Abstract

In this study, a developed temporal focusing-based femtosecond laser system provides high-throughput multiphoton-induced reduction and ablation of graphene oxide (GO) films. Integrated with a digital micromirror device to locally control the laser pulse numbers, GO-based micropatterns can be quickly achieved instantly. Furthermore, the degree of reduction and ablation can be precisely adjusted via controlling the laser wavelength, power, and pulse number. Compared to point-by-point scanning laser direct writing, this approach offers a high-throughput and multiple-function approach to accomplish a large area of micro-scale patterns on GO films. The high-throughput micropatterning of GO via the temporal focusing-based femtosecond laser system fulfills the requirement of mass production for GO-based applications in microelectronic devices.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, “Two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy,” Science 248(4951), 73–76 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. S. Kawata, H. B. Sun, T. Tanaka, and K. Takada, “Finer features for functional microdevices,” Nature 412(6848), 697–698 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. T. Tanaka, H. B. Sun, and S. Kawata, “Rapid sub-diffraction-limit laser micro/nanoprocessing in a threshold material system,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(2), 312–314 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  4. Z. B. Sun, X. Z. Dong, W. Q. Chen, S. Nakanishi, M. Duan, and S. Kawata, “Multicolor polymer nanocomposites: in situ synthesis and fabrication of 3D microstructures,” Adv. Mater. 20(5), 914–919 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  5. W. S. Kuo, C.-H. Lien, K.-C. Cho, C. Y. Chang, C.-Y. Lin, L. L. H. Huang, P. J. Campagnola, C.-Y. Dong, and S.-J. Chen, “Multiphoton fabrication of freeform polymer microstructures with gold nanorods,” Opt. Express 18(26), 27550–27559 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. A. Vogel and V. Venugopalan, “Mechanisms of pulsed laser ablation of biological tissues,” Chem. Rev. 103(2), 577–644 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. W. Watanabe, N. Arakawa, S. Matsunaga, T. Higashi, K. Fukui, K. Isobe, and K. Itoh, “Femtosecond laser disruption of subcellular organelles in a living cell,” Opt. Express 12(18), 4203–4213 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. Y. Liu, S. Sun, S. Singha, M. R. Cho, and R. J. Gordon, “3D femtosecond laser patterning of collagen for directed cell attachment,” Biomaterials 26(22), 4597–4605 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. A. Heisterkamp, I. Z. Maxwell, E. Mazur, J. M. Underwood, J. A. Nickerson, S. Kumar, and D. E. Ingber, “Pulse energy dependence of subcellular dissection by femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express 13(10), 3690–3696 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. P. S. Tsai, P. Blinder, B. J. Migliori, J. Neev, Y. Jin, J. A. Squier, and D. Kleinfeld, “Plasma-mediated ablation: an optical tool for submicrometer surgery on neuronal and vascular systems,” Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 20(1), 90–99 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. E. Stratakis, M. Barberoglou, C. Fotakis, G. Viau, C. Garcia, and G. A. Shafeev, “Generation of Al nanoparticles via ablation of bulk Al in liquids with short laser pulses,” Opt. Express 17(15), 12650–12659 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. A. S. Mahmood, M. Sivakumar, K. Venkatakrishnan, and B. Tan, “Enhancement in optical absorption of silicon fibrous nanostructure produced using femtosecond laser ablation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(3), 034107 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  13. D. Oron, E. Tal, and Y. Silberberg, “Scanningless depth-resolved microscopy,” Opt. Express 13(5), 1468–1476 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. G. Zhu, J. van Howe, M. Durst, W. Zipfel, and C. Xu, “Simultaneous spatial and temporal focusing of femtosecond pulses,” Opt. Express 13(6), 2153–2159 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. M. E. Durst, G. Zhu, and C. Xu, “Simultaneous spatial and temporal focusing in nonlinear microscopy,” Opt. Commun. 281(7), 1796–1805 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. A. Vaziri, J. Tang, H. Shroff, and C. V. Shank, “Multilayer three-dimensional super resolution imaging of thick biological samples,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105(51), 20221–20226 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. L.-C. Cheng, C.-Y. Chang, C.-Y. Lin, K.-C. Cho, W.-C. Yen, N.-S. Chang, C. Xu, C. Y. Dong, and S.-J. Chen, “Spatiotemporal focusing-based widefield multiphoton microscopy for fast optical sectioning,” Opt. Express 20(8), 8939–8948 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. P. Zhu, O. Fajardo, J. Shum, Y. P. Zhang Schärer, and R. W. Friedrich, “High-resolution optical control of spatiotemporal neuronal activity patterns in zebrafish using a digital micromirror device,” Nat. Protoc. 7(7), 1410–1425 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. D. N. Vitek, D. E. Adams, A. Johnson, P. S. Tsai, S. Backus, C. G. Durfee, D. Kleinfeld, and J. A. Squier, “Temporally focused femtosecond laser pulses for low numerical aperture micromachining through optically transparent materials,” Opt. Express 18(17), 18086–18094 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. Y.-C. Li, L.-C. Cheng, C.-Y. Chang, C.-H. Lien, P. J. Campagnola, and S.-J. Chen, “Fast multiphoton microfabrication of freeform polymer microstructures by spatiotemporal focusing and patterned excitation,” Opt. Express 20(17), 19030–19038 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, M. I. Katsnelson, I. V. Grigorieva, S. V. Dubonos, and A. A. Firsov, “Two-dimensional gas of massless Dirac fermions in graphene,” Nature 438(7065), 197–200 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. Y. Zhang, Y. W. Tan, H. L. Stormer, and P. Kim, “Experimental observation of the quantum Hall effect and Berry’s phase in graphene,” Nature 438(7065), 201–204 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. A. K. Geim and K. S. Novoselov, “The rise of graphene,” Nat. Mater. 6(3), 183–191 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. C. Lee, X. Wei, J. W. Kysar, and J. Hone, “Measurement of the elastic properties and intrinsic strength of monolayer graphene,” Science 321(5887), 385–388 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. X. Wang, L. J. Zhi, and K. Müllen, “Transparent, conductive graphene electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells,” Nano Lett. 8(1), 323–327 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. G. Brumfiel, “Graphene gets ready for the big time,” Nature 458(7237), 390–391 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. Y. Zhou, Q. Bao, B. Varghese, L. A. L. Tang, C. K. Tan, C.-H. Sow, and K. P. Loh, “Microstructuring of graphene oxide nanosheets using direct laser writing,” Adv. Mater. 22(1), 67–71 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. L. Guo, H.-B. Jiang, R.-Q. Shao, Y.-L. Zhang, S.-Y. Xie, J.-N. Wang, X.-B. Li, F. Jiang, Q.-D. Chen, T. Zhang, and H.-B. Sun, “Two-beam-laser interference mediated reduction, patterning and nanostructuring of graphene oxide for the production of a flexible humidity sensing device,” Carbon 50(4), 1667–1673 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  29. V. Strong, S. Dubin, M. F. El-Kady, A. Lech, Y. Wang, B. H. Weiller, and R. B. Kaner, “Patterning and electronic tuning of laser scribed graphene for flexible all-carbon devices,” ACS Nano 6(2), 1395–1403 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. M. F. El-Kady, V. Strong, S. Dubin, and R. B. Kaner, “Laser scribing of high-performance and flexible graphene-based electrochemical capacitors,” Science 335(6074), 1326–1330 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. Y. Zhang, L. Guo, S. Wei, Y. He, H. Xia, Q. Chen, H.-B. Sun, and F.-S. Xiao, “Direct imprinting of microcircuits on graphene oxides film by femtosecond laser reduction,” Nano Today 5(1), 15–20 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  32. W. Gao, N. Singh, L. Song, Z. Liu, A. L. M. Reddy, L. Ci, R. Vajtai, Q. Zhang, B. Wei, and P. M. Ajayan, “Direct laser writing of micro-supercapacitors on hydrated graphite oxide films,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(8), 496–500 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  33. J.-Y. Hong and J. Jang, “Micropatterning of graphene sheets: recent advances in techniques and applications,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(17), 8179–8191 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  34. C. Li and G. Shi, “Three-dimensional graphene architectures,” Nanoscale 4(18), 5549–5563 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  35. W. S. Hummers and R. E. Offeman, “Preparation of graphitic oxide,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 80(6), 1339 (1958).
    [CrossRef]
  36. A. C. Ferrari and D. M. Basko, “Raman spectroscopy as a versatile tool for studying the properties of graphene,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 8(4), 235–246 (2013).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2013 (1)

A. C. Ferrari and D. M. Basko, “Raman spectroscopy as a versatile tool for studying the properties of graphene,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 8(4), 235–246 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012 (8)

J.-Y. Hong and J. Jang, “Micropatterning of graphene sheets: recent advances in techniques and applications,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(17), 8179–8191 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Li and G. Shi, “Three-dimensional graphene architectures,” Nanoscale 4(18), 5549–5563 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Guo, H.-B. Jiang, R.-Q. Shao, Y.-L. Zhang, S.-Y. Xie, J.-N. Wang, X.-B. Li, F. Jiang, Q.-D. Chen, T. Zhang, and H.-B. Sun, “Two-beam-laser interference mediated reduction, patterning and nanostructuring of graphene oxide for the production of a flexible humidity sensing device,” Carbon 50(4), 1667–1673 (2012).
[CrossRef]

V. Strong, S. Dubin, M. F. El-Kady, A. Lech, Y. Wang, B. H. Weiller, and R. B. Kaner, “Patterning and electronic tuning of laser scribed graphene for flexible all-carbon devices,” ACS Nano 6(2), 1395–1403 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. F. El-Kady, V. Strong, S. Dubin, and R. B. Kaner, “Laser scribing of high-performance and flexible graphene-based electrochemical capacitors,” Science 335(6074), 1326–1330 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y.-C. Li, L.-C. Cheng, C.-Y. Chang, C.-H. Lien, P. J. Campagnola, and S.-J. Chen, “Fast multiphoton microfabrication of freeform polymer microstructures by spatiotemporal focusing and patterned excitation,” Opt. Express 20(17), 19030–19038 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L.-C. Cheng, C.-Y. Chang, C.-Y. Lin, K.-C. Cho, W.-C. Yen, N.-S. Chang, C. Xu, C. Y. Dong, and S.-J. Chen, “Spatiotemporal focusing-based widefield multiphoton microscopy for fast optical sectioning,” Opt. Express 20(8), 8939–8948 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Zhu, O. Fajardo, J. Shum, Y. P. Zhang Schärer, and R. W. Friedrich, “High-resolution optical control of spatiotemporal neuronal activity patterns in zebrafish using a digital micromirror device,” Nat. Protoc. 7(7), 1410–1425 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

W. Gao, N. Singh, L. Song, Z. Liu, A. L. M. Reddy, L. Ci, R. Vajtai, Q. Zhang, B. Wei, and P. M. Ajayan, “Direct laser writing of micro-supercapacitors on hydrated graphite oxide films,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(8), 496–500 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (4)

Y. Zhang, L. Guo, S. Wei, Y. He, H. Xia, Q. Chen, H.-B. Sun, and F.-S. Xiao, “Direct imprinting of microcircuits on graphene oxides film by femtosecond laser reduction,” Nano Today 5(1), 15–20 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhou, Q. Bao, B. Varghese, L. A. L. Tang, C. K. Tan, C.-H. Sow, and K. P. Loh, “Microstructuring of graphene oxide nanosheets using direct laser writing,” Adv. Mater. 22(1), 67–71 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. N. Vitek, D. E. Adams, A. Johnson, P. S. Tsai, S. Backus, C. G. Durfee, D. Kleinfeld, and J. A. Squier, “Temporally focused femtosecond laser pulses for low numerical aperture micromachining through optically transparent materials,” Opt. Express 18(17), 18086–18094 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. S. Kuo, C.-H. Lien, K.-C. Cho, C. Y. Chang, C.-Y. Lin, L. L. H. Huang, P. J. Campagnola, C.-Y. Dong, and S.-J. Chen, “Multiphoton fabrication of freeform polymer microstructures with gold nanorods,” Opt. Express 18(26), 27550–27559 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (4)

P. S. Tsai, P. Blinder, B. J. Migliori, J. Neev, Y. Jin, J. A. Squier, and D. Kleinfeld, “Plasma-mediated ablation: an optical tool for submicrometer surgery on neuronal and vascular systems,” Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 20(1), 90–99 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Stratakis, M. Barberoglou, C. Fotakis, G. Viau, C. Garcia, and G. A. Shafeev, “Generation of Al nanoparticles via ablation of bulk Al in liquids with short laser pulses,” Opt. Express 17(15), 12650–12659 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. S. Mahmood, M. Sivakumar, K. Venkatakrishnan, and B. Tan, “Enhancement in optical absorption of silicon fibrous nanostructure produced using femtosecond laser ablation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(3), 034107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Brumfiel, “Graphene gets ready for the big time,” Nature 458(7237), 390–391 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (5)

C. Lee, X. Wei, J. W. Kysar, and J. Hone, “Measurement of the elastic properties and intrinsic strength of monolayer graphene,” Science 321(5887), 385–388 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Wang, L. J. Zhi, and K. Müllen, “Transparent, conductive graphene electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells,” Nano Lett. 8(1), 323–327 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. E. Durst, G. Zhu, and C. Xu, “Simultaneous spatial and temporal focusing in nonlinear microscopy,” Opt. Commun. 281(7), 1796–1805 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Vaziri, J. Tang, H. Shroff, and C. V. Shank, “Multilayer three-dimensional super resolution imaging of thick biological samples,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105(51), 20221–20226 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. B. Sun, X. Z. Dong, W. Q. Chen, S. Nakanishi, M. Duan, and S. Kawata, “Multicolor polymer nanocomposites: in situ synthesis and fabrication of 3D microstructures,” Adv. Mater. 20(5), 914–919 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

A. K. Geim and K. S. Novoselov, “The rise of graphene,” Nat. Mater. 6(3), 183–191 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (6)

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, M. I. Katsnelson, I. V. Grigorieva, S. V. Dubonos, and A. A. Firsov, “Two-dimensional gas of massless Dirac fermions in graphene,” Nature 438(7065), 197–200 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Zhang, Y. W. Tan, H. L. Stormer, and P. Kim, “Experimental observation of the quantum Hall effect and Berry’s phase in graphene,” Nature 438(7065), 201–204 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Liu, S. Sun, S. Singha, M. R. Cho, and R. J. Gordon, “3D femtosecond laser patterning of collagen for directed cell attachment,” Biomaterials 26(22), 4597–4605 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Heisterkamp, I. Z. Maxwell, E. Mazur, J. M. Underwood, J. A. Nickerson, S. Kumar, and D. E. Ingber, “Pulse energy dependence of subcellular dissection by femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express 13(10), 3690–3696 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Oron, E. Tal, and Y. Silberberg, “Scanningless depth-resolved microscopy,” Opt. Express 13(5), 1468–1476 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Zhu, J. van Howe, M. Durst, W. Zipfel, and C. Xu, “Simultaneous spatial and temporal focusing of femtosecond pulses,” Opt. Express 13(6), 2153–2159 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

2003 (1)

A. Vogel and V. Venugopalan, “Mechanisms of pulsed laser ablation of biological tissues,” Chem. Rev. 103(2), 577–644 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

T. Tanaka, H. B. Sun, and S. Kawata, “Rapid sub-diffraction-limit laser micro/nanoprocessing in a threshold material system,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(2), 312–314 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

S. Kawata, H. B. Sun, T. Tanaka, and K. Takada, “Finer features for functional microdevices,” Nature 412(6848), 697–698 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, “Two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy,” Science 248(4951), 73–76 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1958 (1)

W. S. Hummers and R. E. Offeman, “Preparation of graphitic oxide,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 80(6), 1339 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Adams, D. E.

Ajayan, P. M.

W. Gao, N. Singh, L. Song, Z. Liu, A. L. M. Reddy, L. Ci, R. Vajtai, Q. Zhang, B. Wei, and P. M. Ajayan, “Direct laser writing of micro-supercapacitors on hydrated graphite oxide films,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(8), 496–500 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arakawa, N.

Backus, S.

Bao, Q.

Y. Zhou, Q. Bao, B. Varghese, L. A. L. Tang, C. K. Tan, C.-H. Sow, and K. P. Loh, “Microstructuring of graphene oxide nanosheets using direct laser writing,” Adv. Mater. 22(1), 67–71 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barberoglou, M.

Basko, D. M.

A. C. Ferrari and D. M. Basko, “Raman spectroscopy as a versatile tool for studying the properties of graphene,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 8(4), 235–246 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blinder, P.

P. S. Tsai, P. Blinder, B. J. Migliori, J. Neev, Y. Jin, J. A. Squier, and D. Kleinfeld, “Plasma-mediated ablation: an optical tool for submicrometer surgery on neuronal and vascular systems,” Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 20(1), 90–99 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brumfiel, G.

G. Brumfiel, “Graphene gets ready for the big time,” Nature 458(7237), 390–391 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Campagnola, P. J.

Chang, C. Y.

Chang, C.-Y.

Chang, N.-S.

Chen, Q.

Y. Zhang, L. Guo, S. Wei, Y. He, H. Xia, Q. Chen, H.-B. Sun, and F.-S. Xiao, “Direct imprinting of microcircuits on graphene oxides film by femtosecond laser reduction,” Nano Today 5(1), 15–20 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Q.-D.

L. Guo, H.-B. Jiang, R.-Q. Shao, Y.-L. Zhang, S.-Y. Xie, J.-N. Wang, X.-B. Li, F. Jiang, Q.-D. Chen, T. Zhang, and H.-B. Sun, “Two-beam-laser interference mediated reduction, patterning and nanostructuring of graphene oxide for the production of a flexible humidity sensing device,” Carbon 50(4), 1667–1673 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chen, S.-J.

Chen, W. Q.

Z. B. Sun, X. Z. Dong, W. Q. Chen, S. Nakanishi, M. Duan, and S. Kawata, “Multicolor polymer nanocomposites: in situ synthesis and fabrication of 3D microstructures,” Adv. Mater. 20(5), 914–919 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, L.-C.

Cho, K.-C.

Cho, M. R.

Y. Liu, S. Sun, S. Singha, M. R. Cho, and R. J. Gordon, “3D femtosecond laser patterning of collagen for directed cell attachment,” Biomaterials 26(22), 4597–4605 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ci, L.

W. Gao, N. Singh, L. Song, Z. Liu, A. L. M. Reddy, L. Ci, R. Vajtai, Q. Zhang, B. Wei, and P. M. Ajayan, “Direct laser writing of micro-supercapacitors on hydrated graphite oxide films,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(8), 496–500 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Denk, W.

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, “Two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy,” Science 248(4951), 73–76 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dong, C. Y.

Dong, C.-Y.

Dong, X. Z.

Z. B. Sun, X. Z. Dong, W. Q. Chen, S. Nakanishi, M. Duan, and S. Kawata, “Multicolor polymer nanocomposites: in situ synthesis and fabrication of 3D microstructures,” Adv. Mater. 20(5), 914–919 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Duan, M.

Z. B. Sun, X. Z. Dong, W. Q. Chen, S. Nakanishi, M. Duan, and S. Kawata, “Multicolor polymer nanocomposites: in situ synthesis and fabrication of 3D microstructures,” Adv. Mater. 20(5), 914–919 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dubin, S.

M. F. El-Kady, V. Strong, S. Dubin, and R. B. Kaner, “Laser scribing of high-performance and flexible graphene-based electrochemical capacitors,” Science 335(6074), 1326–1330 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Strong, S. Dubin, M. F. El-Kady, A. Lech, Y. Wang, B. H. Weiller, and R. B. Kaner, “Patterning and electronic tuning of laser scribed graphene for flexible all-carbon devices,” ACS Nano 6(2), 1395–1403 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dubonos, S. V.

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, M. I. Katsnelson, I. V. Grigorieva, S. V. Dubonos, and A. A. Firsov, “Two-dimensional gas of massless Dirac fermions in graphene,” Nature 438(7065), 197–200 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Durfee, C. G.

Durst, M.

Durst, M. E.

M. E. Durst, G. Zhu, and C. Xu, “Simultaneous spatial and temporal focusing in nonlinear microscopy,” Opt. Commun. 281(7), 1796–1805 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

El-Kady, M. F.

V. Strong, S. Dubin, M. F. El-Kady, A. Lech, Y. Wang, B. H. Weiller, and R. B. Kaner, “Patterning and electronic tuning of laser scribed graphene for flexible all-carbon devices,” ACS Nano 6(2), 1395–1403 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. F. El-Kady, V. Strong, S. Dubin, and R. B. Kaner, “Laser scribing of high-performance and flexible graphene-based electrochemical capacitors,” Science 335(6074), 1326–1330 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fajardo, O.

P. Zhu, O. Fajardo, J. Shum, Y. P. Zhang Schärer, and R. W. Friedrich, “High-resolution optical control of spatiotemporal neuronal activity patterns in zebrafish using a digital micromirror device,” Nat. Protoc. 7(7), 1410–1425 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ferrari, A. C.

A. C. Ferrari and D. M. Basko, “Raman spectroscopy as a versatile tool for studying the properties of graphene,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 8(4), 235–246 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Firsov, A. A.

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, M. I. Katsnelson, I. V. Grigorieva, S. V. Dubonos, and A. A. Firsov, “Two-dimensional gas of massless Dirac fermions in graphene,” Nature 438(7065), 197–200 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fotakis, C.

Friedrich, R. W.

P. Zhu, O. Fajardo, J. Shum, Y. P. Zhang Schärer, and R. W. Friedrich, “High-resolution optical control of spatiotemporal neuronal activity patterns in zebrafish using a digital micromirror device,” Nat. Protoc. 7(7), 1410–1425 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fukui, K.

Gao, W.

W. Gao, N. Singh, L. Song, Z. Liu, A. L. M. Reddy, L. Ci, R. Vajtai, Q. Zhang, B. Wei, and P. M. Ajayan, “Direct laser writing of micro-supercapacitors on hydrated graphite oxide films,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(8), 496–500 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Garcia, C.

Geim, A. K.

A. K. Geim and K. S. Novoselov, “The rise of graphene,” Nat. Mater. 6(3), 183–191 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, M. I. Katsnelson, I. V. Grigorieva, S. V. Dubonos, and A. A. Firsov, “Two-dimensional gas of massless Dirac fermions in graphene,” Nature 438(7065), 197–200 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gordon, R. J.

Y. Liu, S. Sun, S. Singha, M. R. Cho, and R. J. Gordon, “3D femtosecond laser patterning of collagen for directed cell attachment,” Biomaterials 26(22), 4597–4605 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grigorieva, I. V.

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, M. I. Katsnelson, I. V. Grigorieva, S. V. Dubonos, and A. A. Firsov, “Two-dimensional gas of massless Dirac fermions in graphene,” Nature 438(7065), 197–200 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guo, L.

L. Guo, H.-B. Jiang, R.-Q. Shao, Y.-L. Zhang, S.-Y. Xie, J.-N. Wang, X.-B. Li, F. Jiang, Q.-D. Chen, T. Zhang, and H.-B. Sun, “Two-beam-laser interference mediated reduction, patterning and nanostructuring of graphene oxide for the production of a flexible humidity sensing device,” Carbon 50(4), 1667–1673 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhang, L. Guo, S. Wei, Y. He, H. Xia, Q. Chen, H.-B. Sun, and F.-S. Xiao, “Direct imprinting of microcircuits on graphene oxides film by femtosecond laser reduction,” Nano Today 5(1), 15–20 (2010).
[CrossRef]

He, Y.

Y. Zhang, L. Guo, S. Wei, Y. He, H. Xia, Q. Chen, H.-B. Sun, and F.-S. Xiao, “Direct imprinting of microcircuits on graphene oxides film by femtosecond laser reduction,” Nano Today 5(1), 15–20 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Heisterkamp, A.

Higashi, T.

Hone, J.

C. Lee, X. Wei, J. W. Kysar, and J. Hone, “Measurement of the elastic properties and intrinsic strength of monolayer graphene,” Science 321(5887), 385–388 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hong, J.-Y.

J.-Y. Hong and J. Jang, “Micropatterning of graphene sheets: recent advances in techniques and applications,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(17), 8179–8191 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Huang, L. L. H.

Hummers, W. S.

W. S. Hummers and R. E. Offeman, “Preparation of graphitic oxide,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 80(6), 1339 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Ingber, D. E.

Isobe, K.

Itoh, K.

Jang, J.

J.-Y. Hong and J. Jang, “Micropatterning of graphene sheets: recent advances in techniques and applications,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(17), 8179–8191 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, D.

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, M. I. Katsnelson, I. V. Grigorieva, S. V. Dubonos, and A. A. Firsov, “Two-dimensional gas of massless Dirac fermions in graphene,” Nature 438(7065), 197–200 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jiang, F.

L. Guo, H.-B. Jiang, R.-Q. Shao, Y.-L. Zhang, S.-Y. Xie, J.-N. Wang, X.-B. Li, F. Jiang, Q.-D. Chen, T. Zhang, and H.-B. Sun, “Two-beam-laser interference mediated reduction, patterning and nanostructuring of graphene oxide for the production of a flexible humidity sensing device,” Carbon 50(4), 1667–1673 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, H.-B.

L. Guo, H.-B. Jiang, R.-Q. Shao, Y.-L. Zhang, S.-Y. Xie, J.-N. Wang, X.-B. Li, F. Jiang, Q.-D. Chen, T. Zhang, and H.-B. Sun, “Two-beam-laser interference mediated reduction, patterning and nanostructuring of graphene oxide for the production of a flexible humidity sensing device,” Carbon 50(4), 1667–1673 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Jin, Y.

P. S. Tsai, P. Blinder, B. J. Migliori, J. Neev, Y. Jin, J. A. Squier, and D. Kleinfeld, “Plasma-mediated ablation: an optical tool for submicrometer surgery on neuronal and vascular systems,” Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 20(1), 90–99 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Johnson, A.

Kaner, R. B.

V. Strong, S. Dubin, M. F. El-Kady, A. Lech, Y. Wang, B. H. Weiller, and R. B. Kaner, “Patterning and electronic tuning of laser scribed graphene for flexible all-carbon devices,” ACS Nano 6(2), 1395–1403 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. F. El-Kady, V. Strong, S. Dubin, and R. B. Kaner, “Laser scribing of high-performance and flexible graphene-based electrochemical capacitors,” Science 335(6074), 1326–1330 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Katsnelson, M. I.

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, M. I. Katsnelson, I. V. Grigorieva, S. V. Dubonos, and A. A. Firsov, “Two-dimensional gas of massless Dirac fermions in graphene,” Nature 438(7065), 197–200 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kawata, S.

Z. B. Sun, X. Z. Dong, W. Q. Chen, S. Nakanishi, M. Duan, and S. Kawata, “Multicolor polymer nanocomposites: in situ synthesis and fabrication of 3D microstructures,” Adv. Mater. 20(5), 914–919 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Tanaka, H. B. Sun, and S. Kawata, “Rapid sub-diffraction-limit laser micro/nanoprocessing in a threshold material system,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(2), 312–314 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Kawata, H. B. Sun, T. Tanaka, and K. Takada, “Finer features for functional microdevices,” Nature 412(6848), 697–698 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, P.

Y. Zhang, Y. W. Tan, H. L. Stormer, and P. Kim, “Experimental observation of the quantum Hall effect and Berry’s phase in graphene,” Nature 438(7065), 201–204 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kleinfeld, D.

D. N. Vitek, D. E. Adams, A. Johnson, P. S. Tsai, S. Backus, C. G. Durfee, D. Kleinfeld, and J. A. Squier, “Temporally focused femtosecond laser pulses for low numerical aperture micromachining through optically transparent materials,” Opt. Express 18(17), 18086–18094 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. S. Tsai, P. Blinder, B. J. Migliori, J. Neev, Y. Jin, J. A. Squier, and D. Kleinfeld, “Plasma-mediated ablation: an optical tool for submicrometer surgery on neuronal and vascular systems,” Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 20(1), 90–99 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kumar, S.

Kuo, W. S.

Kysar, J. W.

C. Lee, X. Wei, J. W. Kysar, and J. Hone, “Measurement of the elastic properties and intrinsic strength of monolayer graphene,” Science 321(5887), 385–388 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lech, A.

V. Strong, S. Dubin, M. F. El-Kady, A. Lech, Y. Wang, B. H. Weiller, and R. B. Kaner, “Patterning and electronic tuning of laser scribed graphene for flexible all-carbon devices,” ACS Nano 6(2), 1395–1403 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, C.

C. Lee, X. Wei, J. W. Kysar, and J. Hone, “Measurement of the elastic properties and intrinsic strength of monolayer graphene,” Science 321(5887), 385–388 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, C.

C. Li and G. Shi, “Three-dimensional graphene architectures,” Nanoscale 4(18), 5549–5563 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, X.-B.

L. Guo, H.-B. Jiang, R.-Q. Shao, Y.-L. Zhang, S.-Y. Xie, J.-N. Wang, X.-B. Li, F. Jiang, Q.-D. Chen, T. Zhang, and H.-B. Sun, “Two-beam-laser interference mediated reduction, patterning and nanostructuring of graphene oxide for the production of a flexible humidity sensing device,” Carbon 50(4), 1667–1673 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.-C.

Lien, C.-H.

Lin, C.-Y.

Liu, Y.

Y. Liu, S. Sun, S. Singha, M. R. Cho, and R. J. Gordon, “3D femtosecond laser patterning of collagen for directed cell attachment,” Biomaterials 26(22), 4597–4605 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, Z.

W. Gao, N. Singh, L. Song, Z. Liu, A. L. M. Reddy, L. Ci, R. Vajtai, Q. Zhang, B. Wei, and P. M. Ajayan, “Direct laser writing of micro-supercapacitors on hydrated graphite oxide films,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(8), 496–500 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Loh, K. P.

Y. Zhou, Q. Bao, B. Varghese, L. A. L. Tang, C. K. Tan, C.-H. Sow, and K. P. Loh, “Microstructuring of graphene oxide nanosheets using direct laser writing,” Adv. Mater. 22(1), 67–71 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mahmood, A. S.

A. S. Mahmood, M. Sivakumar, K. Venkatakrishnan, and B. Tan, “Enhancement in optical absorption of silicon fibrous nanostructure produced using femtosecond laser ablation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(3), 034107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Matsunaga, S.

Maxwell, I. Z.

Mazur, E.

Migliori, B. J.

P. S. Tsai, P. Blinder, B. J. Migliori, J. Neev, Y. Jin, J. A. Squier, and D. Kleinfeld, “Plasma-mediated ablation: an optical tool for submicrometer surgery on neuronal and vascular systems,” Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 20(1), 90–99 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Morozov, S. V.

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, M. I. Katsnelson, I. V. Grigorieva, S. V. Dubonos, and A. A. Firsov, “Two-dimensional gas of massless Dirac fermions in graphene,” Nature 438(7065), 197–200 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Müllen, K.

X. Wang, L. J. Zhi, and K. Müllen, “Transparent, conductive graphene electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells,” Nano Lett. 8(1), 323–327 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nakanishi, S.

Z. B. Sun, X. Z. Dong, W. Q. Chen, S. Nakanishi, M. Duan, and S. Kawata, “Multicolor polymer nanocomposites: in situ synthesis and fabrication of 3D microstructures,” Adv. Mater. 20(5), 914–919 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Neev, J.

P. S. Tsai, P. Blinder, B. J. Migliori, J. Neev, Y. Jin, J. A. Squier, and D. Kleinfeld, “Plasma-mediated ablation: an optical tool for submicrometer surgery on neuronal and vascular systems,” Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 20(1), 90–99 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nickerson, J. A.

Novoselov, K. S.

A. K. Geim and K. S. Novoselov, “The rise of graphene,” Nat. Mater. 6(3), 183–191 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, M. I. Katsnelson, I. V. Grigorieva, S. V. Dubonos, and A. A. Firsov, “Two-dimensional gas of massless Dirac fermions in graphene,” Nature 438(7065), 197–200 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Offeman, R. E.

W. S. Hummers and R. E. Offeman, “Preparation of graphitic oxide,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 80(6), 1339 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Oron, D.

Reddy, A. L. M.

W. Gao, N. Singh, L. Song, Z. Liu, A. L. M. Reddy, L. Ci, R. Vajtai, Q. Zhang, B. Wei, and P. M. Ajayan, “Direct laser writing of micro-supercapacitors on hydrated graphite oxide films,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(8), 496–500 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shafeev, G. A.

Shank, C. V.

A. Vaziri, J. Tang, H. Shroff, and C. V. Shank, “Multilayer three-dimensional super resolution imaging of thick biological samples,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105(51), 20221–20226 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shao, R.-Q.

L. Guo, H.-B. Jiang, R.-Q. Shao, Y.-L. Zhang, S.-Y. Xie, J.-N. Wang, X.-B. Li, F. Jiang, Q.-D. Chen, T. Zhang, and H.-B. Sun, “Two-beam-laser interference mediated reduction, patterning and nanostructuring of graphene oxide for the production of a flexible humidity sensing device,” Carbon 50(4), 1667–1673 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Shi, G.

C. Li and G. Shi, “Three-dimensional graphene architectures,” Nanoscale 4(18), 5549–5563 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shroff, H.

A. Vaziri, J. Tang, H. Shroff, and C. V. Shank, “Multilayer three-dimensional super resolution imaging of thick biological samples,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105(51), 20221–20226 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shum, J.

P. Zhu, O. Fajardo, J. Shum, Y. P. Zhang Schärer, and R. W. Friedrich, “High-resolution optical control of spatiotemporal neuronal activity patterns in zebrafish using a digital micromirror device,” Nat. Protoc. 7(7), 1410–1425 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Silberberg, Y.

Singh, N.

W. Gao, N. Singh, L. Song, Z. Liu, A. L. M. Reddy, L. Ci, R. Vajtai, Q. Zhang, B. Wei, and P. M. Ajayan, “Direct laser writing of micro-supercapacitors on hydrated graphite oxide films,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(8), 496–500 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Singha, S.

Y. Liu, S. Sun, S. Singha, M. R. Cho, and R. J. Gordon, “3D femtosecond laser patterning of collagen for directed cell attachment,” Biomaterials 26(22), 4597–4605 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sivakumar, M.

A. S. Mahmood, M. Sivakumar, K. Venkatakrishnan, and B. Tan, “Enhancement in optical absorption of silicon fibrous nanostructure produced using femtosecond laser ablation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(3), 034107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Song, L.

W. Gao, N. Singh, L. Song, Z. Liu, A. L. M. Reddy, L. Ci, R. Vajtai, Q. Zhang, B. Wei, and P. M. Ajayan, “Direct laser writing of micro-supercapacitors on hydrated graphite oxide films,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(8), 496–500 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sow, C.-H.

Y. Zhou, Q. Bao, B. Varghese, L. A. L. Tang, C. K. Tan, C.-H. Sow, and K. P. Loh, “Microstructuring of graphene oxide nanosheets using direct laser writing,” Adv. Mater. 22(1), 67–71 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Squier, J. A.

D. N. Vitek, D. E. Adams, A. Johnson, P. S. Tsai, S. Backus, C. G. Durfee, D. Kleinfeld, and J. A. Squier, “Temporally focused femtosecond laser pulses for low numerical aperture micromachining through optically transparent materials,” Opt. Express 18(17), 18086–18094 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. S. Tsai, P. Blinder, B. J. Migliori, J. Neev, Y. Jin, J. A. Squier, and D. Kleinfeld, “Plasma-mediated ablation: an optical tool for submicrometer surgery on neuronal and vascular systems,” Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 20(1), 90–99 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stormer, H. L.

Y. Zhang, Y. W. Tan, H. L. Stormer, and P. Kim, “Experimental observation of the quantum Hall effect and Berry’s phase in graphene,” Nature 438(7065), 201–204 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stratakis, E.

Strickler, J. H.

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, “Two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy,” Science 248(4951), 73–76 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Strong, V.

V. Strong, S. Dubin, M. F. El-Kady, A. Lech, Y. Wang, B. H. Weiller, and R. B. Kaner, “Patterning and electronic tuning of laser scribed graphene for flexible all-carbon devices,” ACS Nano 6(2), 1395–1403 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. F. El-Kady, V. Strong, S. Dubin, and R. B. Kaner, “Laser scribing of high-performance and flexible graphene-based electrochemical capacitors,” Science 335(6074), 1326–1330 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, H. B.

T. Tanaka, H. B. Sun, and S. Kawata, “Rapid sub-diffraction-limit laser micro/nanoprocessing in a threshold material system,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(2), 312–314 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Kawata, H. B. Sun, T. Tanaka, and K. Takada, “Finer features for functional microdevices,” Nature 412(6848), 697–698 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, H.-B.

L. Guo, H.-B. Jiang, R.-Q. Shao, Y.-L. Zhang, S.-Y. Xie, J.-N. Wang, X.-B. Li, F. Jiang, Q.-D. Chen, T. Zhang, and H.-B. Sun, “Two-beam-laser interference mediated reduction, patterning and nanostructuring of graphene oxide for the production of a flexible humidity sensing device,” Carbon 50(4), 1667–1673 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhang, L. Guo, S. Wei, Y. He, H. Xia, Q. Chen, H.-B. Sun, and F.-S. Xiao, “Direct imprinting of microcircuits on graphene oxides film by femtosecond laser reduction,” Nano Today 5(1), 15–20 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sun, S.

Y. Liu, S. Sun, S. Singha, M. R. Cho, and R. J. Gordon, “3D femtosecond laser patterning of collagen for directed cell attachment,” Biomaterials 26(22), 4597–4605 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, Z. B.

Z. B. Sun, X. Z. Dong, W. Q. Chen, S. Nakanishi, M. Duan, and S. Kawata, “Multicolor polymer nanocomposites: in situ synthesis and fabrication of 3D microstructures,” Adv. Mater. 20(5), 914–919 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Takada, K.

S. Kawata, H. B. Sun, T. Tanaka, and K. Takada, “Finer features for functional microdevices,” Nature 412(6848), 697–698 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tal, E.

Tan, B.

A. S. Mahmood, M. Sivakumar, K. Venkatakrishnan, and B. Tan, “Enhancement in optical absorption of silicon fibrous nanostructure produced using femtosecond laser ablation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(3), 034107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tan, C. K.

Y. Zhou, Q. Bao, B. Varghese, L. A. L. Tang, C. K. Tan, C.-H. Sow, and K. P. Loh, “Microstructuring of graphene oxide nanosheets using direct laser writing,” Adv. Mater. 22(1), 67–71 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tan, Y. W.

Y. Zhang, Y. W. Tan, H. L. Stormer, and P. Kim, “Experimental observation of the quantum Hall effect and Berry’s phase in graphene,” Nature 438(7065), 201–204 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tanaka, T.

T. Tanaka, H. B. Sun, and S. Kawata, “Rapid sub-diffraction-limit laser micro/nanoprocessing in a threshold material system,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(2), 312–314 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Kawata, H. B. Sun, T. Tanaka, and K. Takada, “Finer features for functional microdevices,” Nature 412(6848), 697–698 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tang, J.

A. Vaziri, J. Tang, H. Shroff, and C. V. Shank, “Multilayer three-dimensional super resolution imaging of thick biological samples,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105(51), 20221–20226 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tang, L. A. L.

Y. Zhou, Q. Bao, B. Varghese, L. A. L. Tang, C. K. Tan, C.-H. Sow, and K. P. Loh, “Microstructuring of graphene oxide nanosheets using direct laser writing,” Adv. Mater. 22(1), 67–71 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsai, P. S.

D. N. Vitek, D. E. Adams, A. Johnson, P. S. Tsai, S. Backus, C. G. Durfee, D. Kleinfeld, and J. A. Squier, “Temporally focused femtosecond laser pulses for low numerical aperture micromachining through optically transparent materials,” Opt. Express 18(17), 18086–18094 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. S. Tsai, P. Blinder, B. J. Migliori, J. Neev, Y. Jin, J. A. Squier, and D. Kleinfeld, “Plasma-mediated ablation: an optical tool for submicrometer surgery on neuronal and vascular systems,” Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 20(1), 90–99 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Underwood, J. M.

Vajtai, R.

W. Gao, N. Singh, L. Song, Z. Liu, A. L. M. Reddy, L. Ci, R. Vajtai, Q. Zhang, B. Wei, and P. M. Ajayan, “Direct laser writing of micro-supercapacitors on hydrated graphite oxide films,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(8), 496–500 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Howe, J.

Varghese, B.

Y. Zhou, Q. Bao, B. Varghese, L. A. L. Tang, C. K. Tan, C.-H. Sow, and K. P. Loh, “Microstructuring of graphene oxide nanosheets using direct laser writing,” Adv. Mater. 22(1), 67–71 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vaziri, A.

A. Vaziri, J. Tang, H. Shroff, and C. V. Shank, “Multilayer three-dimensional super resolution imaging of thick biological samples,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105(51), 20221–20226 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Venkatakrishnan, K.

A. S. Mahmood, M. Sivakumar, K. Venkatakrishnan, and B. Tan, “Enhancement in optical absorption of silicon fibrous nanostructure produced using femtosecond laser ablation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(3), 034107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Venugopalan, V.

A. Vogel and V. Venugopalan, “Mechanisms of pulsed laser ablation of biological tissues,” Chem. Rev. 103(2), 577–644 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Viau, G.

Vitek, D. N.

Vogel, A.

A. Vogel and V. Venugopalan, “Mechanisms of pulsed laser ablation of biological tissues,” Chem. Rev. 103(2), 577–644 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, J.-N.

L. Guo, H.-B. Jiang, R.-Q. Shao, Y.-L. Zhang, S.-Y. Xie, J.-N. Wang, X.-B. Li, F. Jiang, Q.-D. Chen, T. Zhang, and H.-B. Sun, “Two-beam-laser interference mediated reduction, patterning and nanostructuring of graphene oxide for the production of a flexible humidity sensing device,” Carbon 50(4), 1667–1673 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X.

X. Wang, L. J. Zhi, and K. Müllen, “Transparent, conductive graphene electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells,” Nano Lett. 8(1), 323–327 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, Y.

V. Strong, S. Dubin, M. F. El-Kady, A. Lech, Y. Wang, B. H. Weiller, and R. B. Kaner, “Patterning and electronic tuning of laser scribed graphene for flexible all-carbon devices,” ACS Nano 6(2), 1395–1403 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Watanabe, W.

Webb, W. W.

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, “Two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy,” Science 248(4951), 73–76 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wei, B.

W. Gao, N. Singh, L. Song, Z. Liu, A. L. M. Reddy, L. Ci, R. Vajtai, Q. Zhang, B. Wei, and P. M. Ajayan, “Direct laser writing of micro-supercapacitors on hydrated graphite oxide films,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(8), 496–500 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wei, S.

Y. Zhang, L. Guo, S. Wei, Y. He, H. Xia, Q. Chen, H.-B. Sun, and F.-S. Xiao, “Direct imprinting of microcircuits on graphene oxides film by femtosecond laser reduction,” Nano Today 5(1), 15–20 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wei, X.

C. Lee, X. Wei, J. W. Kysar, and J. Hone, “Measurement of the elastic properties and intrinsic strength of monolayer graphene,” Science 321(5887), 385–388 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weiller, B. H.

V. Strong, S. Dubin, M. F. El-Kady, A. Lech, Y. Wang, B. H. Weiller, and R. B. Kaner, “Patterning and electronic tuning of laser scribed graphene for flexible all-carbon devices,” ACS Nano 6(2), 1395–1403 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xia, H.

Y. Zhang, L. Guo, S. Wei, Y. He, H. Xia, Q. Chen, H.-B. Sun, and F.-S. Xiao, “Direct imprinting of microcircuits on graphene oxides film by femtosecond laser reduction,” Nano Today 5(1), 15–20 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Xiao, F.-S.

Y. Zhang, L. Guo, S. Wei, Y. He, H. Xia, Q. Chen, H.-B. Sun, and F.-S. Xiao, “Direct imprinting of microcircuits on graphene oxides film by femtosecond laser reduction,” Nano Today 5(1), 15–20 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Xie, S.-Y.

L. Guo, H.-B. Jiang, R.-Q. Shao, Y.-L. Zhang, S.-Y. Xie, J.-N. Wang, X.-B. Li, F. Jiang, Q.-D. Chen, T. Zhang, and H.-B. Sun, “Two-beam-laser interference mediated reduction, patterning and nanostructuring of graphene oxide for the production of a flexible humidity sensing device,” Carbon 50(4), 1667–1673 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Xu, C.

Yen, W.-C.

Zhang, Q.

W. Gao, N. Singh, L. Song, Z. Liu, A. L. M. Reddy, L. Ci, R. Vajtai, Q. Zhang, B. Wei, and P. M. Ajayan, “Direct laser writing of micro-supercapacitors on hydrated graphite oxide films,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(8), 496–500 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, T.

L. Guo, H.-B. Jiang, R.-Q. Shao, Y.-L. Zhang, S.-Y. Xie, J.-N. Wang, X.-B. Li, F. Jiang, Q.-D. Chen, T. Zhang, and H.-B. Sun, “Two-beam-laser interference mediated reduction, patterning and nanostructuring of graphene oxide for the production of a flexible humidity sensing device,” Carbon 50(4), 1667–1673 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y.

Y. Zhang, L. Guo, S. Wei, Y. He, H. Xia, Q. Chen, H.-B. Sun, and F.-S. Xiao, “Direct imprinting of microcircuits on graphene oxides film by femtosecond laser reduction,” Nano Today 5(1), 15–20 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhang, Y. W. Tan, H. L. Stormer, and P. Kim, “Experimental observation of the quantum Hall effect and Berry’s phase in graphene,” Nature 438(7065), 201–204 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, Y.-L.

L. Guo, H.-B. Jiang, R.-Q. Shao, Y.-L. Zhang, S.-Y. Xie, J.-N. Wang, X.-B. Li, F. Jiang, Q.-D. Chen, T. Zhang, and H.-B. Sun, “Two-beam-laser interference mediated reduction, patterning and nanostructuring of graphene oxide for the production of a flexible humidity sensing device,” Carbon 50(4), 1667–1673 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhang Schärer, Y. P.

P. Zhu, O. Fajardo, J. Shum, Y. P. Zhang Schärer, and R. W. Friedrich, “High-resolution optical control of spatiotemporal neuronal activity patterns in zebrafish using a digital micromirror device,” Nat. Protoc. 7(7), 1410–1425 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhi, L. J.

X. Wang, L. J. Zhi, and K. Müllen, “Transparent, conductive graphene electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells,” Nano Lett. 8(1), 323–327 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhou, Y.

Y. Zhou, Q. Bao, B. Varghese, L. A. L. Tang, C. K. Tan, C.-H. Sow, and K. P. Loh, “Microstructuring of graphene oxide nanosheets using direct laser writing,” Adv. Mater. 22(1), 67–71 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhu, G.

M. E. Durst, G. Zhu, and C. Xu, “Simultaneous spatial and temporal focusing in nonlinear microscopy,” Opt. Commun. 281(7), 1796–1805 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Zhu, J. van Howe, M. Durst, W. Zipfel, and C. Xu, “Simultaneous spatial and temporal focusing of femtosecond pulses,” Opt. Express 13(6), 2153–2159 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhu, P.

P. Zhu, O. Fajardo, J. Shum, Y. P. Zhang Schärer, and R. W. Friedrich, “High-resolution optical control of spatiotemporal neuronal activity patterns in zebrafish using a digital micromirror device,” Nat. Protoc. 7(7), 1410–1425 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zipfel, W.

ACS Nano (1)

V. Strong, S. Dubin, M. F. El-Kady, A. Lech, Y. Wang, B. H. Weiller, and R. B. Kaner, “Patterning and electronic tuning of laser scribed graphene for flexible all-carbon devices,” ACS Nano 6(2), 1395–1403 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adv. Mater. (2)

Y. Zhou, Q. Bao, B. Varghese, L. A. L. Tang, C. K. Tan, C.-H. Sow, and K. P. Loh, “Microstructuring of graphene oxide nanosheets using direct laser writing,” Adv. Mater. 22(1), 67–71 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. B. Sun, X. Z. Dong, W. Q. Chen, S. Nakanishi, M. Duan, and S. Kawata, “Multicolor polymer nanocomposites: in situ synthesis and fabrication of 3D microstructures,” Adv. Mater. 20(5), 914–919 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

A. S. Mahmood, M. Sivakumar, K. Venkatakrishnan, and B. Tan, “Enhancement in optical absorption of silicon fibrous nanostructure produced using femtosecond laser ablation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(3), 034107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Tanaka, H. B. Sun, and S. Kawata, “Rapid sub-diffraction-limit laser micro/nanoprocessing in a threshold material system,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(2), 312–314 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Biomaterials (1)

Y. Liu, S. Sun, S. Singha, M. R. Cho, and R. J. Gordon, “3D femtosecond laser patterning of collagen for directed cell attachment,” Biomaterials 26(22), 4597–4605 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carbon (1)

L. Guo, H.-B. Jiang, R.-Q. Shao, Y.-L. Zhang, S.-Y. Xie, J.-N. Wang, X.-B. Li, F. Jiang, Q.-D. Chen, T. Zhang, and H.-B. Sun, “Two-beam-laser interference mediated reduction, patterning and nanostructuring of graphene oxide for the production of a flexible humidity sensing device,” Carbon 50(4), 1667–1673 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Rev. (1)

A. Vogel and V. Venugopalan, “Mechanisms of pulsed laser ablation of biological tissues,” Chem. Rev. 103(2), 577–644 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. (1)

P. S. Tsai, P. Blinder, B. J. Migliori, J. Neev, Y. Jin, J. A. Squier, and D. Kleinfeld, “Plasma-mediated ablation: an optical tool for submicrometer surgery on neuronal and vascular systems,” Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 20(1), 90–99 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

W. S. Hummers and R. E. Offeman, “Preparation of graphitic oxide,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 80(6), 1339 (1958).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Chem. (1)

J.-Y. Hong and J. Jang, “Micropatterning of graphene sheets: recent advances in techniques and applications,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(17), 8179–8191 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (1)

X. Wang, L. J. Zhi, and K. Müllen, “Transparent, conductive graphene electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells,” Nano Lett. 8(1), 323–327 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nano Today (1)

Y. Zhang, L. Guo, S. Wei, Y. He, H. Xia, Q. Chen, H.-B. Sun, and F.-S. Xiao, “Direct imprinting of microcircuits on graphene oxides film by femtosecond laser reduction,” Nano Today 5(1), 15–20 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nanoscale (1)

C. Li and G. Shi, “Three-dimensional graphene architectures,” Nanoscale 4(18), 5549–5563 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater. (1)

A. K. Geim and K. S. Novoselov, “The rise of graphene,” Nat. Mater. 6(3), 183–191 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Nanotechnol. (2)

W. Gao, N. Singh, L. Song, Z. Liu, A. L. M. Reddy, L. Ci, R. Vajtai, Q. Zhang, B. Wei, and P. M. Ajayan, “Direct laser writing of micro-supercapacitors on hydrated graphite oxide films,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(8), 496–500 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. C. Ferrari and D. M. Basko, “Raman spectroscopy as a versatile tool for studying the properties of graphene,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 8(4), 235–246 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Protoc. (1)

P. Zhu, O. Fajardo, J. Shum, Y. P. Zhang Schärer, and R. W. Friedrich, “High-resolution optical control of spatiotemporal neuronal activity patterns in zebrafish using a digital micromirror device,” Nat. Protoc. 7(7), 1410–1425 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature (4)

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, M. I. Katsnelson, I. V. Grigorieva, S. V. Dubonos, and A. A. Firsov, “Two-dimensional gas of massless Dirac fermions in graphene,” Nature 438(7065), 197–200 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Zhang, Y. W. Tan, H. L. Stormer, and P. Kim, “Experimental observation of the quantum Hall effect and Berry’s phase in graphene,” Nature 438(7065), 201–204 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Brumfiel, “Graphene gets ready for the big time,” Nature 458(7237), 390–391 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Kawata, H. B. Sun, T. Tanaka, and K. Takada, “Finer features for functional microdevices,” Nature 412(6848), 697–698 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (1)

M. E. Durst, G. Zhu, and C. Xu, “Simultaneous spatial and temporal focusing in nonlinear microscopy,” Opt. Commun. 281(7), 1796–1805 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (9)

L.-C. Cheng, C.-Y. Chang, C.-Y. Lin, K.-C. Cho, W.-C. Yen, N.-S. Chang, C. Xu, C. Y. Dong, and S.-J. Chen, “Spatiotemporal focusing-based widefield multiphoton microscopy for fast optical sectioning,” Opt. Express 20(8), 8939–8948 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Stratakis, M. Barberoglou, C. Fotakis, G. Viau, C. Garcia, and G. A. Shafeev, “Generation of Al nanoparticles via ablation of bulk Al in liquids with short laser pulses,” Opt. Express 17(15), 12650–12659 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Oron, E. Tal, and Y. Silberberg, “Scanningless depth-resolved microscopy,” Opt. Express 13(5), 1468–1476 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Zhu, J. van Howe, M. Durst, W. Zipfel, and C. Xu, “Simultaneous spatial and temporal focusing of femtosecond pulses,” Opt. Express 13(6), 2153–2159 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. S. Kuo, C.-H. Lien, K.-C. Cho, C. Y. Chang, C.-Y. Lin, L. L. H. Huang, P. J. Campagnola, C.-Y. Dong, and S.-J. Chen, “Multiphoton fabrication of freeform polymer microstructures with gold nanorods,” Opt. Express 18(26), 27550–27559 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Watanabe, N. Arakawa, S. Matsunaga, T. Higashi, K. Fukui, K. Isobe, and K. Itoh, “Femtosecond laser disruption of subcellular organelles in a living cell,” Opt. Express 12(18), 4203–4213 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Heisterkamp, I. Z. Maxwell, E. Mazur, J. M. Underwood, J. A. Nickerson, S. Kumar, and D. E. Ingber, “Pulse energy dependence of subcellular dissection by femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express 13(10), 3690–3696 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. N. Vitek, D. E. Adams, A. Johnson, P. S. Tsai, S. Backus, C. G. Durfee, D. Kleinfeld, and J. A. Squier, “Temporally focused femtosecond laser pulses for low numerical aperture micromachining through optically transparent materials,” Opt. Express 18(17), 18086–18094 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y.-C. Li, L.-C. Cheng, C.-Y. Chang, C.-H. Lien, P. J. Campagnola, and S.-J. Chen, “Fast multiphoton microfabrication of freeform polymer microstructures by spatiotemporal focusing and patterned excitation,” Opt. Express 20(17), 19030–19038 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1)

A. Vaziri, J. Tang, H. Shroff, and C. V. Shank, “Multilayer three-dimensional super resolution imaging of thick biological samples,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105(51), 20221–20226 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (3)

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, “Two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy,” Science 248(4951), 73–76 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Lee, X. Wei, J. W. Kysar, and J. Hone, “Measurement of the elastic properties and intrinsic strength of monolayer graphene,” Science 321(5887), 385–388 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. F. El-Kady, V. Strong, S. Dubin, and R. B. Kaner, “Laser scribing of high-performance and flexible graphene-based electrochemical capacitors,” Science 335(6074), 1326–1330 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Optical setup of the high-throughput multiphoton-induced reduction and ablation system based on temporal focusing and patterned excitation.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The top row is the bright-field images of the reduced/ablated squares using the laser wavelength of 830 nm at the different powers of 50 mW, 60 mW, 70 mW, 80 mW, and 90 mW, respectively (left to right). The bottom row is the images at 750 nm wavelength. Laser powers are adjusted as 10 mW, 20 mW, 30 mW, 40 mW, and 50 mW, respectively (left to right).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Bright-field images of reduced GO squares at different pulse numbers. The pulse number is labeled in the top-left corner. (b) Six micro-Raman spectra corresponding to the six reduced patterns in Fig. 3(a), respectively. (c) The six IG/ID values corresponding to the pulse numbers in Fig. 3(b).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Bright-field images of rGO-based disk arrays processed at the pulse energy of 2.2 μJ: (a) the disks with a diameter of 5 μm by illuminating 10000 pulses; and, (b) the disks with a diameter of 3 μm by 10000, 15000, and 20000 pulses (top to bottom), respectively.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Bright-field images of GO film with reduction/ablation: (a) ablation only, and (b) reduction first and then ablation. Inset of Fig. 5(b): bright-field image of the reduced square before ablation.

Metrics