Abstract

We report on microelectromechanical systems (MEMS)-actuated 32 × 32 optical phased arrays (OPAs) with high fill-factors and microsecond response time. To reduce the mirror weight and temperature-dependent curvature, we use high-contrast-grating (HCG) mirrors comprising a single layer of sub-wavelength polysilicon gratings with 400 nm thickness, 1250 nm pitch, and 570 nm grating bar width. The mirror has a broad reflection band and a peak reflectivity of 99.9% at 1550 nm wavelength. With 20 × 20 μm2 pixels and 2 μm, the OPA has a total aperture of 702 × 702 μm2 and a fill factor of 85%. The OPA is electrostatically controlled by voltage and has a total field of view of ± 2°, an instantaneous field of view (beam width) of 0.14°, and a response time of 3.8 μs. The latter agrees well with the mechanical resonance frequency of the HCG mirror (0.42 MHz).

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  1. P. F. McManamon, T. A. Dorschner, D. L. Corkum, L. J. Friedman, D. S. Hobbs, M. Holz, S. Liberman, H. Q. Nguyen, D. P. Resler, R. C. Sharp, and E. A. Watson, “Optical phased array technology,” Proc. IEEE 84(2), 268–298 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  2. D. P. Resler, D. S. Hobbs, R. C. Sharp, L. J. Friedman, and T. A. Dorschner, “High-efficiency liquid-crystal optical phased-array beam steering,” Opt. Lett. 21(9), 689–691 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. B. Wang, G. Zhang, A. Glushchenko, J. L. West, P. J. Bos, and P. F. McManamon, “Stressed liquid-crystal optical phased array for fast tip-tilt wavefront correction,” Appl. Opt. 44(36), 7754–7759 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. S. Serati and J. Stockley, “Advanced liquid crystal on silicon optical phased arrays,” in Aerosp. Conf. Proc.3, 1395–1402 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  5. P. F. McManamon, P. J. Bos, M. J. Escuti, J. Heikenfeld, S. Serati, H. Xie, and E. A. Watson, “A review of phased array steering for narrow-band electrooptical systems,” Proc. IEEE 97(6), 1078–1096 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  6. R. D. Niederriter, A. M. Watson, R. N. Zahreddine, C. J. Cogswell, R. H. Cormack, V. M. Bright, and J. T. Gopinath, “Electrowetting lenses for compensating phase and curvature distortion in arrayed laser systems,” Appl. Opt. 52(14), 3172–3177 (2013).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. K. Van Acoleyen, H. Rogier, and R. Baets, “Two-dimensional optical phased array antenna on silicon-on-Insulator,” Opt. Express 18(13), 13655–13660 (2010).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. I. W. Jung, U. Krishnamoorthy, and O. Solgaard, “High fill-factor two-axis gimbaled tip-tilt-piston micromirror array actuated by self-aligned vertical electrostatic combdrives,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 15(3), 563–571 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. C. Y. Huang, Y. Zhou, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “A surface-emitting laser incorporating a high-index-contrast subwavelength grating,” Nat. Photon. 1(2), 119–122 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  12. C. Chase, Y. Zhou, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “Size effect of high contrast gratings in VCSELs,” Opt. Express 17(26), 24002–24007 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. C. F. R. Mateus, M. C. Y. Huang, Y. Deng, A. R. Neureuther, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “Ultrabroadband mirror using low-index cladded subwavelength grating,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(2), 518–520 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  14. B. W. Yoo, M. Megens, T. Chan, T. Sun, W. Yang, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, D. A. Horsley, and M. C. Wu, “Optical phased array using high contrast gratings for two dimensional beamforming and beamsteering,” Opt. Express 21(10), 12238–12248 (2013).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  17. T. K. Chan, M. Megens, B. W. Yoo, J. Wyras, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, M. C. Wu, and D. A. Horsley, “Optical beamsteering using an 8 × 8 MEMS phased array with closed-loop interferometric phase control,” Opt. Express 21(3), 2807–2815 (2013).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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2013 (4)

2012 (1)

2011 (1)

2010 (1)

2009 (2)

P. F. McManamon, P. J. Bos, M. J. Escuti, J. Heikenfeld, S. Serati, H. Xie, and E. A. Watson, “A review of phased array steering for narrow-band electrooptical systems,” Proc. IEEE 97(6), 1078–1096 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Chase, Y. Zhou, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “Size effect of high contrast gratings in VCSELs,” Opt. Express 17(26), 24002–24007 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

M. C. Y. Huang, Y. Zhou, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “A surface-emitting laser incorporating a high-index-contrast subwavelength grating,” Nat. Photon. 1(2), 119–122 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

I. W. Jung, U. Krishnamoorthy, and O. Solgaard, “High fill-factor two-axis gimbaled tip-tilt-piston micromirror array actuated by self-aligned vertical electrostatic combdrives,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 15(3), 563–571 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

2004 (1)

C. F. R. Mateus, M. C. Y. Huang, Y. Deng, A. R. Neureuther, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “Ultrabroadband mirror using low-index cladded subwavelength grating,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(2), 518–520 (2004).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

P. F. McManamon, T. A. Dorschner, D. L. Corkum, L. J. Friedman, D. S. Hobbs, M. Holz, S. Liberman, H. Q. Nguyen, D. P. Resler, R. C. Sharp, and E. A. Watson, “Optical phased array technology,” Proc. IEEE 84(2), 268–298 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. P. Resler, D. S. Hobbs, R. C. Sharp, L. J. Friedman, and T. A. Dorschner, “High-efficiency liquid-crystal optical phased-array beam steering,” Opt. Lett. 21(9), 689–691 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baets, R.

Bos, P. J.

P. F. McManamon, P. J. Bos, M. J. Escuti, J. Heikenfeld, S. Serati, H. Xie, and E. A. Watson, “A review of phased array steering for narrow-band electrooptical systems,” Proc. IEEE 97(6), 1078–1096 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. Wang, G. Zhang, A. Glushchenko, J. L. West, P. J. Bos, and P. F. McManamon, “Stressed liquid-crystal optical phased array for fast tip-tilt wavefront correction,” Appl. Opt. 44(36), 7754–7759 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bovington, J. T.

Bowers, J. E.

Bright, V. M.

Chan, T.

Chan, T. K.

Chang-Hasnain, C. J.

Chase, C.

Cogswell, C. J.

Coldren, L. A.

Corkum, D. L.

P. F. McManamon, T. A. Dorschner, D. L. Corkum, L. J. Friedman, D. S. Hobbs, M. Holz, S. Liberman, H. Q. Nguyen, D. P. Resler, R. C. Sharp, and E. A. Watson, “Optical phased array technology,” Proc. IEEE 84(2), 268–298 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Cormack, R. H.

Deng, Y.

C. F. R. Mateus, M. C. Y. Huang, Y. Deng, A. R. Neureuther, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “Ultrabroadband mirror using low-index cladded subwavelength grating,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(2), 518–520 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dorschner, T. A.

P. F. McManamon, T. A. Dorschner, D. L. Corkum, L. J. Friedman, D. S. Hobbs, M. Holz, S. Liberman, H. Q. Nguyen, D. P. Resler, R. C. Sharp, and E. A. Watson, “Optical phased array technology,” Proc. IEEE 84(2), 268–298 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. P. Resler, D. S. Hobbs, R. C. Sharp, L. J. Friedman, and T. A. Dorschner, “High-efficiency liquid-crystal optical phased-array beam steering,” Opt. Lett. 21(9), 689–691 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Doylend, J. K.

Escuti, M. J.

P. F. McManamon, P. J. Bos, M. J. Escuti, J. Heikenfeld, S. Serati, H. Xie, and E. A. Watson, “A review of phased array steering for narrow-band electrooptical systems,” Proc. IEEE 97(6), 1078–1096 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Friedman, L. J.

D. P. Resler, D. S. Hobbs, R. C. Sharp, L. J. Friedman, and T. A. Dorschner, “High-efficiency liquid-crystal optical phased-array beam steering,” Opt. Lett. 21(9), 689–691 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. F. McManamon, T. A. Dorschner, D. L. Corkum, L. J. Friedman, D. S. Hobbs, M. Holz, S. Liberman, H. Q. Nguyen, D. P. Resler, R. C. Sharp, and E. A. Watson, “Optical phased array technology,” Proc. IEEE 84(2), 268–298 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Glushchenko, A.

Gopinath, J. T.

Heck, M. J. R.

Heikenfeld, J.

P. F. McManamon, P. J. Bos, M. J. Escuti, J. Heikenfeld, S. Serati, H. Xie, and E. A. Watson, “A review of phased array steering for narrow-band electrooptical systems,” Proc. IEEE 97(6), 1078–1096 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hobbs, D. S.

P. F. McManamon, T. A. Dorschner, D. L. Corkum, L. J. Friedman, D. S. Hobbs, M. Holz, S. Liberman, H. Q. Nguyen, D. P. Resler, R. C. Sharp, and E. A. Watson, “Optical phased array technology,” Proc. IEEE 84(2), 268–298 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. P. Resler, D. S. Hobbs, R. C. Sharp, L. J. Friedman, and T. A. Dorschner, “High-efficiency liquid-crystal optical phased-array beam steering,” Opt. Lett. 21(9), 689–691 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Holz, M.

P. F. McManamon, T. A. Dorschner, D. L. Corkum, L. J. Friedman, D. S. Hobbs, M. Holz, S. Liberman, H. Q. Nguyen, D. P. Resler, R. C. Sharp, and E. A. Watson, “Optical phased array technology,” Proc. IEEE 84(2), 268–298 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Horsley, D. A.

Hosseini, E. S.

J. Sun, E. Timurdogan, A. Yaacobi, E. S. Hosseini, and M. R. Watts, “Large-scale nanophotonic phased array,” Nature 493(7431), 195–199 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, M. C. Y.

M. C. Y. Huang, Y. Zhou, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “A surface-emitting laser incorporating a high-index-contrast subwavelength grating,” Nat. Photon. 1(2), 119–122 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. F. R. Mateus, M. C. Y. Huang, Y. Deng, A. R. Neureuther, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “Ultrabroadband mirror using low-index cladded subwavelength grating,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(2), 518–520 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jung, I. W.

I. W. Jung, U. Krishnamoorthy, and O. Solgaard, “High fill-factor two-axis gimbaled tip-tilt-piston micromirror array actuated by self-aligned vertical electrostatic combdrives,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 15(3), 563–571 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Krishnamoorthy, U.

I. W. Jung, U. Krishnamoorthy, and O. Solgaard, “High fill-factor two-axis gimbaled tip-tilt-piston micromirror array actuated by self-aligned vertical electrostatic combdrives,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 15(3), 563–571 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Liberman, S.

P. F. McManamon, T. A. Dorschner, D. L. Corkum, L. J. Friedman, D. S. Hobbs, M. Holz, S. Liberman, H. Q. Nguyen, D. P. Resler, R. C. Sharp, and E. A. Watson, “Optical phased array technology,” Proc. IEEE 84(2), 268–298 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Mateus, C. F. R.

C. F. R. Mateus, M. C. Y. Huang, Y. Deng, A. R. Neureuther, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “Ultrabroadband mirror using low-index cladded subwavelength grating,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(2), 518–520 (2004).
[CrossRef]

McManamon, P. F.

P. F. McManamon, P. J. Bos, M. J. Escuti, J. Heikenfeld, S. Serati, H. Xie, and E. A. Watson, “A review of phased array steering for narrow-band electrooptical systems,” Proc. IEEE 97(6), 1078–1096 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. Wang, G. Zhang, A. Glushchenko, J. L. West, P. J. Bos, and P. F. McManamon, “Stressed liquid-crystal optical phased array for fast tip-tilt wavefront correction,” Appl. Opt. 44(36), 7754–7759 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. F. McManamon, T. A. Dorschner, D. L. Corkum, L. J. Friedman, D. S. Hobbs, M. Holz, S. Liberman, H. Q. Nguyen, D. P. Resler, R. C. Sharp, and E. A. Watson, “Optical phased array technology,” Proc. IEEE 84(2), 268–298 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Megens, M.

Neureuther, A. R.

C. F. R. Mateus, M. C. Y. Huang, Y. Deng, A. R. Neureuther, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “Ultrabroadband mirror using low-index cladded subwavelength grating,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(2), 518–520 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, H. Q.

P. F. McManamon, T. A. Dorschner, D. L. Corkum, L. J. Friedman, D. S. Hobbs, M. Holz, S. Liberman, H. Q. Nguyen, D. P. Resler, R. C. Sharp, and E. A. Watson, “Optical phased array technology,” Proc. IEEE 84(2), 268–298 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Niederriter, R. D.

Peters, J. D.

Resler, D. P.

P. F. McManamon, T. A. Dorschner, D. L. Corkum, L. J. Friedman, D. S. Hobbs, M. Holz, S. Liberman, H. Q. Nguyen, D. P. Resler, R. C. Sharp, and E. A. Watson, “Optical phased array technology,” Proc. IEEE 84(2), 268–298 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. P. Resler, D. S. Hobbs, R. C. Sharp, L. J. Friedman, and T. A. Dorschner, “High-efficiency liquid-crystal optical phased-array beam steering,” Opt. Lett. 21(9), 689–691 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rogier, H.

Serati, S.

P. F. McManamon, P. J. Bos, M. J. Escuti, J. Heikenfeld, S. Serati, H. Xie, and E. A. Watson, “A review of phased array steering for narrow-band electrooptical systems,” Proc. IEEE 97(6), 1078–1096 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Serati and J. Stockley, “Advanced liquid crystal on silicon optical phased arrays,” in Aerosp. Conf. Proc.3, 1395–1402 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sharp, R. C.

D. P. Resler, D. S. Hobbs, R. C. Sharp, L. J. Friedman, and T. A. Dorschner, “High-efficiency liquid-crystal optical phased-array beam steering,” Opt. Lett. 21(9), 689–691 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. F. McManamon, T. A. Dorschner, D. L. Corkum, L. J. Friedman, D. S. Hobbs, M. Holz, S. Liberman, H. Q. Nguyen, D. P. Resler, R. C. Sharp, and E. A. Watson, “Optical phased array technology,” Proc. IEEE 84(2), 268–298 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Solgaard, O.

I. W. Jung, U. Krishnamoorthy, and O. Solgaard, “High fill-factor two-axis gimbaled tip-tilt-piston micromirror array actuated by self-aligned vertical electrostatic combdrives,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 15(3), 563–571 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Stockley, J.

S. Serati and J. Stockley, “Advanced liquid crystal on silicon optical phased arrays,” in Aerosp. Conf. Proc.3, 1395–1402 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sun, J.

J. Sun, E. Timurdogan, A. Yaacobi, E. S. Hosseini, and M. R. Watts, “Large-scale nanophotonic phased array,” Nature 493(7431), 195–199 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, T.

Timurdogan, E.

J. Sun, E. Timurdogan, A. Yaacobi, E. S. Hosseini, and M. R. Watts, “Large-scale nanophotonic phased array,” Nature 493(7431), 195–199 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Van Acoleyen, K.

Wang, B.

Watson, A. M.

Watson, E. A.

P. F. McManamon, P. J. Bos, M. J. Escuti, J. Heikenfeld, S. Serati, H. Xie, and E. A. Watson, “A review of phased array steering for narrow-band electrooptical systems,” Proc. IEEE 97(6), 1078–1096 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. F. McManamon, T. A. Dorschner, D. L. Corkum, L. J. Friedman, D. S. Hobbs, M. Holz, S. Liberman, H. Q. Nguyen, D. P. Resler, R. C. Sharp, and E. A. Watson, “Optical phased array technology,” Proc. IEEE 84(2), 268–298 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Watts, M. R.

J. Sun, E. Timurdogan, A. Yaacobi, E. S. Hosseini, and M. R. Watts, “Large-scale nanophotonic phased array,” Nature 493(7431), 195–199 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

West, J. L.

Wu, M. C.

Wyras, J.

Xie, H.

P. F. McManamon, P. J. Bos, M. J. Escuti, J. Heikenfeld, S. Serati, H. Xie, and E. A. Watson, “A review of phased array steering for narrow-band electrooptical systems,” Proc. IEEE 97(6), 1078–1096 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yaacobi, A.

J. Sun, E. Timurdogan, A. Yaacobi, E. S. Hosseini, and M. R. Watts, “Large-scale nanophotonic phased array,” Nature 493(7431), 195–199 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, W.

Yoo, B. W.

Zahreddine, R. N.

Zhang, G.

Zhou, Y.

C. Chase, Y. Zhou, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “Size effect of high contrast gratings in VCSELs,” Opt. Express 17(26), 24002–24007 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. C. Y. Huang, Y. Zhou, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “A surface-emitting laser incorporating a high-index-contrast subwavelength grating,” Nat. Photon. 1(2), 119–122 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Opt. Photon. (1)

Appl. Opt. (2)

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

C. F. R. Mateus, M. C. Y. Huang, Y. Deng, A. R. Neureuther, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “Ultrabroadband mirror using low-index cladded subwavelength grating,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(2), 518–520 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Microelectromech. Syst. (1)

I. W. Jung, U. Krishnamoorthy, and O. Solgaard, “High fill-factor two-axis gimbaled tip-tilt-piston micromirror array actuated by self-aligned vertical electrostatic combdrives,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 15(3), 563–571 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photon. (1)

M. C. Y. Huang, Y. Zhou, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “A surface-emitting laser incorporating a high-index-contrast subwavelength grating,” Nat. Photon. 1(2), 119–122 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

J. Sun, E. Timurdogan, A. Yaacobi, E. S. Hosseini, and M. R. Watts, “Large-scale nanophotonic phased array,” Nature 493(7431), 195–199 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. IEEE (2)

P. F. McManamon, T. A. Dorschner, D. L. Corkum, L. J. Friedman, D. S. Hobbs, M. Holz, S. Liberman, H. Q. Nguyen, D. P. Resler, R. C. Sharp, and E. A. Watson, “Optical phased array technology,” Proc. IEEE 84(2), 268–298 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. F. McManamon, P. J. Bos, M. J. Escuti, J. Heikenfeld, S. Serati, H. Xie, and E. A. Watson, “A review of phased array steering for narrow-band electrooptical systems,” Proc. IEEE 97(6), 1078–1096 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

S. Serati and J. Stockley, “Advanced liquid crystal on silicon optical phased arrays,” in Aerosp. Conf. Proc.3, 1395–1402 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. T. Amm and R. W. Corrigan, “Grating Light ValveTM technology: update and novel applications,” in SID Int. Symp. Dig. Tec.29, 29–32 (1998).

M. C. Y. Huang, K. Lee, D. Parekh, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “Large fabrication tolerance of ultra broadband sub-wavelength grating reflctor,” in IEEE LEOS Ann. Mtg.1, 364–365 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Supplementary Material (1)

» Media 1: MOV (12 KB)     

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Layout and (b) optical micrograph of 32 × 32 polysilicon OPA with high-contrast-grating (HCG) mirrors. (c) The fill factor and maximum steerable angle as a function of the spacing between HCG mirrors. The HCG mirror size is 20 × 20 μm2.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic view and scanning electron microscope (SEM) micrograph of the HCG mirror.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Contour plots showing finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulation results of HCG reflectivity: (a) HCG reflectivity versus HCG thickness and wavelength; (b) enlarged map of (a) around the wavelength of interest, 1550 nm. (c) HCG reflectivity versus the width and period of a 400nm-thick HCG at 1550nm wavelength. (d) The calculated reflection spectrum of the selected HCG design.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The fabrication process of a MEMS-actuated polysilicon optical phased array (OPA) with high-contrast-grating (HCG) mirrors.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

SEM images of the fabricated OPA: (a) 32 × 32 MEMS HCG array, (b) polysilicon HCG mirrors, anchors, and mechanical springs.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Calculated HCG reflectivity (red curve) and resonance frequency (blue curve) versus HCG thickness.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Optical measurement setup.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Static and dynamic characterization results using the MEMS OPA: (a) temporal response of an HCG mirror for a 25 kHz square wave excitation. (b) phase shifts of 180 HCG mirrors in response to 25 kHz square waves. (c) Histogram of the oscillation period. (d) Frequency response of HCG mirror measured by a laser Doppler vibrometer.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Measured reflection power spectra of a polysilicon HCG and an Au mirror (PF10-03-M01 from Thorlabs). Light was focused onto a single 20 × 20 μm2 pixel using a lensed optical fiber.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

(a) Binary phase patterns using 0 and π phase shift for one-dimensional beamsteering, (b) Measured results of beamsteering in the far field.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Beamsteering results using the 32 × 32 MEMS OPA: (a) intensity profile of the symmetrically steered beams, (b) measured and calculated diffraction efficiency of the steered beam at the maximum steered angle, (c) asymmetric beamsteering measurement in the far field (Media 1).

Metrics