Abstract

We propose a novel three-dimensional (3D) monolithic optoelectronic integration platform. Such platform integrates both electrical and photonic devices in a bulk silicon wafer, which eliminates the high-cost silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafer and is more suitable for process requirements of electronic and photonic integrated circuits (ICs). For proof-of-concept, we demonstrate a three-dimensional photodetector and WDM receiver system. The Ge is grown on a 8-inch bulk silicon wafer while the optical waveguide is defined in a SiN layer which is deposited on top of it, with ~4 µm oxide sandwiched in between. The light is directed to the Ge photodetector from the SiN waveguide vertically by using grating coupler with a Aluminum mirror on top of it. The measured photodetector responsivity is ~0.2 A/W and the 3-dB bandwidth is ~2 GHz. Using such vertical-coupled photodetector, we demonstrated an 8-channel receiver by integrating a 1 × 8 arrayed waveguide grating (AWG). High-quality optical signal detection with up to 10 Gbit/s data rate is demonstrated, suggesting a 80 Gbit/s throughput. Such receiver can be applied to on-chip optical interconnect, DRAM interface, and telecommunication systems.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2013 (3)

T.-Y. Liow, J. Song, X. Tu, A.-J. Lim, Q. Fang, N. Duan, M. Yu, and G.-Q. Lo, “Silicon Optical Interconnect Device Technologies for 40 Gb/s and Beyond,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(2), 8200312 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Li, G. Li, X. Zheng, K. Raj, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and J. F. Buckwalter, “A 25-Gb/s, monolithic optical transmitter with micro-ring modulator in 130nm SOI CMOS,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(19), 1901–1903 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Q. Fang, L. Jia, J. Song, A. E. Lim, X. Tu, X. Luo, M. Yu, and G. Lo, “Demonstration of a vertical pin Ge-on-Si photo-detector on a wet-etched Si recess,” Opt. Express 21(20), 23325–23330 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012 (5)

C. R. Doerr, L. L. Buhl, L. Chen, and N. Dupuis, “Monolithic flexible-grid 1 2 wavelength-selective switch in silicon photonics,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30(4), 473–478 (2012).
[CrossRef]

N. Duan, T.-Y. Liow, A. E.-J. Lim, L. Ding, and G. Q. Lo, “310 GHz gain-bandwidth product Ge/Si avalanche photodetector for 1550 nm light detection,” Opt. Express 20(10), 11031–11036 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. S. Zaoui, M. F. Rosa, W. Vogel, M. Berroth, J. Butschke, and F. Letzkus, “Cost-effective CMOS-compatible grating couplers with backside metal mirror and 69% coupling efficiency,” Opt. Express 20(26), B238–B243 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Luo, J. Song, S. Feng, A. Poon, T. Y. Liow, M. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Silicon high-order coupled-microring-based electro-optical switches for on-chip optical interconnects,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(10), 821–823 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J.-M. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. P. P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50-Gb/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (6)

H. Park, M. N. Sysak, H.-W. Chen, A. W. Fang, D. Liang, L. Liao, B. R. Koch, J. Bovington, Y. Tang, K. Wong, M. Jacob-Mitos, R. Jones, and J. E. Bowers, “Device and integration technology for silicon photonic transmitters,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 671–688 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Q. Fang, J. F. Song, T. Y. Liow, H. Cai, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Ultralow power silicon photonics thermo-optic switch with suspended phase arms,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(8), 525–527 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Mekis, S. Gloeckner, G. Masini, A. Narasimha, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, and P. De Dobbelaere, “A grating-coupler-enabled CMOS photonics platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 597–608 (2011).
[CrossRef]

X. Zheng, D. Patil, J. Lexau, F. Liu, G. Li, H. Thacker, Y. Luo, I. Shubin, J. Li, J. Yao, P. Dong, D. Feng, M. Asghari, T. Pinguet, A. Mekis, P. Amberg, M. Dayringer, J. Gainsley, H. F. Moghadam, E. Alon, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultra-efficient 10 Gb/s hybrid integrated silicon photonic transmitter and receiver,” Opt. Express 19(6), 5172–5186 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. N. Feng, D. Feng, S. Liao, X. Wang, P. Dong, H. Liang, C. C. Kung, W. Qian, J. Fong, R. Shafiiha, Y. Luo, J. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “30GHz Ge electro-absorption modulator mintegrated with 3 μm silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Opt. Express 19(8), 7062–7067 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Tu, T.-Y. Liow, J. Song, M. Yu, and G. Q. Lo, “Fabrication of low loss and high speed silicon optical modulator using doping compensation method,” Opt. Express 19(19), 18029–18035 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

T. Y. Liow, K. W. Ang, Q. Fang, J. F. Song, Y. Z. Xiong, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Silicon modulators and germanium photodetectors on SOI: onolithic integration, compatibility, and performance optimization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 307–315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

W. Bogaerts, S. K. Selvaraja, P. Dumon, J. Brouckaert, K. De Vos, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon-on-insulator spectral filters fabricated with CMOS technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 33–44 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (3)

D. Miller, “Device requirements for optical interconnects to silicon chips,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1166–1185 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. W. Poon, X. Luo, F. Xu, and H. Chen, “Cascaded microresonator-based matrix switch for silicon on-chip optical interconnection,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1216–1238 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Leuthold, W. Freude, J.-M. Brosi, R. Baets, P. Dumon, I. Biaggio, M. L. Scimeca, F. Diederich, B. Frank, and C. Koos, “Silicon organic hybrid technology—a platform for practical nonlinear optics,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1304–1316 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (5)

M. Ferrera, L. Razzari, D. Duchesne, R. Morandotti, Z. Yang, M. Liscidini, J. Sipe, S. Chu, B. Little, and D. Moss, “Low-power continuous-wave nonlinear optics in doped silica glass integrated waveguide structures,” Nat. Photonics 2(12), 737–740 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Brouckaert, W. Bogaerts, S. Selvaraja, P. Dumon, R. Baets, and D. Van Thourhout, “Planar concave grating demultiplexer with high reflective Bragg reflector facets,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(4), 309–311 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Goebuchi, M. Hisada, T. Kato, and Y. Kokubun, “Optical cross-connect circuit using hitless wavelength selective switch,” Opt. Express 16(2), 535–548 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Song, Q. Fang, S. H. Tao, T. Y. Liow, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Fast and low power Michelson interferometer thermo-optical switch on SOI,” Opt. Express 16(20), 15304–15311 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. C. Mao, S. H. Tao, Y. L. Xu, X. W. Sun, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Low propagation loss SiN optical waveguide prepared by optimal low-hydrogen module,” Opt. Express 16(25), 20809–20816 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

2006 (1)

2004 (1)

Y. O. Noh, J. M. Kim, M. S. Yang, H. J. Choi, H. J. Lee, Y. H. Won, and S. G. Han, “Thermooptic 2× 2 asymmetric digital optical switches with zero-voltage operation state,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(2), 446–448 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

L. Pavesi, L. Dal Negro, C. Mazzoleni, G. Franzò, and F. Priolo, “Optical gain in silicon nanocrystals,” Nature 408(6811), 440–444 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

B. Jalali, S. Yegnanarayanan, T. Yoon, T. Yoshimoto, I. Rendina, and F. Coppinger, “Advances in Silicon-on-Insulator Optoelectronics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4(6), 938–947 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Alduino, D.

Alic, N.

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J.-M. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. P. P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50-Gb/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Alon, E.

Amberg, P.

Ang, K. W.

T. Y. Liow, K. W. Ang, Q. Fang, J. F. Song, Y. Z. Xiong, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Silicon modulators and germanium photodetectors on SOI: onolithic integration, compatibility, and performance optimization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 307–315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Asghari, M.

Baets, R.

W. Bogaerts, S. K. Selvaraja, P. Dumon, J. Brouckaert, K. De Vos, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon-on-insulator spectral filters fabricated with CMOS technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 33–44 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Leuthold, W. Freude, J.-M. Brosi, R. Baets, P. Dumon, I. Biaggio, M. L. Scimeca, F. Diederich, B. Frank, and C. Koos, “Silicon organic hybrid technology—a platform for practical nonlinear optics,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1304–1316 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Brouckaert, W. Bogaerts, S. Selvaraja, P. Dumon, R. Baets, and D. Van Thourhout, “Planar concave grating demultiplexer with high reflective Bragg reflector facets,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(4), 309–311 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, D. Taillaert, R. Baets, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, and P. Jaenen, “Compact wavelength router based on a Silicon-on-insulator arrayed waveguide grating pigtailed to a fiber array,” Opt. Express 14(2), 664–669 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barkai, A.

Beckx, S.

Berroth, M.

Biaggio, I.

J. Leuthold, W. Freude, J.-M. Brosi, R. Baets, P. Dumon, I. Biaggio, M. L. Scimeca, F. Diederich, B. Frank, and C. Koos, “Silicon organic hybrid technology—a platform for practical nonlinear optics,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1304–1316 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bogaerts, W.

W. Bogaerts, S. K. Selvaraja, P. Dumon, J. Brouckaert, K. De Vos, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon-on-insulator spectral filters fabricated with CMOS technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 33–44 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Brouckaert, W. Bogaerts, S. Selvaraja, P. Dumon, R. Baets, and D. Van Thourhout, “Planar concave grating demultiplexer with high reflective Bragg reflector facets,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(4), 309–311 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, D. Taillaert, R. Baets, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, and P. Jaenen, “Compact wavelength router based on a Silicon-on-insulator arrayed waveguide grating pigtailed to a fiber array,” Opt. Express 14(2), 664–669 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bovington, J.

H. Park, M. N. Sysak, H.-W. Chen, A. W. Fang, D. Liang, L. Liao, B. R. Koch, J. Bovington, Y. Tang, K. Wong, M. Jacob-Mitos, R. Jones, and J. E. Bowers, “Device and integration technology for silicon photonic transmitters,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 671–688 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bowers, J. E.

H. Park, M. N. Sysak, H.-W. Chen, A. W. Fang, D. Liang, L. Liao, B. R. Koch, J. Bovington, Y. Tang, K. Wong, M. Jacob-Mitos, R. Jones, and J. E. Bowers, “Device and integration technology for silicon photonic transmitters,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 671–688 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Brosi, J.-M.

J. Leuthold, W. Freude, J.-M. Brosi, R. Baets, P. Dumon, I. Biaggio, M. L. Scimeca, F. Diederich, B. Frank, and C. Koos, “Silicon organic hybrid technology—a platform for practical nonlinear optics,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1304–1316 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Brouckaert, J.

W. Bogaerts, S. K. Selvaraja, P. Dumon, J. Brouckaert, K. De Vos, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon-on-insulator spectral filters fabricated with CMOS technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 33–44 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Brouckaert, W. Bogaerts, S. Selvaraja, P. Dumon, R. Baets, and D. Van Thourhout, “Planar concave grating demultiplexer with high reflective Bragg reflector facets,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(4), 309–311 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Buckwalter, J. F.

J. Li, G. Li, X. Zheng, K. Raj, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and J. F. Buckwalter, “A 25-Gb/s, monolithic optical transmitter with micro-ring modulator in 130nm SOI CMOS,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(19), 1901–1903 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Buhl, L. L.

Butschke, J.

Cai, H.

Q. Fang, J. F. Song, T. Y. Liow, H. Cai, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Ultralow power silicon photonics thermo-optic switch with suspended phase arms,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(8), 525–527 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H.

A. W. Poon, X. Luo, F. Xu, and H. Chen, “Cascaded microresonator-based matrix switch for silicon on-chip optical interconnection,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1216–1238 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H.-W.

H. Park, M. N. Sysak, H.-W. Chen, A. W. Fang, D. Liang, L. Liao, B. R. Koch, J. Bovington, Y. Tang, K. Wong, M. Jacob-Mitos, R. Jones, and J. E. Bowers, “Device and integration technology for silicon photonic transmitters,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 671–688 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L.

Chetrit, Y.

Choi, H. J.

Y. O. Noh, J. M. Kim, M. S. Yang, H. J. Choi, H. J. Lee, Y. H. Won, and S. G. Han, “Thermooptic 2× 2 asymmetric digital optical switches with zero-voltage operation state,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(2), 446–448 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chu, S.

M. Ferrera, L. Razzari, D. Duchesne, R. Morandotti, Z. Yang, M. Liscidini, J. Sipe, S. Chu, B. Little, and D. Moss, “Low-power continuous-wave nonlinear optics in doped silica glass integrated waveguide structures,” Nat. Photonics 2(12), 737–740 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cohen, O.

Cohen, R.

Coppinger, F.

B. Jalali, S. Yegnanarayanan, T. Yoon, T. Yoshimoto, I. Rendina, and F. Coppinger, “Advances in Silicon-on-Insulator Optoelectronics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4(6), 938–947 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cunningham, J.

Cunningham, J. E.

Dal Negro, L.

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Q. Fang, J. F. Song, T. Y. Liow, H. Cai, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Ultralow power silicon photonics thermo-optic switch with suspended phase arms,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(8), 525–527 (2011).
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J. Song, Q. Fang, S. H. Tao, T. Y. Liow, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Fast and low power Michelson interferometer thermo-optical switch on SOI,” Opt. Express 16(20), 15304–15311 (2008).
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Y. O. Noh, J. M. Kim, M. S. Yang, H. J. Choi, H. J. Lee, Y. H. Won, and S. G. Han, “Thermooptic 2× 2 asymmetric digital optical switches with zero-voltage operation state,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(2), 446–448 (2004).
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X. Luo, J. Song, S. Feng, A. Poon, T. Y. Liow, M. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Silicon high-order coupled-microring-based electro-optical switches for on-chip optical interconnects,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(10), 821–823 (2012).
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Q. Fang, J. F. Song, T. Y. Liow, H. Cai, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Ultralow power silicon photonics thermo-optic switch with suspended phase arms,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(8), 525–527 (2011).
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T. Y. Liow, K. W. Ang, Q. Fang, J. F. Song, Y. Z. Xiong, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Silicon modulators and germanium photodetectors on SOI: onolithic integration, compatibility, and performance optimization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 307–315 (2010).
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Liscidini, M.

M. Ferrera, L. Razzari, D. Duchesne, R. Morandotti, Z. Yang, M. Liscidini, J. Sipe, S. Chu, B. Little, and D. Moss, “Low-power continuous-wave nonlinear optics in doped silica glass integrated waveguide structures,” Nat. Photonics 2(12), 737–740 (2008).
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N. Duan, T.-Y. Liow, A. E.-J. Lim, L. Ding, and G. Q. Lo, “310 GHz gain-bandwidth product Ge/Si avalanche photodetector for 1550 nm light detection,” Opt. Express 20(10), 11031–11036 (2012).
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Q. Fang, J. F. Song, T. Y. Liow, H. Cai, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Ultralow power silicon photonics thermo-optic switch with suspended phase arms,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(8), 525–527 (2011).
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[CrossRef]

S. C. Mao, S. H. Tao, Y. L. Xu, X. W. Sun, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Low propagation loss SiN optical waveguide prepared by optimal low-hydrogen module,” Opt. Express 16(25), 20809–20816 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Song, Q. Fang, S. H. Tao, T. Y. Liow, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Fast and low power Michelson interferometer thermo-optical switch on SOI,” Opt. Express 16(20), 15304–15311 (2008).
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T.-Y. Liow, J. Song, X. Tu, A.-J. Lim, Q. Fang, N. Duan, M. Yu, and G.-Q. Lo, “Silicon Optical Interconnect Device Technologies for 40 Gb/s and Beyond,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(2), 8200312 (2013).
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Q. Fang, L. Jia, J. Song, A. E. Lim, X. Tu, X. Luo, M. Yu, and G. Lo, “Demonstration of a vertical pin Ge-on-Si photo-detector on a wet-etched Si recess,” Opt. Express 21(20), 23325–23330 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Luo, J. Song, S. Feng, A. Poon, T. Y. Liow, M. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Silicon high-order coupled-microring-based electro-optical switches for on-chip optical interconnects,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(10), 821–823 (2012).
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A. W. Poon, X. Luo, F. Xu, and H. Chen, “Cascaded microresonator-based matrix switch for silicon on-chip optical interconnection,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1216–1238 (2009).
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D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J.-M. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. P. P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50-Gb/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).
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A. Mekis, S. Gloeckner, G. Masini, A. Narasimha, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, and P. De Dobbelaere, “A grating-coupler-enabled CMOS photonics platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 597–608 (2011).
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L. Pavesi, L. Dal Negro, C. Mazzoleni, G. Franzò, and F. Priolo, “Optical gain in silicon nanocrystals,” Nature 408(6811), 440–444 (2000).
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M. Ferrera, L. Razzari, D. Duchesne, R. Morandotti, Z. Yang, M. Liscidini, J. Sipe, S. Chu, B. Little, and D. Moss, “Low-power continuous-wave nonlinear optics in doped silica glass integrated waveguide structures,” Nat. Photonics 2(12), 737–740 (2008).
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Morse, M.

Moss, D.

M. Ferrera, L. Razzari, D. Duchesne, R. Morandotti, Z. Yang, M. Liscidini, J. Sipe, S. Chu, B. Little, and D. Moss, “Low-power continuous-wave nonlinear optics in doped silica glass integrated waveguide structures,” Nat. Photonics 2(12), 737–740 (2008).
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D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J.-M. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. P. P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50-Gb/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).
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Y. O. Noh, J. M. Kim, M. S. Yang, H. J. Choi, H. J. Lee, Y. H. Won, and S. G. Han, “Thermooptic 2× 2 asymmetric digital optical switches with zero-voltage operation state,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(2), 446–448 (2004).
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H. Park, M. N. Sysak, H.-W. Chen, A. W. Fang, D. Liang, L. Liao, B. R. Koch, J. Bovington, Y. Tang, K. Wong, M. Jacob-Mitos, R. Jones, and J. E. Bowers, “Device and integration technology for silicon photonic transmitters,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 671–688 (2011).
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Pavesi, L.

L. Pavesi, L. Dal Negro, C. Mazzoleni, G. Franzò, and F. Priolo, “Optical gain in silicon nanocrystals,” Nature 408(6811), 440–444 (2000).
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Pinguet, T.

Poon, A.

X. Luo, J. Song, S. Feng, A. Poon, T. Y. Liow, M. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Silicon high-order coupled-microring-based electro-optical switches for on-chip optical interconnects,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(10), 821–823 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Poon, A. W.

A. W. Poon, X. Luo, F. Xu, and H. Chen, “Cascaded microresonator-based matrix switch for silicon on-chip optical interconnection,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1216–1238 (2009).
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L. Pavesi, L. Dal Negro, C. Mazzoleni, G. Franzò, and F. Priolo, “Optical gain in silicon nanocrystals,” Nature 408(6811), 440–444 (2000).
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D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J.-M. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. P. P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50-Gb/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).
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Razzari, L.

M. Ferrera, L. Razzari, D. Duchesne, R. Morandotti, Z. Yang, M. Liscidini, J. Sipe, S. Chu, B. Little, and D. Moss, “Low-power continuous-wave nonlinear optics in doped silica glass integrated waveguide structures,” Nat. Photonics 2(12), 737–740 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Reed, G. T.

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J.-M. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. P. P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50-Gb/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Rendina, I.

B. Jalali, S. Yegnanarayanan, T. Yoon, T. Yoshimoto, I. Rendina, and F. Coppinger, “Advances in Silicon-on-Insulator Optoelectronics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4(6), 938–947 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Rong, H.

Rosa, M. F.

Rubin, D.

Sahni, S.

A. Mekis, S. Gloeckner, G. Masini, A. Narasimha, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, and P. De Dobbelaere, “A grating-coupler-enabled CMOS photonics platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 597–608 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sarid, G.

Scimeca, M. L.

J. Leuthold, W. Freude, J.-M. Brosi, R. Baets, P. Dumon, I. Biaggio, M. L. Scimeca, F. Diederich, B. Frank, and C. Koos, “Silicon organic hybrid technology—a platform for practical nonlinear optics,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1304–1316 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Selvaraja, S.

J. Brouckaert, W. Bogaerts, S. Selvaraja, P. Dumon, R. Baets, and D. Van Thourhout, “Planar concave grating demultiplexer with high reflective Bragg reflector facets,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(4), 309–311 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Selvaraja, S. K.

W. Bogaerts, S. K. Selvaraja, P. Dumon, J. Brouckaert, K. De Vos, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon-on-insulator spectral filters fabricated with CMOS technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 33–44 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Shafiiha, R.

Shubin, I.

Sipe, J.

M. Ferrera, L. Razzari, D. Duchesne, R. Morandotti, Z. Yang, M. Liscidini, J. Sipe, S. Chu, B. Little, and D. Moss, “Low-power continuous-wave nonlinear optics in doped silica glass integrated waveguide structures,” Nat. Photonics 2(12), 737–740 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Song, J.

Q. Fang, L. Jia, J. Song, A. E. Lim, X. Tu, X. Luo, M. Yu, and G. Lo, “Demonstration of a vertical pin Ge-on-Si photo-detector on a wet-etched Si recess,” Opt. Express 21(20), 23325–23330 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T.-Y. Liow, J. Song, X. Tu, A.-J. Lim, Q. Fang, N. Duan, M. Yu, and G.-Q. Lo, “Silicon Optical Interconnect Device Technologies for 40 Gb/s and Beyond,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(2), 8200312 (2013).
[CrossRef]

X. Luo, J. Song, S. Feng, A. Poon, T. Y. Liow, M. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Silicon high-order coupled-microring-based electro-optical switches for on-chip optical interconnects,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(10), 821–823 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. Tu, T.-Y. Liow, J. Song, M. Yu, and G. Q. Lo, “Fabrication of low loss and high speed silicon optical modulator using doping compensation method,” Opt. Express 19(19), 18029–18035 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Song, Q. Fang, S. H. Tao, T. Y. Liow, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Fast and low power Michelson interferometer thermo-optical switch on SOI,” Opt. Express 16(20), 15304–15311 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Song, J. F.

Q. Fang, J. F. Song, T. Y. Liow, H. Cai, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Ultralow power silicon photonics thermo-optic switch with suspended phase arms,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(8), 525–527 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Y. Liow, K. W. Ang, Q. Fang, J. F. Song, Y. Z. Xiong, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Silicon modulators and germanium photodetectors on SOI: onolithic integration, compatibility, and performance optimization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 307–315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sun, X. W.

Sysak, M. N.

H. Park, M. N. Sysak, H.-W. Chen, A. W. Fang, D. Liang, L. Liao, B. R. Koch, J. Bovington, Y. Tang, K. Wong, M. Jacob-Mitos, R. Jones, and J. E. Bowers, “Device and integration technology for silicon photonic transmitters,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 671–688 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Taillaert, D.

Tang, Y.

H. Park, M. N. Sysak, H.-W. Chen, A. W. Fang, D. Liang, L. Liao, B. R. Koch, J. Bovington, Y. Tang, K. Wong, M. Jacob-Mitos, R. Jones, and J. E. Bowers, “Device and integration technology for silicon photonic transmitters,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 671–688 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tao, S. H.

Thacker, H.

Thomson, D. J.

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J.-M. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. P. P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50-Gb/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Tseng, J.

Tu, X.

Van Thourhout, D.

W. Bogaerts, S. K. Selvaraja, P. Dumon, J. Brouckaert, K. De Vos, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon-on-insulator spectral filters fabricated with CMOS technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 33–44 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Brouckaert, W. Bogaerts, S. Selvaraja, P. Dumon, R. Baets, and D. Van Thourhout, “Planar concave grating demultiplexer with high reflective Bragg reflector facets,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(4), 309–311 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, D. Taillaert, R. Baets, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, and P. Jaenen, “Compact wavelength router based on a Silicon-on-insulator arrayed waveguide grating pigtailed to a fiber array,” Opt. Express 14(2), 664–669 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vlasov, Y.

Y. Vlasov, “Silicon photonics for next generation computing systems,” in European Conference on Optical Communications (2008).
[CrossRef]

Vogel, W.

Wang, X.

Won, Y. H.

Y. O. Noh, J. M. Kim, M. S. Yang, H. J. Choi, H. J. Lee, Y. H. Won, and S. G. Han, “Thermooptic 2× 2 asymmetric digital optical switches with zero-voltage operation state,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(2), 446–448 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wong, K.

H. Park, M. N. Sysak, H.-W. Chen, A. W. Fang, D. Liang, L. Liao, B. R. Koch, J. Bovington, Y. Tang, K. Wong, M. Jacob-Mitos, R. Jones, and J. E. Bowers, “Device and integration technology for silicon photonic transmitters,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 671–688 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wouters, J.

Xiong, Y. Z.

T. Y. Liow, K. W. Ang, Q. Fang, J. F. Song, Y. Z. Xiong, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Silicon modulators and germanium photodetectors on SOI: onolithic integration, compatibility, and performance optimization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 307–315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Xu, F.

A. W. Poon, X. Luo, F. Xu, and H. Chen, “Cascaded microresonator-based matrix switch for silicon on-chip optical interconnection,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1216–1238 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Xu, S.

Xu, Y. L.

Yang, M. S.

Y. O. Noh, J. M. Kim, M. S. Yang, H. J. Choi, H. J. Lee, Y. H. Won, and S. G. Han, “Thermooptic 2× 2 asymmetric digital optical switches with zero-voltage operation state,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(2), 446–448 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Z.

M. Ferrera, L. Razzari, D. Duchesne, R. Morandotti, Z. Yang, M. Liscidini, J. Sipe, S. Chu, B. Little, and D. Moss, “Low-power continuous-wave nonlinear optics in doped silica glass integrated waveguide structures,” Nat. Photonics 2(12), 737–740 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yao, J.

Yegnanarayanan, S.

B. Jalali, S. Yegnanarayanan, T. Yoon, T. Yoshimoto, I. Rendina, and F. Coppinger, “Advances in Silicon-on-Insulator Optoelectronics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4(6), 938–947 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yoon, T.

B. Jalali, S. Yegnanarayanan, T. Yoon, T. Yoshimoto, I. Rendina, and F. Coppinger, “Advances in Silicon-on-Insulator Optoelectronics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4(6), 938–947 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yoshimoto, T.

B. Jalali, S. Yegnanarayanan, T. Yoon, T. Yoshimoto, I. Rendina, and F. Coppinger, “Advances in Silicon-on-Insulator Optoelectronics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4(6), 938–947 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yu, M.

Q. Fang, L. Jia, J. Song, A. E. Lim, X. Tu, X. Luo, M. Yu, and G. Lo, “Demonstration of a vertical pin Ge-on-Si photo-detector on a wet-etched Si recess,” Opt. Express 21(20), 23325–23330 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T.-Y. Liow, J. Song, X. Tu, A.-J. Lim, Q. Fang, N. Duan, M. Yu, and G.-Q. Lo, “Silicon Optical Interconnect Device Technologies for 40 Gb/s and Beyond,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(2), 8200312 (2013).
[CrossRef]

X. Luo, J. Song, S. Feng, A. Poon, T. Y. Liow, M. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Silicon high-order coupled-microring-based electro-optical switches for on-chip optical interconnects,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(10), 821–823 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. Tu, T.-Y. Liow, J. Song, M. Yu, and G. Q. Lo, “Fabrication of low loss and high speed silicon optical modulator using doping compensation method,” Opt. Express 19(19), 18029–18035 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, M. B.

Q. Fang, J. F. Song, T. Y. Liow, H. Cai, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Ultralow power silicon photonics thermo-optic switch with suspended phase arms,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(8), 525–527 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Y. Liow, K. W. Ang, Q. Fang, J. F. Song, Y. Z. Xiong, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Silicon modulators and germanium photodetectors on SOI: onolithic integration, compatibility, and performance optimization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 307–315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Mao, S. H. Tao, Y. L. Xu, X. W. Sun, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Low propagation loss SiN optical waveguide prepared by optimal low-hydrogen module,” Opt. Express 16(25), 20809–20816 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Song, Q. Fang, S. H. Tao, T. Y. Liow, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Fast and low power Michelson interferometer thermo-optical switch on SOI,” Opt. Express 16(20), 15304–15311 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zaoui, W. S.

Zheng, X.

Zlatanovic, S.

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J.-M. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. P. P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50-Gb/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (6)

B. Jalali, S. Yegnanarayanan, T. Yoon, T. Yoshimoto, I. Rendina, and F. Coppinger, “Advances in Silicon-on-Insulator Optoelectronics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4(6), 938–947 (1998).
[CrossRef]

W. Bogaerts, S. K. Selvaraja, P. Dumon, J. Brouckaert, K. De Vos, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon-on-insulator spectral filters fabricated with CMOS technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 33–44 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T.-Y. Liow, J. Song, X. Tu, A.-J. Lim, Q. Fang, N. Duan, M. Yu, and G.-Q. Lo, “Silicon Optical Interconnect Device Technologies for 40 Gb/s and Beyond,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(2), 8200312 (2013).
[CrossRef]

T. Y. Liow, K. W. Ang, Q. Fang, J. F. Song, Y. Z. Xiong, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Silicon modulators and germanium photodetectors on SOI: onolithic integration, compatibility, and performance optimization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 307–315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Park, M. N. Sysak, H.-W. Chen, A. W. Fang, D. Liang, L. Liao, B. R. Koch, J. Bovington, Y. Tang, K. Wong, M. Jacob-Mitos, R. Jones, and J. E. Bowers, “Device and integration technology for silicon photonic transmitters,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 671–688 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Mekis, S. Gloeckner, G. Masini, A. Narasimha, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, and P. De Dobbelaere, “A grating-coupler-enabled CMOS photonics platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 597–608 (2011).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (6)

J. Li, G. Li, X. Zheng, K. Raj, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and J. F. Buckwalter, “A 25-Gb/s, monolithic optical transmitter with micro-ring modulator in 130nm SOI CMOS,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(19), 1901–1903 (2013).
[CrossRef]

X. Luo, J. Song, S. Feng, A. Poon, T. Y. Liow, M. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Silicon high-order coupled-microring-based electro-optical switches for on-chip optical interconnects,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(10), 821–823 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J.-M. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. P. P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50-Gb/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. O. Noh, J. M. Kim, M. S. Yang, H. J. Choi, H. J. Lee, Y. H. Won, and S. G. Han, “Thermooptic 2× 2 asymmetric digital optical switches with zero-voltage operation state,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(2), 446–448 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Q. Fang, J. F. Song, T. Y. Liow, H. Cai, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Ultralow power silicon photonics thermo-optic switch with suspended phase arms,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(8), 525–527 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Brouckaert, W. Bogaerts, S. Selvaraja, P. Dumon, R. Baets, and D. Van Thourhout, “Planar concave grating demultiplexer with high reflective Bragg reflector facets,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(4), 309–311 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Opt. Netw. (1)

Nat. Photonics (1)

M. Ferrera, L. Razzari, D. Duchesne, R. Morandotti, Z. Yang, M. Liscidini, J. Sipe, S. Chu, B. Little, and D. Moss, “Low-power continuous-wave nonlinear optics in doped silica glass integrated waveguide structures,” Nat. Photonics 2(12), 737–740 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

L. Pavesi, L. Dal Negro, C. Mazzoleni, G. Franzò, and F. Priolo, “Optical gain in silicon nanocrystals,” Nature 408(6811), 440–444 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (10)

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, D. Taillaert, R. Baets, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, and P. Jaenen, “Compact wavelength router based on a Silicon-on-insulator arrayed waveguide grating pigtailed to a fiber array,” Opt. Express 14(2), 664–669 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Goebuchi, M. Hisada, T. Kato, and Y. Kokubun, “Optical cross-connect circuit using hitless wavelength selective switch,” Opt. Express 16(2), 535–548 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Song, Q. Fang, S. H. Tao, T. Y. Liow, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Fast and low power Michelson interferometer thermo-optical switch on SOI,” Opt. Express 16(20), 15304–15311 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. C. Mao, S. H. Tao, Y. L. Xu, X. W. Sun, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Low propagation loss SiN optical waveguide prepared by optimal low-hydrogen module,” Opt. Express 16(25), 20809–20816 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Zheng, D. Patil, J. Lexau, F. Liu, G. Li, H. Thacker, Y. Luo, I. Shubin, J. Li, J. Yao, P. Dong, D. Feng, M. Asghari, T. Pinguet, A. Mekis, P. Amberg, M. Dayringer, J. Gainsley, H. F. Moghadam, E. Alon, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultra-efficient 10 Gb/s hybrid integrated silicon photonic transmitter and receiver,” Opt. Express 19(6), 5172–5186 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. N. Feng, D. Feng, S. Liao, X. Wang, P. Dong, H. Liang, C. C. Kung, W. Qian, J. Fong, R. Shafiiha, Y. Luo, J. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “30GHz Ge electro-absorption modulator mintegrated with 3 μm silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Opt. Express 19(8), 7062–7067 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Tu, T.-Y. Liow, J. Song, M. Yu, and G. Q. Lo, “Fabrication of low loss and high speed silicon optical modulator using doping compensation method,” Opt. Express 19(19), 18029–18035 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Duan, T.-Y. Liow, A. E.-J. Lim, L. Ding, and G. Q. Lo, “310 GHz gain-bandwidth product Ge/Si avalanche photodetector for 1550 nm light detection,” Opt. Express 20(10), 11031–11036 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. S. Zaoui, M. F. Rosa, W. Vogel, M. Berroth, J. Butschke, and F. Letzkus, “Cost-effective CMOS-compatible grating couplers with backside metal mirror and 69% coupling efficiency,” Opt. Express 20(26), B238–B243 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Fang, L. Jia, J. Song, A. E. Lim, X. Tu, X. Luo, M. Yu, and G. Lo, “Demonstration of a vertical pin Ge-on-Si photo-detector on a wet-etched Si recess,” Opt. Express 21(20), 23325–23330 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. IEEE (3)

J. Leuthold, W. Freude, J.-M. Brosi, R. Baets, P. Dumon, I. Biaggio, M. L. Scimeca, F. Diederich, B. Frank, and C. Koos, “Silicon organic hybrid technology—a platform for practical nonlinear optics,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1304–1316 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Miller, “Device requirements for optical interconnects to silicon chips,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1166–1185 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. W. Poon, X. Luo, F. Xu, and H. Chen, “Cascaded microresonator-based matrix switch for silicon on-chip optical interconnection,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1216–1238 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

S. Jatar, Y. Malinge, Z. Zhou, H. Liang, S. Liao, Z. Li, C. Bushyakanist, D. C. Lee, R. Shafiiha, and J. Luff, “Performance of parallel 4× 25 Gbs transmitter and receiver fabricated on SOI platform,” in 2012 IEEE 9th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP) (IEEE, 2012), pp. 159–161.

L. Pavesi and G. Guillot, Optical Interconnects: The Silicon Approach (Springer, 2006).

Y. Vlasov, “Silicon photonics for next generation computing systems,” in European Conference on Optical Communications (2008).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic illustrations for (a) the SOI-based photodetector, and (b) the proposed bulk Si-based photodetector system.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Design of the Y-branch integrated with the 3D photodetector with vertical coupler for light coupling. (b) The interleaved P-i-N structure. (c) The design of the curved grating.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Optical microscope image of the fabricated device. (b) The cross-sectional TEM image of the Ge PD region. (c) The SEM of the SiN grating coupler.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Characterization setup for the static performance testing. OS: optical switch. PC: polarization controller. OSA: optical spectrum analyzer. PM: Power meter. SDA: semiconductor devices analyzer.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Passive elements losses for TE mode. (a) Waveguide propagation loss. (b) Fiber/tapered waveguide coupling loss. (c) Y-branch loss.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

The I-V characteristics for the 3D photodetectors with 28 μm (red) and 60 μm (blue) in length. Dished lines: without light input. Solid lines: with light input of ~266 μW.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) The photodetector responses upon the input power change at different bias voltages. The input light is at 1550 nm. (b) The extracted responsivity as functions of the reverse bias voltage.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Photodetector response for small signal. The bias voltages are 0V (blue), 5V (green) and 10 V (red) respectively.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

The measured eye diagrams for the vertical PDs. (a)1 Gb/s, (b)2.5 Gb/s, (c)5 Gb/s and (d)10 Gb/s.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Proof-of- principle demonstration of an 80 Gbit/s optical receiver. (a) The layout of the receiver integrating a 1 × 8 AWG and 3D photodetector. (b) The measured optical spectra of the AWG. (c) The measured electrical eye diagrams for the photodetectors.

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