Abstract

A kind of magnetic field sensor composed of magnetic fluid surrounding a segment of singlemode fiber is proposed. The taper-like and lateral-offset fusion splicing techniques are employed. The sensing principle is based on cladding mode interference. The interference valley wavelength or transmission loss of the sensing structure is sensitive to the external magnetic field, which is utilized for magnetic field sensing. The linear response regions are obtained in the range of 38-225 Oe and 250-475 Oe. For the valley-wavelength-shift-type sensing, the sensitivities are 14.1 pm/Oe and 26 pm/Oe at low and high field ranges, respectively. For the transmission-loss-variation-type sensing, the sensitivity of −0.024 dB/Oe is achieved for the magnetic field strength ranging from 250 to 475 Oe.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  1. S. Xia, J. Wang, Z. Lu, and F. Zhang, “Birefringence and magneto-optical properties in oleic acid coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles: application for optical switch,” Int. J. Nanosci. 10(03), 515–520 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. Candiani, W. Margulis, C. Sterner, M. Konstantaki, and S. Pissadakis, “Phase-shifted Bragg microstructured optical fiber gratings utilizing infiltrated ferrofluids,” Opt. Lett. 36(13), 2548–2550 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. S. Pu, X. Chen, L. Chen, W. Liao, Y. Chen, and Y. Xia, “Tunable magnetic fluid grating by applying a magnetic field,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(2), 021901 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. Patel and R. V. Mehta, “Ferrodispersion: a promising candidate for an optical capacitor,” Appl. Opt. 50(31), G17–G22 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. H. E. Horng, J. J. Chieh, Y. H. Chao, S.-Y. Yang, C.-Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, “Designing optical-fiber modulators by using magnetic fluids,” Opt. Lett. 30(5), 543–545 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. P. Zu, C.-C. Chan, L. W. Siang, Y. Jin, Y. Zhang, L. H. Fen, L. Chen, and X. Dong, “Magneto-optic fiber Sagnac modulator based on magnetic fluids,” Opt. Lett. 36(8), 1425–1427 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. S. Pu, S. Dong, and J. Huang, “Tunable slow light based on magnetic-fluid-infiltrated photonic crystal waveguides,” J. Opt. 16(4), 045102 (2014).
    [CrossRef]
  8. Y. Miao, J. Wu, W. Lin, K. Zhang, Y. Yuan, B. Song, H. Zhang, B. Liu, and J. Yao, “Magnetic field tunability of optical microfiber taper integrated with ferrofluid,” Opt. Express 21(24), 29914–29920 (2013).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. S. Pu and S. Dong, “Magnetic field sensing based on magnetic-fluid-clad fiber-optic structure with up-tapered joints,” IEEE Photonics J. 6, 5300206 (2014).
  10. H. Wang, S. Pu, N. Wang, S. Dong, and J. Huang, “Magnetic field sensing based on singlemode-multimode-singlemode fiber structures using magnetic fluids as cladding,” Opt. Lett. 38(19), 3765–3768 (2013).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. Y. Chen, Q. Han, T. Liu, X. Lan, and H. Xiao, “Optical fiber magnetic field sensor based on single-mode-multimode-single-mode structure and magnetic fluid,” Opt. Lett. 38(20), 3999–4001 (2013).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. W. Lin, Y. Miao, H. Zhang, B. Liu, Y. Liu, and B. Song, “Fiber-optic in-line magnetic field sensor based on the magnetic fluid and multimode interference effects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(15), 151101 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  13. P. Zu, C.-C. Chan, W. S. Lew, L. Hu, Y. Jin, H. F. Liew, L. H. Chen, W. C. Wong, and X. Dong, “Temperature-insensitive magnetic field sensor based on nanoparticle magnetic fluid and photonic crystal fiber,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(2), 491–498 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. A. Candiani, M. Konstantaki, W. Margulis, and S. Pissadakis, “Optofluidic magnetometer developed in a microstructured optical fiber,” Opt. Lett. 37(21), 4467–4469 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. S. Dong, S. Pu, and J. Huang, “Magnetic field sensing based on magneto-volume variation of magnetic fluids investigated by air-gap Fabry-Pérot fiber interferometers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(11), 111907 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  17. X. Li and H. Ding, “All-fiber magnetic-field sensor based on microfiber knot resonator and magnetic fluid,” Opt. Lett. 37(24), 5187–5189 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. P. Zu, C.-C. Chan, T. Gong, Y. Jin, W. C. Wong, and X. Dong, “Magneto-optical fiber sensor based on bandgap effect of photonic crystal fiber infiltrated with magnetic fluid,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(24), 241118 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  19. R. Gao, Y. Jiang, and S. Abdelaziz, “All-fiber magnetic field sensors based on magnetic fluid-filled photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Lett. 38(9), 1539–1541 (2013).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. H. V. Thakur, S. M. Nalawade, S. Gupta, R. Kitture, and S. N. Kale, “Photonic crystal fiber injected with Fe3O4 nanofluid for magnetic field detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(16), 161101 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  21. Z. Tian, S. S.-H. Yam, and H.-P. Look, “Single-mode fiber refractive index sensor based on core-offset attenuators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(16), 1387–1389 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  22. J. Zhang and S. Peng, “A compact SMS refractometer based on HF corrosion scheme,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Photonics and Optoelectronics, China, June 19–21, 2010.
  23. R. Yang, Y.-S. Yu, Y. Xue, C. Chen, Q.-D. Chen, and H.-B. Sun, “Single S-tapered fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometers,” Opt. Lett. 36(23), 4482–4484 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. C.-Y. Hong, H. E. Horng, and S. Y. Yang, “Tunable refractive index of magnetic fluids and its applications,” Phys. Status Solidi 1(7c), 1604–1609 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  25. C.-Y. Hong, S. Y. Yang, H. E. Horng, and H. C. Yang, “Control parameters for the tunable refractive index of magnetic fluid films,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(6), 3849–3852 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  26. P. Childs, A. Candiani, and S. Pissadakis, “Optical fiber cladding ring magnetic field sensor,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(13), 929–931 (2011).
    [CrossRef]

2014

S. Pu and S. Dong, “Magnetic field sensing based on magnetic-fluid-clad fiber-optic structure with up-tapered joints,” IEEE Photonics J. 6, 5300206 (2014).

S. Pu, S. Dong, and J. Huang, “Tunable slow light based on magnetic-fluid-infiltrated photonic crystal waveguides,” J. Opt. 16(4), 045102 (2014).
[CrossRef]

2013

Y. Miao, J. Wu, W. Lin, K. Zhang, Y. Yuan, B. Song, H. Zhang, B. Liu, and J. Yao, “Magnetic field tunability of optical microfiber taper integrated with ferrofluid,” Opt. Express 21(24), 29914–29920 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Deng, X. Sun, M. Han, and D. Li, “Compact magnetic-field sensor based on optical microfiber Michelson interferometer and Fe3O4 nanofluid,” Appl. Opt. 52(4), 734–741 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Dong, S. Pu, and J. Huang, “Magnetic field sensing based on magneto-volume variation of magnetic fluids investigated by air-gap Fabry-Pérot fiber interferometers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(11), 111907 (2013).
[CrossRef]

R. Gao, Y. Jiang, and S. Abdelaziz, “All-fiber magnetic field sensors based on magnetic fluid-filled photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Lett. 38(9), 1539–1541 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Wang, S. Pu, N. Wang, S. Dong, and J. Huang, “Magnetic field sensing based on singlemode-multimode-singlemode fiber structures using magnetic fluids as cladding,” Opt. Lett. 38(19), 3765–3768 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Chen, Q. Han, T. Liu, X. Lan, and H. Xiao, “Optical fiber magnetic field sensor based on single-mode-multimode-single-mode structure and magnetic fluid,” Opt. Lett. 38(20), 3999–4001 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Lin, Y. Miao, H. Zhang, B. Liu, Y. Liu, and B. Song, “Fiber-optic in-line magnetic field sensor based on the magnetic fluid and multimode interference effects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(15), 151101 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012

P. Zu, C.-C. Chan, W. S. Lew, L. Hu, Y. Jin, H. F. Liew, L. H. Chen, W. C. Wong, and X. Dong, “Temperature-insensitive magnetic field sensor based on nanoparticle magnetic fluid and photonic crystal fiber,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(2), 491–498 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. Li and H. Ding, “All-fiber magnetic-field sensor based on microfiber knot resonator and magnetic fluid,” Opt. Lett. 37(24), 5187–5189 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Zu, C.-C. Chan, T. Gong, Y. Jin, W. C. Wong, and X. Dong, “Magneto-optical fiber sensor based on bandgap effect of photonic crystal fiber infiltrated with magnetic fluid,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(24), 241118 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Candiani, M. Konstantaki, W. Margulis, and S. Pissadakis, “Optofluidic magnetometer developed in a microstructured optical fiber,” Opt. Lett. 37(21), 4467–4469 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011

H. V. Thakur, S. M. Nalawade, S. Gupta, R. Kitture, and S. N. Kale, “Photonic crystal fiber injected with Fe3O4 nanofluid for magnetic field detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(16), 161101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Xia, J. Wang, Z. Lu, and F. Zhang, “Birefringence and magneto-optical properties in oleic acid coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles: application for optical switch,” Int. J. Nanosci. 10(03), 515–520 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Candiani, W. Margulis, C. Sterner, M. Konstantaki, and S. Pissadakis, “Phase-shifted Bragg microstructured optical fiber gratings utilizing infiltrated ferrofluids,” Opt. Lett. 36(13), 2548–2550 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Patel and R. V. Mehta, “Ferrodispersion: a promising candidate for an optical capacitor,” Appl. Opt. 50(31), G17–G22 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Yang, Y.-S. Yu, Y. Xue, C. Chen, Q.-D. Chen, and H.-B. Sun, “Single S-tapered fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometers,” Opt. Lett. 36(23), 4482–4484 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Zu, C.-C. Chan, L. W. Siang, Y. Jin, Y. Zhang, L. H. Fen, L. Chen, and X. Dong, “Magneto-optic fiber Sagnac modulator based on magnetic fluids,” Opt. Lett. 36(8), 1425–1427 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Childs, A. Candiani, and S. Pissadakis, “Optical fiber cladding ring magnetic field sensor,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(13), 929–931 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2008

Z. Tian, S. S.-H. Yam, and H.-P. Look, “Single-mode fiber refractive index sensor based on core-offset attenuators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(16), 1387–1389 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2005

H. E. Horng, J. J. Chieh, Y. H. Chao, S.-Y. Yang, C.-Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, “Designing optical-fiber modulators by using magnetic fluids,” Opt. Lett. 30(5), 543–545 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Pu, X. Chen, L. Chen, W. Liao, Y. Chen, and Y. Xia, “Tunable magnetic fluid grating by applying a magnetic field,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(2), 021901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

C.-Y. Hong, H. E. Horng, and S. Y. Yang, “Tunable refractive index of magnetic fluids and its applications,” Phys. Status Solidi 1(7c), 1604–1609 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

C.-Y. Hong, S. Y. Yang, H. E. Horng, and H. C. Yang, “Control parameters for the tunable refractive index of magnetic fluid films,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(6), 3849–3852 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Abdelaziz, S.

Candiani, A.

Chan, C.-C.

P. Zu, C.-C. Chan, W. S. Lew, L. Hu, Y. Jin, H. F. Liew, L. H. Chen, W. C. Wong, and X. Dong, “Temperature-insensitive magnetic field sensor based on nanoparticle magnetic fluid and photonic crystal fiber,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(2), 491–498 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. Zu, C.-C. Chan, T. Gong, Y. Jin, W. C. Wong, and X. Dong, “Magneto-optical fiber sensor based on bandgap effect of photonic crystal fiber infiltrated with magnetic fluid,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(24), 241118 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. Zu, C.-C. Chan, L. W. Siang, Y. Jin, Y. Zhang, L. H. Fen, L. Chen, and X. Dong, “Magneto-optic fiber Sagnac modulator based on magnetic fluids,” Opt. Lett. 36(8), 1425–1427 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chao, Y. H.

Chen, C.

Chen, L.

P. Zu, C.-C. Chan, L. W. Siang, Y. Jin, Y. Zhang, L. H. Fen, L. Chen, and X. Dong, “Magneto-optic fiber Sagnac modulator based on magnetic fluids,” Opt. Lett. 36(8), 1425–1427 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Pu, X. Chen, L. Chen, W. Liao, Y. Chen, and Y. Xia, “Tunable magnetic fluid grating by applying a magnetic field,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(2), 021901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L. H.

P. Zu, C.-C. Chan, W. S. Lew, L. Hu, Y. Jin, H. F. Liew, L. H. Chen, W. C. Wong, and X. Dong, “Temperature-insensitive magnetic field sensor based on nanoparticle magnetic fluid and photonic crystal fiber,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(2), 491–498 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Q.-D.

Chen, X.

S. Pu, X. Chen, L. Chen, W. Liao, Y. Chen, and Y. Xia, “Tunable magnetic fluid grating by applying a magnetic field,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(2), 021901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.

Y. Chen, Q. Han, T. Liu, X. Lan, and H. Xiao, “Optical fiber magnetic field sensor based on single-mode-multimode-single-mode structure and magnetic fluid,” Opt. Lett. 38(20), 3999–4001 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Pu, X. Chen, L. Chen, W. Liao, Y. Chen, and Y. Xia, “Tunable magnetic fluid grating by applying a magnetic field,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(2), 021901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chieh, J. J.

Childs, P.

P. Childs, A. Candiani, and S. Pissadakis, “Optical fiber cladding ring magnetic field sensor,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(13), 929–931 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Deng, M.

Ding, H.

Dong, S.

S. Pu and S. Dong, “Magnetic field sensing based on magnetic-fluid-clad fiber-optic structure with up-tapered joints,” IEEE Photonics J. 6, 5300206 (2014).

S. Pu, S. Dong, and J. Huang, “Tunable slow light based on magnetic-fluid-infiltrated photonic crystal waveguides,” J. Opt. 16(4), 045102 (2014).
[CrossRef]

H. Wang, S. Pu, N. Wang, S. Dong, and J. Huang, “Magnetic field sensing based on singlemode-multimode-singlemode fiber structures using magnetic fluids as cladding,” Opt. Lett. 38(19), 3765–3768 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Dong, S. Pu, and J. Huang, “Magnetic field sensing based on magneto-volume variation of magnetic fluids investigated by air-gap Fabry-Pérot fiber interferometers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(11), 111907 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Dong, X.

P. Zu, C.-C. Chan, T. Gong, Y. Jin, W. C. Wong, and X. Dong, “Magneto-optical fiber sensor based on bandgap effect of photonic crystal fiber infiltrated with magnetic fluid,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(24), 241118 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. Zu, C.-C. Chan, W. S. Lew, L. Hu, Y. Jin, H. F. Liew, L. H. Chen, W. C. Wong, and X. Dong, “Temperature-insensitive magnetic field sensor based on nanoparticle magnetic fluid and photonic crystal fiber,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(2), 491–498 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. Zu, C.-C. Chan, L. W. Siang, Y. Jin, Y. Zhang, L. H. Fen, L. Chen, and X. Dong, “Magneto-optic fiber Sagnac modulator based on magnetic fluids,” Opt. Lett. 36(8), 1425–1427 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fen, L. H.

Gao, R.

Gong, T.

P. Zu, C.-C. Chan, T. Gong, Y. Jin, W. C. Wong, and X. Dong, “Magneto-optical fiber sensor based on bandgap effect of photonic crystal fiber infiltrated with magnetic fluid,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(24), 241118 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Gupta, S.

H. V. Thakur, S. M. Nalawade, S. Gupta, R. Kitture, and S. N. Kale, “Photonic crystal fiber injected with Fe3O4 nanofluid for magnetic field detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(16), 161101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Han, M.

Han, Q.

Hong, C.-Y.

H. E. Horng, J. J. Chieh, Y. H. Chao, S.-Y. Yang, C.-Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, “Designing optical-fiber modulators by using magnetic fluids,” Opt. Lett. 30(5), 543–545 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.-Y. Hong, H. E. Horng, and S. Y. Yang, “Tunable refractive index of magnetic fluids and its applications,” Phys. Status Solidi 1(7c), 1604–1609 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C.-Y. Hong, S. Y. Yang, H. E. Horng, and H. C. Yang, “Control parameters for the tunable refractive index of magnetic fluid films,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(6), 3849–3852 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Horng, H. E.

H. E. Horng, J. J. Chieh, Y. H. Chao, S.-Y. Yang, C.-Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, “Designing optical-fiber modulators by using magnetic fluids,” Opt. Lett. 30(5), 543–545 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.-Y. Hong, H. E. Horng, and S. Y. Yang, “Tunable refractive index of magnetic fluids and its applications,” Phys. Status Solidi 1(7c), 1604–1609 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C.-Y. Hong, S. Y. Yang, H. E. Horng, and H. C. Yang, “Control parameters for the tunable refractive index of magnetic fluid films,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(6), 3849–3852 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hu, L.

P. Zu, C.-C. Chan, W. S. Lew, L. Hu, Y. Jin, H. F. Liew, L. H. Chen, W. C. Wong, and X. Dong, “Temperature-insensitive magnetic field sensor based on nanoparticle magnetic fluid and photonic crystal fiber,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(2), 491–498 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Huang, J.

S. Pu, S. Dong, and J. Huang, “Tunable slow light based on magnetic-fluid-infiltrated photonic crystal waveguides,” J. Opt. 16(4), 045102 (2014).
[CrossRef]

H. Wang, S. Pu, N. Wang, S. Dong, and J. Huang, “Magnetic field sensing based on singlemode-multimode-singlemode fiber structures using magnetic fluids as cladding,” Opt. Lett. 38(19), 3765–3768 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Dong, S. Pu, and J. Huang, “Magnetic field sensing based on magneto-volume variation of magnetic fluids investigated by air-gap Fabry-Pérot fiber interferometers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(11), 111907 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, Y.

Jin, Y.

P. Zu, C.-C. Chan, T. Gong, Y. Jin, W. C. Wong, and X. Dong, “Magneto-optical fiber sensor based on bandgap effect of photonic crystal fiber infiltrated with magnetic fluid,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(24), 241118 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. Zu, C.-C. Chan, W. S. Lew, L. Hu, Y. Jin, H. F. Liew, L. H. Chen, W. C. Wong, and X. Dong, “Temperature-insensitive magnetic field sensor based on nanoparticle magnetic fluid and photonic crystal fiber,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(2), 491–498 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. Zu, C.-C. Chan, L. W. Siang, Y. Jin, Y. Zhang, L. H. Fen, L. Chen, and X. Dong, “Magneto-optic fiber Sagnac modulator based on magnetic fluids,” Opt. Lett. 36(8), 1425–1427 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kale, S. N.

H. V. Thakur, S. M. Nalawade, S. Gupta, R. Kitture, and S. N. Kale, “Photonic crystal fiber injected with Fe3O4 nanofluid for magnetic field detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(16), 161101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kitture, R.

H. V. Thakur, S. M. Nalawade, S. Gupta, R. Kitture, and S. N. Kale, “Photonic crystal fiber injected with Fe3O4 nanofluid for magnetic field detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(16), 161101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Konstantaki, M.

Lan, X.

Lew, W. S.

P. Zu, C.-C. Chan, W. S. Lew, L. Hu, Y. Jin, H. F. Liew, L. H. Chen, W. C. Wong, and X. Dong, “Temperature-insensitive magnetic field sensor based on nanoparticle magnetic fluid and photonic crystal fiber,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(2), 491–498 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Li, D.

Li, X.

Liao, W.

S. Pu, X. Chen, L. Chen, W. Liao, Y. Chen, and Y. Xia, “Tunable magnetic fluid grating by applying a magnetic field,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(2), 021901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Liew, H. F.

P. Zu, C.-C. Chan, W. S. Lew, L. Hu, Y. Jin, H. F. Liew, L. H. Chen, W. C. Wong, and X. Dong, “Temperature-insensitive magnetic field sensor based on nanoparticle magnetic fluid and photonic crystal fiber,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(2), 491–498 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lin, W.

W. Lin, Y. Miao, H. Zhang, B. Liu, Y. Liu, and B. Song, “Fiber-optic in-line magnetic field sensor based on the magnetic fluid and multimode interference effects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(15), 151101 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. Miao, J. Wu, W. Lin, K. Zhang, Y. Yuan, B. Song, H. Zhang, B. Liu, and J. Yao, “Magnetic field tunability of optical microfiber taper integrated with ferrofluid,” Opt. Express 21(24), 29914–29920 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, B.

Y. Miao, J. Wu, W. Lin, K. Zhang, Y. Yuan, B. Song, H. Zhang, B. Liu, and J. Yao, “Magnetic field tunability of optical microfiber taper integrated with ferrofluid,” Opt. Express 21(24), 29914–29920 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Lin, Y. Miao, H. Zhang, B. Liu, Y. Liu, and B. Song, “Fiber-optic in-line magnetic field sensor based on the magnetic fluid and multimode interference effects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(15), 151101 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Liu, T.

Liu, Y.

W. Lin, Y. Miao, H. Zhang, B. Liu, Y. Liu, and B. Song, “Fiber-optic in-line magnetic field sensor based on the magnetic fluid and multimode interference effects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(15), 151101 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Look, H.-P.

Z. Tian, S. S.-H. Yam, and H.-P. Look, “Single-mode fiber refractive index sensor based on core-offset attenuators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(16), 1387–1389 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lu, Z.

S. Xia, J. Wang, Z. Lu, and F. Zhang, “Birefringence and magneto-optical properties in oleic acid coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles: application for optical switch,” Int. J. Nanosci. 10(03), 515–520 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Margulis, W.

Mehta, R. V.

Miao, Y.

Y. Miao, J. Wu, W. Lin, K. Zhang, Y. Yuan, B. Song, H. Zhang, B. Liu, and J. Yao, “Magnetic field tunability of optical microfiber taper integrated with ferrofluid,” Opt. Express 21(24), 29914–29920 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Lin, Y. Miao, H. Zhang, B. Liu, Y. Liu, and B. Song, “Fiber-optic in-line magnetic field sensor based on the magnetic fluid and multimode interference effects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(15), 151101 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Nalawade, S. M.

H. V. Thakur, S. M. Nalawade, S. Gupta, R. Kitture, and S. N. Kale, “Photonic crystal fiber injected with Fe3O4 nanofluid for magnetic field detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(16), 161101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Patel, R.

Peng, S.

J. Zhang and S. Peng, “A compact SMS refractometer based on HF corrosion scheme,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Photonics and Optoelectronics, China, June 19–21, 2010.

Pissadakis, S.

Pu, S.

S. Pu, S. Dong, and J. Huang, “Tunable slow light based on magnetic-fluid-infiltrated photonic crystal waveguides,” J. Opt. 16(4), 045102 (2014).
[CrossRef]

S. Pu and S. Dong, “Magnetic field sensing based on magnetic-fluid-clad fiber-optic structure with up-tapered joints,” IEEE Photonics J. 6, 5300206 (2014).

H. Wang, S. Pu, N. Wang, S. Dong, and J. Huang, “Magnetic field sensing based on singlemode-multimode-singlemode fiber structures using magnetic fluids as cladding,” Opt. Lett. 38(19), 3765–3768 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Dong, S. Pu, and J. Huang, “Magnetic field sensing based on magneto-volume variation of magnetic fluids investigated by air-gap Fabry-Pérot fiber interferometers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(11), 111907 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Pu, X. Chen, L. Chen, W. Liao, Y. Chen, and Y. Xia, “Tunable magnetic fluid grating by applying a magnetic field,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(2), 021901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Siang, L. W.

Song, B.

Y. Miao, J. Wu, W. Lin, K. Zhang, Y. Yuan, B. Song, H. Zhang, B. Liu, and J. Yao, “Magnetic field tunability of optical microfiber taper integrated with ferrofluid,” Opt. Express 21(24), 29914–29920 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Lin, Y. Miao, H. Zhang, B. Liu, Y. Liu, and B. Song, “Fiber-optic in-line magnetic field sensor based on the magnetic fluid and multimode interference effects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(15), 151101 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Sterner, C.

Sun, H.-B.

Sun, X.

Thakur, H. V.

H. V. Thakur, S. M. Nalawade, S. Gupta, R. Kitture, and S. N. Kale, “Photonic crystal fiber injected with Fe3O4 nanofluid for magnetic field detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(16), 161101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tian, Z.

Z. Tian, S. S.-H. Yam, and H.-P. Look, “Single-mode fiber refractive index sensor based on core-offset attenuators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(16), 1387–1389 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, H.

Wang, J.

S. Xia, J. Wang, Z. Lu, and F. Zhang, “Birefringence and magneto-optical properties in oleic acid coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles: application for optical switch,” Int. J. Nanosci. 10(03), 515–520 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wang, N.

Wong, W. C.

P. Zu, C.-C. Chan, W. S. Lew, L. Hu, Y. Jin, H. F. Liew, L. H. Chen, W. C. Wong, and X. Dong, “Temperature-insensitive magnetic field sensor based on nanoparticle magnetic fluid and photonic crystal fiber,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(2), 491–498 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. Zu, C.-C. Chan, T. Gong, Y. Jin, W. C. Wong, and X. Dong, “Magneto-optical fiber sensor based on bandgap effect of photonic crystal fiber infiltrated with magnetic fluid,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(24), 241118 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wu, J.

Xia, S.

S. Xia, J. Wang, Z. Lu, and F. Zhang, “Birefringence and magneto-optical properties in oleic acid coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles: application for optical switch,” Int. J. Nanosci. 10(03), 515–520 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Xia, Y.

S. Pu, X. Chen, L. Chen, W. Liao, Y. Chen, and Y. Xia, “Tunable magnetic fluid grating by applying a magnetic field,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(2), 021901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Xiao, H.

Xue, Y.

Yam, S. S.-H.

Z. Tian, S. S.-H. Yam, and H.-P. Look, “Single-mode fiber refractive index sensor based on core-offset attenuators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(16), 1387–1389 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yang, H. C.

H. E. Horng, J. J. Chieh, Y. H. Chao, S.-Y. Yang, C.-Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, “Designing optical-fiber modulators by using magnetic fluids,” Opt. Lett. 30(5), 543–545 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.-Y. Hong, S. Y. Yang, H. E. Horng, and H. C. Yang, “Control parameters for the tunable refractive index of magnetic fluid films,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(6), 3849–3852 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yang, R.

Yang, S. Y.

C.-Y. Hong, H. E. Horng, and S. Y. Yang, “Tunable refractive index of magnetic fluids and its applications,” Phys. Status Solidi 1(7c), 1604–1609 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C.-Y. Hong, S. Y. Yang, H. E. Horng, and H. C. Yang, “Control parameters for the tunable refractive index of magnetic fluid films,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(6), 3849–3852 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yang, S.-Y.

Yao, J.

Yu, Y.-S.

Yuan, Y.

Zhang, F.

S. Xia, J. Wang, Z. Lu, and F. Zhang, “Birefringence and magneto-optical properties in oleic acid coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles: application for optical switch,” Int. J. Nanosci. 10(03), 515–520 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, H.

Y. Miao, J. Wu, W. Lin, K. Zhang, Y. Yuan, B. Song, H. Zhang, B. Liu, and J. Yao, “Magnetic field tunability of optical microfiber taper integrated with ferrofluid,” Opt. Express 21(24), 29914–29920 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Lin, Y. Miao, H. Zhang, B. Liu, Y. Liu, and B. Song, “Fiber-optic in-line magnetic field sensor based on the magnetic fluid and multimode interference effects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(15), 151101 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

J. Zhang and S. Peng, “A compact SMS refractometer based on HF corrosion scheme,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Photonics and Optoelectronics, China, June 19–21, 2010.

Zhang, K.

Zhang, Y.

Zu, P.

P. Zu, C.-C. Chan, W. S. Lew, L. Hu, Y. Jin, H. F. Liew, L. H. Chen, W. C. Wong, and X. Dong, “Temperature-insensitive magnetic field sensor based on nanoparticle magnetic fluid and photonic crystal fiber,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(2), 491–498 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. Zu, C.-C. Chan, T. Gong, Y. Jin, W. C. Wong, and X. Dong, “Magneto-optical fiber sensor based on bandgap effect of photonic crystal fiber infiltrated with magnetic fluid,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(24), 241118 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. Zu, C.-C. Chan, L. W. Siang, Y. Jin, Y. Zhang, L. H. Fen, L. Chen, and X. Dong, “Magneto-optic fiber Sagnac modulator based on magnetic fluids,” Opt. Lett. 36(8), 1425–1427 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

W. Lin, Y. Miao, H. Zhang, B. Liu, Y. Liu, and B. Song, “Fiber-optic in-line magnetic field sensor based on the magnetic fluid and multimode interference effects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(15), 151101 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Dong, S. Pu, and J. Huang, “Magnetic field sensing based on magneto-volume variation of magnetic fluids investigated by air-gap Fabry-Pérot fiber interferometers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(11), 111907 (2013).
[CrossRef]

P. Zu, C.-C. Chan, T. Gong, Y. Jin, W. C. Wong, and X. Dong, “Magneto-optical fiber sensor based on bandgap effect of photonic crystal fiber infiltrated with magnetic fluid,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(24), 241118 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. V. Thakur, S. M. Nalawade, S. Gupta, R. Kitture, and S. N. Kale, “Photonic crystal fiber injected with Fe3O4 nanofluid for magnetic field detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(16), 161101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Pu, X. Chen, L. Chen, W. Liao, Y. Chen, and Y. Xia, “Tunable magnetic fluid grating by applying a magnetic field,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(2), 021901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

P. Childs, A. Candiani, and S. Pissadakis, “Optical fiber cladding ring magnetic field sensor,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(13), 929–931 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Z. Tian, S. S.-H. Yam, and H.-P. Look, “Single-mode fiber refractive index sensor based on core-offset attenuators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(16), 1387–1389 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photonics J.

P. Zu, C.-C. Chan, W. S. Lew, L. Hu, Y. Jin, H. F. Liew, L. H. Chen, W. C. Wong, and X. Dong, “Temperature-insensitive magnetic field sensor based on nanoparticle magnetic fluid and photonic crystal fiber,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(2), 491–498 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Pu and S. Dong, “Magnetic field sensing based on magnetic-fluid-clad fiber-optic structure with up-tapered joints,” IEEE Photonics J. 6, 5300206 (2014).

Int. J. Nanosci.

S. Xia, J. Wang, Z. Lu, and F. Zhang, “Birefringence and magneto-optical properties in oleic acid coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles: application for optical switch,” Int. J. Nanosci. 10(03), 515–520 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

C.-Y. Hong, S. Y. Yang, H. E. Horng, and H. C. Yang, “Control parameters for the tunable refractive index of magnetic fluid films,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(6), 3849–3852 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt.

S. Pu, S. Dong, and J. Huang, “Tunable slow light based on magnetic-fluid-infiltrated photonic crystal waveguides,” J. Opt. 16(4), 045102 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

H. Wang, S. Pu, N. Wang, S. Dong, and J. Huang, “Magnetic field sensing based on singlemode-multimode-singlemode fiber structures using magnetic fluids as cladding,” Opt. Lett. 38(19), 3765–3768 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Chen, Q. Han, T. Liu, X. Lan, and H. Xiao, “Optical fiber magnetic field sensor based on single-mode-multimode-single-mode structure and magnetic fluid,” Opt. Lett. 38(20), 3999–4001 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Candiani, W. Margulis, C. Sterner, M. Konstantaki, and S. Pissadakis, “Phase-shifted Bragg microstructured optical fiber gratings utilizing infiltrated ferrofluids,” Opt. Lett. 36(13), 2548–2550 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. E. Horng, J. J. Chieh, Y. H. Chao, S.-Y. Yang, C.-Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, “Designing optical-fiber modulators by using magnetic fluids,” Opt. Lett. 30(5), 543–545 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Zu, C.-C. Chan, L. W. Siang, Y. Jin, Y. Zhang, L. H. Fen, L. Chen, and X. Dong, “Magneto-optic fiber Sagnac modulator based on magnetic fluids,” Opt. Lett. 36(8), 1425–1427 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Candiani, M. Konstantaki, W. Margulis, and S. Pissadakis, “Optofluidic magnetometer developed in a microstructured optical fiber,” Opt. Lett. 37(21), 4467–4469 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Gao, Y. Jiang, and S. Abdelaziz, “All-fiber magnetic field sensors based on magnetic fluid-filled photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Lett. 38(9), 1539–1541 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Li and H. Ding, “All-fiber magnetic-field sensor based on microfiber knot resonator and magnetic fluid,” Opt. Lett. 37(24), 5187–5189 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Yang, Y.-S. Yu, Y. Xue, C. Chen, Q.-D. Chen, and H.-B. Sun, “Single S-tapered fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometers,” Opt. Lett. 36(23), 4482–4484 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Status Solidi

C.-Y. Hong, H. E. Horng, and S. Y. Yang, “Tunable refractive index of magnetic fluids and its applications,” Phys. Status Solidi 1(7c), 1604–1609 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Other

J. Zhang and S. Peng, “A compact SMS refractometer based on HF corrosion scheme,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Photonics and Optoelectronics, China, June 19–21, 2010.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Fabrication process of the proposed sensing structure based on SMF. The taper-like fusion splicing operations (a)-(d) and the lateral-offset fusion splicing operations (e)-(f).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic diagram of the proposed sensing structure. The insets show the microscopic images of the taper-like and lateral-offset splicing joints, respectively.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic diagram of the experimental setup for investigating the magnetic field sensing properties of the proposed structure.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Transmission spectra of the proposed sensing structure surrounded with different liquids. The inset shows the corresponding valley wavelength as a function of ERI.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Transmission spectra of the proposed sensing structure at magnetic field strength ranging from 38 to 250 Oe.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Wavelengths of Valley A and Valley B as functions of magnetic field strength.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Transmission spectra of the proposed sensing structure at magnetic field strength ranging from 225 to 700 Oe.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Intensity of Site C as a function of magnetic field strength ranging from 250 to 700 Oe.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Refractive Indices of Glycerol-water Solution.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I(λ)= i=1 N η i 2 I 0 (λ)+ ij=1 N η i η j I 0 (λ)cos(2πΔ n ij L/λ),
λ m =2Δ n ij L/(2m+1),

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