Abstract

We experimentally demonstrate ultrafast dynamic of generation of the 337-nm nitrogen laser by injecting an external seed pulse into a femtosecond laser filament pumped by a circularly polarized laser pulse. In the pump-probe scheme, it is revealed that the population inversion between the C3Πu and B3Πg states of N2 for the free-space 337-nm laser is firstly built up on the timescale of several picoseconds, followed by a relatively slow decay on the timescale of tens of picoseconds, depending on the nitrogen gas pressure. By measuring the intensities of 337-nm signal from nitrogen gas mixed with different concentrations of oxygen gas, it is also found that oxygen molecules have a significant quenching effect on the nitrogen laser signal. Our experimental observations agree with the picture of electron-impact excitation.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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2014 (5)

2013 (9)

S. Yuan, T. Wang, Y. Teranishi, A. Sridharan, S. H. Lin, H. Zeng, and S. L. Chin, “Lasing action in water vapor induced by ultrashort laser filamentation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(22), 224102 (2013).
[CrossRef]

N. A. Panov, V. A. Makarov, V. Y. Fedorov, and O. G. Kosareva, “Filamentation of arbitrary polarized femtosecond laser pulses in case of high-order Kerr effect,” Opt. Lett. 38(4), 537–539 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Kartashov, S. Ališauskas, A. Baltuška, A. Schmitt-Sody, W. Roach, and P. Polynkin, “Remotely pumped stimulated emission at 337 nm in atmospheric nitrogen,” Phys. Rev. A 88(4), 041805 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Yao, G. Li, X. Jia, X. Hao, B. Zeng, C. Jing, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Zhang, H. Xie, C. Zhang, Z. Zhao, J. Chen, X. Liu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Alignment-dependent fluorescence emission induced by tunnel ionization of carbon dioxide from lower-lying orbitals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(13), 133001 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Yao, G. Li, C. Jing, B. Zeng, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Zhang, H. Xie, C. Zhang, H. Li, H. Xu, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Remote creation of coherent emissions in air with two-color ultrafast laser pulses,” New J. Phys. 15(2), 023046 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, C. Jing, J. Yao, G. Li, B. Zeng, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Xie, H. Xu, S. L. Chin, K. Yamanouchi, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Rotational coherence encoded in an “Air-Laser” spectrum of nitrogen molecular ions in an intense laser field,” Phys. Rev. X 3(4), 041009 (2013).

J. Ni, W. Chu, C. Jing, H. Zhang, B. Zeng, J. Yao, G. Li, H. Xie, C. Zhang, H. Xu, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Identification of the physical mechanism of generation of coherent N2+ emissions in air by femtosecond laser excitation,” Opt. Express 21(7), 8746–8752 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Wang, J. F. Daigle, J. Ju, S. Yuan, R. Li, and S. L. Chin, “Forward lasing action at multiple wavelengths seeded by white light from a femtosecond laser filament in air,” Phys. Rev. A 88(5), 053429 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liu, Y. Brelet, G. Point, A. Houard, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Self-seeded lasing in ionized air pumped by 800 nm femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express 21(19), 22791–22798 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012 (3)

D. Kartashov, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, A. Pugžlys, M. Shneider, A. Zheltikov, S. L. Chin, and A. Baltuška, “Free-space nitrogen gas laser driven by a femtosecond filament,” Phys. Rev. A 86(3), 033831 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Traverso, R. Sanchez-Gonzalez, L. Yuan, K. Wang, D. V. Voronine, A. M. Zheltikov, Y. Rostovtsev, V. A. Sautenkov, A. V. Sokolov, S. W. North, and M. O. Scully, “Coherence brightened laser source for atmospheric remote sensing,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(38), 15185–15190 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Popmintchev, M. C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV X-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (4)

H. L. Xu and S. L. Chin, “Femtosecond laser filamentation for atmospheric sensing,” Sensors 11(1), 32–53 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Yao, B. Zeng, H. Xu, G. Li, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Zhang, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “High-brightness switchable multiwavelength remote laser in air,” Phys. Rev. A 84(5), 051802 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Dogariu, J. B. Michael, M. O. Scully, and R. B. Miles, “High-gain backward lasing in air,” Science 331(6016), 442–445 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. A. Panov, O. G. Kosareva, A. B. Savelev, D. S. Uryupina, I. A. Perezhogin, and V. A. Makarov, “Filamentation of femtosecond Gaussian pulses with close-to-linear or -circular elliptical polarisation,” Quantum Electron. 41(2), 160–162 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

H. Xu, A. Azarm, J. Bernhardt, Y. Kamali, and S. L. Chin, “The mechanism of nitrogen fluorescence inside a femtosecond laser filament in air,” Chem. Phys. 360(1–3), 171–175 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, S. Gasilov, E. Benedetti, G. Sansone, M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, and S. Stagira, “Rotational Raman effects in the wake of optical filamentation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(12), 123006 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

F. Théberge, W. Liu, P. T. Simard, A. Becker, and S. L. Chin, “Plasma density inside a femtosecond laser filament in air: Strong dependence on external focusing,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 74(3), 036406 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

F. W. Helbing, A. Heinrich, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Generation of intense, carrier-envelope phase-locked few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation,” Appl. Phys. B 79(6), 673–677 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

Q. Luo, W. Liu, and S. L. Chin, “Lasing action in air induced by ultra-fast laser filamentation,” Appl. Phys. B 76(3), 337–340 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science 301(5629), 61–64 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

2001 (2)

A. Talebpour, M. Abdel-Fattah, A. D. Bandrauk, and S. L. Chin, “Spectroscopy of the gases interacting with intense femtosecond laser pulses,” Laser Phys. 11(1), 68–76 (2001).

A. Becker, N. Aközbek, K. Vijayalakshmi, E. Oral, C. M. Bowden, and S. L. Chin, “Intensity clamping and re-focusing of intense femtosecond laser pulses in nitrogen molecular gas,” Appl. Phys. B 73(3), 287–290 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

J. Kasparian, R. Sauerbrey, and S. L. Chin, “The critical laser intensity of self-guided light filaments in air,” Appl. Phys. B 71(6), 877–879 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

J. T. Fons, R. S. Schappe, and C. C. Lin, “Electron-impact excitation of the second positive band system (C3 Πu-->B3 Πg) and the C3 Πu electronic state of the nitrogen molecule,” Phys. Rev. A 53(4), 2239–2247 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

I. A. Kossyi, A. Yu. Kostinsky, A. A. Matveyev, and V. P. Silakov, “Kinetic scheme of the non-equilibrium discharge in nitrogen-oxygen mixtures,” Plasma Sources Sci. Technol. 1(3), 207–220 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Abdel-Fattah, M.

A. Talebpour, M. Abdel-Fattah, A. D. Bandrauk, and S. L. Chin, “Spectroscopy of the gases interacting with intense femtosecond laser pulses,” Laser Phys. 11(1), 68–76 (2001).

Aközbek, N.

A. Becker, N. Aközbek, K. Vijayalakshmi, E. Oral, C. M. Bowden, and S. L. Chin, “Intensity clamping and re-focusing of intense femtosecond laser pulses in nitrogen molecular gas,” Appl. Phys. B 73(3), 287–290 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ališauskas, S.

D. Kartashov, S. Ališauskas, A. Baltuška, A. Schmitt-Sody, W. Roach, and P. Polynkin, “Remotely pumped stimulated emission at 337 nm in atmospheric nitrogen,” Phys. Rev. A 88(4), 041805 (2013).
[CrossRef]

T. Popmintchev, M. C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV X-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Kartashov, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, A. Pugžlys, M. Shneider, A. Zheltikov, S. L. Chin, and A. Baltuška, “Free-space nitrogen gas laser driven by a femtosecond filament,” Phys. Rev. A 86(3), 033831 (2012).
[CrossRef]

André, Y.-B.

Andriukaitis, G.

D. Kartashov, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, A. Pugžlys, M. Shneider, A. Zheltikov, S. L. Chin, and A. Baltuška, “Free-space nitrogen gas laser driven by a femtosecond filament,” Phys. Rev. A 86(3), 033831 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. Popmintchev, M. C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV X-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arpin, P.

T. Popmintchev, M. C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV X-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Azarm, A.

H. Xu, A. Azarm, J. Bernhardt, Y. Kamali, and S. L. Chin, “The mechanism of nitrogen fluorescence inside a femtosecond laser filament in air,” Chem. Phys. 360(1–3), 171–175 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Balciunas, T.

T. Popmintchev, M. C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV X-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baltuška, A.

D. Kartashov, S. Ališauskas, A. Baltuška, A. Schmitt-Sody, W. Roach, and P. Polynkin, “Remotely pumped stimulated emission at 337 nm in atmospheric nitrogen,” Phys. Rev. A 88(4), 041805 (2013).
[CrossRef]

T. Popmintchev, M. C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV X-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Kartashov, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, A. Pugžlys, M. Shneider, A. Zheltikov, S. L. Chin, and A. Baltuška, “Free-space nitrogen gas laser driven by a femtosecond filament,” Phys. Rev. A 86(3), 033831 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Bandrauk, A. D.

A. Talebpour, M. Abdel-Fattah, A. D. Bandrauk, and S. L. Chin, “Spectroscopy of the gases interacting with intense femtosecond laser pulses,” Laser Phys. 11(1), 68–76 (2001).

Beaudin, G.

Becker, A.

T. Popmintchev, M. C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV X-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Théberge, W. Liu, P. T. Simard, A. Becker, and S. L. Chin, “Plasma density inside a femtosecond laser filament in air: Strong dependence on external focusing,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 74(3), 036406 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Becker, N. Aközbek, K. Vijayalakshmi, E. Oral, C. M. Bowden, and S. L. Chin, “Intensity clamping and re-focusing of intense femtosecond laser pulses in nitrogen molecular gas,” Appl. Phys. B 73(3), 287–290 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Benedetti, E.

F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, S. Gasilov, E. Benedetti, G. Sansone, M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, and S. Stagira, “Rotational Raman effects in the wake of optical filamentation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(12), 123006 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bernhardt, J.

H. Xu, A. Azarm, J. Bernhardt, Y. Kamali, and S. L. Chin, “The mechanism of nitrogen fluorescence inside a femtosecond laser filament in air,” Chem. Phys. 360(1–3), 171–175 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Biegert, J.

F. W. Helbing, A. Heinrich, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Generation of intense, carrier-envelope phase-locked few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation,” Appl. Phys. B 79(6), 673–677 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bourayou, R.

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science 301(5629), 61–64 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bowden, C. M.

A. Becker, N. Aközbek, K. Vijayalakshmi, E. Oral, C. M. Bowden, and S. L. Chin, “Intensity clamping and re-focusing of intense femtosecond laser pulses in nitrogen molecular gas,” Appl. Phys. B 73(3), 287–290 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Brelet, Y.

Brown, S.

T. Popmintchev, M. C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV X-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Calegari, F.

F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, S. Gasilov, E. Benedetti, G. Sansone, M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, and S. Stagira, “Rotational Raman effects in the wake of optical filamentation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(12), 123006 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, J.

J. Yao, G. Li, X. Jia, X. Hao, B. Zeng, C. Jing, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Zhang, H. Xie, C. Zhang, Z. Zhao, J. Chen, X. Liu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Alignment-dependent fluorescence emission induced by tunnel ionization of carbon dioxide from lower-lying orbitals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(13), 133001 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, M. C.

T. Popmintchev, M. C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV X-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheng, Y.

C. Jing, H. Zhang, W. Chu, H. Xie, J. Ni, B. Zeng, G. Li, J. Yao, H. Xu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Generation of an air laser at extended distances by femtosecond laser filamentation with telescope optics,” Opt. Express 22(3), 3151–3156 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Ni, W. Chu, H. Zhang, B. Zeng, J. Yao, L. Qiao, G. Li, C. Jing, H. Xie, H. Xu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Impulsive rotational Raman scattering of N2 by a remote “air laser” in femtosecond laser filament,” Opt. Lett. 39(8), 2250–2253 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Zeng, W. Chu, G. Li, J. Yao, H. Zhang, J. Ni, C. Jing, H. Xie, and Y. Cheng, “Real-time observation of dynamics in rotational molecular wave packets by use of air-laser spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. A 89(4), 042508 (2014).
[CrossRef]

J. Ni, W. Chu, C. Jing, H. Zhang, B. Zeng, J. Yao, G. Li, H. Xie, C. Zhang, H. Xu, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Identification of the physical mechanism of generation of coherent N2+ emissions in air by femtosecond laser excitation,” Opt. Express 21(7), 8746–8752 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Yao, G. Li, X. Jia, X. Hao, B. Zeng, C. Jing, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Zhang, H. Xie, C. Zhang, Z. Zhao, J. Chen, X. Liu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Alignment-dependent fluorescence emission induced by tunnel ionization of carbon dioxide from lower-lying orbitals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(13), 133001 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Zhang, C. Jing, J. Yao, G. Li, B. Zeng, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Xie, H. Xu, S. L. Chin, K. Yamanouchi, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Rotational coherence encoded in an “Air-Laser” spectrum of nitrogen molecular ions in an intense laser field,” Phys. Rev. X 3(4), 041009 (2013).

J. Yao, G. Li, C. Jing, B. Zeng, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Zhang, H. Xie, C. Zhang, H. Li, H. Xu, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Remote creation of coherent emissions in air with two-color ultrafast laser pulses,” New J. Phys. 15(2), 023046 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Yao, B. Zeng, H. Xu, G. Li, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Zhang, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “High-brightness switchable multiwavelength remote laser in air,” Phys. Rev. A 84(5), 051802 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chin, S. L.

J. Yao, G. Li, C. Jing, B. Zeng, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Zhang, H. Xie, C. Zhang, H. Li, H. Xu, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Remote creation of coherent emissions in air with two-color ultrafast laser pulses,” New J. Phys. 15(2), 023046 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, C. Jing, J. Yao, G. Li, B. Zeng, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Xie, H. Xu, S. L. Chin, K. Yamanouchi, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Rotational coherence encoded in an “Air-Laser” spectrum of nitrogen molecular ions in an intense laser field,” Phys. Rev. X 3(4), 041009 (2013).

T. Wang, J. F. Daigle, J. Ju, S. Yuan, R. Li, and S. L. Chin, “Forward lasing action at multiple wavelengths seeded by white light from a femtosecond laser filament in air,” Phys. Rev. A 88(5), 053429 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Ni, W. Chu, C. Jing, H. Zhang, B. Zeng, J. Yao, G. Li, H. Xie, C. Zhang, H. Xu, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Identification of the physical mechanism of generation of coherent N2+ emissions in air by femtosecond laser excitation,” Opt. Express 21(7), 8746–8752 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Yuan, T. Wang, Y. Teranishi, A. Sridharan, S. H. Lin, H. Zeng, and S. L. Chin, “Lasing action in water vapor induced by ultrashort laser filamentation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(22), 224102 (2013).
[CrossRef]

D. Kartashov, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, A. Pugžlys, M. Shneider, A. Zheltikov, S. L. Chin, and A. Baltuška, “Free-space nitrogen gas laser driven by a femtosecond filament,” Phys. Rev. A 86(3), 033831 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. L. Xu and S. L. Chin, “Femtosecond laser filamentation for atmospheric sensing,” Sensors 11(1), 32–53 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Yao, B. Zeng, H. Xu, G. Li, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Zhang, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “High-brightness switchable multiwavelength remote laser in air,” Phys. Rev. A 84(5), 051802 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Xu, A. Azarm, J. Bernhardt, Y. Kamali, and S. L. Chin, “The mechanism of nitrogen fluorescence inside a femtosecond laser filament in air,” Chem. Phys. 360(1–3), 171–175 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Théberge, W. Liu, P. T. Simard, A. Becker, and S. L. Chin, “Plasma density inside a femtosecond laser filament in air: Strong dependence on external focusing,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 74(3), 036406 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Luo, W. Liu, and S. L. Chin, “Lasing action in air induced by ultra-fast laser filamentation,” Appl. Phys. B 76(3), 337–340 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Talebpour, M. Abdel-Fattah, A. D. Bandrauk, and S. L. Chin, “Spectroscopy of the gases interacting with intense femtosecond laser pulses,” Laser Phys. 11(1), 68–76 (2001).

A. Becker, N. Aközbek, K. Vijayalakshmi, E. Oral, C. M. Bowden, and S. L. Chin, “Intensity clamping and re-focusing of intense femtosecond laser pulses in nitrogen molecular gas,” Appl. Phys. B 73(3), 287–290 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Kasparian, R. Sauerbrey, and S. L. Chin, “The critical laser intensity of self-guided light filaments in air,” Appl. Phys. B 71(6), 877–879 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chu, W.

B. Zeng, W. Chu, G. Li, J. Yao, H. Zhang, J. Ni, C. Jing, H. Xie, and Y. Cheng, “Real-time observation of dynamics in rotational molecular wave packets by use of air-laser spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. A 89(4), 042508 (2014).
[CrossRef]

C. Jing, H. Zhang, W. Chu, H. Xie, J. Ni, B. Zeng, G. Li, J. Yao, H. Xu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Generation of an air laser at extended distances by femtosecond laser filamentation with telescope optics,” Opt. Express 22(3), 3151–3156 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Ni, W. Chu, H. Zhang, B. Zeng, J. Yao, L. Qiao, G. Li, C. Jing, H. Xie, H. Xu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Impulsive rotational Raman scattering of N2 by a remote “air laser” in femtosecond laser filament,” Opt. Lett. 39(8), 2250–2253 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Ni, W. Chu, C. Jing, H. Zhang, B. Zeng, J. Yao, G. Li, H. Xie, C. Zhang, H. Xu, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Identification of the physical mechanism of generation of coherent N2+ emissions in air by femtosecond laser excitation,” Opt. Express 21(7), 8746–8752 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Yao, G. Li, X. Jia, X. Hao, B. Zeng, C. Jing, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Zhang, H. Xie, C. Zhang, Z. Zhao, J. Chen, X. Liu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Alignment-dependent fluorescence emission induced by tunnel ionization of carbon dioxide from lower-lying orbitals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(13), 133001 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Yao, G. Li, C. Jing, B. Zeng, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Zhang, H. Xie, C. Zhang, H. Li, H. Xu, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Remote creation of coherent emissions in air with two-color ultrafast laser pulses,” New J. Phys. 15(2), 023046 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, C. Jing, J. Yao, G. Li, B. Zeng, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Xie, H. Xu, S. L. Chin, K. Yamanouchi, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Rotational coherence encoded in an “Air-Laser” spectrum of nitrogen molecular ions in an intense laser field,” Phys. Rev. X 3(4), 041009 (2013).

J. Yao, B. Zeng, H. Xu, G. Li, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Zhang, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “High-brightness switchable multiwavelength remote laser in air,” Phys. Rev. A 84(5), 051802 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Couairon, A.

F. W. Helbing, A. Heinrich, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Generation of intense, carrier-envelope phase-locked few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation,” Appl. Phys. B 79(6), 673–677 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Daigle, J. F.

T. Wang, J. F. Daigle, J. Ju, S. Yuan, R. Li, and S. L. Chin, “Forward lasing action at multiple wavelengths seeded by white light from a femtosecond laser filament in air,” Phys. Rev. A 88(5), 053429 (2013).
[CrossRef]

De Silvestri, S.

F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, S. Gasilov, E. Benedetti, G. Sansone, M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, and S. Stagira, “Rotational Raman effects in the wake of optical filamentation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(12), 123006 (2008).
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Ding, P.

Dogariu, A.

A. Dogariu, J. B. Michael, M. O. Scully, and R. B. Miles, “High-gain backward lasing in air,” Science 331(6016), 442–445 (2011).
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Encrenaz, P.

Fedorov, V. Y.

Fons, J. T.

J. T. Fons, R. S. Schappe, and C. C. Lin, “Electron-impact excitation of the second positive band system (C3 Πu-->B3 Πg) and the C3 Πu electronic state of the nitrogen molecule,” Phys. Rev. A 53(4), 2239–2247 (1996).
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Franco, M.

Frey, S.

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science 301(5629), 61–64 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujii, T.

Gaeta, A.

T. Popmintchev, M. C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV X-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gasilov, S.

F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, S. Gasilov, E. Benedetti, G. Sansone, M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, and S. Stagira, “Rotational Raman effects in the wake of optical filamentation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(12), 123006 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gheudin, M.

Hao, X.

J. Yao, G. Li, X. Jia, X. Hao, B. Zeng, C. Jing, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Zhang, H. Xie, C. Zhang, Z. Zhao, J. Chen, X. Liu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Alignment-dependent fluorescence emission induced by tunnel ionization of carbon dioxide from lower-lying orbitals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(13), 133001 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heinrich, A.

F. W. Helbing, A. Heinrich, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Generation of intense, carrier-envelope phase-locked few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation,” Appl. Phys. B 79(6), 673–677 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Helbing, F. W.

F. W. Helbing, A. Heinrich, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Generation of intense, carrier-envelope phase-locked few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation,” Appl. Phys. B 79(6), 673–677 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hernández-García, C.

T. Popmintchev, M. C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV X-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Houard, A.

Jaron-Becker, A.

T. Popmintchev, M. C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV X-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jia, X.

J. Yao, G. Li, X. Jia, X. Hao, B. Zeng, C. Jing, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Zhang, H. Xie, C. Zhang, Z. Zhao, J. Chen, X. Liu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Alignment-dependent fluorescence emission induced by tunnel ionization of carbon dioxide from lower-lying orbitals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(13), 133001 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jing, C.

C. Jing, H. Zhang, W. Chu, H. Xie, J. Ni, B. Zeng, G. Li, J. Yao, H. Xu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Generation of an air laser at extended distances by femtosecond laser filamentation with telescope optics,” Opt. Express 22(3), 3151–3156 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Ni, W. Chu, H. Zhang, B. Zeng, J. Yao, L. Qiao, G. Li, C. Jing, H. Xie, H. Xu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Impulsive rotational Raman scattering of N2 by a remote “air laser” in femtosecond laser filament,” Opt. Lett. 39(8), 2250–2253 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Zeng, W. Chu, G. Li, J. Yao, H. Zhang, J. Ni, C. Jing, H. Xie, and Y. Cheng, “Real-time observation of dynamics in rotational molecular wave packets by use of air-laser spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. A 89(4), 042508 (2014).
[CrossRef]

J. Ni, W. Chu, C. Jing, H. Zhang, B. Zeng, J. Yao, G. Li, H. Xie, C. Zhang, H. Xu, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Identification of the physical mechanism of generation of coherent N2+ emissions in air by femtosecond laser excitation,” Opt. Express 21(7), 8746–8752 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Yao, G. Li, X. Jia, X. Hao, B. Zeng, C. Jing, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Zhang, H. Xie, C. Zhang, Z. Zhao, J. Chen, X. Liu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Alignment-dependent fluorescence emission induced by tunnel ionization of carbon dioxide from lower-lying orbitals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(13), 133001 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Yao, G. Li, C. Jing, B. Zeng, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Zhang, H. Xie, C. Zhang, H. Li, H. Xu, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Remote creation of coherent emissions in air with two-color ultrafast laser pulses,” New J. Phys. 15(2), 023046 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, C. Jing, J. Yao, G. Li, B. Zeng, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Xie, H. Xu, S. L. Chin, K. Yamanouchi, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Rotational coherence encoded in an “Air-Laser” spectrum of nitrogen molecular ions in an intense laser field,” Phys. Rev. X 3(4), 041009 (2013).

Ju, J.

T. Wang, J. F. Daigle, J. Ju, S. Yuan, R. Li, and S. L. Chin, “Forward lasing action at multiple wavelengths seeded by white light from a femtosecond laser filament in air,” Phys. Rev. A 88(5), 053429 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Kalkner, W.

Kamali, Y.

H. Xu, A. Azarm, J. Bernhardt, Y. Kamali, and S. L. Chin, “The mechanism of nitrogen fluorescence inside a femtosecond laser filament in air,” Chem. Phys. 360(1–3), 171–175 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kapteyn, H. C.

T. Popmintchev, M. C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV X-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
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Kartashov, D.

D. Kartashov, S. Ališauskas, A. Baltuška, A. Schmitt-Sody, W. Roach, and P. Polynkin, “Remotely pumped stimulated emission at 337 nm in atmospheric nitrogen,” Phys. Rev. A 88(4), 041805 (2013).
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D. Kartashov, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, A. Pugžlys, M. Shneider, A. Zheltikov, S. L. Chin, and A. Baltuška, “Free-space nitrogen gas laser driven by a femtosecond filament,” Phys. Rev. A 86(3), 033831 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kasparian, J.

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science 301(5629), 61–64 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Rodriguez, R. Sauerbrey, H. Wille, L. Wöste, T. Fujii, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, L. Klingbeil, K. Rethmeier, W. Kalkner, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. Yu, and J.-P. Wolf, “Triggering and guiding megavolt discharges by use of laser-induced ionized filaments,” Opt. Lett. 27(9), 772–774 (2002).
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J. Kasparian, R. Sauerbrey, and S. L. Chin, “The critical laser intensity of self-guided light filaments in air,” Appl. Phys. B 71(6), 877–879 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Keller, U.

F. W. Helbing, A. Heinrich, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Generation of intense, carrier-envelope phase-locked few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation,” Appl. Phys. B 79(6), 673–677 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Klingbeil, L.

Kosareva, O. G.

N. A. Panov, V. A. Makarov, V. Y. Fedorov, and O. G. Kosareva, “Filamentation of arbitrary polarized femtosecond laser pulses in case of high-order Kerr effect,” Opt. Lett. 38(4), 537–539 (2013).
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N. A. Panov, O. G. Kosareva, A. B. Savelev, D. S. Uryupina, I. A. Perezhogin, and V. A. Makarov, “Filamentation of femtosecond Gaussian pulses with close-to-linear or -circular elliptical polarisation,” Quantum Electron. 41(2), 160–162 (2011).
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Kossyi, I. A.

I. A. Kossyi, A. Yu. Kostinsky, A. A. Matveyev, and V. P. Silakov, “Kinetic scheme of the non-equilibrium discharge in nitrogen-oxygen mixtures,” Plasma Sources Sci. Technol. 1(3), 207–220 (1992).
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Kostinsky, A. Yu.

I. A. Kossyi, A. Yu. Kostinsky, A. A. Matveyev, and V. P. Silakov, “Kinetic scheme of the non-equilibrium discharge in nitrogen-oxygen mixtures,” Plasma Sources Sci. Technol. 1(3), 207–220 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Li, G.

B. Zeng, W. Chu, G. Li, J. Yao, H. Zhang, J. Ni, C. Jing, H. Xie, and Y. Cheng, “Real-time observation of dynamics in rotational molecular wave packets by use of air-laser spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. A 89(4), 042508 (2014).
[CrossRef]

C. Jing, H. Zhang, W. Chu, H. Xie, J. Ni, B. Zeng, G. Li, J. Yao, H. Xu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Generation of an air laser at extended distances by femtosecond laser filamentation with telescope optics,” Opt. Express 22(3), 3151–3156 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Ni, W. Chu, H. Zhang, B. Zeng, J. Yao, L. Qiao, G. Li, C. Jing, H. Xie, H. Xu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Impulsive rotational Raman scattering of N2 by a remote “air laser” in femtosecond laser filament,” Opt. Lett. 39(8), 2250–2253 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Ni, W. Chu, C. Jing, H. Zhang, B. Zeng, J. Yao, G. Li, H. Xie, C. Zhang, H. Xu, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Identification of the physical mechanism of generation of coherent N2+ emissions in air by femtosecond laser excitation,” Opt. Express 21(7), 8746–8752 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Yao, G. Li, X. Jia, X. Hao, B. Zeng, C. Jing, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Zhang, H. Xie, C. Zhang, Z. Zhao, J. Chen, X. Liu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Alignment-dependent fluorescence emission induced by tunnel ionization of carbon dioxide from lower-lying orbitals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(13), 133001 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Zhang, C. Jing, J. Yao, G. Li, B. Zeng, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Xie, H. Xu, S. L. Chin, K. Yamanouchi, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Rotational coherence encoded in an “Air-Laser” spectrum of nitrogen molecular ions in an intense laser field,” Phys. Rev. X 3(4), 041009 (2013).

J. Yao, G. Li, C. Jing, B. Zeng, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Zhang, H. Xie, C. Zhang, H. Li, H. Xu, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Remote creation of coherent emissions in air with two-color ultrafast laser pulses,” New J. Phys. 15(2), 023046 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Yao, B. Zeng, H. Xu, G. Li, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Zhang, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “High-brightness switchable multiwavelength remote laser in air,” Phys. Rev. A 84(5), 051802 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Li, H.

J. Yao, G. Li, C. Jing, B. Zeng, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Zhang, H. Xie, C. Zhang, H. Li, H. Xu, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Remote creation of coherent emissions in air with two-color ultrafast laser pulses,” New J. Phys. 15(2), 023046 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Li, R.

T. Wang, J. F. Daigle, J. Ju, S. Yuan, R. Li, and S. L. Chin, “Forward lasing action at multiple wavelengths seeded by white light from a femtosecond laser filament in air,” Phys. Rev. A 88(5), 053429 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C. C.

J. T. Fons, R. S. Schappe, and C. C. Lin, “Electron-impact excitation of the second positive band system (C3 Πu-->B3 Πg) and the C3 Πu electronic state of the nitrogen molecule,” Phys. Rev. A 53(4), 2239–2247 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, S. H.

S. Yuan, T. Wang, Y. Teranishi, A. Sridharan, S. H. Lin, H. Zeng, and S. L. Chin, “Lasing action in water vapor induced by ultrashort laser filamentation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(22), 224102 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Liu, W.

F. Théberge, W. Liu, P. T. Simard, A. Becker, and S. L. Chin, “Plasma density inside a femtosecond laser filament in air: Strong dependence on external focusing,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 74(3), 036406 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Luo, W. Liu, and S. L. Chin, “Lasing action in air induced by ultra-fast laser filamentation,” Appl. Phys. B 76(3), 337–340 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Liu, X.

J. Yao, G. Li, X. Jia, X. Hao, B. Zeng, C. Jing, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Zhang, H. Xie, C. Zhang, Z. Zhao, J. Chen, X. Liu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Alignment-dependent fluorescence emission induced by tunnel ionization of carbon dioxide from lower-lying orbitals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(13), 133001 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, Y.

Luo, Q.

Q. Luo, W. Liu, and S. L. Chin, “Lasing action in air induced by ultra-fast laser filamentation,” Appl. Phys. B 76(3), 337–340 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Makarov, V. A.

N. A. Panov, V. A. Makarov, V. Y. Fedorov, and O. G. Kosareva, “Filamentation of arbitrary polarized femtosecond laser pulses in case of high-order Kerr effect,” Opt. Lett. 38(4), 537–539 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. A. Panov, O. G. Kosareva, A. B. Savelev, D. S. Uryupina, I. A. Perezhogin, and V. A. Makarov, “Filamentation of femtosecond Gaussian pulses with close-to-linear or -circular elliptical polarisation,” Quantum Electron. 41(2), 160–162 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Matveyev, A. A.

I. A. Kossyi, A. Yu. Kostinsky, A. A. Matveyev, and V. P. Silakov, “Kinetic scheme of the non-equilibrium discharge in nitrogen-oxygen mixtures,” Plasma Sources Sci. Technol. 1(3), 207–220 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Méchain, G.

Méjean, G.

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science 301(5629), 61–64 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Michael, J. B.

A. Dogariu, J. B. Michael, M. O. Scully, and R. B. Miles, “High-gain backward lasing in air,” Science 331(6016), 442–445 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miles, R. B.

A. Dogariu, J. B. Michael, M. O. Scully, and R. B. Miles, “High-gain backward lasing in air,” Science 331(6016), 442–445 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mitryukovskiy, S.

Mücke, O. D.

T. Popmintchev, M. C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV X-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Munier, J.-M.

Murnane, M. M.

T. Popmintchev, M. C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV X-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mysyrowicz, A.

S. Mitryukovskiy, Y. Liu, P. Ding, A. Houard, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Backward stimulated radiation from filaments in nitrogen gas and air pumped by circularly polarized 800 nm femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express 22(11), 12750–12759 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Point, Y. Liu, Y. Brelet, S. Mitryukovskiy, P. Ding, A. Houard, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Lasing of ambient air with microjoule pulse energy pumped by a multi-terawatt infrared femtosecond laser,” Opt. Lett. 39(7), 1725–1728 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Liu, Y. Brelet, G. Point, A. Houard, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Self-seeded lasing in ionized air pumped by 800 nm femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express 21(19), 22791–22798 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. W. Helbing, A. Heinrich, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Generation of intense, carrier-envelope phase-locked few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation,” Appl. Phys. B 79(6), 673–677 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science 301(5629), 61–64 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Tzortzakis, G. Méchain, G. Patalano, Y.-B. André, B. Prade, M. Franco, A. Mysyrowicz, J.-M. Munier, M. Gheudin, G. Beaudin, and P. Encrenaz, “Coherent subterahertz radiation from femtosecond infrared filaments in air,” Opt. Lett. 27(21), 1944–1946 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Rodriguez, R. Sauerbrey, H. Wille, L. Wöste, T. Fujii, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, L. Klingbeil, K. Rethmeier, W. Kalkner, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. Yu, and J.-P. Wolf, “Triggering and guiding megavolt discharges by use of laser-induced ionized filaments,” Opt. Lett. 27(9), 772–774 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ni, J.

B. Zeng, W. Chu, G. Li, J. Yao, H. Zhang, J. Ni, C. Jing, H. Xie, and Y. Cheng, “Real-time observation of dynamics in rotational molecular wave packets by use of air-laser spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. A 89(4), 042508 (2014).
[CrossRef]

C. Jing, H. Zhang, W. Chu, H. Xie, J. Ni, B. Zeng, G. Li, J. Yao, H. Xu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Generation of an air laser at extended distances by femtosecond laser filamentation with telescope optics,” Opt. Express 22(3), 3151–3156 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Ni, W. Chu, H. Zhang, B. Zeng, J. Yao, L. Qiao, G. Li, C. Jing, H. Xie, H. Xu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Impulsive rotational Raman scattering of N2 by a remote “air laser” in femtosecond laser filament,” Opt. Lett. 39(8), 2250–2253 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Ni, W. Chu, C. Jing, H. Zhang, B. Zeng, J. Yao, G. Li, H. Xie, C. Zhang, H. Xu, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Identification of the physical mechanism of generation of coherent N2+ emissions in air by femtosecond laser excitation,” Opt. Express 21(7), 8746–8752 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Yao, G. Li, C. Jing, B. Zeng, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Zhang, H. Xie, C. Zhang, H. Li, H. Xu, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Remote creation of coherent emissions in air with two-color ultrafast laser pulses,” New J. Phys. 15(2), 023046 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, C. Jing, J. Yao, G. Li, B. Zeng, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Xie, H. Xu, S. L. Chin, K. Yamanouchi, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Rotational coherence encoded in an “Air-Laser” spectrum of nitrogen molecular ions in an intense laser field,” Phys. Rev. X 3(4), 041009 (2013).

J. Yao, G. Li, X. Jia, X. Hao, B. Zeng, C. Jing, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Zhang, H. Xie, C. Zhang, Z. Zhao, J. Chen, X. Liu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Alignment-dependent fluorescence emission induced by tunnel ionization of carbon dioxide from lower-lying orbitals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(13), 133001 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Yao, B. Zeng, H. Xu, G. Li, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Zhang, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “High-brightness switchable multiwavelength remote laser in air,” Phys. Rev. A 84(5), 051802 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nisoli, M.

F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, S. Gasilov, E. Benedetti, G. Sansone, M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, and S. Stagira, “Rotational Raman effects in the wake of optical filamentation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(12), 123006 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

North, S. W.

A. J. Traverso, R. Sanchez-Gonzalez, L. Yuan, K. Wang, D. V. Voronine, A. M. Zheltikov, Y. Rostovtsev, V. A. Sautenkov, A. V. Sokolov, S. W. North, and M. O. Scully, “Coherence brightened laser source for atmospheric remote sensing,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(38), 15185–15190 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oral, E.

A. Becker, N. Aközbek, K. Vijayalakshmi, E. Oral, C. M. Bowden, and S. L. Chin, “Intensity clamping and re-focusing of intense femtosecond laser pulses in nitrogen molecular gas,” Appl. Phys. B 73(3), 287–290 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Panov, N. A.

N. A. Panov, V. A. Makarov, V. Y. Fedorov, and O. G. Kosareva, “Filamentation of arbitrary polarized femtosecond laser pulses in case of high-order Kerr effect,” Opt. Lett. 38(4), 537–539 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. A. Panov, O. G. Kosareva, A. B. Savelev, D. S. Uryupina, I. A. Perezhogin, and V. A. Makarov, “Filamentation of femtosecond Gaussian pulses with close-to-linear or -circular elliptical polarisation,” Quantum Electron. 41(2), 160–162 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Patalano, G.

Perezhogin, I. A.

N. A. Panov, O. G. Kosareva, A. B. Savelev, D. S. Uryupina, I. A. Perezhogin, and V. A. Makarov, “Filamentation of femtosecond Gaussian pulses with close-to-linear or -circular elliptical polarisation,” Quantum Electron. 41(2), 160–162 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Plaja, L.

T. Popmintchev, M. C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV X-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Point, G.

Polynkin, P.

D. Kartashov, S. Ališauskas, A. Baltuška, A. Schmitt-Sody, W. Roach, and P. Polynkin, “Remotely pumped stimulated emission at 337 nm in atmospheric nitrogen,” Phys. Rev. A 88(4), 041805 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Popmintchev, D.

T. Popmintchev, M. C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV X-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Popmintchev, T.

T. Popmintchev, M. C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV X-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prade, B.

Pugzlys, A.

T. Popmintchev, M. C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV X-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pugžlys, A.

D. Kartashov, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, A. Pugžlys, M. Shneider, A. Zheltikov, S. L. Chin, and A. Baltuška, “Free-space nitrogen gas laser driven by a femtosecond filament,” Phys. Rev. A 86(3), 033831 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Qiao, L.

Rethmeier, K.

Roach, W.

D. Kartashov, S. Ališauskas, A. Baltuška, A. Schmitt-Sody, W. Roach, and P. Polynkin, “Remotely pumped stimulated emission at 337 nm in atmospheric nitrogen,” Phys. Rev. A 88(4), 041805 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Rodriguez, M.

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science 301(5629), 61–64 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Rodriguez, R. Sauerbrey, H. Wille, L. Wöste, T. Fujii, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, L. Klingbeil, K. Rethmeier, W. Kalkner, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. Yu, and J.-P. Wolf, “Triggering and guiding megavolt discharges by use of laser-induced ionized filaments,” Opt. Lett. 27(9), 772–774 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rostovtsev, Y.

A. J. Traverso, R. Sanchez-Gonzalez, L. Yuan, K. Wang, D. V. Voronine, A. M. Zheltikov, Y. Rostovtsev, V. A. Sautenkov, A. V. Sokolov, S. W. North, and M. O. Scully, “Coherence brightened laser source for atmospheric remote sensing,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(38), 15185–15190 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Salmon, E.

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science 301(5629), 61–64 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Rodriguez, R. Sauerbrey, H. Wille, L. Wöste, T. Fujii, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, L. Klingbeil, K. Rethmeier, W. Kalkner, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. Yu, and J.-P. Wolf, “Triggering and guiding megavolt discharges by use of laser-induced ionized filaments,” Opt. Lett. 27(9), 772–774 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sanchez-Gonzalez, R.

A. J. Traverso, R. Sanchez-Gonzalez, L. Yuan, K. Wang, D. V. Voronine, A. M. Zheltikov, Y. Rostovtsev, V. A. Sautenkov, A. V. Sokolov, S. W. North, and M. O. Scully, “Coherence brightened laser source for atmospheric remote sensing,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(38), 15185–15190 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sansone, G.

F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, S. Gasilov, E. Benedetti, G. Sansone, M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, and S. Stagira, “Rotational Raman effects in the wake of optical filamentation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(12), 123006 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sauerbrey, R.

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science 301(5629), 61–64 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Rodriguez, R. Sauerbrey, H. Wille, L. Wöste, T. Fujii, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, L. Klingbeil, K. Rethmeier, W. Kalkner, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. Yu, and J.-P. Wolf, “Triggering and guiding megavolt discharges by use of laser-induced ionized filaments,” Opt. Lett. 27(9), 772–774 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Kasparian, R. Sauerbrey, and S. L. Chin, “The critical laser intensity of self-guided light filaments in air,” Appl. Phys. B 71(6), 877–879 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sautenkov, V. A.

A. J. Traverso, R. Sanchez-Gonzalez, L. Yuan, K. Wang, D. V. Voronine, A. M. Zheltikov, Y. Rostovtsev, V. A. Sautenkov, A. V. Sokolov, S. W. North, and M. O. Scully, “Coherence brightened laser source for atmospheric remote sensing,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(38), 15185–15190 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Savelev, A. B.

N. A. Panov, O. G. Kosareva, A. B. Savelev, D. S. Uryupina, I. A. Perezhogin, and V. A. Makarov, “Filamentation of femtosecond Gaussian pulses with close-to-linear or -circular elliptical polarisation,” Quantum Electron. 41(2), 160–162 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Schappe, R. S.

J. T. Fons, R. S. Schappe, and C. C. Lin, “Electron-impact excitation of the second positive band system (C3 Πu-->B3 Πg) and the C3 Πu electronic state of the nitrogen molecule,” Phys. Rev. A 53(4), 2239–2247 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmitt-Sody, A.

D. Kartashov, S. Ališauskas, A. Baltuška, A. Schmitt-Sody, W. Roach, and P. Polynkin, “Remotely pumped stimulated emission at 337 nm in atmospheric nitrogen,” Phys. Rev. A 88(4), 041805 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Schrauth, S. E.

T. Popmintchev, M. C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV X-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scully, M. O.

A. J. Traverso, R. Sanchez-Gonzalez, L. Yuan, K. Wang, D. V. Voronine, A. M. Zheltikov, Y. Rostovtsev, V. A. Sautenkov, A. V. Sokolov, S. W. North, and M. O. Scully, “Coherence brightened laser source for atmospheric remote sensing,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(38), 15185–15190 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Dogariu, J. B. Michael, M. O. Scully, and R. B. Miles, “High-gain backward lasing in air,” Science 331(6016), 442–445 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shim, B.

T. Popmintchev, M. C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV X-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shneider, M.

D. Kartashov, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, A. Pugžlys, M. Shneider, A. Zheltikov, S. L. Chin, and A. Baltuška, “Free-space nitrogen gas laser driven by a femtosecond filament,” Phys. Rev. A 86(3), 033831 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Silakov, V. P.

I. A. Kossyi, A. Yu. Kostinsky, A. A. Matveyev, and V. P. Silakov, “Kinetic scheme of the non-equilibrium discharge in nitrogen-oxygen mixtures,” Plasma Sources Sci. Technol. 1(3), 207–220 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Simard, P. T.

F. Théberge, W. Liu, P. T. Simard, A. Becker, and S. L. Chin, “Plasma density inside a femtosecond laser filament in air: Strong dependence on external focusing,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 74(3), 036406 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sokolov, A. V.

A. J. Traverso, R. Sanchez-Gonzalez, L. Yuan, K. Wang, D. V. Voronine, A. M. Zheltikov, Y. Rostovtsev, V. A. Sautenkov, A. V. Sokolov, S. W. North, and M. O. Scully, “Coherence brightened laser source for atmospheric remote sensing,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(38), 15185–15190 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sridharan, A.

S. Yuan, T. Wang, Y. Teranishi, A. Sridharan, S. H. Lin, H. Zeng, and S. L. Chin, “Lasing action in water vapor induced by ultrashort laser filamentation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(22), 224102 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Stagira, S.

F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, S. Gasilov, E. Benedetti, G. Sansone, M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, and S. Stagira, “Rotational Raman effects in the wake of optical filamentation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(12), 123006 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Talebpour, A.

A. Talebpour, M. Abdel-Fattah, A. D. Bandrauk, and S. L. Chin, “Spectroscopy of the gases interacting with intense femtosecond laser pulses,” Laser Phys. 11(1), 68–76 (2001).

Teranishi, Y.

S. Yuan, T. Wang, Y. Teranishi, A. Sridharan, S. H. Lin, H. Zeng, and S. L. Chin, “Lasing action in water vapor induced by ultrashort laser filamentation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(22), 224102 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Théberge, F.

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Traverso, A. J.

A. J. Traverso, R. Sanchez-Gonzalez, L. Yuan, K. Wang, D. V. Voronine, A. M. Zheltikov, Y. Rostovtsev, V. A. Sautenkov, A. V. Sokolov, S. W. North, and M. O. Scully, “Coherence brightened laser source for atmospheric remote sensing,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(38), 15185–15190 (2012).
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Tzortzakis, S.

Uryupina, D. S.

N. A. Panov, O. G. Kosareva, A. B. Savelev, D. S. Uryupina, I. A. Perezhogin, and V. A. Makarov, “Filamentation of femtosecond Gaussian pulses with close-to-linear or -circular elliptical polarisation,” Quantum Electron. 41(2), 160–162 (2011).
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A. Becker, N. Aközbek, K. Vijayalakshmi, E. Oral, C. M. Bowden, and S. L. Chin, “Intensity clamping and re-focusing of intense femtosecond laser pulses in nitrogen molecular gas,” Appl. Phys. B 73(3), 287–290 (2001).
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Voronine, D. V.

A. J. Traverso, R. Sanchez-Gonzalez, L. Yuan, K. Wang, D. V. Voronine, A. M. Zheltikov, Y. Rostovtsev, V. A. Sautenkov, A. V. Sokolov, S. W. North, and M. O. Scully, “Coherence brightened laser source for atmospheric remote sensing,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(38), 15185–15190 (2012).
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Vozzi, C.

F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, S. Gasilov, E. Benedetti, G. Sansone, M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, and S. Stagira, “Rotational Raman effects in the wake of optical filamentation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(12), 123006 (2008).
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A. J. Traverso, R. Sanchez-Gonzalez, L. Yuan, K. Wang, D. V. Voronine, A. M. Zheltikov, Y. Rostovtsev, V. A. Sautenkov, A. V. Sokolov, S. W. North, and M. O. Scully, “Coherence brightened laser source for atmospheric remote sensing,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(38), 15185–15190 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, T.

T. Wang, J. F. Daigle, J. Ju, S. Yuan, R. Li, and S. L. Chin, “Forward lasing action at multiple wavelengths seeded by white light from a femtosecond laser filament in air,” Phys. Rev. A 88(5), 053429 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Yuan, T. Wang, Y. Teranishi, A. Sridharan, S. H. Lin, H. Zeng, and S. L. Chin, “Lasing action in water vapor induced by ultrashort laser filamentation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(22), 224102 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Wille, H.

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science 301(5629), 61–64 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Rodriguez, R. Sauerbrey, H. Wille, L. Wöste, T. Fujii, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, L. Klingbeil, K. Rethmeier, W. Kalkner, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. Yu, and J.-P. Wolf, “Triggering and guiding megavolt discharges by use of laser-induced ionized filaments,” Opt. Lett. 27(9), 772–774 (2002).
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Wolf, J.-P.

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science 301(5629), 61–64 (2003).
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M. Rodriguez, R. Sauerbrey, H. Wille, L. Wöste, T. Fujii, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, L. Klingbeil, K. Rethmeier, W. Kalkner, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. Yu, and J.-P. Wolf, “Triggering and guiding megavolt discharges by use of laser-induced ionized filaments,” Opt. Lett. 27(9), 772–774 (2002).
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Wöste, L.

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science 301(5629), 61–64 (2003).
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M. Rodriguez, R. Sauerbrey, H. Wille, L. Wöste, T. Fujii, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, L. Klingbeil, K. Rethmeier, W. Kalkner, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. Yu, and J.-P. Wolf, “Triggering and guiding megavolt discharges by use of laser-induced ionized filaments,” Opt. Lett. 27(9), 772–774 (2002).
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Xie, H.

B. Zeng, W. Chu, G. Li, J. Yao, H. Zhang, J. Ni, C. Jing, H. Xie, and Y. Cheng, “Real-time observation of dynamics in rotational molecular wave packets by use of air-laser spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. A 89(4), 042508 (2014).
[CrossRef]

J. Ni, W. Chu, H. Zhang, B. Zeng, J. Yao, L. Qiao, G. Li, C. Jing, H. Xie, H. Xu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Impulsive rotational Raman scattering of N2 by a remote “air laser” in femtosecond laser filament,” Opt. Lett. 39(8), 2250–2253 (2014).
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C. Jing, H. Zhang, W. Chu, H. Xie, J. Ni, B. Zeng, G. Li, J. Yao, H. Xu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Generation of an air laser at extended distances by femtosecond laser filamentation with telescope optics,” Opt. Express 22(3), 3151–3156 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Ni, W. Chu, C. Jing, H. Zhang, B. Zeng, J. Yao, G. Li, H. Xie, C. Zhang, H. Xu, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Identification of the physical mechanism of generation of coherent N2+ emissions in air by femtosecond laser excitation,” Opt. Express 21(7), 8746–8752 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Zhang, C. Jing, J. Yao, G. Li, B. Zeng, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Xie, H. Xu, S. L. Chin, K. Yamanouchi, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Rotational coherence encoded in an “Air-Laser” spectrum of nitrogen molecular ions in an intense laser field,” Phys. Rev. X 3(4), 041009 (2013).

J. Yao, G. Li, C. Jing, B. Zeng, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Zhang, H. Xie, C. Zhang, H. Li, H. Xu, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Remote creation of coherent emissions in air with two-color ultrafast laser pulses,” New J. Phys. 15(2), 023046 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Yao, G. Li, X. Jia, X. Hao, B. Zeng, C. Jing, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Zhang, H. Xie, C. Zhang, Z. Zhao, J. Chen, X. Liu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Alignment-dependent fluorescence emission induced by tunnel ionization of carbon dioxide from lower-lying orbitals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(13), 133001 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, H.

J. Ni, W. Chu, H. Zhang, B. Zeng, J. Yao, L. Qiao, G. Li, C. Jing, H. Xie, H. Xu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Impulsive rotational Raman scattering of N2 by a remote “air laser” in femtosecond laser filament,” Opt. Lett. 39(8), 2250–2253 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Jing, H. Zhang, W. Chu, H. Xie, J. Ni, B. Zeng, G. Li, J. Yao, H. Xu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Generation of an air laser at extended distances by femtosecond laser filamentation with telescope optics,” Opt. Express 22(3), 3151–3156 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Ni, W. Chu, C. Jing, H. Zhang, B. Zeng, J. Yao, G. Li, H. Xie, C. Zhang, H. Xu, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Identification of the physical mechanism of generation of coherent N2+ emissions in air by femtosecond laser excitation,” Opt. Express 21(7), 8746–8752 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Yao, G. Li, C. Jing, B. Zeng, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Zhang, H. Xie, C. Zhang, H. Li, H. Xu, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Remote creation of coherent emissions in air with two-color ultrafast laser pulses,” New J. Phys. 15(2), 023046 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, C. Jing, J. Yao, G. Li, B. Zeng, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Xie, H. Xu, S. L. Chin, K. Yamanouchi, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Rotational coherence encoded in an “Air-Laser” spectrum of nitrogen molecular ions in an intense laser field,” Phys. Rev. X 3(4), 041009 (2013).

J. Yao, B. Zeng, H. Xu, G. Li, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Zhang, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “High-brightness switchable multiwavelength remote laser in air,” Phys. Rev. A 84(5), 051802 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Xu, A. Azarm, J. Bernhardt, Y. Kamali, and S. L. Chin, “The mechanism of nitrogen fluorescence inside a femtosecond laser filament in air,” Chem. Phys. 360(1–3), 171–175 (2009).
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Xu, H. L.

H. L. Xu and S. L. Chin, “Femtosecond laser filamentation for atmospheric sensing,” Sensors 11(1), 32–53 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, Z.

C. Jing, H. Zhang, W. Chu, H. Xie, J. Ni, B. Zeng, G. Li, J. Yao, H. Xu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Generation of an air laser at extended distances by femtosecond laser filamentation with telescope optics,” Opt. Express 22(3), 3151–3156 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Ni, W. Chu, H. Zhang, B. Zeng, J. Yao, L. Qiao, G. Li, C. Jing, H. Xie, H. Xu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Impulsive rotational Raman scattering of N2 by a remote “air laser” in femtosecond laser filament,” Opt. Lett. 39(8), 2250–2253 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Ni, W. Chu, C. Jing, H. Zhang, B. Zeng, J. Yao, G. Li, H. Xie, C. Zhang, H. Xu, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Identification of the physical mechanism of generation of coherent N2+ emissions in air by femtosecond laser excitation,” Opt. Express 21(7), 8746–8752 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Yao, G. Li, C. Jing, B. Zeng, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Zhang, H. Xie, C. Zhang, H. Li, H. Xu, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Remote creation of coherent emissions in air with two-color ultrafast laser pulses,” New J. Phys. 15(2), 023046 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Yao, G. Li, X. Jia, X. Hao, B. Zeng, C. Jing, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Zhang, H. Xie, C. Zhang, Z. Zhao, J. Chen, X. Liu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Alignment-dependent fluorescence emission induced by tunnel ionization of carbon dioxide from lower-lying orbitals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(13), 133001 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Zhang, C. Jing, J. Yao, G. Li, B. Zeng, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Xie, H. Xu, S. L. Chin, K. Yamanouchi, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Rotational coherence encoded in an “Air-Laser” spectrum of nitrogen molecular ions in an intense laser field,” Phys. Rev. X 3(4), 041009 (2013).

J. Yao, B. Zeng, H. Xu, G. Li, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Zhang, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “High-brightness switchable multiwavelength remote laser in air,” Phys. Rev. A 84(5), 051802 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yamanouchi, K.

H. Zhang, C. Jing, J. Yao, G. Li, B. Zeng, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Xie, H. Xu, S. L. Chin, K. Yamanouchi, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Rotational coherence encoded in an “Air-Laser” spectrum of nitrogen molecular ions in an intense laser field,” Phys. Rev. X 3(4), 041009 (2013).

Yao, J.

C. Jing, H. Zhang, W. Chu, H. Xie, J. Ni, B. Zeng, G. Li, J. Yao, H. Xu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Generation of an air laser at extended distances by femtosecond laser filamentation with telescope optics,” Opt. Express 22(3), 3151–3156 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Ni, W. Chu, H. Zhang, B. Zeng, J. Yao, L. Qiao, G. Li, C. Jing, H. Xie, H. Xu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Impulsive rotational Raman scattering of N2 by a remote “air laser” in femtosecond laser filament,” Opt. Lett. 39(8), 2250–2253 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Zeng, W. Chu, G. Li, J. Yao, H. Zhang, J. Ni, C. Jing, H. Xie, and Y. Cheng, “Real-time observation of dynamics in rotational molecular wave packets by use of air-laser spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. A 89(4), 042508 (2014).
[CrossRef]

J. Ni, W. Chu, C. Jing, H. Zhang, B. Zeng, J. Yao, G. Li, H. Xie, C. Zhang, H. Xu, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Identification of the physical mechanism of generation of coherent N2+ emissions in air by femtosecond laser excitation,” Opt. Express 21(7), 8746–8752 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Yao, G. Li, X. Jia, X. Hao, B. Zeng, C. Jing, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Zhang, H. Xie, C. Zhang, Z. Zhao, J. Chen, X. Liu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Alignment-dependent fluorescence emission induced by tunnel ionization of carbon dioxide from lower-lying orbitals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(13), 133001 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Yao, G. Li, C. Jing, B. Zeng, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Zhang, H. Xie, C. Zhang, H. Li, H. Xu, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Remote creation of coherent emissions in air with two-color ultrafast laser pulses,” New J. Phys. 15(2), 023046 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, C. Jing, J. Yao, G. Li, B. Zeng, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Xie, H. Xu, S. L. Chin, K. Yamanouchi, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Rotational coherence encoded in an “Air-Laser” spectrum of nitrogen molecular ions in an intense laser field,” Phys. Rev. X 3(4), 041009 (2013).

J. Yao, B. Zeng, H. Xu, G. Li, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Zhang, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “High-brightness switchable multiwavelength remote laser in air,” Phys. Rev. A 84(5), 051802 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yu, J.

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science 301(5629), 61–64 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Rodriguez, R. Sauerbrey, H. Wille, L. Wöste, T. Fujii, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, L. Klingbeil, K. Rethmeier, W. Kalkner, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. Yu, and J.-P. Wolf, “Triggering and guiding megavolt discharges by use of laser-induced ionized filaments,” Opt. Lett. 27(9), 772–774 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yuan, L.

A. J. Traverso, R. Sanchez-Gonzalez, L. Yuan, K. Wang, D. V. Voronine, A. M. Zheltikov, Y. Rostovtsev, V. A. Sautenkov, A. V. Sokolov, S. W. North, and M. O. Scully, “Coherence brightened laser source for atmospheric remote sensing,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(38), 15185–15190 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yuan, S.

T. Wang, J. F. Daigle, J. Ju, S. Yuan, R. Li, and S. L. Chin, “Forward lasing action at multiple wavelengths seeded by white light from a femtosecond laser filament in air,” Phys. Rev. A 88(5), 053429 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Yuan, T. Wang, Y. Teranishi, A. Sridharan, S. H. Lin, H. Zeng, and S. L. Chin, “Lasing action in water vapor induced by ultrashort laser filamentation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(22), 224102 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Zeng, B.

C. Jing, H. Zhang, W. Chu, H. Xie, J. Ni, B. Zeng, G. Li, J. Yao, H. Xu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Generation of an air laser at extended distances by femtosecond laser filamentation with telescope optics,” Opt. Express 22(3), 3151–3156 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Ni, W. Chu, H. Zhang, B. Zeng, J. Yao, L. Qiao, G. Li, C. Jing, H. Xie, H. Xu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Impulsive rotational Raman scattering of N2 by a remote “air laser” in femtosecond laser filament,” Opt. Lett. 39(8), 2250–2253 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Zeng, W. Chu, G. Li, J. Yao, H. Zhang, J. Ni, C. Jing, H. Xie, and Y. Cheng, “Real-time observation of dynamics in rotational molecular wave packets by use of air-laser spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. A 89(4), 042508 (2014).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, C. Jing, J. Yao, G. Li, B. Zeng, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Xie, H. Xu, S. L. Chin, K. Yamanouchi, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Rotational coherence encoded in an “Air-Laser” spectrum of nitrogen molecular ions in an intense laser field,” Phys. Rev. X 3(4), 041009 (2013).

J. Yao, G. Li, X. Jia, X. Hao, B. Zeng, C. Jing, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Zhang, H. Xie, C. Zhang, Z. Zhao, J. Chen, X. Liu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Alignment-dependent fluorescence emission induced by tunnel ionization of carbon dioxide from lower-lying orbitals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(13), 133001 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Yao, G. Li, C. Jing, B. Zeng, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Zhang, H. Xie, C. Zhang, H. Li, H. Xu, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Remote creation of coherent emissions in air with two-color ultrafast laser pulses,” New J. Phys. 15(2), 023046 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Ni, W. Chu, C. Jing, H. Zhang, B. Zeng, J. Yao, G. Li, H. Xie, C. Zhang, H. Xu, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Identification of the physical mechanism of generation of coherent N2+ emissions in air by femtosecond laser excitation,” Opt. Express 21(7), 8746–8752 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Yao, B. Zeng, H. Xu, G. Li, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Zhang, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “High-brightness switchable multiwavelength remote laser in air,” Phys. Rev. A 84(5), 051802 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zeng, H.

S. Yuan, T. Wang, Y. Teranishi, A. Sridharan, S. H. Lin, H. Zeng, and S. L. Chin, “Lasing action in water vapor induced by ultrashort laser filamentation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(22), 224102 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, C.

J. Ni, W. Chu, C. Jing, H. Zhang, B. Zeng, J. Yao, G. Li, H. Xie, C. Zhang, H. Xu, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Identification of the physical mechanism of generation of coherent N2+ emissions in air by femtosecond laser excitation,” Opt. Express 21(7), 8746–8752 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Yao, G. Li, C. Jing, B. Zeng, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Zhang, H. Xie, C. Zhang, H. Li, H. Xu, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Remote creation of coherent emissions in air with two-color ultrafast laser pulses,” New J. Phys. 15(2), 023046 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Yao, G. Li, X. Jia, X. Hao, B. Zeng, C. Jing, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Zhang, H. Xie, C. Zhang, Z. Zhao, J. Chen, X. Liu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Alignment-dependent fluorescence emission induced by tunnel ionization of carbon dioxide from lower-lying orbitals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(13), 133001 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, H.

C. Jing, H. Zhang, W. Chu, H. Xie, J. Ni, B. Zeng, G. Li, J. Yao, H. Xu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Generation of an air laser at extended distances by femtosecond laser filamentation with telescope optics,” Opt. Express 22(3), 3151–3156 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Ni, W. Chu, H. Zhang, B. Zeng, J. Yao, L. Qiao, G. Li, C. Jing, H. Xie, H. Xu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Impulsive rotational Raman scattering of N2 by a remote “air laser” in femtosecond laser filament,” Opt. Lett. 39(8), 2250–2253 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Zeng, W. Chu, G. Li, J. Yao, H. Zhang, J. Ni, C. Jing, H. Xie, and Y. Cheng, “Real-time observation of dynamics in rotational molecular wave packets by use of air-laser spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. A 89(4), 042508 (2014).
[CrossRef]

J. Ni, W. Chu, C. Jing, H. Zhang, B. Zeng, J. Yao, G. Li, H. Xie, C. Zhang, H. Xu, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Identification of the physical mechanism of generation of coherent N2+ emissions in air by femtosecond laser excitation,” Opt. Express 21(7), 8746–8752 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Yao, G. Li, X. Jia, X. Hao, B. Zeng, C. Jing, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Zhang, H. Xie, C. Zhang, Z. Zhao, J. Chen, X. Liu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Alignment-dependent fluorescence emission induced by tunnel ionization of carbon dioxide from lower-lying orbitals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(13), 133001 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Yao, G. Li, C. Jing, B. Zeng, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Zhang, H. Xie, C. Zhang, H. Li, H. Xu, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Remote creation of coherent emissions in air with two-color ultrafast laser pulses,” New J. Phys. 15(2), 023046 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, C. Jing, J. Yao, G. Li, B. Zeng, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Xie, H. Xu, S. L. Chin, K. Yamanouchi, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Rotational coherence encoded in an “Air-Laser” spectrum of nitrogen molecular ions in an intense laser field,” Phys. Rev. X 3(4), 041009 (2013).

J. Yao, B. Zeng, H. Xu, G. Li, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Zhang, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “High-brightness switchable multiwavelength remote laser in air,” Phys. Rev. A 84(5), 051802 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, Z.

J. Yao, G. Li, X. Jia, X. Hao, B. Zeng, C. Jing, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Zhang, H. Xie, C. Zhang, Z. Zhao, J. Chen, X. Liu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Alignment-dependent fluorescence emission induced by tunnel ionization of carbon dioxide from lower-lying orbitals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(13), 133001 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zheltikov, A.

D. Kartashov, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, A. Pugžlys, M. Shneider, A. Zheltikov, S. L. Chin, and A. Baltuška, “Free-space nitrogen gas laser driven by a femtosecond filament,” Phys. Rev. A 86(3), 033831 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zheltikov, A. M.

A. J. Traverso, R. Sanchez-Gonzalez, L. Yuan, K. Wang, D. V. Voronine, A. M. Zheltikov, Y. Rostovtsev, V. A. Sautenkov, A. V. Sokolov, S. W. North, and M. O. Scully, “Coherence brightened laser source for atmospheric remote sensing,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(38), 15185–15190 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. B (4)

F. W. Helbing, A. Heinrich, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Generation of intense, carrier-envelope phase-locked few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation,” Appl. Phys. B 79(6), 673–677 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Q. Luo, W. Liu, and S. L. Chin, “Lasing action in air induced by ultra-fast laser filamentation,” Appl. Phys. B 76(3), 337–340 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Kasparian, R. Sauerbrey, and S. L. Chin, “The critical laser intensity of self-guided light filaments in air,” Appl. Phys. B 71(6), 877–879 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Becker, N. Aközbek, K. Vijayalakshmi, E. Oral, C. M. Bowden, and S. L. Chin, “Intensity clamping and re-focusing of intense femtosecond laser pulses in nitrogen molecular gas,” Appl. Phys. B 73(3), 287–290 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

S. Yuan, T. Wang, Y. Teranishi, A. Sridharan, S. H. Lin, H. Zeng, and S. L. Chin, “Lasing action in water vapor induced by ultrashort laser filamentation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(22), 224102 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. (1)

H. Xu, A. Azarm, J. Bernhardt, Y. Kamali, and S. L. Chin, “The mechanism of nitrogen fluorescence inside a femtosecond laser filament in air,” Chem. Phys. 360(1–3), 171–175 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Laser Phys. (1)

A. Talebpour, M. Abdel-Fattah, A. D. Bandrauk, and S. L. Chin, “Spectroscopy of the gases interacting with intense femtosecond laser pulses,” Laser Phys. 11(1), 68–76 (2001).

New J. Phys. (1)

J. Yao, G. Li, C. Jing, B. Zeng, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Zhang, H. Xie, C. Zhang, H. Li, H. Xu, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Remote creation of coherent emissions in air with two-color ultrafast laser pulses,” New J. Phys. 15(2), 023046 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (5)

Phys. Rev. A (6)

T. Wang, J. F. Daigle, J. Ju, S. Yuan, R. Li, and S. L. Chin, “Forward lasing action at multiple wavelengths seeded by white light from a femtosecond laser filament in air,” Phys. Rev. A 88(5), 053429 (2013).
[CrossRef]

D. Kartashov, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, A. Pugžlys, M. Shneider, A. Zheltikov, S. L. Chin, and A. Baltuška, “Free-space nitrogen gas laser driven by a femtosecond filament,” Phys. Rev. A 86(3), 033831 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. Kartashov, S. Ališauskas, A. Baltuška, A. Schmitt-Sody, W. Roach, and P. Polynkin, “Remotely pumped stimulated emission at 337 nm in atmospheric nitrogen,” Phys. Rev. A 88(4), 041805 (2013).
[CrossRef]

B. Zeng, W. Chu, G. Li, J. Yao, H. Zhang, J. Ni, C. Jing, H. Xie, and Y. Cheng, “Real-time observation of dynamics in rotational molecular wave packets by use of air-laser spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. A 89(4), 042508 (2014).
[CrossRef]

J. Yao, B. Zeng, H. Xu, G. Li, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Zhang, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “High-brightness switchable multiwavelength remote laser in air,” Phys. Rev. A 84(5), 051802 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Fons, R. S. Schappe, and C. C. Lin, “Electron-impact excitation of the second positive band system (C3 Πu-->B3 Πg) and the C3 Πu electronic state of the nitrogen molecule,” Phys. Rev. A 53(4), 2239–2247 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. (1)

F. Théberge, W. Liu, P. T. Simard, A. Becker, and S. L. Chin, “Plasma density inside a femtosecond laser filament in air: Strong dependence on external focusing,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 74(3), 036406 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, S. Gasilov, E. Benedetti, G. Sansone, M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, and S. Stagira, “Rotational Raman effects in the wake of optical filamentation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(12), 123006 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Yao, G. Li, X. Jia, X. Hao, B. Zeng, C. Jing, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Zhang, H. Xie, C. Zhang, Z. Zhao, J. Chen, X. Liu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Alignment-dependent fluorescence emission induced by tunnel ionization of carbon dioxide from lower-lying orbitals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(13), 133001 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. X (1)

H. Zhang, C. Jing, J. Yao, G. Li, B. Zeng, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Xie, H. Xu, S. L. Chin, K. Yamanouchi, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Rotational coherence encoded in an “Air-Laser” spectrum of nitrogen molecular ions in an intense laser field,” Phys. Rev. X 3(4), 041009 (2013).

Plasma Sources Sci. Technol. (1)

I. A. Kossyi, A. Yu. Kostinsky, A. A. Matveyev, and V. P. Silakov, “Kinetic scheme of the non-equilibrium discharge in nitrogen-oxygen mixtures,” Plasma Sources Sci. Technol. 1(3), 207–220 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1)

A. J. Traverso, R. Sanchez-Gonzalez, L. Yuan, K. Wang, D. V. Voronine, A. M. Zheltikov, Y. Rostovtsev, V. A. Sautenkov, A. V. Sokolov, S. W. North, and M. O. Scully, “Coherence brightened laser source for atmospheric remote sensing,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(38), 15185–15190 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Quantum Electron. (1)

N. A. Panov, O. G. Kosareva, A. B. Savelev, D. S. Uryupina, I. A. Perezhogin, and V. A. Makarov, “Filamentation of femtosecond Gaussian pulses with close-to-linear or -circular elliptical polarisation,” Quantum Electron. 41(2), 160–162 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Science (3)

T. Popmintchev, M. C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV X-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Dogariu, J. B. Michael, M. O. Scully, and R. B. Miles, “High-gain backward lasing in air,” Science 331(6016), 442–445 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science 301(5629), 61–64 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sensors (1)

H. L. Xu and S. L. Chin, “Femtosecond laser filamentation for atmospheric sensing,” Sensors 11(1), 32–53 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

P. Ding, S. Mitryukovskiy, A. Houard, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, and Y. Liu, “Externally seeded backward lasing radiation from femtosecond laser filament in nitrogen gas,” arXiv:1405.6497 (2014).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the experimental setup.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) A typical forward 337-nm laser spectrum generated by focusing both the pump and probe pulses in 1-atm nitrogen gas (red solid line). For comparison, the spectra of the pump and probe pulses are indicated by green dotted line and blue dashed line, respectively. Inset: The change of the nitrogen laser intensity with the polarization of pump pulses. (b) Polarization property of the 337-nm nitrogen laser which is examined by placing a Glan-Taylor prism before the spectrometer. Here θ is the angle between the optical axis of Glan-Taylor prism and the polarization direction of the 337-nm nitrogen laser.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The signal intensity of 337-nm nitrogen laser as a function of the central wavelengths of the probe pulses, which are indicated on the side of the corresponding spectra.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) The intensity of 337-nm nitrogen laser as a function of gas pressures. (b) The temporal evolution of the 337-nm nitrogen laser with the time delay between the pump and probe pulses in the 300-mbar (green solid line) and 1-atm N2 (blue dashed line).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) The signal intensity of 337-nm nitrogen laser as a function of the concentration of O2 in the mixture gas with the pressure of nitrogen gas being fixed at 800 mbar. Inset: The forward laser spectra measured in 1-atm N2 (red solid line) and 1-atm air (green dashed line). For comparison, the spectrum of the probe pulse in air is indicated by blue dotted line. (b) The temporal evolution of the 337-nm nitrogen laser with the varying time delay between the pump and probe pulses in the 800-mbar N2 (green solid line) and in the mixture gas of 800-mbar N2 and 40-mbar O2 (blue dashed line).

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