I. I.

B. Senyuk, D. Glugla, and I. I. Smalyukh, “Rotational and translational diffusion of anisotropic gold nanoparticles in liquid crystals controlled by varying surface anchoring,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 88(6), 062507 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. P. Trivedi, D. Engstrom, and I. I. Smalyukh, “Optical manipulation of colloids and defect structures in anisotropic liquid crystal fluids,” J. Opt. 13(4), 044001 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. P. Lapointe, T. G. Mason, and I. I. Smalyukh, “Shape-controlled colloidal interactions in nematic liquid crystals,” Science 326(5956), 1083–1086 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. I. Smalyukh, D. S. Kaputa, A. V. Kachynski, A. N. Kuzmin, and P. N. Prasad, “Optical trapping of director structures and defects in liquid crystals using laser tweezers,” Opt. Express 15(7), 4359–4371 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. I. Smalyukh, A. N. Kuzmin, A. V. Kachynski, P. N. Prasad, and O. D. Lavrentovich, “Optical trapping of colloidal particles and measurement of the defect line tension and colloidal forces in a thermotropic nematic liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(2), 021913 (2005).
[Crossref]

I. I. Smalyukh, O. D. Lavrentovich, A. N. Kuzmin, A. V. Kachynski, and P. N. Prasad, “Elasticity-mediated self-organization and colloidal interactions of solid spheres with tangential anchoring in a nematic liquid crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(15), 157801 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Snabre, P.

F. Mondiot, R. Botet, P. Snabre, O. Mondain-Monval, and J.-C. Loudet, “Colloidal aggregation and dynamics in anisotropic fluids,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 111(16), 5831–5836 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Soskin, M. S.

S. G. Odulov, Yu. A. Reznikov, M. S. Soskin, and A. I. Khizhnyak, “Photostimulated change of phase-transition temperature and “giant” optical nonlinearity of liquid crystals,” Sov. Phys. JETP 58, 1154–1156 (1983).

Stark, H.

H. Stark, “Physics of colloidal dispersions in nematic liquid crystals,” Phys. Rep. 351(6), 387–474 (2001).
[Crossref]

T. C. Lubensky, D. Pettey, N. Currier, and H. Stark, “Topological defects and interactions in nematic emulsions,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 57(1), 610–625 (1998).
[Crossref]

P. Poulin, H. Stark, T. C. Lubensky, and D. A. Weitz, “Novel colloidal interactions in anisotropic fluids,” Science 275(5307), 1770–1773 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Statman, D.

D. Statman and I. Janossy, “Study of photoisomerization of azo dyes in liquid crystals,” J. Chem. Phys. 118(7), 3222–3232 (2003).
[Crossref]

Suzuki, K.

K. Yonetake, T. Masuko, T. Morishita, K. Suzuki, M. Ueda, and R. Nagahata, “Poly(propyleneimine) dendrimers peripherally modified with mesogens,” Macromolecules 32(20), 6578–6586 (1999).
[Crossref]

Suzuki, Y.

K. Ichimura, Y. Suzuki, T. Seki, A. Hosoki, and K. Aoki, “Reversible change in alignment mode of nematic liquid crystals regulated photochemically by “command surfaces” modified with an azobenzene monolayer,” Langmuir 4(5), 1214–1216 (1988).
[Crossref]

Tabe, Y.

T. Yamamoto, Y. Tabe, and H. Yokoyama, “Photochemical transformation of topological defects formed around colloidal droplets dispersed in azobenzene-containing liquid crystals,” Colloids Surf. A Physicochem. Eng. Asp. 334(1–3), 155–159 (2009).
[Crossref]

T. Yamamoto, Y. Tabe, and H. Yokoyama, “Photochemical manipulation of topological defects in liquid-crystal emulsions doped with azobenzene derivatives,” Thin Solid Films 509(1–2), 81–84 (2006).
[Crossref]

Takezoe, H.

G. Lee, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, Y. Momoi, O. Haba, K. Yonetake, and H. Takezoe, “Photo-induced ordering transition in microdroplets of liquid crystals with azo-dendrimer,” Part. Part. Syst. Charact. 30, 847 (2013).

T. Ikeda, S. Aya, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, O. Haba, K. Yonetake, Y. Momoi, and H. Takezoe, “Novel bistable device using anchoring transition and command surface,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(6), 061701 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tamai, N.

A. Shishido, O. Tsutsumi, A. Kanazawa, T. Shiono, T. Ikeda, and N. Tamai, “Rapid optical switching by means of photoinduced change in refractive index of azobenzene liquid crystals detected by reflection-mode analysis,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 119(33), 7791–7796 (1997).
[Crossref]

Tanaka, H.

T. Araki and H. Tanaka, “Surface-sensitive particle selection by driving particles in a nematic solvent,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 18(15), L193–L203 (2006).
[Crossref]

Tang, S.

O. P. Pishnyak, S. Tang, J. R. Kelly, S. V. Shiyanovskii, and O. D. Lavrentovich, “Levitation, lift, and bidirectional motion of colloidal particles in an electrically driven nematic liquid crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(12), 127802 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Terentjev, E. M.

E. M. Terentjev, “Disclination loops, standing alone and around solid particles, in nematic liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 51(2), 1330–1337 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tkalec, U.

U. Tkalec and I. Musevic, “Topology of nematic liquid crystal colloids confined to two dimensions,” Soft Matter 9(34), 8140–8150 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Ravnik, M. Skarabot, S. Zumer, U. Tkalec, I. Poberaj, D. Babic, N. Osterman, and I. Musevic, “Entangled nematic colloidal dimers and wires,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(24), 247801 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Musevic, M. Skarabot, U. Tkalec, M. Ravnik, and S. Zumer, “Two-dimensional nematic colloidal crystals self-assembled by topological defects,” Science 313(5789), 954–958 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Trivedi, R. P.

R. P. Trivedi, D. Engstrom, and I. I. Smalyukh, “Optical manipulation of colloids and defect structures in anisotropic liquid crystal fluids,” J. Opt. 13(4), 044001 (2011).
[Crossref]

Tsutsumi, O.

A. Shishido, O. Tsutsumi, A. Kanazawa, T. Shiono, T. Ikeda, and N. Tamai, “Rapid optical switching by means of photoinduced change in refractive index of azobenzene liquid crystals detected by reflection-mode analysis,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 119(33), 7791–7796 (1997).
[Crossref]

T. Ikeda and O. Tsutsumi, “Optical switching and image storage by means of azobenzene liquid-crystal films,” Science 268(5219), 1873–1875 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ueda, M.

K. Yonetake, T. Masuko, T. Morishita, K. Suzuki, M. Ueda, and R. Nagahata, “Poly(propyleneimine) dendrimers peripherally modified with mesogens,” Macromolecules 32(20), 6578–6586 (1999).
[Crossref]

Weitz, D. A.

P. Poulin and D. A. Weitz, “Inverted and multiple nematic emulsions,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 57(1), 626–637 (1998).
[Crossref]

P. Poulin, H. Stark, T. C. Lubensky, and D. A. Weitz, “Novel colloidal interactions in anisotropic fluids,” Science 275(5307), 1770–1773 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Poulin, V. Cabuil, and D. A. Weitz, “Direct measurement of colloidal forces in an anisotropic solvent,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79(24), 4862–4865 (1997).
[Crossref]

Williams, C. E.

C. E. Williams, P. E. Cladis, and M. Kleman, “Screw disclinations in nematic samples with cylindrical symmetry,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 21(3–4), 355–373 (1973).
[Crossref]

Yamamoto, T.

T. Yamamoto, Y. Tabe, and H. Yokoyama, “Photochemical transformation of topological defects formed around colloidal droplets dispersed in azobenzene-containing liquid crystals,” Colloids Surf. A Physicochem. Eng. Asp. 334(1–3), 155–159 (2009).
[Crossref]

T. Yamamoto, Y. Tabe, and H. Yokoyama, “Photochemical manipulation of topological defects in liquid-crystal emulsions doped with azobenzene derivatives,” Thin Solid Films 509(1–2), 81–84 (2006).
[Crossref]

Yokoyama, H.

T. Yamamoto, Y. Tabe, and H. Yokoyama, “Photochemical transformation of topological defects formed around colloidal droplets dispersed in azobenzene-containing liquid crystals,” Colloids Surf. A Physicochem. Eng. Asp. 334(1–3), 155–159 (2009).
[Crossref]

T. Yamamoto, Y. Tabe, and H. Yokoyama, “Photochemical manipulation of topological defects in liquid-crystal emulsions doped with azobenzene derivatives,” Thin Solid Films 509(1–2), 81–84 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Fukuda, M. Yoneya, and H. Yokoyama, “Nematic liquid crystal around a spherical particle: Investigation of the defect structure and its stability using adaptive mesh refinement,” Eur. Phys. J. E Soft Matter 13(1), 87–98 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yonetake, K.

G. Lee, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, Y. Momoi, O. Haba, K. Yonetake, and H. Takezoe, “Photo-induced ordering transition in microdroplets of liquid crystals with azo-dendrimer,” Part. Part. Syst. Charact. 30, 847 (2013).

T. Ikeda, S. Aya, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, O. Haba, K. Yonetake, Y. Momoi, and H. Takezoe, “Novel bistable device using anchoring transition and command surface,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(6), 061701 (2013).
[Crossref]

W. Li, T. Dohi, M. Hara, S. Nagano, O. Haba, K. Yonetake, and T. Seki, “Phototriggered mass migration consorted with surface dewetting in thin films of a liquid crystalline azobenzene-containing dendrimer,” Macromolecules 45(16), 6618–6627 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. Momoi, M. Kwak, D. Choi, Y. Choi, K. Jeong, T. Koda, O. Haba, and K. Yonetake, “Polyimide-free LCD by dissolving dendrimers,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 20(9), 486–492 (2012).
[Crossref]

K. Yonetake, T. Masuko, T. Morishita, K. Suzuki, M. Ueda, and R. Nagahata, “Poly(propyleneimine) dendrimers peripherally modified with mesogens,” Macromolecules 32(20), 6578–6586 (1999).
[Crossref]

Yoneya, M.

J. Fukuda, M. Yoneya, and H. Yokoyama, “Nematic liquid crystal around a spherical particle: Investigation of the defect structure and its stability using adaptive mesh refinement,” Eur. Phys. J. E Soft Matter 13(1), 87–98 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zumer, S.

M. Ravnik, M. Skarabot, S. Zumer, U. Tkalec, I. Poberaj, D. Babic, N. Osterman, and I. Musevic, “Entangled nematic colloidal dimers and wires,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(24), 247801 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Musevic, M. Skarabot, U. Tkalec, M. Ravnik, and S. Zumer, “Two-dimensional nematic colloidal crystals self-assembled by topological defects,” Science 313(5789), 954–958 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Bajc and S. Zumer, “Structural transition in chiral nematic liquid crystal droplets in an electric field,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 55(3), 2925–2937 (1997).
[Crossref]

A. Golemme, S. Zumer, J. W. Doane, and M. E. Neubert, “Deuterium NMR of polymer dispersed liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. A 37(2), 559–569 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Express (1)

T. Ikeda, S. Aya, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, O. Haba, K. Yonetake, Y. Momoi, and H. Takezoe, “Novel bistable device using anchoring transition and command surface,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(6), 061701 (2013).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

I. I. Smalyukh, A. N. Kuzmin, A. V. Kachynski, P. N. Prasad, and O. D. Lavrentovich, “Optical trapping of colloidal particles and measurement of the defect line tension and colloidal forces in a thermotropic nematic liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(2), 021913 (2005).
[Crossref]

Colloids Surf. A Physicochem. Eng. Asp. (1)

T. Yamamoto, Y. Tabe, and H. Yokoyama, “Photochemical transformation of topological defects formed around colloidal droplets dispersed in azobenzene-containing liquid crystals,” Colloids Surf. A Physicochem. Eng. Asp. 334(1–3), 155–159 (2009).
[Crossref]

Eur. Phys. J. B (1)

O. Mondain-Monval, J. C. Dedieu, T. Gulik-Krzywicki, and P. Poulin, “Weak surface energy in nematic dispersions: Saturn ring defects and quadrupolar interactions,” Eur. Phys. J. B 12(2), 167–170 (1999).
[Crossref]

Eur. Phys. J. E Soft Matter (1)

J. Fukuda, M. Yoneya, and H. Yokoyama, “Nematic liquid crystal around a spherical particle: Investigation of the defect structure and its stability using adaptive mesh refinement,” Eur. Phys. J. E Soft Matter 13(1), 87–98 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

A. Shishido, O. Tsutsumi, A. Kanazawa, T. Shiono, T. Ikeda, and N. Tamai, “Rapid optical switching by means of photoinduced change in refractive index of azobenzene liquid crystals detected by reflection-mode analysis,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 119(33), 7791–7796 (1997).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

H. Knobloch, H. Orendi, M. Buchel, T. Seki, S. Ito, and W. Knoll, “Photochromic command surface induced switching of liquid crystal optical waveguide structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 77(2), 481 (1995).
[Crossref]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

D. Statman and I. Janossy, “Study of photoisomerization of azo dyes in liquid crystals,” J. Chem. Phys. 118(7), 3222–3232 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. Mol. Liq. (1)

O. P. Pishnyak, S. V. Shiyanovskii, and O. D. Lavrentovich, “Aggregation of colloidal particles in a non-equilibrium backflow induced by electrically-driven reorientation of the nematic liquid crystal,” J. Mol. Liq. 164(1–2), 132–142 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. (1)

R. P. Trivedi, D. Engstrom, and I. I. Smalyukh, “Optical manipulation of colloids and defect structures in anisotropic liquid crystal fluids,” J. Opt. 13(4), 044001 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. Condens. Matter (1)

T. Araki and H. Tanaka, “Surface-sensitive particle selection by driving particles in a nematic solvent,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 18(15), L193–L203 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Soc. Inf. Disp. (1)

Y. Momoi, M. Kwak, D. Choi, Y. Choi, K. Jeong, T. Koda, O. Haba, and K. Yonetake, “Polyimide-free LCD by dissolving dendrimers,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 20(9), 486–492 (2012).
[Crossref]

Langmuir (1)

K. Ichimura, Y. Suzuki, T. Seki, A. Hosoki, and K. Aoki, “Reversible change in alignment mode of nematic liquid crystals regulated photochemically by “command surfaces” modified with an azobenzene monolayer,” Langmuir 4(5), 1214–1216 (1988).
[Crossref]

Liq. Cryst. Rev. (1)

C. Blanc, D. Coursault, and E. Lacaze, “Ordering nano- and microparticles assemblies with liquid crystals,” Liq. Cryst. Rev. 1(2), 83–109 (2013).
[Crossref]

Macromolecules (2)

K. Yonetake, T. Masuko, T. Morishita, K. Suzuki, M. Ueda, and R. Nagahata, “Poly(propyleneimine) dendrimers peripherally modified with mesogens,” Macromolecules 32(20), 6578–6586 (1999).
[Crossref]

W. Li, T. Dohi, M. Hara, S. Nagano, O. Haba, K. Yonetake, and T. Seki, “Phototriggered mass migration consorted with surface dewetting in thin films of a liquid crystalline azobenzene-containing dendrimer,” Macromolecules 45(16), 6618–6627 (2012).
[Crossref]

Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (1)

C. E. Williams, P. E. Cladis, and M. Kleman, “Screw disclinations in nematic samples with cylindrical symmetry,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 21(3–4), 355–373 (1973).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (3)

Part. Part. Syst. Charact. (1)

G. Lee, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, Y. Momoi, O. Haba, K. Yonetake, and H. Takezoe, “Photo-induced ordering transition in microdroplets of liquid crystals with azo-dendrimer,” Part. Part. Syst. Charact. 30, 847 (2013).

Phys. Mag. (1)

M. Kleman and O. D. Lavrentovich, “Topological point defects in nematic liquid crystals,” Phys. Mag. 86(25–26), 4117–4137 (2006).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rep. (1)

H. Stark, “Physics of colloidal dispersions in nematic liquid crystals,” Phys. Rep. 351(6), 387–474 (2001).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. A (1)

A. Golemme, S. Zumer, J. W. Doane, and M. E. Neubert, “Deuterium NMR of polymer dispersed liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. A 37(2), 559–569 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. (2)

B. Senyuk, D. Glugla, and I. I. Smalyukh, “Rotational and translational diffusion of anisotropic gold nanoparticles in liquid crystals controlled by varying surface anchoring,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 88(6), 062507 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Škarabot, Z. Lokar, and I. Muševič, “Transport of particles by a thermally induced gradient of the order parameter in nematic liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 87(6), 062501 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics (4)

E. M. Terentjev, “Disclination loops, standing alone and around solid particles, in nematic liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 51(2), 1330–1337 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Poulin and D. A. Weitz, “Inverted and multiple nematic emulsions,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 57(1), 626–637 (1998).
[Crossref]

T. C. Lubensky, D. Pettey, N. Currier, and H. Stark, “Topological defects and interactions in nematic emulsions,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 57(1), 610–625 (1998).
[Crossref]

J. Bajc and S. Zumer, “Structural transition in chiral nematic liquid crystal droplets in an electric field,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 55(3), 2925–2937 (1997).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (4)

M. Ravnik, M. Skarabot, S. Zumer, U. Tkalec, I. Poberaj, D. Babic, N. Osterman, and I. Musevic, “Entangled nematic colloidal dimers and wires,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(24), 247801 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. I. Smalyukh, O. D. Lavrentovich, A. N. Kuzmin, A. V. Kachynski, and P. N. Prasad, “Elasticity-mediated self-organization and colloidal interactions of solid spheres with tangential anchoring in a nematic liquid crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(15), 157801 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. P. Pishnyak, S. Tang, J. R. Kelly, S. V. Shiyanovskii, and O. D. Lavrentovich, “Levitation, lift, and bidirectional motion of colloidal particles in an electrically driven nematic liquid crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(12), 127802 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Poulin, V. Cabuil, and D. A. Weitz, “Direct measurement of colloidal forces in an anisotropic solvent,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79(24), 4862–4865 (1997).
[Crossref]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1)

F. Mondiot, R. Botet, P. Snabre, O. Mondain-Monval, and J.-C. Loudet, “Colloidal aggregation and dynamics in anisotropic fluids,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 111(16), 5831–5836 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Science (5)

C. P. Lapointe, T. G. Mason, and I. I. Smalyukh, “Shape-controlled colloidal interactions in nematic liquid crystals,” Science 326(5956), 1083–1086 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Musevic, M. Skarabot, U. Tkalec, M. Ravnik, and S. Zumer, “Two-dimensional nematic colloidal crystals self-assembled by topological defects,” Science 313(5789), 954–958 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. L. Abbott, “Applied physics. Colloid science collides with liquid crystals,” Science 342(6164), 1326–1327 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Poulin, H. Stark, T. C. Lubensky, and D. A. Weitz, “Novel colloidal interactions in anisotropic fluids,” Science 275(5307), 1770–1773 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Ikeda and O. Tsutsumi, “Optical switching and image storage by means of azobenzene liquid-crystal films,” Science 268(5219), 1873–1875 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Soft Matter (3)

O. D. Lavrentovich, “Transport of particles in liquid crystals,” Soft Matter 10(9), 1264–1283 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

U. Tkalec and I. Musevic, “Topology of nematic liquid crystal colloids confined to two dimensions,” Soft Matter 9(34), 8140–8150 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y.-K. Kim, B. Senyuk, S.-T. Shin, A. Kohlmeier, G. H. Mehl, and O. D. Lavrentovich, “Surface alignment, anchoring transitions, optical properties, and topological defects in the thermotropic nematic phase of organo-siloxane tetrapodes,” Soft Matter 10(3), 500–509 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sov. Phys. JETP (1)

S. G. Odulov, Yu. A. Reznikov, M. S. Soskin, and A. I. Khizhnyak, “Photostimulated change of phase-transition temperature and “giant” optical nonlinearity of liquid crystals,” Sov. Phys. JETP 58, 1154–1156 (1983).

Thin Solid Films (1)

T. Yamamoto, Y. Tabe, and H. Yokoyama, “Photochemical manipulation of topological defects in liquid-crystal emulsions doped with azobenzene derivatives,” Thin Solid Films 509(1–2), 81–84 (2006).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

O. D. Lavrentovich, “Defects in liquid crystals: surface and interfacial anchoring effects,” in Patterns of Symmetry Breaking, H. Arodz et al., eds. (Kluwer Academic, 2003).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Azo-dendrimer molecule used. (b) Photoisomerization and associated NLC molecular orientations; Normal to the surface without UV light irradiation (left) and tangential to the surface during UV light irradiation (right).
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Changes by UV light irradiation. Model structures of the director field and associated defect structures of (a) hedgehog, (b) boojum, and (c) Saturn ring. Photomicrographs of the defects under crossed polarizers, (d) before, (e) during, and (f) after UV light irradiation. Photomicrographs of the defect observed with a λ waveplate inserted diagonal to the crossed polarizers (slow axis from bottom left to top right). Three different textures with characteristic birefringence colors are observed in (g)-(i) corresponding to the model structures (a)-(c).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Series of video frames in the processes (a) from hedgehog to boojum by UV light irradiation, (b) from boojum to Saturn ring by UV light termination, and (c) from Saturn ring to boojum by second UV light irradiation.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Switching rate (inverse switching time) as a function of UV light intensity. The birefringence change is nearly exponential as shown in the inset, from which the switching time was estimated. (b) Squared switching rate as a function of UV light intensity.

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