Abstract

We propose a plasmonic system consisting of nano-disks (NDs) with graded diameters for the realization of nano-optical conveyor belt. The system contains a couple of NDs with individual elements coded with different resonant wavelengths. By sequentially switching the wavelength and polarization of the excitation source, optically trapped target nano-particle can be transferred from one ND to another. The feasibility of such function is verified based on the three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain technique and the Maxwell stress tensor method. Our design may provide an alternative way to construct nano-optical conveyor belt with which target molecules can be delivered between trapping sites, thus enabling many on-chip optofluidic applications.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2014

P. Hansen, Y. Zheng, J. Ryan, and L. Hesselink, “Nano-optical conveyor belt, part I: Theory,” Nano Lett. 14(6), 2965–2970 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Zheng, J. Ryan, P. Hansen, Y. T. Cheng, T. J. Lu, and L. Hesselink, “Nano-optical conveyor belt, part II: Demonstration of handoff between near-field optical traps,” Nano Lett. 14(6), 2971–2976 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2013

Z. Kang, H. Zhang, H. Lu, and H. P. Ho, “Double-layered metal nano-strip antennas for sensing applications,” Plasmonics 8(2), 289–294 (2013).
[CrossRef]

T. Shoji, M. Shibata, N. Kitamura, F. Nagasawa, M. Takase, K. Murakoshi, A. Nobuhiro, Y. Mizumoto, H. Ishihara, and Y. Tsuboi, “Reversible photoinduced formation and manipulation of a two-dimensional closely packed assembly of polystyrene nanospheres on a metallic nanostructure,” J. Phys. Chem. C 117(6), 2500–2506 (2013).
[CrossRef]

K. Y. Chen, A. T. Lee, C. C. Hung, J. S. Huang, and Y. T. Yang, “Transport and trapping in two-dimensional nanoscale plasmonic optical lattice,” Nano Lett. 13(9), 4118–4122 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012

2011

J. S. Donner, G. Baffou, D. McCloskey, and R. Quidant, “Plasmon-assisted optofluidics,” ACS Nano 5(7), 5457–5462 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. L. Juan, M. Righini, and R. Quidant, “Plasmon nano-optical tweezers,” Nat. Photonics 5(6), 349–356 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Çetin, A. A. Yanik, C. Yilmaz, S. Somu, A. Busnaina, and H. Altug, “Monopole antenna arrays for optical trapping, spectroscopy, and sensing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(11), 111110 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. Wang, E. Schonbrun, P. Steinvurzel, and K. B. Crozier, “Trapping and rotating nanoparticles using a plasmonicnano-tweezer with an integrated heat sink,” Nat. Commun. 2, 1–6 (2011).

L. Chen, G. P. Wang, X. Li, W. Li, Y. Shen, J. Lai, and S. Chen, “Broadband slow-light in graded-grating-loaded plasmonic waveguides at telecom frequencies,” Appl. Phys. B 104(3), 653–657 (2011).
[CrossRef]

I. Zorić, M. Zäch, B. Kasemo, and C. Langhammer, “Gold, platinum, and aluminum nanodisk plasmons: material independence, subradiance, and damping mechanisms,” ACS Nano 5(4), 2535–2546 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

W. Zhang, L. Huang, C. Santschi, and O. J. F. Martin, “Trapping and sensing 10 nm metal nanoparticles using plasmonic dipole antennas,” Nano Lett. 10(3), 1006–1011 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Wang, E. Schonbrun, P. Steinvurzel, and K. B. Crozier, “Scannable plasmonic trapping using a gold stripe,” Nano Lett. 10(9), 3506–3511 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

T. T. Perkins, “Optical traps for single molecule biophysics: a primer,” Laser Photon. Rev. 3(1-2), 203–220 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Baffou, R. Quidant, and C. Girard, “Heat generation in plasmonic nanostructures: influence of morphology,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(15), 153109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Q. Gan, Y. J. Ding, and F. J. Bartoli, ““Rainbow” trapping and releasing at telecommunication wavelengths,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(5), 056801 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Chen, G. P. Wang, Q. Gan, and F. J. Bartoli, “Trapping of surface-plasmon polaritons in a graded Bragg structure: Frequency-dependent spatially separated localization of the visible spectrum modes,” Phys. Rev. B 80(16), 161106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Huang, S. J. Maerkl, and O. J. F. Martin, “Integration of plasmonic trapping in a microfluidic environment,” Opt. Express 17(8), 6018–6024 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

Q. Gan, Z. Fu, Y. J. Ding, and F. J. Bartoli, “Ultrawide-bandwidth slow-light system based on THz plasmonic graded metallic grating structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(25), 256803 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

H. Xu and M. Käll, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced optical forces in silver nanoaggregates,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(24), 246802 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986

1985

E. J. Heilweil and R. M. Hochstrasser, “Nonlinear spectroscopy and picosecond transient grating study of colloidal gold,” J. Chem. Phys. 82(11), 4762–4770 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Altug, H.

A. E. Çetin, A. A. Yanik, C. Yilmaz, S. Somu, A. Busnaina, and H. Altug, “Monopole antenna arrays for optical trapping, spectroscopy, and sensing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(11), 111110 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ashkin, A.

Baffou, G.

J. S. Donner, G. Baffou, D. McCloskey, and R. Quidant, “Plasmon-assisted optofluidics,” ACS Nano 5(7), 5457–5462 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Baffou, R. Quidant, and C. Girard, “Heat generation in plasmonic nanostructures: influence of morphology,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(15), 153109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bartoli, F. J.

Q. Gan, Y. J. Ding, and F. J. Bartoli, ““Rainbow” trapping and releasing at telecommunication wavelengths,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(5), 056801 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Chen, G. P. Wang, Q. Gan, and F. J. Bartoli, “Trapping of surface-plasmon polaritons in a graded Bragg structure: Frequency-dependent spatially separated localization of the visible spectrum modes,” Phys. Rev. B 80(16), 161106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Q. Gan, Z. Fu, Y. J. Ding, and F. J. Bartoli, “Ultrawide-bandwidth slow-light system based on THz plasmonic graded metallic grating structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(25), 256803 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bjorkholm, J. E.

Busnaina, A.

A. E. Çetin, A. A. Yanik, C. Yilmaz, S. Somu, A. Busnaina, and H. Altug, “Monopole antenna arrays for optical trapping, spectroscopy, and sensing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(11), 111110 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Çetin, A. E.

A. E. Çetin, A. A. Yanik, C. Yilmaz, S. Somu, A. Busnaina, and H. Altug, “Monopole antenna arrays for optical trapping, spectroscopy, and sensing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(11), 111110 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chen, K. Y.

K. Y. Chen, A. T. Lee, C. C. Hung, J. S. Huang, and Y. T. Yang, “Transport and trapping in two-dimensional nanoscale plasmonic optical lattice,” Nano Lett. 13(9), 4118–4122 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, L.

L. Chen, G. P. Wang, X. Li, W. Li, Y. Shen, J. Lai, and S. Chen, “Broadband slow-light in graded-grating-loaded plasmonic waveguides at telecom frequencies,” Appl. Phys. B 104(3), 653–657 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Chen, G. P. Wang, Q. Gan, and F. J. Bartoli, “Trapping of surface-plasmon polaritons in a graded Bragg structure: Frequency-dependent spatially separated localization of the visible spectrum modes,” Phys. Rev. B 80(16), 161106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, S.

L. Chen, G. P. Wang, X. Li, W. Li, Y. Shen, J. Lai, and S. Chen, “Broadband slow-light in graded-grating-loaded plasmonic waveguides at telecom frequencies,” Appl. Phys. B 104(3), 653–657 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, Y. T.

Y. Zheng, J. Ryan, P. Hansen, Y. T. Cheng, T. J. Lu, and L. Hesselink, “Nano-optical conveyor belt, part II: Demonstration of handoff between near-field optical traps,” Nano Lett. 14(6), 2971–2976 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chu, S.

Crozier, K. B.

K. Wang, E. Schonbrun, P. Steinvurzel, and K. B. Crozier, “Trapping and rotating nanoparticles using a plasmonicnano-tweezer with an integrated heat sink,” Nat. Commun. 2, 1–6 (2011).

K. Wang, E. Schonbrun, P. Steinvurzel, and K. B. Crozier, “Scannable plasmonic trapping using a gold stripe,” Nano Lett. 10(9), 3506–3511 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ding, Y. J.

Q. Gan, Y. J. Ding, and F. J. Bartoli, ““Rainbow” trapping and releasing at telecommunication wavelengths,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(5), 056801 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Gan, Z. Fu, Y. J. Ding, and F. J. Bartoli, “Ultrawide-bandwidth slow-light system based on THz plasmonic graded metallic grating structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(25), 256803 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dionne, J. A.

A. A. E. Saleh and J. A. Dionne, “Toward efficient optical trapping of sub-10-nm particles with coaxial plasmonic apertures,” Nano Lett. 12(11), 5581–5586 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Donner, J. S.

J. S. Donner, G. Baffou, D. McCloskey, and R. Quidant, “Plasmon-assisted optofluidics,” ACS Nano 5(7), 5457–5462 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dziedzic, J. M.

Fu, Z.

Q. Gan, Z. Fu, Y. J. Ding, and F. J. Bartoli, “Ultrawide-bandwidth slow-light system based on THz plasmonic graded metallic grating structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(25), 256803 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gan, Q.

L. Chen, G. P. Wang, Q. Gan, and F. J. Bartoli, “Trapping of surface-plasmon polaritons in a graded Bragg structure: Frequency-dependent spatially separated localization of the visible spectrum modes,” Phys. Rev. B 80(16), 161106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Q. Gan, Y. J. Ding, and F. J. Bartoli, ““Rainbow” trapping and releasing at telecommunication wavelengths,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(5), 056801 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Gan, Z. Fu, Y. J. Ding, and F. J. Bartoli, “Ultrawide-bandwidth slow-light system based on THz plasmonic graded metallic grating structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(25), 256803 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Girard, C.

G. Baffou, R. Quidant, and C. Girard, “Heat generation in plasmonic nanostructures: influence of morphology,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(15), 153109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hansen, P.

Y. Zheng, J. Ryan, P. Hansen, Y. T. Cheng, T. J. Lu, and L. Hesselink, “Nano-optical conveyor belt, part II: Demonstration of handoff between near-field optical traps,” Nano Lett. 14(6), 2971–2976 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Hansen, Y. Zheng, J. Ryan, and L. Hesselink, “Nano-optical conveyor belt, part I: Theory,” Nano Lett. 14(6), 2965–2970 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heilweil, E. J.

E. J. Heilweil and R. M. Hochstrasser, “Nonlinear spectroscopy and picosecond transient grating study of colloidal gold,” J. Chem. Phys. 82(11), 4762–4770 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Hesselink, L.

P. Hansen, Y. Zheng, J. Ryan, and L. Hesselink, “Nano-optical conveyor belt, part I: Theory,” Nano Lett. 14(6), 2965–2970 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Zheng, J. Ryan, P. Hansen, Y. T. Cheng, T. J. Lu, and L. Hesselink, “Nano-optical conveyor belt, part II: Demonstration of handoff between near-field optical traps,” Nano Lett. 14(6), 2971–2976 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ho, H. P.

Hochstrasser, R. M.

E. J. Heilweil and R. M. Hochstrasser, “Nonlinear spectroscopy and picosecond transient grating study of colloidal gold,” J. Chem. Phys. 82(11), 4762–4770 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Huang, J. S.

K. Y. Chen, A. T. Lee, C. C. Hung, J. S. Huang, and Y. T. Yang, “Transport and trapping in two-dimensional nanoscale plasmonic optical lattice,” Nano Lett. 13(9), 4118–4122 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, L.

W. Zhang, L. Huang, C. Santschi, and O. J. F. Martin, “Trapping and sensing 10 nm metal nanoparticles using plasmonic dipole antennas,” Nano Lett. 10(3), 1006–1011 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Huang, S. J. Maerkl, and O. J. F. Martin, “Integration of plasmonic trapping in a microfluidic environment,” Opt. Express 17(8), 6018–6024 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hung, C. C.

K. Y. Chen, A. T. Lee, C. C. Hung, J. S. Huang, and Y. T. Yang, “Transport and trapping in two-dimensional nanoscale plasmonic optical lattice,” Nano Lett. 13(9), 4118–4122 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ishihara, H.

T. Shoji, M. Shibata, N. Kitamura, F. Nagasawa, M. Takase, K. Murakoshi, A. Nobuhiro, Y. Mizumoto, H. Ishihara, and Y. Tsuboi, “Reversible photoinduced formation and manipulation of a two-dimensional closely packed assembly of polystyrene nanospheres on a metallic nanostructure,” J. Phys. Chem. C 117(6), 2500–2506 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Juan, M. L.

M. L. Juan, M. Righini, and R. Quidant, “Plasmon nano-optical tweezers,” Nat. Photonics 5(6), 349–356 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Käll, M.

H. Xu and M. Käll, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced optical forces in silver nanoaggregates,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(24), 246802 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kang, Z.

Kasemo, B.

I. Zorić, M. Zäch, B. Kasemo, and C. Langhammer, “Gold, platinum, and aluminum nanodisk plasmons: material independence, subradiance, and damping mechanisms,” ACS Nano 5(4), 2535–2546 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kitamura, N.

T. Shoji, M. Shibata, N. Kitamura, F. Nagasawa, M. Takase, K. Murakoshi, A. Nobuhiro, Y. Mizumoto, H. Ishihara, and Y. Tsuboi, “Reversible photoinduced formation and manipulation of a two-dimensional closely packed assembly of polystyrene nanospheres on a metallic nanostructure,” J. Phys. Chem. C 117(6), 2500–2506 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Lai, J.

L. Chen, G. P. Wang, X. Li, W. Li, Y. Shen, J. Lai, and S. Chen, “Broadband slow-light in graded-grating-loaded plasmonic waveguides at telecom frequencies,” Appl. Phys. B 104(3), 653–657 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Langhammer, C.

I. Zorić, M. Zäch, B. Kasemo, and C. Langhammer, “Gold, platinum, and aluminum nanodisk plasmons: material independence, subradiance, and damping mechanisms,” ACS Nano 5(4), 2535–2546 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, A. T.

K. Y. Chen, A. T. Lee, C. C. Hung, J. S. Huang, and Y. T. Yang, “Transport and trapping in two-dimensional nanoscale plasmonic optical lattice,” Nano Lett. 13(9), 4118–4122 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, W.

L. Chen, G. P. Wang, X. Li, W. Li, Y. Shen, J. Lai, and S. Chen, “Broadband slow-light in graded-grating-loaded plasmonic waveguides at telecom frequencies,” Appl. Phys. B 104(3), 653–657 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Li, X.

L. Chen, G. P. Wang, X. Li, W. Li, Y. Shen, J. Lai, and S. Chen, “Broadband slow-light in graded-grating-loaded plasmonic waveguides at telecom frequencies,” Appl. Phys. B 104(3), 653–657 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lu, H.

Lu, T. J.

Y. Zheng, J. Ryan, P. Hansen, Y. T. Cheng, T. J. Lu, and L. Hesselink, “Nano-optical conveyor belt, part II: Demonstration of handoff between near-field optical traps,” Nano Lett. 14(6), 2971–2976 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maerkl, S. J.

Martin, O. J. F.

W. Zhang, L. Huang, C. Santschi, and O. J. F. Martin, “Trapping and sensing 10 nm metal nanoparticles using plasmonic dipole antennas,” Nano Lett. 10(3), 1006–1011 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Huang, S. J. Maerkl, and O. J. F. Martin, “Integration of plasmonic trapping in a microfluidic environment,” Opt. Express 17(8), 6018–6024 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McCloskey, D.

J. S. Donner, G. Baffou, D. McCloskey, and R. Quidant, “Plasmon-assisted optofluidics,” ACS Nano 5(7), 5457–5462 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mizumoto, Y.

T. Shoji, M. Shibata, N. Kitamura, F. Nagasawa, M. Takase, K. Murakoshi, A. Nobuhiro, Y. Mizumoto, H. Ishihara, and Y. Tsuboi, “Reversible photoinduced formation and manipulation of a two-dimensional closely packed assembly of polystyrene nanospheres on a metallic nanostructure,” J. Phys. Chem. C 117(6), 2500–2506 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Murakoshi, K.

T. Shoji, M. Shibata, N. Kitamura, F. Nagasawa, M. Takase, K. Murakoshi, A. Nobuhiro, Y. Mizumoto, H. Ishihara, and Y. Tsuboi, “Reversible photoinduced formation and manipulation of a two-dimensional closely packed assembly of polystyrene nanospheres on a metallic nanostructure,” J. Phys. Chem. C 117(6), 2500–2506 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Nagasawa, F.

T. Shoji, M. Shibata, N. Kitamura, F. Nagasawa, M. Takase, K. Murakoshi, A. Nobuhiro, Y. Mizumoto, H. Ishihara, and Y. Tsuboi, “Reversible photoinduced formation and manipulation of a two-dimensional closely packed assembly of polystyrene nanospheres on a metallic nanostructure,” J. Phys. Chem. C 117(6), 2500–2506 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Nobuhiro, A.

T. Shoji, M. Shibata, N. Kitamura, F. Nagasawa, M. Takase, K. Murakoshi, A. Nobuhiro, Y. Mizumoto, H. Ishihara, and Y. Tsuboi, “Reversible photoinduced formation and manipulation of a two-dimensional closely packed assembly of polystyrene nanospheres on a metallic nanostructure,” J. Phys. Chem. C 117(6), 2500–2506 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Ong, H. C.

Perkins, T. T.

T. T. Perkins, “Optical traps for single molecule biophysics: a primer,” Laser Photon. Rev. 3(1-2), 203–220 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Quidant, R.

M. L. Juan, M. Righini, and R. Quidant, “Plasmon nano-optical tweezers,” Nat. Photonics 5(6), 349–356 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Donner, G. Baffou, D. McCloskey, and R. Quidant, “Plasmon-assisted optofluidics,” ACS Nano 5(7), 5457–5462 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Baffou, R. Quidant, and C. Girard, “Heat generation in plasmonic nanostructures: influence of morphology,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(15), 153109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Righini, M.

M. L. Juan, M. Righini, and R. Quidant, “Plasmon nano-optical tweezers,” Nat. Photonics 5(6), 349–356 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Roxworthy, B. J.

Ryan, J.

P. Hansen, Y. Zheng, J. Ryan, and L. Hesselink, “Nano-optical conveyor belt, part I: Theory,” Nano Lett. 14(6), 2965–2970 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Zheng, J. Ryan, P. Hansen, Y. T. Cheng, T. J. Lu, and L. Hesselink, “Nano-optical conveyor belt, part II: Demonstration of handoff between near-field optical traps,” Nano Lett. 14(6), 2971–2976 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saleh, A. A. E.

A. A. E. Saleh and J. A. Dionne, “Toward efficient optical trapping of sub-10-nm particles with coaxial plasmonic apertures,” Nano Lett. 12(11), 5581–5586 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Santschi, C.

W. Zhang, L. Huang, C. Santschi, and O. J. F. Martin, “Trapping and sensing 10 nm metal nanoparticles using plasmonic dipole antennas,” Nano Lett. 10(3), 1006–1011 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schonbrun, E.

K. Wang, E. Schonbrun, P. Steinvurzel, and K. B. Crozier, “Trapping and rotating nanoparticles using a plasmonicnano-tweezer with an integrated heat sink,” Nat. Commun. 2, 1–6 (2011).

K. Wang, E. Schonbrun, P. Steinvurzel, and K. B. Crozier, “Scannable plasmonic trapping using a gold stripe,” Nano Lett. 10(9), 3506–3511 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shen, Y.

L. Chen, G. P. Wang, X. Li, W. Li, Y. Shen, J. Lai, and S. Chen, “Broadband slow-light in graded-grating-loaded plasmonic waveguides at telecom frequencies,” Appl. Phys. B 104(3), 653–657 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Shibata, M.

T. Shoji, M. Shibata, N. Kitamura, F. Nagasawa, M. Takase, K. Murakoshi, A. Nobuhiro, Y. Mizumoto, H. Ishihara, and Y. Tsuboi, “Reversible photoinduced formation and manipulation of a two-dimensional closely packed assembly of polystyrene nanospheres on a metallic nanostructure,” J. Phys. Chem. C 117(6), 2500–2506 (2013).
[CrossRef]

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T. Shoji, M. Shibata, N. Kitamura, F. Nagasawa, M. Takase, K. Murakoshi, A. Nobuhiro, Y. Mizumoto, H. Ishihara, and Y. Tsuboi, “Reversible photoinduced formation and manipulation of a two-dimensional closely packed assembly of polystyrene nanospheres on a metallic nanostructure,” J. Phys. Chem. C 117(6), 2500–2506 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Shum, P.

Somu, S.

A. E. Çetin, A. A. Yanik, C. Yilmaz, S. Somu, A. Busnaina, and H. Altug, “Monopole antenna arrays for optical trapping, spectroscopy, and sensing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(11), 111110 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Steinvurzel, P.

K. Wang, E. Schonbrun, P. Steinvurzel, and K. B. Crozier, “Trapping and rotating nanoparticles using a plasmonicnano-tweezer with an integrated heat sink,” Nat. Commun. 2, 1–6 (2011).

K. Wang, E. Schonbrun, P. Steinvurzel, and K. B. Crozier, “Scannable plasmonic trapping using a gold stripe,” Nano Lett. 10(9), 3506–3511 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Takase, M.

T. Shoji, M. Shibata, N. Kitamura, F. Nagasawa, M. Takase, K. Murakoshi, A. Nobuhiro, Y. Mizumoto, H. Ishihara, and Y. Tsuboi, “Reversible photoinduced formation and manipulation of a two-dimensional closely packed assembly of polystyrene nanospheres on a metallic nanostructure,” J. Phys. Chem. C 117(6), 2500–2506 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Toussaint, K. C.

Tsuboi, Y.

T. Shoji, M. Shibata, N. Kitamura, F. Nagasawa, M. Takase, K. Murakoshi, A. Nobuhiro, Y. Mizumoto, H. Ishihara, and Y. Tsuboi, “Reversible photoinduced formation and manipulation of a two-dimensional closely packed assembly of polystyrene nanospheres on a metallic nanostructure,” J. Phys. Chem. C 117(6), 2500–2506 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Wang, G. P.

L. Chen, G. P. Wang, X. Li, W. Li, Y. Shen, J. Lai, and S. Chen, “Broadband slow-light in graded-grating-loaded plasmonic waveguides at telecom frequencies,” Appl. Phys. B 104(3), 653–657 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Chen, G. P. Wang, Q. Gan, and F. J. Bartoli, “Trapping of surface-plasmon polaritons in a graded Bragg structure: Frequency-dependent spatially separated localization of the visible spectrum modes,” Phys. Rev. B 80(16), 161106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, K.

K. Wang, E. Schonbrun, P. Steinvurzel, and K. B. Crozier, “Trapping and rotating nanoparticles using a plasmonicnano-tweezer with an integrated heat sink,” Nat. Commun. 2, 1–6 (2011).

K. Wang, E. Schonbrun, P. Steinvurzel, and K. B. Crozier, “Scannable plasmonic trapping using a gold stripe,” Nano Lett. 10(9), 3506–3511 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, H.

H. Xu and M. Käll, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced optical forces in silver nanoaggregates,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(24), 246802 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, J.

Yang, Y. T.

K. Y. Chen, A. T. Lee, C. C. Hung, J. S. Huang, and Y. T. Yang, “Transport and trapping in two-dimensional nanoscale plasmonic optical lattice,” Nano Lett. 13(9), 4118–4122 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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A. E. Çetin, A. A. Yanik, C. Yilmaz, S. Somu, A. Busnaina, and H. Altug, “Monopole antenna arrays for optical trapping, spectroscopy, and sensing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(11), 111110 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yilmaz, C.

A. E. Çetin, A. A. Yanik, C. Yilmaz, S. Somu, A. Busnaina, and H. Altug, “Monopole antenna arrays for optical trapping, spectroscopy, and sensing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(11), 111110 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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I. Zorić, M. Zäch, B. Kasemo, and C. Langhammer, “Gold, platinum, and aluminum nanodisk plasmons: material independence, subradiance, and damping mechanisms,” ACS Nano 5(4), 2535–2546 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Zhang, W.

W. Zhang, L. Huang, C. Santschi, and O. J. F. Martin, “Trapping and sensing 10 nm metal nanoparticles using plasmonic dipole antennas,” Nano Lett. 10(3), 1006–1011 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zheng, Y.

P. Hansen, Y. Zheng, J. Ryan, and L. Hesselink, “Nano-optical conveyor belt, part I: Theory,” Nano Lett. 14(6), 2965–2970 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Zheng, J. Ryan, P. Hansen, Y. T. Cheng, T. J. Lu, and L. Hesselink, “Nano-optical conveyor belt, part II: Demonstration of handoff between near-field optical traps,” Nano Lett. 14(6), 2971–2976 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zoric, I.

I. Zorić, M. Zäch, B. Kasemo, and C. Langhammer, “Gold, platinum, and aluminum nanodisk plasmons: material independence, subradiance, and damping mechanisms,” ACS Nano 5(4), 2535–2546 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

ACS Nano

I. Zorić, M. Zäch, B. Kasemo, and C. Langhammer, “Gold, platinum, and aluminum nanodisk plasmons: material independence, subradiance, and damping mechanisms,” ACS Nano 5(4), 2535–2546 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. S. Donner, G. Baffou, D. McCloskey, and R. Quidant, “Plasmon-assisted optofluidics,” ACS Nano 5(7), 5457–5462 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. B

L. Chen, G. P. Wang, X. Li, W. Li, Y. Shen, J. Lai, and S. Chen, “Broadband slow-light in graded-grating-loaded plasmonic waveguides at telecom frequencies,” Appl. Phys. B 104(3), 653–657 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

G. Baffou, R. Quidant, and C. Girard, “Heat generation in plasmonic nanostructures: influence of morphology,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(15), 153109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Çetin, A. A. Yanik, C. Yilmaz, S. Somu, A. Busnaina, and H. Altug, “Monopole antenna arrays for optical trapping, spectroscopy, and sensing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(11), 111110 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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T. Shoji, M. Shibata, N. Kitamura, F. Nagasawa, M. Takase, K. Murakoshi, A. Nobuhiro, Y. Mizumoto, H. Ishihara, and Y. Tsuboi, “Reversible photoinduced formation and manipulation of a two-dimensional closely packed assembly of polystyrene nanospheres on a metallic nanostructure,” J. Phys. Chem. C 117(6), 2500–2506 (2013).
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K. Y. Chen, A. T. Lee, C. C. Hung, J. S. Huang, and Y. T. Yang, “Transport and trapping in two-dimensional nanoscale plasmonic optical lattice,” Nano Lett. 13(9), 4118–4122 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. A. E. Saleh and J. A. Dionne, “Toward efficient optical trapping of sub-10-nm particles with coaxial plasmonic apertures,” Nano Lett. 12(11), 5581–5586 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Hansen, Y. Zheng, J. Ryan, and L. Hesselink, “Nano-optical conveyor belt, part I: Theory,” Nano Lett. 14(6), 2965–2970 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Zheng, J. Ryan, P. Hansen, Y. T. Cheng, T. J. Lu, and L. Hesselink, “Nano-optical conveyor belt, part II: Demonstration of handoff between near-field optical traps,” Nano Lett. 14(6), 2971–2976 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Wang, E. Schonbrun, P. Steinvurzel, and K. B. Crozier, “Scannable plasmonic trapping using a gold stripe,” Nano Lett. 10(9), 3506–3511 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Zhang, L. Huang, C. Santschi, and O. J. F. Martin, “Trapping and sensing 10 nm metal nanoparticles using plasmonic dipole antennas,” Nano Lett. 10(3), 1006–1011 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Commun.

K. Wang, E. Schonbrun, P. Steinvurzel, and K. B. Crozier, “Trapping and rotating nanoparticles using a plasmonicnano-tweezer with an integrated heat sink,” Nat. Commun. 2, 1–6 (2011).

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L. Chen, G. P. Wang, Q. Gan, and F. J. Bartoli, “Trapping of surface-plasmon polaritons in a graded Bragg structure: Frequency-dependent spatially separated localization of the visible spectrum modes,” Phys. Rev. B 80(16), 161106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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H. Xu and M. Käll, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced optical forces in silver nanoaggregates,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(24), 246802 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic of our nano-optical conveyor belt based on a couple of graded silver NDs. (b) Normalized extinctions of ND1 (D1 = 150 nm, red line) and ND2 (D2 = 100 nm, blue line), respectively.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Distribution in the XZ plane of the optical force Fxz exerted on an Au-NP with diameter of 30 nm for excitation wavelength of (a) 775 and (b) 622 nm, respectively. The incident light has X-polarization. The NDs are schematically shown in grey. The gap between adjacent NDs is 100 nm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Electric field intensity distribution at 10 nm above the NDs under illumination by 775 and 622 nm light. (b)-(c) MST calculated force components Fx (blue ‒○‒) and Fz (red ‒□‒) exerted on an Au-NP locating above the NDs with a 10 nm gap as a function of position along the X axis (Y = 0) for λ = 775 nm and 622 nm, respectively. (d) Trapping potential Ux as a function of position along the X axis (Y = 0) for λ = 775 nm (red ‒○‒) and 622 nm (blue ‒○‒), respectively. The incidences have X-polarization. The NDs are schematically shown in grey at the bottom. The gap between adjacent NDs is 100 nm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The overall force vectors Fxy, Fxz, Fyz versus the incident polarization direction for (a) λ = 775 nm and (b) λ = 622 nm, respectively. The Au-NP is elevated 10 nm above the NDs, and located at X = 200 nm in (a) and −50 nm in (b). The gap between adjacent NDs is 100 nm.

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