Abstract

A new method is presented based on a radial basis function neural network (RBF-NN) to analyze data obtained by ultraviolet (UV) irradiance instruments. Application of the RBF-NN method to about three years of data obtained by a NILU-UV device, which is a multi-channel, moderate bandwidth filter instrument, revealed that compared to the traditional Look-up table (LUT) method, the RBF-NN method yielded better agreement with a 1% decrease in relative difference and an increase of 0.03 in correlation with total ozone column (TOC) values obtained from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI). Furthermore, the RBF-NN method retrieved more valid results (daily average values within a meaningful range (200–500 DU)) than the LUT method. Compared with RBF-NN retrievals, TOC values obtained from the OMI are underestimated under cloudy conditions. This finding agrees with conclusions reached by Anton and Loyola (2011).

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2014

2012

D. G. Loyola and M. Coldewey-Egbers, “Multi-sensor data merging with stacked neural networks for the creation of satellite long-term climate data records,” EURASIP J. Adv. Sig. Pr. 1, 1–10 (2012).

2011

G. Norsang, L. Kocbach, J. J. Stamnes, W. Tsoja, and N. Pingcuo, “Spatial distribution and temporal variation of solar UV radiation over the Tibetan Plateau,” Appl. Phys. Res. 3, 37–46 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Antón and D. Loyola, “Influence of cloud properties on satellite total ozone observations,” J. Geophys. Res. 116, D03208 (2011).

2009

A. Kazantzidis, A. F. Bais, M. M. Zempila, C. Meleti, K. Eleftheratos, and C. S. Zerefos, “Evaluation of ozone column measurements over Greece with NILU-UV multi-channel radiometers,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 30(15–16), 4273–4281 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Norsang, L. Kocbach, W. Tsoja, J. J. Stamnes, A. Dahlbach, and P. Nema, “Ground-based measurements and modelling of solar UV-B radiation in Lhasa, Tibet,” Atmos. Environ. 43, 1498–1502 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

R. R. Cordero, G. Seckmeyer, D. Pissulla, L. DaSilva, and F. Labbe, “Uncertainty evaluation of spectral UV irradiance measurements,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 19, 045104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

R. V. Martin, B. Sauvage, I. Folkins, C. E. Sioris, C. Boone, P. Bernath, and J. Ziemke, “Space-based constraints on the production of nitric oxide by lightning,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D09309 (2007).

A. Dahlback, N. Gelsor, J. J. Stamnes, and Y. Gjessing, “UV measurements in the 3000–5000 m altitude region in Tibet,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D09308 (2007).

2006

S. Whiteson and P. Stone, “Evolutionary function approximation for reinforcement learning,” J. Mach. Learn. Res. 7, 877–917 (2006).

2005

A. Dahlback, H. A. Eide, B. A. K. Høiskar, R. O. Olsen, F. J. Schmidlin, S. C. Tsay, and K. Stamnes, “Comparison of data for ozone amounts and ultraviolet doses obtained from simultaneous measurements with various standard ultraviolet instruments,” Opt. Eng. 44, 041010 (2005).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Blackwell, “A neural-network technique for the retrieval of atmospheric temperature and moisture profiles from high spectral resolution sounding data,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 43, 2535–2546 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003

2001

A. G. Bors, “Introduction of the radial basis function (RBF) networks,” OSEE 1, DSP Algorithms: Multimedia, 1–7 (2001).

1998

C. R. Roy, H. P. Gies, D. J. Lugg, S. Toomey, and D. W. Tomlinson, “The effect of clouds on enhancing UVB irradiance at the Earth’s surface: A one year study,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 3337–3340 (1998).

1996

T. N. Woods, D. K. Prinz, G. J. Rottmann, J. London, P. C. Crane, R. P. Cebula, E. Hilsenrath, G. E. Brueckner, M. D. Andrews, O. R. White, M. E. VanHoosier, L. E. Floyd, L. C. Herring, B. G. Knapp, C. K. Pankrantz, and P. A. Reiser, “Validation of the UARS solar ultraviolet irradiances: Comparison with the Atlas 1 and 2 measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 9541–9569 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Matej and R. M. Lewitt, “Practical consideration of 3-D image reconstruction using spherically symmetric volume elements,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imag. 15, 68–78 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Dahlback, “Measurements of biologically effective UV doses, total ozone abundances, and cloud effects with multichannel, moderate bandwidth filter instrument,” Appl. Opt. 35, 6514–6521 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993

Y. X. Hu and K. Stamnes, “An accurate parameterization of the radiative properties of water clouds suitable for use in climate models,” J. Clim. 6, 728–742 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991

K. Stamnes, J. Slusser, and M. Bowen, “Derivation of total ozone abundance and cloud effects from spectral irradiance measurements,” Appl. Opt. 30, 4418–4426 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Dahlback and K. Stamnes, “A new spherical model for computing the radiation field available for photolysis and heating at twilight,” Planet. Space Sci. 39, 671–683 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1988

1986

K. Stamnes, “The theory of multiple scattering of radiation in plane parallel atmospheres,” Rev. Geophys. 24, 299–310 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Aalerud, T. N.

T. N. Aalerud and B. Johnsen, “The Norwegian UV Monitoring Network,” Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, Østerås, Norway (2006).

Acharya, P. K.

A. Berk, G. P. Anderson, P. K. Acharya, L. S. Bernstein, L. Muratov, J. Lee, M. Fox, S. M. Adler-Golden, J. H. Chetwynd, Ml, and Hoke, and others, “MODTRAN 5: a reformulated atmospheric band model with auxiliary species and practical multiple scattering options,” in Fourth International Asia-Pacific Environmental Remote Sensing Symposium 2004: Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere, Ocean, Environment, and Space, International Society for Optics and Photonics (2005), pp. 88–95.

Adler-Golden, S. M.

A. Berk, G. P. Anderson, P. K. Acharya, L. S. Bernstein, L. Muratov, J. Lee, M. Fox, S. M. Adler-Golden, J. H. Chetwynd, Ml, and Hoke, and others, “MODTRAN 5: a reformulated atmospheric band model with auxiliary species and practical multiple scattering options,” in Fourth International Asia-Pacific Environmental Remote Sensing Symposium 2004: Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere, Ocean, Environment, and Space, International Society for Optics and Photonics (2005), pp. 88–95.

Ahmad, Z.

Z. Ahmad, P. K. Bhartia, and N. Krotkov, “Spectral properties of backscattered UV radiation in cloudy atmospheres,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, D01201 (2003).

Anderson, G. P.

A. Berk, G. P. Anderson, P. K. Acharya, L. S. Bernstein, L. Muratov, J. Lee, M. Fox, S. M. Adler-Golden, J. H. Chetwynd, Ml, and Hoke, and others, “MODTRAN 5: a reformulated atmospheric band model with auxiliary species and practical multiple scattering options,” in Fourth International Asia-Pacific Environmental Remote Sensing Symposium 2004: Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere, Ocean, Environment, and Space, International Society for Optics and Photonics (2005), pp. 88–95.

Andrews, M. D.

T. N. Woods, D. K. Prinz, G. J. Rottmann, J. London, P. C. Crane, R. P. Cebula, E. Hilsenrath, G. E. Brueckner, M. D. Andrews, O. R. White, M. E. VanHoosier, L. E. Floyd, L. C. Herring, B. G. Knapp, C. K. Pankrantz, and P. A. Reiser, “Validation of the UARS solar ultraviolet irradiances: Comparison with the Atlas 1 and 2 measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 9541–9569 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Antón, M.

M. Antón and D. Loyola, “Influence of cloud properties on satellite total ozone observations,” J. Geophys. Res. 116, D03208 (2011).

Assi, A. H.

H. Maitha, A. Shamisi, A. H. Assi, and H. A. N. Hejase, “Engineering education and research using MATLAB,” Using MATLAB to Develop Artificial Neural Network Models for Predicting Global Solar Radiation in Al Ain City, UAE (CC BY 3.0US, 2011).

Bais, A. F.

A. Kazantzidis, A. F. Bais, M. M. Zempila, C. Meleti, K. Eleftheratos, and C. S. Zerefos, “Evaluation of ozone column measurements over Greece with NILU-UV multi-channel radiometers,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 30(15–16), 4273–4281 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Beale, M. H.

M. H. Beale, M. T. Hagan, and B. Demuth, Neural Network Toolbox User’s Guide (The MathWorks. Inc, 2013).

Bennett, J.

J. Bennett and W. Briggs, Using and Understanding Mathematics: A Quantitative Reasoning Approach (Pearson, 2008).

Berk, A.

A. Berk, G. P. Anderson, P. K. Acharya, L. S. Bernstein, L. Muratov, J. Lee, M. Fox, S. M. Adler-Golden, J. H. Chetwynd, Ml, and Hoke, and others, “MODTRAN 5: a reformulated atmospheric band model with auxiliary species and practical multiple scattering options,” in Fourth International Asia-Pacific Environmental Remote Sensing Symposium 2004: Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere, Ocean, Environment, and Space, International Society for Optics and Photonics (2005), pp. 88–95.

Bernath, P.

R. V. Martin, B. Sauvage, I. Folkins, C. E. Sioris, C. Boone, P. Bernath, and J. Ziemke, “Space-based constraints on the production of nitric oxide by lightning,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D09309 (2007).

Bernstein, L. S.

A. Berk, G. P. Anderson, P. K. Acharya, L. S. Bernstein, L. Muratov, J. Lee, M. Fox, S. M. Adler-Golden, J. H. Chetwynd, Ml, and Hoke, and others, “MODTRAN 5: a reformulated atmospheric band model with auxiliary species and practical multiple scattering options,” in Fourth International Asia-Pacific Environmental Remote Sensing Symposium 2004: Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere, Ocean, Environment, and Space, International Society for Optics and Photonics (2005), pp. 88–95.

Bhartia, P. K.

Z. Ahmad, P. K. Bhartia, and N. Krotkov, “Spectral properties of backscattered UV radiation in cloudy atmospheres,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, D01201 (2003).

P. K. Bhartia and C. W. Wellemeyer, “OMI TOMS-V8 Total O3 Algorithm, Algorithm Theoretical Baseline Document:OMI Ozone Products,” vol. II, ATBDOMI-02, version 2.0 (2002).

R. D. McPeters, P. K. Bhartia, A. J. Krueger, J. R. Herman, B. M. Schlesinger, C. G. Wellemeyer, C. J. Seftor, G. Jaross, S. L. Taylor, T. Swissler, O. Torres, G. Labow, W. Byerly, and R. P. Cebula, “Nimbus-7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) Data Products User’s Guide,” NASA Reference Publication(1996).

Bishop, C. M.

C. M. Bishop, Neural Networks for Pattern Recognition (Clarendon, 1995).

Blackwell, W. J.

W. J. Blackwell, “A neural-network technique for the retrieval of atmospheric temperature and moisture profiles from high spectral resolution sounding data,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 43, 2535–2546 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Blumthaler, M.

Boone, C.

R. V. Martin, B. Sauvage, I. Folkins, C. E. Sioris, C. Boone, P. Bernath, and J. Ziemke, “Space-based constraints on the production of nitric oxide by lightning,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D09309 (2007).

Bors, A. G.

A. G. Bors, “Introduction of the radial basis function (RBF) networks,” OSEE 1, DSP Algorithms: Multimedia, 1–7 (2001).

Bowen, M.

Briggs, W.

J. Bennett and W. Briggs, Using and Understanding Mathematics: A Quantitative Reasoning Approach (Pearson, 2008).

Broomhead, D. S.

D. S. Broomhead and D. Lowe, “Radial basis functions, multi-variable functional interpolation and adaptive networks,” in Royal Signals and Radar Establishment, Malvern, United Kingdom, No. RSRE-MEMO-4148 (1988).

Brueckner, G. E.

T. N. Woods, D. K. Prinz, G. J. Rottmann, J. London, P. C. Crane, R. P. Cebula, E. Hilsenrath, G. E. Brueckner, M. D. Andrews, O. R. White, M. E. VanHoosier, L. E. Floyd, L. C. Herring, B. G. Knapp, C. K. Pankrantz, and P. A. Reiser, “Validation of the UARS solar ultraviolet irradiances: Comparison with the Atlas 1 and 2 measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 9541–9569 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Byerly, W.

R. D. McPeters, P. K. Bhartia, A. J. Krueger, J. R. Herman, B. M. Schlesinger, C. G. Wellemeyer, C. J. Seftor, G. Jaross, S. L. Taylor, T. Swissler, O. Torres, G. Labow, W. Byerly, and R. P. Cebula, “Nimbus-7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) Data Products User’s Guide,” NASA Reference Publication(1996).

Caiqing, Z.

Z. Caiqing, Q. Ruonan, and Q. Zhiwen, “Comparing BP and RBF neural network for forecasting the resident consumer level by MATLAB,” in International Conference on Computer and Electrical Engineering (2008), pp. 169–172.

Cebula, R. P.

T. N. Woods, D. K. Prinz, G. J. Rottmann, J. London, P. C. Crane, R. P. Cebula, E. Hilsenrath, G. E. Brueckner, M. D. Andrews, O. R. White, M. E. VanHoosier, L. E. Floyd, L. C. Herring, B. G. Knapp, C. K. Pankrantz, and P. A. Reiser, “Validation of the UARS solar ultraviolet irradiances: Comparison with the Atlas 1 and 2 measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 9541–9569 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. D. McPeters, P. K. Bhartia, A. J. Krueger, J. R. Herman, B. M. Schlesinger, C. G. Wellemeyer, C. J. Seftor, G. Jaross, S. L. Taylor, T. Swissler, O. Torres, G. Labow, W. Byerly, and R. P. Cebula, “Nimbus-7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) Data Products User’s Guide,” NASA Reference Publication(1996).

Chen, Y.

G. Norsang, Y. Chen, N. Pingcuo, A Dahlback, Ø. Frette, B. Kjeldstad, B. Hamre, K. Stamnes, and J. J. Stamnes, “Comparison of ground-based measurements of solar UV radiation at four sites on the Tibetan Plateau,” Appl. Opt., in press (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chetwynd, J. H.

A. Berk, G. P. Anderson, P. K. Acharya, L. S. Bernstein, L. Muratov, J. Lee, M. Fox, S. M. Adler-Golden, J. H. Chetwynd, Ml, and Hoke, and others, “MODTRAN 5: a reformulated atmospheric band model with auxiliary species and practical multiple scattering options,” in Fourth International Asia-Pacific Environmental Remote Sensing Symposium 2004: Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere, Ocean, Environment, and Space, International Society for Optics and Photonics (2005), pp. 88–95.

Coldewey-Egbers, M.

D. G. Loyola and M. Coldewey-Egbers, “Multi-sensor data merging with stacked neural networks for the creation of satellite long-term climate data records,” EURASIP J. Adv. Sig. Pr. 1, 1–10 (2012).

Cordero, R. R.

R. R. Cordero, G. Seckmeyer, D. Pissulla, L. DaSilva, and F. Labbe, “Uncertainty evaluation of spectral UV irradiance measurements,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 19, 045104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Crane, P. C.

T. N. Woods, D. K. Prinz, G. J. Rottmann, J. London, P. C. Crane, R. P. Cebula, E. Hilsenrath, G. E. Brueckner, M. D. Andrews, O. R. White, M. E. VanHoosier, L. E. Floyd, L. C. Herring, B. G. Knapp, C. K. Pankrantz, and P. A. Reiser, “Validation of the UARS solar ultraviolet irradiances: Comparison with the Atlas 1 and 2 measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 9541–9569 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Dahlbach, A.

G. Norsang, L. Kocbach, W. Tsoja, J. J. Stamnes, A. Dahlbach, and P. Nema, “Ground-based measurements and modelling of solar UV-B radiation in Lhasa, Tibet,” Atmos. Environ. 43, 1498–1502 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dahlback, A

G. Norsang, Y. Chen, N. Pingcuo, A Dahlback, Ø. Frette, B. Kjeldstad, B. Hamre, K. Stamnes, and J. J. Stamnes, “Comparison of ground-based measurements of solar UV radiation at four sites on the Tibetan Plateau,” Appl. Opt., in press (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dahlback, A.

L. Fan, W. Li, A. Dahlback, J. J. Stamnes, S. Stamnes, and K. Stamnes, “Comparisons of three NILU-UV instruments deployed at the same site in the New York area,” Appl. Opt. 53(17), 3598–3606 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Dahlback, N. Gelsor, J. J. Stamnes, and Y. Gjessing, “UV measurements in the 3000–5000 m altitude region in Tibet,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D09308 (2007).

A. Dahlback, H. A. Eide, B. A. K. Høiskar, R. O. Olsen, F. J. Schmidlin, S. C. Tsay, and K. Stamnes, “Comparison of data for ozone amounts and ultraviolet doses obtained from simultaneous measurements with various standard ultraviolet instruments,” Opt. Eng. 44, 041010 (2005).
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B. A. K. Høiskar, R. Haugen, T. Danielsen, A. Kylling, K. Edvardsen, A. Dahlback, B. Johnsen, M. Blumthaler, and J. Schreder, “Multichannel moderate-bandwidth filter instrument for measurement of the ozone-column amount, cloud transmittance, and ultraviolet dose rates,” Appl. Opt. 42, 3472–3479 (2003).
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R. R. Cordero, G. Seckmeyer, D. Pissulla, L. DaSilva, and F. Labbe, “Uncertainty evaluation of spectral UV irradiance measurements,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 19, 045104 (2008).
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B. Lapeta, I. Dyras, and Z. Ustrnu, “Homogenization of the total ozone amount series derived from NOAA/TOVS data,” in Proceedings of International TOVS Study Conference, 4–10, Maratea, Italy (2006), pp. 599–605.

Edvardsen, K.

Eide, H. A.

A. Dahlback, H. A. Eide, B. A. K. Høiskar, R. O. Olsen, F. J. Schmidlin, S. C. Tsay, and K. Stamnes, “Comparison of data for ozone amounts and ultraviolet doses obtained from simultaneous measurements with various standard ultraviolet instruments,” Opt. Eng. 44, 041010 (2005).
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A. Kazantzidis, A. F. Bais, M. M. Zempila, C. Meleti, K. Eleftheratos, and C. S. Zerefos, “Evaluation of ozone column measurements over Greece with NILU-UV multi-channel radiometers,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 30(15–16), 4273–4281 (2009).
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T. N. Woods, D. K. Prinz, G. J. Rottmann, J. London, P. C. Crane, R. P. Cebula, E. Hilsenrath, G. E. Brueckner, M. D. Andrews, O. R. White, M. E. VanHoosier, L. E. Floyd, L. C. Herring, B. G. Knapp, C. K. Pankrantz, and P. A. Reiser, “Validation of the UARS solar ultraviolet irradiances: Comparison with the Atlas 1 and 2 measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 9541–9569 (1996).
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R. V. Martin, B. Sauvage, I. Folkins, C. E. Sioris, C. Boone, P. Bernath, and J. Ziemke, “Space-based constraints on the production of nitric oxide by lightning,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D09309 (2007).

Fox, M.

A. Berk, G. P. Anderson, P. K. Acharya, L. S. Bernstein, L. Muratov, J. Lee, M. Fox, S. M. Adler-Golden, J. H. Chetwynd, Ml, and Hoke, and others, “MODTRAN 5: a reformulated atmospheric band model with auxiliary species and practical multiple scattering options,” in Fourth International Asia-Pacific Environmental Remote Sensing Symposium 2004: Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere, Ocean, Environment, and Space, International Society for Optics and Photonics (2005), pp. 88–95.

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G. Norsang, Y. Chen, N. Pingcuo, A Dahlback, Ø. Frette, B. Kjeldstad, B. Hamre, K. Stamnes, and J. J. Stamnes, “Comparison of ground-based measurements of solar UV radiation at four sites on the Tibetan Plateau,” Appl. Opt., in press (2014).
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A. Dahlback, N. Gelsor, J. J. Stamnes, and Y. Gjessing, “UV measurements in the 3000–5000 m altitude region in Tibet,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D09308 (2007).

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C. R. Roy, H. P. Gies, D. J. Lugg, S. Toomey, and D. W. Tomlinson, “The effect of clouds on enhancing UVB irradiance at the Earth’s surface: A one year study,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 3337–3340 (1998).

Gjessing, Y.

A. Dahlback, N. Gelsor, J. J. Stamnes, and Y. Gjessing, “UV measurements in the 3000–5000 m altitude region in Tibet,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D09308 (2007).

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G. Norsang, Y. Chen, N. Pingcuo, A Dahlback, Ø. Frette, B. Kjeldstad, B. Hamre, K. Stamnes, and J. J. Stamnes, “Comparison of ground-based measurements of solar UV radiation at four sites on the Tibetan Plateau,” Appl. Opt., in press (2014).
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R. D. McPeters, P. K. Bhartia, A. J. Krueger, J. R. Herman, B. M. Schlesinger, C. G. Wellemeyer, C. J. Seftor, G. Jaross, S. L. Taylor, T. Swissler, O. Torres, G. Labow, W. Byerly, and R. P. Cebula, “Nimbus-7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) Data Products User’s Guide,” NASA Reference Publication(1996).

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T. N. Woods, D. K. Prinz, G. J. Rottmann, J. London, P. C. Crane, R. P. Cebula, E. Hilsenrath, G. E. Brueckner, M. D. Andrews, O. R. White, M. E. VanHoosier, L. E. Floyd, L. C. Herring, B. G. Knapp, C. K. Pankrantz, and P. A. Reiser, “Validation of the UARS solar ultraviolet irradiances: Comparison with the Atlas 1 and 2 measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 9541–9569 (1996).
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T. N. Woods, D. K. Prinz, G. J. Rottmann, J. London, P. C. Crane, R. P. Cebula, E. Hilsenrath, G. E. Brueckner, M. D. Andrews, O. R. White, M. E. VanHoosier, L. E. Floyd, L. C. Herring, B. G. Knapp, C. K. Pankrantz, and P. A. Reiser, “Validation of the UARS solar ultraviolet irradiances: Comparison with the Atlas 1 and 2 measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 9541–9569 (1996).
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A. Dahlback, H. A. Eide, B. A. K. Høiskar, R. O. Olsen, F. J. Schmidlin, S. C. Tsay, and K. Stamnes, “Comparison of data for ozone amounts and ultraviolet doses obtained from simultaneous measurements with various standard ultraviolet instruments,” Opt. Eng. 44, 041010 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. A. K. Høiskar, R. Haugen, T. Danielsen, A. Kylling, K. Edvardsen, A. Dahlback, B. Johnsen, M. Blumthaler, and J. Schreder, “Multichannel moderate-bandwidth filter instrument for measurement of the ozone-column amount, cloud transmittance, and ultraviolet dose rates,” Appl. Opt. 42, 3472–3479 (2003).
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A. Berk, G. P. Anderson, P. K. Acharya, L. S. Bernstein, L. Muratov, J. Lee, M. Fox, S. M. Adler-Golden, J. H. Chetwynd, Ml, and Hoke, and others, “MODTRAN 5: a reformulated atmospheric band model with auxiliary species and practical multiple scattering options,” in Fourth International Asia-Pacific Environmental Remote Sensing Symposium 2004: Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere, Ocean, Environment, and Space, International Society for Optics and Photonics (2005), pp. 88–95.

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A. Kazantzidis, A. F. Bais, M. M. Zempila, C. Meleti, K. Eleftheratos, and C. S. Zerefos, “Evaluation of ozone column measurements over Greece with NILU-UV multi-channel radiometers,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 30(15–16), 4273–4281 (2009).
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G. Norsang, Y. Chen, N. Pingcuo, A Dahlback, Ø. Frette, B. Kjeldstad, B. Hamre, K. Stamnes, and J. J. Stamnes, “Comparison of ground-based measurements of solar UV radiation at four sites on the Tibetan Plateau,” Appl. Opt., in press (2014).
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T. N. Woods, D. K. Prinz, G. J. Rottmann, J. London, P. C. Crane, R. P. Cebula, E. Hilsenrath, G. E. Brueckner, M. D. Andrews, O. R. White, M. E. VanHoosier, L. E. Floyd, L. C. Herring, B. G. Knapp, C. K. Pankrantz, and P. A. Reiser, “Validation of the UARS solar ultraviolet irradiances: Comparison with the Atlas 1 and 2 measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 9541–9569 (1996).
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G. Norsang, L. Kocbach, J. J. Stamnes, W. Tsoja, and N. Pingcuo, “Spatial distribution and temporal variation of solar UV radiation over the Tibetan Plateau,” Appl. Phys. Res. 3, 37–46 (2011).
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G. Norsang, L. Kocbach, W. Tsoja, J. J. Stamnes, A. Dahlbach, and P. Nema, “Ground-based measurements and modelling of solar UV-B radiation in Lhasa, Tibet,” Atmos. Environ. 43, 1498–1502 (2009).
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R. D. McPeters, P. K. Bhartia, A. J. Krueger, J. R. Herman, B. M. Schlesinger, C. G. Wellemeyer, C. J. Seftor, G. Jaross, S. L. Taylor, T. Swissler, O. Torres, G. Labow, W. Byerly, and R. P. Cebula, “Nimbus-7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) Data Products User’s Guide,” NASA Reference Publication(1996).

Kylling, A.

Labbe, F.

R. R. Cordero, G. Seckmeyer, D. Pissulla, L. DaSilva, and F. Labbe, “Uncertainty evaluation of spectral UV irradiance measurements,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 19, 045104 (2008).
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R. D. McPeters, P. K. Bhartia, A. J. Krueger, J. R. Herman, B. M. Schlesinger, C. G. Wellemeyer, C. J. Seftor, G. Jaross, S. L. Taylor, T. Swissler, O. Torres, G. Labow, W. Byerly, and R. P. Cebula, “Nimbus-7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) Data Products User’s Guide,” NASA Reference Publication(1996).

Lapeta, B.

B. Lapeta, I. Dyras, and Z. Ustrnu, “Homogenization of the total ozone amount series derived from NOAA/TOVS data,” in Proceedings of International TOVS Study Conference, 4–10, Maratea, Italy (2006), pp. 599–605.

Lee, J.

A. Berk, G. P. Anderson, P. K. Acharya, L. S. Bernstein, L. Muratov, J. Lee, M. Fox, S. M. Adler-Golden, J. H. Chetwynd, Ml, and Hoke, and others, “MODTRAN 5: a reformulated atmospheric band model with auxiliary species and practical multiple scattering options,” in Fourth International Asia-Pacific Environmental Remote Sensing Symposium 2004: Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere, Ocean, Environment, and Space, International Society for Optics and Photonics (2005), pp. 88–95.

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C. R. Roy, H. P. Gies, D. J. Lugg, S. Toomey, and D. W. Tomlinson, “The effect of clouds on enhancing UVB irradiance at the Earth’s surface: A one year study,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 3337–3340 (1998).

Maitha, H.

H. Maitha, A. Shamisi, A. H. Assi, and H. A. N. Hejase, “Engineering education and research using MATLAB,” Using MATLAB to Develop Artificial Neural Network Models for Predicting Global Solar Radiation in Al Ain City, UAE (CC BY 3.0US, 2011).

Martin, R. V.

R. V. Martin, B. Sauvage, I. Folkins, C. E. Sioris, C. Boone, P. Bernath, and J. Ziemke, “Space-based constraints on the production of nitric oxide by lightning,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D09309 (2007).

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J. Matej and R. M. Lewitt, “Practical consideration of 3-D image reconstruction using spherically symmetric volume elements,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imag. 15, 68–78 (1996).
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R. D. McPeters, P. K. Bhartia, A. J. Krueger, J. R. Herman, B. M. Schlesinger, C. G. Wellemeyer, C. J. Seftor, G. Jaross, S. L. Taylor, T. Swissler, O. Torres, G. Labow, W. Byerly, and R. P. Cebula, “Nimbus-7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) Data Products User’s Guide,” NASA Reference Publication(1996).

Meleti, C.

A. Kazantzidis, A. F. Bais, M. M. Zempila, C. Meleti, K. Eleftheratos, and C. S. Zerefos, “Evaluation of ozone column measurements over Greece with NILU-UV multi-channel radiometers,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 30(15–16), 4273–4281 (2009).
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A. Berk, G. P. Anderson, P. K. Acharya, L. S. Bernstein, L. Muratov, J. Lee, M. Fox, S. M. Adler-Golden, J. H. Chetwynd, Ml, and Hoke, and others, “MODTRAN 5: a reformulated atmospheric band model with auxiliary species and practical multiple scattering options,” in Fourth International Asia-Pacific Environmental Remote Sensing Symposium 2004: Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere, Ocean, Environment, and Space, International Society for Optics and Photonics (2005), pp. 88–95.

Müller, M. D.

M. D. Müller, A. K. Kaifel, and M. Weber, “Ozone from GOME data using neural network technique,” in Proc. Looking Down to Earth in the New Millenium Symp. (2000).

Muratov, L.

A. Berk, G. P. Anderson, P. K. Acharya, L. S. Bernstein, L. Muratov, J. Lee, M. Fox, S. M. Adler-Golden, J. H. Chetwynd, Ml, and Hoke, and others, “MODTRAN 5: a reformulated atmospheric band model with auxiliary species and practical multiple scattering options,” in Fourth International Asia-Pacific Environmental Remote Sensing Symposium 2004: Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere, Ocean, Environment, and Space, International Society for Optics and Photonics (2005), pp. 88–95.

Nema, P.

G. Norsang, L. Kocbach, W. Tsoja, J. J. Stamnes, A. Dahlbach, and P. Nema, “Ground-based measurements and modelling of solar UV-B radiation in Lhasa, Tibet,” Atmos. Environ. 43, 1498–1502 (2009).
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Norsang, G.

G. Norsang, L. Kocbach, J. J. Stamnes, W. Tsoja, and N. Pingcuo, “Spatial distribution and temporal variation of solar UV radiation over the Tibetan Plateau,” Appl. Phys. Res. 3, 37–46 (2011).
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G. Norsang, L. Kocbach, W. Tsoja, J. J. Stamnes, A. Dahlbach, and P. Nema, “Ground-based measurements and modelling of solar UV-B radiation in Lhasa, Tibet,” Atmos. Environ. 43, 1498–1502 (2009).
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G. Norsang, Y. Chen, N. Pingcuo, A Dahlback, Ø. Frette, B. Kjeldstad, B. Hamre, K. Stamnes, and J. J. Stamnes, “Comparison of ground-based measurements of solar UV radiation at four sites on the Tibetan Plateau,” Appl. Opt., in press (2014).
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A. Dahlback, H. A. Eide, B. A. K. Høiskar, R. O. Olsen, F. J. Schmidlin, S. C. Tsay, and K. Stamnes, “Comparison of data for ozone amounts and ultraviolet doses obtained from simultaneous measurements with various standard ultraviolet instruments,” Opt. Eng. 44, 041010 (2005).
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T. N. Woods, D. K. Prinz, G. J. Rottmann, J. London, P. C. Crane, R. P. Cebula, E. Hilsenrath, G. E. Brueckner, M. D. Andrews, O. R. White, M. E. VanHoosier, L. E. Floyd, L. C. Herring, B. G. Knapp, C. K. Pankrantz, and P. A. Reiser, “Validation of the UARS solar ultraviolet irradiances: Comparison with the Atlas 1 and 2 measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 9541–9569 (1996).
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Pingcuo, N.

G. Norsang, L. Kocbach, J. J. Stamnes, W. Tsoja, and N. Pingcuo, “Spatial distribution and temporal variation of solar UV radiation over the Tibetan Plateau,” Appl. Phys. Res. 3, 37–46 (2011).
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G. Norsang, Y. Chen, N. Pingcuo, A Dahlback, Ø. Frette, B. Kjeldstad, B. Hamre, K. Stamnes, and J. J. Stamnes, “Comparison of ground-based measurements of solar UV radiation at four sites on the Tibetan Plateau,” Appl. Opt., in press (2014).
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Pissulla, D.

R. R. Cordero, G. Seckmeyer, D. Pissulla, L. DaSilva, and F. Labbe, “Uncertainty evaluation of spectral UV irradiance measurements,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 19, 045104 (2008).
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T. N. Woods, D. K. Prinz, G. J. Rottmann, J. London, P. C. Crane, R. P. Cebula, E. Hilsenrath, G. E. Brueckner, M. D. Andrews, O. R. White, M. E. VanHoosier, L. E. Floyd, L. C. Herring, B. G. Knapp, C. K. Pankrantz, and P. A. Reiser, “Validation of the UARS solar ultraviolet irradiances: Comparison with the Atlas 1 and 2 measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 9541–9569 (1996).
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Reiser, P. A.

T. N. Woods, D. K. Prinz, G. J. Rottmann, J. London, P. C. Crane, R. P. Cebula, E. Hilsenrath, G. E. Brueckner, M. D. Andrews, O. R. White, M. E. VanHoosier, L. E. Floyd, L. C. Herring, B. G. Knapp, C. K. Pankrantz, and P. A. Reiser, “Validation of the UARS solar ultraviolet irradiances: Comparison with the Atlas 1 and 2 measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 9541–9569 (1996).
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Rottmann, G. J.

T. N. Woods, D. K. Prinz, G. J. Rottmann, J. London, P. C. Crane, R. P. Cebula, E. Hilsenrath, G. E. Brueckner, M. D. Andrews, O. R. White, M. E. VanHoosier, L. E. Floyd, L. C. Herring, B. G. Knapp, C. K. Pankrantz, and P. A. Reiser, “Validation of the UARS solar ultraviolet irradiances: Comparison with the Atlas 1 and 2 measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 9541–9569 (1996).
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Roy, C. R.

C. R. Roy, H. P. Gies, D. J. Lugg, S. Toomey, and D. W. Tomlinson, “The effect of clouds on enhancing UVB irradiance at the Earth’s surface: A one year study,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 3337–3340 (1998).

Ruonan, Q.

Z. Caiqing, Q. Ruonan, and Q. Zhiwen, “Comparing BP and RBF neural network for forecasting the resident consumer level by MATLAB,” in International Conference on Computer and Electrical Engineering (2008), pp. 169–172.

Sauvage, B.

R. V. Martin, B. Sauvage, I. Folkins, C. E. Sioris, C. Boone, P. Bernath, and J. Ziemke, “Space-based constraints on the production of nitric oxide by lightning,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D09309 (2007).

Schlesinger, B. M.

R. D. McPeters, P. K. Bhartia, A. J. Krueger, J. R. Herman, B. M. Schlesinger, C. G. Wellemeyer, C. J. Seftor, G. Jaross, S. L. Taylor, T. Swissler, O. Torres, G. Labow, W. Byerly, and R. P. Cebula, “Nimbus-7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) Data Products User’s Guide,” NASA Reference Publication(1996).

Schmidlin, F. J.

A. Dahlback, H. A. Eide, B. A. K. Høiskar, R. O. Olsen, F. J. Schmidlin, S. C. Tsay, and K. Stamnes, “Comparison of data for ozone amounts and ultraviolet doses obtained from simultaneous measurements with various standard ultraviolet instruments,” Opt. Eng. 44, 041010 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schreder, J.

Seckmeyer, G.

R. R. Cordero, G. Seckmeyer, D. Pissulla, L. DaSilva, and F. Labbe, “Uncertainty evaluation of spectral UV irradiance measurements,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 19, 045104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Seftor, C. J.

R. D. McPeters, P. K. Bhartia, A. J. Krueger, J. R. Herman, B. M. Schlesinger, C. G. Wellemeyer, C. J. Seftor, G. Jaross, S. L. Taylor, T. Swissler, O. Torres, G. Labow, W. Byerly, and R. P. Cebula, “Nimbus-7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) Data Products User’s Guide,” NASA Reference Publication(1996).

Shamisi, A.

H. Maitha, A. Shamisi, A. H. Assi, and H. A. N. Hejase, “Engineering education and research using MATLAB,” Using MATLAB to Develop Artificial Neural Network Models for Predicting Global Solar Radiation in Al Ain City, UAE (CC BY 3.0US, 2011).

Sioris, C. E.

R. V. Martin, B. Sauvage, I. Folkins, C. E. Sioris, C. Boone, P. Bernath, and J. Ziemke, “Space-based constraints on the production of nitric oxide by lightning,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D09309 (2007).

Slusser, J.

Stamnes, J. J.

L. Fan, W. Li, A. Dahlback, J. J. Stamnes, S. Stamnes, and K. Stamnes, “Comparisons of three NILU-UV instruments deployed at the same site in the New York area,” Appl. Opt. 53(17), 3598–3606 (2014).
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G. Norsang, L. Kocbach, J. J. Stamnes, W. Tsoja, and N. Pingcuo, “Spatial distribution and temporal variation of solar UV radiation over the Tibetan Plateau,” Appl. Phys. Res. 3, 37–46 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Norsang, L. Kocbach, W. Tsoja, J. J. Stamnes, A. Dahlbach, and P. Nema, “Ground-based measurements and modelling of solar UV-B radiation in Lhasa, Tibet,” Atmos. Environ. 43, 1498–1502 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Dahlback, N. Gelsor, J. J. Stamnes, and Y. Gjessing, “UV measurements in the 3000–5000 m altitude region in Tibet,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D09308 (2007).

G. Norsang, Y. Chen, N. Pingcuo, A Dahlback, Ø. Frette, B. Kjeldstad, B. Hamre, K. Stamnes, and J. J. Stamnes, “Comparison of ground-based measurements of solar UV radiation at four sites on the Tibetan Plateau,” Appl. Opt., in press (2014).
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Stamnes, K.

L. Fan, W. Li, A. Dahlback, J. J. Stamnes, S. Stamnes, and K. Stamnes, “Comparisons of three NILU-UV instruments deployed at the same site in the New York area,” Appl. Opt. 53(17), 3598–3606 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Dahlback, H. A. Eide, B. A. K. Høiskar, R. O. Olsen, F. J. Schmidlin, S. C. Tsay, and K. Stamnes, “Comparison of data for ozone amounts and ultraviolet doses obtained from simultaneous measurements with various standard ultraviolet instruments,” Opt. Eng. 44, 041010 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. X. Hu and K. Stamnes, “An accurate parameterization of the radiative properties of water clouds suitable for use in climate models,” J. Clim. 6, 728–742 (1993).
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K. Stamnes, J. Slusser, and M. Bowen, “Derivation of total ozone abundance and cloud effects from spectral irradiance measurements,” Appl. Opt. 30, 4418–4426 (1991).
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A. Dahlback and K. Stamnes, “A new spherical model for computing the radiation field available for photolysis and heating at twilight,” Planet. Space Sci. 39, 671–683 (1991).
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K. Stamnes, S. C. Tsay, W. J. Wiscombe, and K. Jayaweera, “Numerically stable algorithm for discrete-ordinate-method radiative transfer in multiple scattering and emitting layered media,” Appl. Opt. 27, 2502–2509 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Stamnes, “The theory of multiple scattering of radiation in plane parallel atmospheres,” Rev. Geophys. 24, 299–310 (1986).
[CrossRef]

G. E. Thomas and K. Stamnes, Radiative Transfer in the Atmosphere and Ocean (Cambridge University, 1999).
[CrossRef]

G. Norsang, Y. Chen, N. Pingcuo, A Dahlback, Ø. Frette, B. Kjeldstad, B. Hamre, K. Stamnes, and J. J. Stamnes, “Comparison of ground-based measurements of solar UV radiation at four sites on the Tibetan Plateau,” Appl. Opt., in press (2014).
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S. Whiteson and P. Stone, “Evolutionary function approximation for reinforcement learning,” J. Mach. Learn. Res. 7, 877–917 (2006).

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R. D. McPeters, P. K. Bhartia, A. J. Krueger, J. R. Herman, B. M. Schlesinger, C. G. Wellemeyer, C. J. Seftor, G. Jaross, S. L. Taylor, T. Swissler, O. Torres, G. Labow, W. Byerly, and R. P. Cebula, “Nimbus-7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) Data Products User’s Guide,” NASA Reference Publication(1996).

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S. Tamura and A. Waibel, “Noise reduction using connectionist models,” in ICASSP (1988), pp. 553–556.

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R. D. McPeters, P. K. Bhartia, A. J. Krueger, J. R. Herman, B. M. Schlesinger, C. G. Wellemeyer, C. J. Seftor, G. Jaross, S. L. Taylor, T. Swissler, O. Torres, G. Labow, W. Byerly, and R. P. Cebula, “Nimbus-7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) Data Products User’s Guide,” NASA Reference Publication(1996).

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G. E. Thomas and K. Stamnes, Radiative Transfer in the Atmosphere and Ocean (Cambridge University, 1999).
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C. R. Roy, H. P. Gies, D. J. Lugg, S. Toomey, and D. W. Tomlinson, “The effect of clouds on enhancing UVB irradiance at the Earth’s surface: A one year study,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 3337–3340 (1998).

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C. R. Roy, H. P. Gies, D. J. Lugg, S. Toomey, and D. W. Tomlinson, “The effect of clouds on enhancing UVB irradiance at the Earth’s surface: A one year study,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 3337–3340 (1998).

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R. D. McPeters, P. K. Bhartia, A. J. Krueger, J. R. Herman, B. M. Schlesinger, C. G. Wellemeyer, C. J. Seftor, G. Jaross, S. L. Taylor, T. Swissler, O. Torres, G. Labow, W. Byerly, and R. P. Cebula, “Nimbus-7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) Data Products User’s Guide,” NASA Reference Publication(1996).

Tsay, S. C.

A. Dahlback, H. A. Eide, B. A. K. Høiskar, R. O. Olsen, F. J. Schmidlin, S. C. Tsay, and K. Stamnes, “Comparison of data for ozone amounts and ultraviolet doses obtained from simultaneous measurements with various standard ultraviolet instruments,” Opt. Eng. 44, 041010 (2005).
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Tsoja, W.

G. Norsang, L. Kocbach, J. J. Stamnes, W. Tsoja, and N. Pingcuo, “Spatial distribution and temporal variation of solar UV radiation over the Tibetan Plateau,” Appl. Phys. Res. 3, 37–46 (2011).
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B. Lapeta, I. Dyras, and Z. Ustrnu, “Homogenization of the total ozone amount series derived from NOAA/TOVS data,” in Proceedings of International TOVS Study Conference, 4–10, Maratea, Italy (2006), pp. 599–605.

VanHoosier, M. E.

T. N. Woods, D. K. Prinz, G. J. Rottmann, J. London, P. C. Crane, R. P. Cebula, E. Hilsenrath, G. E. Brueckner, M. D. Andrews, O. R. White, M. E. VanHoosier, L. E. Floyd, L. C. Herring, B. G. Knapp, C. K. Pankrantz, and P. A. Reiser, “Validation of the UARS solar ultraviolet irradiances: Comparison with the Atlas 1 and 2 measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 9541–9569 (1996).
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M. D. Müller, A. K. Kaifel, and M. Weber, “Ozone from GOME data using neural network technique,” in Proc. Looking Down to Earth in the New Millenium Symp. (2000).

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R. D. McPeters, P. K. Bhartia, A. J. Krueger, J. R. Herman, B. M. Schlesinger, C. G. Wellemeyer, C. J. Seftor, G. Jaross, S. L. Taylor, T. Swissler, O. Torres, G. Labow, W. Byerly, and R. P. Cebula, “Nimbus-7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) Data Products User’s Guide,” NASA Reference Publication(1996).

Wellemeyer, C. W.

P. K. Bhartia and C. W. Wellemeyer, “OMI TOMS-V8 Total O3 Algorithm, Algorithm Theoretical Baseline Document:OMI Ozone Products,” vol. II, ATBDOMI-02, version 2.0 (2002).

White, O. R.

T. N. Woods, D. K. Prinz, G. J. Rottmann, J. London, P. C. Crane, R. P. Cebula, E. Hilsenrath, G. E. Brueckner, M. D. Andrews, O. R. White, M. E. VanHoosier, L. E. Floyd, L. C. Herring, B. G. Knapp, C. K. Pankrantz, and P. A. Reiser, “Validation of the UARS solar ultraviolet irradiances: Comparison with the Atlas 1 and 2 measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 9541–9569 (1996).
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S. Whiteson and P. Stone, “Evolutionary function approximation for reinforcement learning,” J. Mach. Learn. Res. 7, 877–917 (2006).

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T. N. Woods, D. K. Prinz, G. J. Rottmann, J. London, P. C. Crane, R. P. Cebula, E. Hilsenrath, G. E. Brueckner, M. D. Andrews, O. R. White, M. E. VanHoosier, L. E. Floyd, L. C. Herring, B. G. Knapp, C. K. Pankrantz, and P. A. Reiser, “Validation of the UARS solar ultraviolet irradiances: Comparison with the Atlas 1 and 2 measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 9541–9569 (1996).
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A. Kazantzidis, A. F. Bais, M. M. Zempila, C. Meleti, K. Eleftheratos, and C. S. Zerefos, “Evaluation of ozone column measurements over Greece with NILU-UV multi-channel radiometers,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 30(15–16), 4273–4281 (2009).
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A. Kazantzidis, A. F. Bais, M. M. Zempila, C. Meleti, K. Eleftheratos, and C. S. Zerefos, “Evaluation of ozone column measurements over Greece with NILU-UV multi-channel radiometers,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 30(15–16), 4273–4281 (2009).
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Z. Caiqing, Q. Ruonan, and Q. Zhiwen, “Comparing BP and RBF neural network for forecasting the resident consumer level by MATLAB,” in International Conference on Computer and Electrical Engineering (2008), pp. 169–172.

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R. V. Martin, B. Sauvage, I. Folkins, C. E. Sioris, C. Boone, P. Bernath, and J. Ziemke, “Space-based constraints on the production of nitric oxide by lightning,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D09309 (2007).

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Res.

G. Norsang, L. Kocbach, J. J. Stamnes, W. Tsoja, and N. Pingcuo, “Spatial distribution and temporal variation of solar UV radiation over the Tibetan Plateau,” Appl. Phys. Res. 3, 37–46 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Atmos. Environ.

G. Norsang, L. Kocbach, W. Tsoja, J. J. Stamnes, A. Dahlbach, and P. Nema, “Ground-based measurements and modelling of solar UV-B radiation in Lhasa, Tibet,” Atmos. Environ. 43, 1498–1502 (2009).
[CrossRef]

EURASIP J. Adv. Sig. Pr.

D. G. Loyola and M. Coldewey-Egbers, “Multi-sensor data merging with stacked neural networks for the creation of satellite long-term climate data records,” EURASIP J. Adv. Sig. Pr. 1, 1–10 (2012).

Geophys. Res. Lett.

C. R. Roy, H. P. Gies, D. J. Lugg, S. Toomey, and D. W. Tomlinson, “The effect of clouds on enhancing UVB irradiance at the Earth’s surface: A one year study,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 3337–3340 (1998).

IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens.

W. J. Blackwell, “A neural-network technique for the retrieval of atmospheric temperature and moisture profiles from high spectral resolution sounding data,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 43, 2535–2546 (2005).
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A. Kazantzidis, A. F. Bais, M. M. Zempila, C. Meleti, K. Eleftheratos, and C. S. Zerefos, “Evaluation of ozone column measurements over Greece with NILU-UV multi-channel radiometers,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 30(15–16), 4273–4281 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Clim.

Y. X. Hu and K. Stamnes, “An accurate parameterization of the radiative properties of water clouds suitable for use in climate models,” J. Clim. 6, 728–742 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res.

M. Antón and D. Loyola, “Influence of cloud properties on satellite total ozone observations,” J. Geophys. Res. 116, D03208 (2011).

A. Dahlback, N. Gelsor, J. J. Stamnes, and Y. Gjessing, “UV measurements in the 3000–5000 m altitude region in Tibet,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D09308 (2007).

T. N. Woods, D. K. Prinz, G. J. Rottmann, J. London, P. C. Crane, R. P. Cebula, E. Hilsenrath, G. E. Brueckner, M. D. Andrews, O. R. White, M. E. VanHoosier, L. E. Floyd, L. C. Herring, B. G. Knapp, C. K. Pankrantz, and P. A. Reiser, “Validation of the UARS solar ultraviolet irradiances: Comparison with the Atlas 1 and 2 measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 9541–9569 (1996).
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Z. Ahmad, P. K. Bhartia, and N. Krotkov, “Spectral properties of backscattered UV radiation in cloudy atmospheres,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, D01201 (2003).

R. V. Martin, B. Sauvage, I. Folkins, C. E. Sioris, C. Boone, P. Bernath, and J. Ziemke, “Space-based constraints on the production of nitric oxide by lightning,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D09309 (2007).

J. Mach. Learn. Res.

S. Whiteson and P. Stone, “Evolutionary function approximation for reinforcement learning,” J. Mach. Learn. Res. 7, 877–917 (2006).

Meas. Sci. Technol.

R. R. Cordero, G. Seckmeyer, D. Pissulla, L. DaSilva, and F. Labbe, “Uncertainty evaluation of spectral UV irradiance measurements,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 19, 045104 (2008).
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Opt. Eng.

A. Dahlback, H. A. Eide, B. A. K. Høiskar, R. O. Olsen, F. J. Schmidlin, S. C. Tsay, and K. Stamnes, “Comparison of data for ozone amounts and ultraviolet doses obtained from simultaneous measurements with various standard ultraviolet instruments,” Opt. Eng. 44, 041010 (2005).
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OSEE

A. G. Bors, “Introduction of the radial basis function (RBF) networks,” OSEE 1, DSP Algorithms: Multimedia, 1–7 (2001).

Planet. Space Sci.

A. Dahlback and K. Stamnes, “A new spherical model for computing the radiation field available for photolysis and heating at twilight,” Planet. Space Sci. 39, 671–683 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Geophys.

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R. D. McPeters, P. K. Bhartia, A. J. Krueger, J. R. Herman, B. M. Schlesinger, C. G. Wellemeyer, C. J. Seftor, G. Jaross, S. L. Taylor, T. Swissler, O. Torres, G. Labow, W. Byerly, and R. P. Cebula, “Nimbus-7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) Data Products User’s Guide,” NASA Reference Publication(1996).

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B. Lapeta, I. Dyras, and Z. Ustrnu, “Homogenization of the total ozone amount series derived from NOAA/TOVS data,” in Proceedings of International TOVS Study Conference, 4–10, Maratea, Italy (2006), pp. 599–605.

G. Norsang, Y. Chen, N. Pingcuo, A Dahlback, Ø. Frette, B. Kjeldstad, B. Hamre, K. Stamnes, and J. J. Stamnes, “Comparison of ground-based measurements of solar UV radiation at four sites on the Tibetan Plateau,” Appl. Opt., in press (2014).
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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Relation between RMF and COD based on simulated data obtained from the RTM.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Daily averaged TOC and COD values derived by the RBF-NN method using data from the NILU-UV 29 instrument from 08/05/2010 to 03/01/2013. TOC values derived from the OMI are also included in the upper panel for comparison.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Correlations between TOC values derived by the RBF-NN and LUT methods in 2012. Red points represent TOC values on days with RMF values in excess of 100, and blue points represent TOC values on days with RMF values smaller than 100. (b) Relation between COD values derived using the RBF-NN method and RMF values derived using the LUT method in 2012. Red points represent RMF and COD values on days with RMF values in excess of 100, while blue points indicate RMF and COD values on days with RMF values smaller than 100.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The impact of environmental effects modeled as a cloud optical depth (COD) and a corresponding RMF on TOC values derived from RBF-NN and LUT for four different years (2010–2013).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Left: COD impact on the ratio of the TOC values derived from the RBF-NN method and OMI (2010–2013). Right: RMF impact on the TOC values derived from the LUT method and OMI (2010–2013).

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Comparisons of TOC values derived by the RBF-NN and LUT methods.

Tables Icon

Table 2 Mean relative differences and standard deviations between TOC values derived from OMI and from NILU-UV measurements using the RBF-NN and LUT methods.

Tables Icon

Table 3 (a) Correlations between TOC values derived from OMI and NILU-UV data using the RBF-NN and LUT methods. (b) Correlations between TOC values derived from OMI and RBF-NN for different COD values.

Equations (12)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

V i = 0 k i R i ( λ ) F ( λ ) d λ
k i = V i 0 R i ( λ ) F ( λ ) d λ .
N ( θ 0 , TOC ) = λ = 0 R i ( λ ) F ( λ , θ 0 , TOC ) λ = 0 R j ( λ ) F ( λ , θ 0 , TOC )
RMF = F m ( θ 0 ) F c ( θ 0 ) × 100
O 1 i = exp [ ( ( x 1 i w 1 i ) b 1 ) 2 ]
O 2 i = w L i x 2 i + b 2 i
O 1 i = exp [ ( b 1 k = 1 N in ( w 1 k x 1 k ) ) 2 ] .
O 2 i = w L i exp [ ( b 1 k = 1 N in ( w 1 k x 1 k ) ) 2 ] + b 2 i .
O 2 i = j = 1 N w L i j exp [ ( b 1 k = 1 N in ( w 1 j k x 1 k ) ) 2 ] + b 2 i .
p i = j = 1 N a i j exp [ ( b k = 1 N in ( c j k R k ) ) 2 ] + d i
correl ( x , y ) E [ ( x E [ x ] ) ( y E [ y ] ) ] σ x σ y
rel diff ( x , x ref ) x ref x x ref × 100

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