Abstract

As imaging systems become more advanced and acquire data at faster rates, increasingly dynamic samples can be imaged without concern of motion artifacts. For optical interferometric techniques such as optical coherence tomography, it often follows that initially, only amplitude-based data are utilized due to unstable or unreliable phase measurements. As systems progress, stable phase maps can also be acquired, enabling more advanced, phase-dependent post-processing techniques. Here we report an investigation of the stability requirements for a class of phase-dependent post-processing techniques – numerical defocus and aberration correction with further extensions to techniques such as Doppler, phase-variance, and optical coherence elastography. Mathematical analyses and numerical simulations over a variety of instabilities are supported by experimental investigations.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2014 (1)

2013 (2)

A. Ahmad, N. D. Shemonski, S. G. Adie, H.-S. Kim, W.-M. W. Hwu, P. S. Carney, and S. A. Boppart, “Real-time in vivo computed optical interferometric tomography,” Nat. Photonics 7(6), 444–448 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Kumar, W. Drexler, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Subaperture correlation based digital adaptive optics for full field optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 21(9), 10850–10866 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012 (2)

D. Hillmann, G. Franke, C. Lührs, P. Koch, and G. Hüttmann, “Efficient holoscopy image reconstruction,” Opt. Express 20(19), 21247–21263 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. S. Ralston, D. L. Marks, P. Scott Carney, and S. A. Boppart, “Computational adaptive optics for broadband optical interferometric tomography of biological tissue,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(19), 7175–7180 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

2010 (2)

R. John, R. Rezaeipoor, S. G. Adie, E. J. Chaney, A. L. Oldenburg, M. Marjanovic, J. P. Haldar, B. P. Sutton, and S. A. Boppart, “In vivo magnetomotive optical molecular imaging using targeted magnetic nanoprobes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(18), 8085–8090 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. K. Wang and A. L. Nuttall, “Phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography imaging of the tissue motion within the organ of Corti at a subnanometer scale: a preliminary study,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(5), 56005–56009 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

B. J. Vakoc, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Statistical properties of phase-decorrelation in phase-resolved Doppler optical coherence tomography,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 28(6), 814–821 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

B. J. Davis, D. L. Marks, T. S. Ralston, P. S. Carney, and S. A. Boppart, “Interferometric synthetic aperture microscopy: computed imaging for scanned coherent microscopy,” Sensors (Basel) 8(6), 3903–3931 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

2006 (2)

2005 (5)

2004 (1)

2003 (2)

2000 (1)

1999 (1)

J. M. Schmitt, S. H. Xiang, and K. M. Yung, “Speckle in optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 4(1), 95–105 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

J. M. Schmitt, “Restoration of optical coherence images of living Tissue using the CLEAN algorithm,” J. Biomed. Opt. 3(1), 66–75 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

E. Cuche, P. Poscio, and C. D. Depeursinge, “Optical tomography at the microscopic scale by means of a numerical low-coherence holographic technique,” Proc. SPIE 2927, 61–66 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. El-Zaiat, “Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry,” Opt. Commun. 117(1-2), 43–48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1991 (2)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Buckreuss, “Motion errors in an airborne synthetic aperture radar system,” Eur. Trans. Telecommun. 2(6), 655–664 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

J. Radon, “On the determination of functions from their integral values along certain manifolds,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 5(4), 170–176 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1973 (1)

G. N. Hounsfield, “Computerized transverse axial scanning (tomography): Part I. Description of system,” Br. J. Radiol. 46(552), 1016–1022 (1973).

1967 (1)

J. W. Goodman and R. W. Lawrence, “Digital image formation from electronically detected holograms,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 11(3), 77–79 (1967).
[CrossRef]

1961 (1)

L. J. Cutrona, W. E. Vivian, E. N. Leith, and G. O. Hall, “A high-resolution radar combat-surveillance system,” IRE Trans. Mil. Electron. MIL-5(2), 127–131 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Adie, S. G.

N. D. Shemonski, A. Ahmad, S. G. Adie, Y.-Z. Liu, F. A. South, P. S. Carney, and S. A. Boppart, “Stability in computed optical interferometric tomography (Part II): In vivo stability assessment,” Opt. Express 22(16), 19314–19326 (2014).
[CrossRef]

A. Ahmad, N. D. Shemonski, S. G. Adie, H.-S. Kim, W.-M. W. Hwu, P. S. Carney, and S. A. Boppart, “Real-time in vivo computed optical interferometric tomography,” Nat. Photonics 7(6), 444–448 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. John, R. Rezaeipoor, S. G. Adie, E. J. Chaney, A. L. Oldenburg, M. Marjanovic, J. P. Haldar, B. P. Sutton, and S. A. Boppart, “In vivo magnetomotive optical molecular imaging using targeted magnetic nanoprobes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(18), 8085–8090 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ahmad, A.

N. D. Shemonski, A. Ahmad, S. G. Adie, Y.-Z. Liu, F. A. South, P. S. Carney, and S. A. Boppart, “Stability in computed optical interferometric tomography (Part II): In vivo stability assessment,” Opt. Express 22(16), 19314–19326 (2014).
[CrossRef]

A. Ahmad, N. D. Shemonski, S. G. Adie, H.-S. Kim, W.-M. W. Hwu, P. S. Carney, and S. A. Boppart, “Real-time in vivo computed optical interferometric tomography,” Nat. Photonics 7(6), 444–448 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Akkin, T.

Artal, P.

V. Nourrit, B. Vohnsen, and P. Artal, “Blind deconvolution for high-resolution confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 7(10), 585–592 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Aspert, N.

Boppart, S. A.

N. D. Shemonski, A. Ahmad, S. G. Adie, Y.-Z. Liu, F. A. South, P. S. Carney, and S. A. Boppart, “Stability in computed optical interferometric tomography (Part II): In vivo stability assessment,” Opt. Express 22(16), 19314–19326 (2014).
[CrossRef]

A. Ahmad, N. D. Shemonski, S. G. Adie, H.-S. Kim, W.-M. W. Hwu, P. S. Carney, and S. A. Boppart, “Real-time in vivo computed optical interferometric tomography,” Nat. Photonics 7(6), 444–448 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. S. Ralston, D. L. Marks, P. Scott Carney, and S. A. Boppart, “Computational adaptive optics for broadband optical interferometric tomography of biological tissue,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(19), 7175–7180 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. John, R. Rezaeipoor, S. G. Adie, E. J. Chaney, A. L. Oldenburg, M. Marjanovic, J. P. Haldar, B. P. Sutton, and S. A. Boppart, “In vivo magnetomotive optical molecular imaging using targeted magnetic nanoprobes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(18), 8085–8090 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. Davis, D. L. Marks, T. S. Ralston, P. S. Carney, and S. A. Boppart, “Interferometric synthetic aperture microscopy: computed imaging for scanned coherent microscopy,” Sensors (Basel) 8(6), 3903–3931 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. Davis, S. C. Schlachter, D. L. Marks, T. S. Ralston, S. A. Boppart, and P. S. Carney, “Non-paraxial vector-field modeling of optical coherence tomography and interferometric synthetic aperture microscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24(9), 2527–2542 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. S. Ralston, D. L. Marks, P. S. Carney, and S. A. Boppart, “Interferometric synthetic aperture microscopy,” Nat. Phys. 3(2), 129–134 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. S. Ralston, D. L. Marks, P. S. Carney, and S. A. Boppart, “Phase stability technique for inverse scattering in optical coherence tomography,” in Proceedings of 3rd IEEE International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging: Nano to Macro (2006), pp. 578–581.
[CrossRef]

Bouma, B. E.

Bourquin, S.

Braaf, B.

Buckreuss, S.

S. Buckreuss, “Motion errors in an airborne synthetic aperture radar system,” Eur. Trans. Telecommun. 2(6), 655–664 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Carney, P. S.

N. D. Shemonski, A. Ahmad, S. G. Adie, Y.-Z. Liu, F. A. South, P. S. Carney, and S. A. Boppart, “Stability in computed optical interferometric tomography (Part II): In vivo stability assessment,” Opt. Express 22(16), 19314–19326 (2014).
[CrossRef]

A. Ahmad, N. D. Shemonski, S. G. Adie, H.-S. Kim, W.-M. W. Hwu, P. S. Carney, and S. A. Boppart, “Real-time in vivo computed optical interferometric tomography,” Nat. Photonics 7(6), 444–448 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. Davis, D. L. Marks, T. S. Ralston, P. S. Carney, and S. A. Boppart, “Interferometric synthetic aperture microscopy: computed imaging for scanned coherent microscopy,” Sensors (Basel) 8(6), 3903–3931 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. S. Ralston, D. L. Marks, P. S. Carney, and S. A. Boppart, “Interferometric synthetic aperture microscopy,” Nat. Phys. 3(2), 129–134 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. J. Davis, S. C. Schlachter, D. L. Marks, T. S. Ralston, S. A. Boppart, and P. S. Carney, “Non-paraxial vector-field modeling of optical coherence tomography and interferometric synthetic aperture microscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24(9), 2527–2542 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. S. Ralston, D. L. Marks, P. S. Carney, and S. A. Boppart, “Phase stability technique for inverse scattering in optical coherence tomography,” in Proceedings of 3rd IEEE International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging: Nano to Macro (2006), pp. 578–581.
[CrossRef]

Cense, B.

Chaney, E. J.

R. John, R. Rezaeipoor, S. G. Adie, E. J. Chaney, A. L. Oldenburg, M. Marjanovic, J. P. Haldar, B. P. Sutton, and S. A. Boppart, “In vivo magnetomotive optical molecular imaging using targeted magnetic nanoprobes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(18), 8085–8090 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Charrière, F.

Choma, M. A.

Colomb, T.

Creazzo, T. L.

Cuche, E.

Cutrona, L. J.

L. J. Cutrona, W. E. Vivian, E. N. Leith, and G. O. Hall, “A high-resolution radar combat-surveillance system,” IRE Trans. Mil. Electron. MIL-5(2), 127–131 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Davis, B. J.

B. J. Davis, D. L. Marks, T. S. Ralston, P. S. Carney, and S. A. Boppart, “Interferometric synthetic aperture microscopy: computed imaging for scanned coherent microscopy,” Sensors (Basel) 8(6), 3903–3931 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. Davis, S. C. Schlachter, D. L. Marks, T. S. Ralston, S. A. Boppart, and P. S. Carney, “Non-paraxial vector-field modeling of optical coherence tomography and interferometric synthetic aperture microscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24(9), 2527–2542 (2007).
[CrossRef]

de Boer, J. F.

Depeursinge, C.

Depeursinge, C. D.

E. Cuche, P. Poscio, and C. D. Depeursinge, “Optical tomography at the microscopic scale by means of a numerical low-coherence holographic technique,” Proc. SPIE 2927, 61–66 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Drexler, W.

Ellerbee, A. K.

M. A. Choma, A. K. Ellerbee, S. Yazdanfar, and J. A. Izatt, “Doppler flow imaging of cytoplasmic streaming using spectral domain phase microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(2), 024014 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Choma, A. K. Ellerbee, C. Yang, T. L. Creazzo, and J. A. Izatt, “Spectral-domain phase microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 30(10), 1162–1164 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

El-Zaiat, S. Y.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. El-Zaiat, “Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry,” Opt. Commun. 117(1-2), 43–48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Fercher, A. F.

R. Leitgeb, C. K. Hitzenberger, and A. F. Fercher, “Performance of Fourier domain vs. time domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 11(8), 889–894 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. El-Zaiat, “Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry,” Opt. Commun. 117(1-2), 43–48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Franke, G.

Fujimoto, J. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goodman, J. W.

E. Y. Lam and J. W. Goodman, “Iterative statistical approach to blind image deconvolution,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17(7), 1177–1184 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Goodman and R. W. Lawrence, “Digital image formation from electronically detected holograms,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 11(3), 77–79 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haldar, J. P.

R. John, R. Rezaeipoor, S. G. Adie, E. J. Chaney, A. L. Oldenburg, M. Marjanovic, J. P. Haldar, B. P. Sutton, and S. A. Boppart, “In vivo magnetomotive optical molecular imaging using targeted magnetic nanoprobes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(18), 8085–8090 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hall, G. O.

L. J. Cutrona, W. E. Vivian, E. N. Leith, and G. O. Hall, “A high-resolution radar combat-surveillance system,” IRE Trans. Mil. Electron. MIL-5(2), 127–131 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Hee, M. R.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hillmann, D.

Hitzenberger, C. K.

R. Leitgeb, C. K. Hitzenberger, and A. F. Fercher, “Performance of Fourier domain vs. time domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 11(8), 889–894 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. El-Zaiat, “Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry,” Opt. Commun. 117(1-2), 43–48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hounsfield, G. N.

G. N. Hounsfield, “Computerized transverse axial scanning (tomography): Part I. Description of system,” Br. J. Radiol. 46(552), 1016–1022 (1973).

Huang, D.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hüttmann, G.

Hwu, W.-M. W.

A. Ahmad, N. D. Shemonski, S. G. Adie, H.-S. Kim, W.-M. W. Hwu, P. S. Carney, and S. A. Boppart, “Real-time in vivo computed optical interferometric tomography,” Nat. Photonics 7(6), 444–448 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Izatt, J.

Izatt, J. A.

John, R.

R. John, R. Rezaeipoor, S. G. Adie, E. J. Chaney, A. L. Oldenburg, M. Marjanovic, J. P. Haldar, B. P. Sutton, and S. A. Boppart, “In vivo magnetomotive optical molecular imaging using targeted magnetic nanoprobes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(18), 8085–8090 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Joo, C.

Kamp, G.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. El-Zaiat, “Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry,” Opt. Commun. 117(1-2), 43–48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H.-S.

A. Ahmad, N. D. Shemonski, S. G. Adie, H.-S. Kim, W.-M. W. Hwu, P. S. Carney, and S. A. Boppart, “Real-time in vivo computed optical interferometric tomography,” Nat. Photonics 7(6), 444–448 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koch, P.

Kühn, J.

Kumar, A.

Lam, E. Y.

Lawrence, R. W.

J. W. Goodman and R. W. Lawrence, “Digital image formation from electronically detected holograms,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 11(3), 77–79 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Leitgeb, R.

Leitgeb, R. A.

Leith, E. N.

L. J. Cutrona, W. E. Vivian, E. N. Leith, and G. O. Hall, “A high-resolution radar combat-surveillance system,” IRE Trans. Mil. Electron. MIL-5(2), 127–131 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, Y.-Z.

Lührs, C.

Marian, A.

Marjanovic, M.

R. John, R. Rezaeipoor, S. G. Adie, E. J. Chaney, A. L. Oldenburg, M. Marjanovic, J. P. Haldar, B. P. Sutton, and S. A. Boppart, “In vivo magnetomotive optical molecular imaging using targeted magnetic nanoprobes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(18), 8085–8090 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marks, D. L.

T. S. Ralston, D. L. Marks, P. Scott Carney, and S. A. Boppart, “Computational adaptive optics for broadband optical interferometric tomography of biological tissue,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(19), 7175–7180 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. Davis, D. L. Marks, T. S. Ralston, P. S. Carney, and S. A. Boppart, “Interferometric synthetic aperture microscopy: computed imaging for scanned coherent microscopy,” Sensors (Basel) 8(6), 3903–3931 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. Davis, S. C. Schlachter, D. L. Marks, T. S. Ralston, S. A. Boppart, and P. S. Carney, “Non-paraxial vector-field modeling of optical coherence tomography and interferometric synthetic aperture microscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24(9), 2527–2542 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. S. Ralston, D. L. Marks, P. S. Carney, and S. A. Boppart, “Interferometric synthetic aperture microscopy,” Nat. Phys. 3(2), 129–134 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. S. Ralston, D. L. Marks, P. S. Carney, and S. A. Boppart, “Phase stability technique for inverse scattering in optical coherence tomography,” in Proceedings of 3rd IEEE International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging: Nano to Macro (2006), pp. 578–581.
[CrossRef]

Marquet, P.

Montfort, F.

Nourrit, V.

V. Nourrit, B. Vohnsen, and P. Artal, “Blind deconvolution for high-resolution confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 7(10), 585–592 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nuttall, A. L.

R. K. Wang and A. L. Nuttall, “Phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography imaging of the tissue motion within the organ of Corti at a subnanometer scale: a preliminary study,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(5), 56005–56009 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oldenburg, A. L.

R. John, R. Rezaeipoor, S. G. Adie, E. J. Chaney, A. L. Oldenburg, M. Marjanovic, J. P. Haldar, B. P. Sutton, and S. A. Boppart, “In vivo magnetomotive optical molecular imaging using targeted magnetic nanoprobes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(18), 8085–8090 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, B. H.

Poscio, P.

E. Cuche, P. Poscio, and C. D. Depeursinge, “Optical tomography at the microscopic scale by means of a numerical low-coherence holographic technique,” Proc. SPIE 2927, 61–66 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Radon, J.

J. Radon, “On the determination of functions from their integral values along certain manifolds,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 5(4), 170–176 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ralston, T. S.

T. S. Ralston, D. L. Marks, P. Scott Carney, and S. A. Boppart, “Computational adaptive optics for broadband optical interferometric tomography of biological tissue,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(19), 7175–7180 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. Davis, D. L. Marks, T. S. Ralston, P. S. Carney, and S. A. Boppart, “Interferometric synthetic aperture microscopy: computed imaging for scanned coherent microscopy,” Sensors (Basel) 8(6), 3903–3931 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. S. Ralston, D. L. Marks, P. S. Carney, and S. A. Boppart, “Interferometric synthetic aperture microscopy,” Nat. Phys. 3(2), 129–134 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. J. Davis, S. C. Schlachter, D. L. Marks, T. S. Ralston, S. A. Boppart, and P. S. Carney, “Non-paraxial vector-field modeling of optical coherence tomography and interferometric synthetic aperture microscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24(9), 2527–2542 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. S. Ralston, D. L. Marks, P. S. Carney, and S. A. Boppart, “Phase stability technique for inverse scattering in optical coherence tomography,” in Proceedings of 3rd IEEE International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging: Nano to Macro (2006), pp. 578–581.
[CrossRef]

Rezaeipoor, R.

R. John, R. Rezaeipoor, S. G. Adie, E. J. Chaney, A. L. Oldenburg, M. Marjanovic, J. P. Haldar, B. P. Sutton, and S. A. Boppart, “In vivo magnetomotive optical molecular imaging using targeted magnetic nanoprobes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(18), 8085–8090 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sarunic, M.

Sarunic, M. V.

Schlachter, S. C.

Schmitt, J. M.

J. M. Schmitt, S. H. Xiang, and K. M. Yung, “Speckle in optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 4(1), 95–105 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Schmitt, “Restoration of optical coherence images of living Tissue using the CLEAN algorithm,” J. Biomed. Opt. 3(1), 66–75 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scott Carney, P.

T. S. Ralston, D. L. Marks, P. Scott Carney, and S. A. Boppart, “Computational adaptive optics for broadband optical interferometric tomography of biological tissue,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(19), 7175–7180 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shemonski, N. D.

N. D. Shemonski, A. Ahmad, S. G. Adie, Y.-Z. Liu, F. A. South, P. S. Carney, and S. A. Boppart, “Stability in computed optical interferometric tomography (Part II): In vivo stability assessment,” Opt. Express 22(16), 19314–19326 (2014).
[CrossRef]

A. Ahmad, N. D. Shemonski, S. G. Adie, H.-S. Kim, W.-M. W. Hwu, P. S. Carney, and S. A. Boppart, “Real-time in vivo computed optical interferometric tomography,” Nat. Photonics 7(6), 444–448 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sicam, V. A. D. P.

South, F. A.

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sutton, B. P.

R. John, R. Rezaeipoor, S. G. Adie, E. J. Chaney, A. L. Oldenburg, M. Marjanovic, J. P. Haldar, B. P. Sutton, and S. A. Boppart, “In vivo magnetomotive optical molecular imaging using targeted magnetic nanoprobes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(18), 8085–8090 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swanson, E. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tearney, G. J.

Vakoc, B. J.

B. J. Vakoc, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Statistical properties of phase-decorrelation in phase-resolved Doppler optical coherence tomography,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 28(6), 814–821 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. Vakoc, S. H. Yun, J. F. de Boer, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Phase-resolved optical frequency domain imaging,” Opt. Express 13(14), 5483–5493 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Meurs, J. C.

van Zeeburg, E.

Vermeer, K. A.

Vivian, W. E.

L. J. Cutrona, W. E. Vivian, E. N. Leith, and G. O. Hall, “A high-resolution radar combat-surveillance system,” IRE Trans. Mil. Electron. MIL-5(2), 127–131 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Vohnsen, B.

V. Nourrit, B. Vohnsen, and P. Artal, “Blind deconvolution for high-resolution confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 7(10), 585–592 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wang, R. K.

R. K. Wang and A. L. Nuttall, “Phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography imaging of the tissue motion within the organ of Corti at a subnanometer scale: a preliminary study,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(5), 56005–56009 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xiang, S. H.

J. M. Schmitt, S. H. Xiang, and K. M. Yung, “Speckle in optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 4(1), 95–105 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, C.

Yazdanfar, S.

M. A. Choma, A. K. Ellerbee, S. Yazdanfar, and J. A. Izatt, “Doppler flow imaging of cytoplasmic streaming using spectral domain phase microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(2), 024014 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Yazdanfar, C. Yang, M. Sarunic, and J. Izatt, “Frequency estimation precision in Doppler optical coherence tomography using the Cramer-Rao lower bound,” Opt. Express 13(2), 410–416 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yun, S. H.

Yung, K. M.

J. M. Schmitt, S. H. Xiang, and K. M. Yung, “Speckle in optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 4(1), 95–105 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

J. W. Goodman and R. W. Lawrence, “Digital image formation from electronically detected holograms,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 11(3), 77–79 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Br. J. Radiol. (1)

G. N. Hounsfield, “Computerized transverse axial scanning (tomography): Part I. Description of system,” Br. J. Radiol. 46(552), 1016–1022 (1973).

Eur. Trans. Telecommun. (1)

S. Buckreuss, “Motion errors in an airborne synthetic aperture radar system,” Eur. Trans. Telecommun. 2(6), 655–664 (1991).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging (2)

J. Radon, “On the determination of functions from their integral values along certain manifolds,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 5(4), 170–176 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. Vakoc, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Statistical properties of phase-decorrelation in phase-resolved Doppler optical coherence tomography,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 28(6), 814–821 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IRE Trans. Mil. Electron. (1)

L. J. Cutrona, W. E. Vivian, E. N. Leith, and G. O. Hall, “A high-resolution radar combat-surveillance system,” IRE Trans. Mil. Electron. MIL-5(2), 127–131 (1961).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt. (4)

J. M. Schmitt, “Restoration of optical coherence images of living Tissue using the CLEAN algorithm,” J. Biomed. Opt. 3(1), 66–75 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. K. Wang and A. L. Nuttall, “Phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography imaging of the tissue motion within the organ of Corti at a subnanometer scale: a preliminary study,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(5), 56005–56009 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Schmitt, S. H. Xiang, and K. M. Yung, “Speckle in optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 4(1), 95–105 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Choma, A. K. Ellerbee, S. Yazdanfar, and J. A. Izatt, “Doppler flow imaging of cytoplasmic streaming using spectral domain phase microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(2), 024014 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

V. Nourrit, B. Vohnsen, and P. Artal, “Blind deconvolution for high-resolution confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 7(10), 585–592 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (3)

Nat. Photonics (1)

A. Ahmad, N. D. Shemonski, S. G. Adie, H.-S. Kim, W.-M. W. Hwu, P. S. Carney, and S. A. Boppart, “Real-time in vivo computed optical interferometric tomography,” Nat. Photonics 7(6), 444–448 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Phys. (1)

T. S. Ralston, D. L. Marks, P. S. Carney, and S. A. Boppart, “Interferometric synthetic aperture microscopy,” Nat. Phys. 3(2), 129–134 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. El-Zaiat, “Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry,” Opt. Commun. 117(1-2), 43–48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (9)

M. A. Choma, M. V. Sarunic, C. Yang, and J. A. Izatt, “Sensitivity advantage of swept source and Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 11(18), 2183–2189 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. Vakoc, S. H. Yun, J. F. de Boer, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Phase-resolved optical frequency domain imaging,” Opt. Express 13(14), 5483–5493 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Braaf, K. A. Vermeer, V. A. D. P. Sicam, E. van Zeeburg, J. C. van Meurs, and J. F. de Boer, “Phase-stabilized optical frequency domain imaging at 1-µm for the measurement of blood flow in the human choroid,” Opt. Express 19(21), 20886–20903 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Leitgeb, C. K. Hitzenberger, and A. F. Fercher, “Performance of Fourier domain vs. time domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 11(8), 889–894 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Yazdanfar, C. Yang, M. Sarunic, and J. Izatt, “Frequency estimation precision in Doppler optical coherence tomography using the Cramer-Rao lower bound,” Opt. Express 13(2), 410–416 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, “Motion artifacts in optical coherence tomography with frequency-domain ranging,” Opt. Express 12(13), 2977–2998 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Hillmann, G. Franke, C. Lührs, P. Koch, and G. Hüttmann, “Efficient holoscopy image reconstruction,” Opt. Express 20(19), 21247–21263 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Kumar, W. Drexler, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Subaperture correlation based digital adaptive optics for full field optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 21(9), 10850–10866 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. D. Shemonski, A. Ahmad, S. G. Adie, Y.-Z. Liu, F. A. South, P. S. Carney, and S. A. Boppart, “Stability in computed optical interferometric tomography (Part II): In vivo stability assessment,” Opt. Express 22(16), 19314–19326 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2)

R. John, R. Rezaeipoor, S. G. Adie, E. J. Chaney, A. L. Oldenburg, M. Marjanovic, J. P. Haldar, B. P. Sutton, and S. A. Boppart, “In vivo magnetomotive optical molecular imaging using targeted magnetic nanoprobes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(18), 8085–8090 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. S. Ralston, D. L. Marks, P. Scott Carney, and S. A. Boppart, “Computational adaptive optics for broadband optical interferometric tomography of biological tissue,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(19), 7175–7180 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE (1)

E. Cuche, P. Poscio, and C. D. Depeursinge, “Optical tomography at the microscopic scale by means of a numerical low-coherence holographic technique,” Proc. SPIE 2927, 61–66 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sensors (Basel) (1)

B. J. Davis, D. L. Marks, T. S. Ralston, P. S. Carney, and S. A. Boppart, “Interferometric synthetic aperture microscopy: computed imaging for scanned coherent microscopy,” Sensors (Basel) 8(6), 3903–3931 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (3)

E. Hecht, Optics, 4th ed. (Addison Wesley, 2002), Chap. 11.

S. G. Adie, N. D. Shemonski, T. S. Ralston, P. S. Carney, and S. A. Boppart, “Interferometric synthetic aperture microscopy and computational adaptive optics,” in Optical Coherence Tomography: Technology and Applications, 2nd Ed., W. Drexler and J. G. Fujimoto, eds., (in press).

T. S. Ralston, D. L. Marks, P. S. Carney, and S. A. Boppart, “Phase stability technique for inverse scattering in optical coherence tomography,” in Proceedings of 3rd IEEE International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging: Nano to Macro (2006), pp. 578–581.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

A graphical depiction and experimental validation of the interrogation time. (a-c) As the Gaussian beam performs a raster scan in a telecentric setup, particles further from the focus see a longer interrogation time (the length of which is indicated by τ) than particles at the focus. This means that stability is required over a longer period of time further from focus. (d-f) Experimentally, a short, impulse-like disturbance to the sample results in a degradation of the ISAM reconstruction. (d) Points in the sample being interrogated during the disturbance will not be reconstructed properly leading to a higher loss in contrast (black) while points not being interrogated experience little to no loss in contrast (white). (e) An en face plane away from the focus experiences signal degradation over a large area (indicated by black arrows), while an en face near the focus (f) is disrupted over only a small area (indicated by black arrows).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Reconstructions of a simulated point scatterer in the presence of reference arm fluctuations. (a) An OCT en face plane through a point scatterer. (b-g) ISAM reconstructions with varying levels of 1-D Brownian motion added to the reference arm. A scaling factor d n was used to control the strength of the random process (h). As the reconstruction fails, the main peak remains narrow, but decreases in intensity while side lobes rise to both sides. Scale bars represent 50 µm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The impact of various classes of disturbances. Organized in 3 main columns, the effects of 1-D Brownian motion, step functions, and sinusoidal motion are summarized here. The top row in each column shows the type of motion which is applied and the lower 3 rows specify in which direction this disturbance is applied (axial, fast, or slow axis). Finally, within each column, the left side shows the OCT processed en face plane and the right shows the corrected plane. The magnitude of the motion applied is scaled by d n . The central wavelength simulated is λ0 = 1.33 µm. The scale bars represent 50 µm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Thresholds for successful defocus correction with various types of motion. Organized in a similar manner to Fig. 3, the three main columns separate the type of motion (1-D Brownian, step, sinusoidal), and the rows list the direction in which the motion was applied (reference arm, fast axis, slow axis). The independent variable in each case is the interrogation length measured to the 1/e2 boundary. The dependent axes have been normalized. For transverse motion, normalization was to the transverse resolution (8.9 µm).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Impact of varying SNR on reconstructions. Simulations (far left column) and experiments (right 3 columns) show the impact of lowering SNR on defocus correction. Validating the predictions provided from the theory, the narrow peak and the background noise remain the same before and after reconstructions. The scale bars represent 50 µm.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

A comparison of an experiment and simulation with and without motion. The top row shows a simulation with point scatterers placed to match the experiment in the second row. Shown are the OCT (left column), ISAM without fluctuations (middle column), and ISAM with fluctuations. In both reconstructions with fluctuations, side lobes appear along the slow axis in similar ways. The bottom row shows traces along the slow axis through the center of the scatterers indicated by the white arrows. Intensities in all images are viewed on a normalized scale. The scale bars represent 50 µm.

Equations (3)

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S AC ( x , y , z ) = 1 { { S OCT ( x , y , z ref . , z f , z ) } H 1 ( q x , q y , k ) }
S ˜ O C T ( x s , y s , z ref . , z f , k ) d x d y d z η ( x , y , z z ref . ) e i 2 k ( z z ref . ) × g 2 ( x x s , y y s , z z ref . z f , k )
x s ( t ) = v fast ( t t / Δ t fast Δ t fast ) y s ( t ) = v slow t / Δ t fast Δ t fast z ref . ( t ) = z 0

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