Abstract

Bio-optical models are used to develop a model of the lidar extinction-to-backscatter ratio applicable to oceanographic lidar. The model is based on chlorophyll concentration, and is expected to be valid for Case 1 waters. The limiting cases of narrow- and wide-beam lidars are presented and compared with estimates based on in situ optical measurements. Lidar measurements are also compared with the model using in situ or satellite estimates of chlorophyll concentration. A modified lidar ratio is defined, in which the properties of pure sea water are removed. This modified ratio is shown to be nearly constant for wide-beam lidar operating in low-chlorophyll waters, so accurate inversion to derive extinction and backscattering is possible under these conditions. This ratio can also be used for lidar calibration.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2014 (1)

J. H. Churnside, “Review of profiling oceanographic lidar,” Opt. Engineer. 53(5), 051405 (2014).
[CrossRef]

2013 (3)

J. Churnside, B. McCarty, and X. Lu, “Subsurface signals from ocean an orbiting polarization lidar,” Remote Sens. 5(7), 3457–3475 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Behrenfeld, Y. Hu, C. A. Hostetler, G. Dall’Olmo, S. D. Rodier, J. W. Hair, and C. R. Trepte, “Space‐based lidar measurements of global ocean carbon stocks,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 40(16), 4355–4360 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Lee, J. H. Churnside, R. D. Marchbanks, P. L. Donaghay, and J. M. Sullivan, “Oceanographic lidar profiles compared with estimates from in situ optical measurements,” Appl. Opt. 52(4), 786–794 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012 (1)

J. H. Churnside, R. D. Marchbanks, J. H. Lee, J. A. Shaw, A. Weidemann, and P. L. Donaghay, “Airborne lidar detection and characterization of internal waves in a shallow fjord,” J. Appl. Remote Sens. 6(1), 063611 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (4)

J. H. Churnside, A. F. Sharov, and R. A. Richter, “Aerial surveys of fish in estuaries: a case study in Chesapeake Bay,” ICES J. Mar. Sci. 68(1), 239–244 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Montes-Hugo, A. Weidemann, R. Gould, R. Arnone, J. H. Churnside, and E. Jaroz, “Ocean color patterns help to predict depth of optical layers in stratified coastal waters,” J. Appl. Remote Sens. 5(1), 053548 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Montes, J. Churnside, Z. Lee, R. Gould, R. Arnone, and A. Weidemann, “Relationships between water attenuation coefficients derived from active and passive remote sensing: a case study from two coastal environments,” Appl. Opt. 50(18), 2990–2999 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Wu, C. M. Gan, L. Cordero, B. Gross, F. Moshary, and S. Ahmed, “Calibration of the 1064 nm lidar channel using water phase and cirrus clouds,” Appl. Opt. 50(21), 3987–3999 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

M. A. Vaughan, Z. Liu, M. J. McGill, Y. Hu, and M. D. Obland, “On the spectral dependence of backscatter from cirrus clouds: Assessing CALIOP's 1064 nm calibration assumptions using cloud physics lidar measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 115(D14), D14206 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (3)

J. M. Sullivan and M. S. Twardowski, “Angular shape of the oceanic particulate volume scattering function in the backward direction,” Appl. Opt. 48(35), 6811–6819 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. H. Omar, D. M. Winker, M. A. Vaughan, Y. Hu, C. R. Trepte, R. A. Ferrare, K.-P. Lee, C. A. Hostetler, C. Kittaka, R. R. Rogers, R. E. Kuehn, and Z. Liu, “The CALIPSO automated aerosol classification and lidar ratio selection algorithm,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 26(10), 1994–2014 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Churnside and P. L. Donaghay, “Thin scattering layers observed by airborne lidar,” ICES J. Mar. Sci. 66(4), 778–789 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

2007 (1)

Y. Hu, “Depolarization ratio-effective lidar ratio relation: Theoretical basis for space lidar cloud phase discrimination,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 34(11), L11812 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

J. H. Churnside and L. A. Ostrovsky, “Lidar observation of a strongly nonlinear internal wave train in the Gulf of Alaska,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 26(1), 167–177 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Z.-P. Lee, M. Darecki, K. L. Carder, C. O. Davis, D. Stramski, and W. J. Rhea, “Diffuse attenuation coefficient of downwelling irradiance: An evaluation of remote sensing methods,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, C02017 (2005).

J. M. Sullivan, M. S. Twardowski, P. L. Donaghay, and S. A. Freeman, “Use of optical scattering to discriminate particle types in coastal waters,” Appl. Opt. 44(9), 1667–1680 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

E. J. O’Connor, A. J. Illingworth, and R. J. Hogan, “A technique for autocalibration of cloud lidar,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 21(5), 777–786 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Pappalardo, A. Amodeo, L. Mona, M. Pandolfi, N. Pergola, and V. Cuomo, “Raman lidar observations of aerosol emitted during the 2002 Etna eruption,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 31(5), L05120 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (4)

2001 (2)

A. Morel and S. Maritorena, “Bio-optical properties of oceanic waters: A reappraisal,” J. Geophys. Res.: Ocean. 106(C4), 7163–7180 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Churnside and J. J. Wilson, “Airborne lidar for fisheries applications,” Opt. Eng. 40(3), 406–414 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

M. S. Twardowski, J. M. Sullivan, P. L. Donaghay, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, “Microscale quantification of the absorption by dissolved and particulate material in coastal waters with an AC-9,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 16(6), 691–707 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (4)

H. Loisel and A. Morel, “Light scattering and chlorophyll concentration in case 1 waters: A reexamination,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 43(5), 847–858 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Ackermann, “The extinction-to-backscatter ratio of tropospheric aerosol: A numerical study,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 15(4), 1043–1050 (1998).
[CrossRef]

O. A. Bukin, A. Y. Major, A. N. Pavlov, B. M. Shevtsov, and E. D. Kholodkevich, “Measurement of the lightscattering layers structure and detection of the dynamic processes in the upper ocean layer by shipborne lidar,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 19(4), 707–715 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Churnside, V. V. Tatarskii, and J. J. Wilson, “Oceanographic lidar attenuation coefficients and signal fluctuations measured from a ship in the Southern California Bight,” Appl. Opt. 37(15), 3105–3112 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

1995 (1)

A. Bricaud, M. Babin, A. Morel, and H. Claustre, “Variability in the chlorophyll-specific absorption coefficients of natural phytoplankton: Analysis and parametrization,” J. Geophys. Res. 100(C7), 13321–13332 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

1991 (1)

A. Morel, “Light and marine photosynthesis: a spectral model with geochemical and climatological implications,” Prog. Oceanogr. 26(3), 263–306 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

1981 (1)

L. Prieur and S. Sathyendranath, “An optical classification of coastal and oceanic waters based on the specific spectral absorption curves of phytoplankton pigments, dissolved organic matter, and other particulate materials,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 26(4), 671–689 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Ackermann, J.

J. Ackermann, “The extinction-to-backscatter ratio of tropospheric aerosol: A numerical study,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 15(4), 1043–1050 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ahmed, S.

Althausen, D.

I. Mattis, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, U. Wandinger, and D. Althausen, “Dual-wavelength Raman lidar observations of the extinction-to-backscatter ratio of Saharan dust,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 014721 (2002).

Amodeo, A.

G. Pappalardo, A. Amodeo, L. Mona, M. Pandolfi, N. Pergola, and V. Cuomo, “Raman lidar observations of aerosol emitted during the 2002 Etna eruption,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 31(5), L05120 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ansmann, A.

I. Mattis, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, U. Wandinger, and D. Althausen, “Dual-wavelength Raman lidar observations of the extinction-to-backscatter ratio of Saharan dust,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 014721 (2002).

Antoine, D.

Arnone, R.

M. A. Montes, J. Churnside, Z. Lee, R. Gould, R. Arnone, and A. Weidemann, “Relationships between water attenuation coefficients derived from active and passive remote sensing: a case study from two coastal environments,” Appl. Opt. 50(18), 2990–2999 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Montes-Hugo, A. Weidemann, R. Gould, R. Arnone, J. H. Churnside, and E. Jaroz, “Ocean color patterns help to predict depth of optical layers in stratified coastal waters,” J. Appl. Remote Sens. 5(1), 053548 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Babin, M.

A. Bricaud, M. Babin, A. Morel, and H. Claustre, “Variability in the chlorophyll-specific absorption coefficients of natural phytoplankton: Analysis and parametrization,” J. Geophys. Res. 100(C7), 13321–13332 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Behrenfeld, M. J.

M. J. Behrenfeld, Y. Hu, C. A. Hostetler, G. Dall’Olmo, S. D. Rodier, J. W. Hair, and C. R. Trepte, “Space‐based lidar measurements of global ocean carbon stocks,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 40(16), 4355–4360 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Bricaud, A.

A. Bricaud, M. Babin, A. Morel, and H. Claustre, “Variability in the chlorophyll-specific absorption coefficients of natural phytoplankton: Analysis and parametrization,” J. Geophys. Res. 100(C7), 13321–13332 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bukin, O. A.

O. A. Bukin, A. Y. Major, A. N. Pavlov, B. M. Shevtsov, and E. D. Kholodkevich, “Measurement of the lightscattering layers structure and detection of the dynamic processes in the upper ocean layer by shipborne lidar,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 19(4), 707–715 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Carder, K. L.

Z.-P. Lee, M. Darecki, K. L. Carder, C. O. Davis, D. Stramski, and W. J. Rhea, “Diffuse attenuation coefficient of downwelling irradiance: An evaluation of remote sensing methods,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, C02017 (2005).

Chen, W.-N.

Chiang, C.-W.

Churnside, J.

Churnside, J. H.

J. H. Churnside, “Review of profiling oceanographic lidar,” Opt. Engineer. 53(5), 051405 (2014).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Lee, J. H. Churnside, R. D. Marchbanks, P. L. Donaghay, and J. M. Sullivan, “Oceanographic lidar profiles compared with estimates from in situ optical measurements,” Appl. Opt. 52(4), 786–794 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. Churnside, R. D. Marchbanks, J. H. Lee, J. A. Shaw, A. Weidemann, and P. L. Donaghay, “Airborne lidar detection and characterization of internal waves in a shallow fjord,” J. Appl. Remote Sens. 6(1), 063611 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Montes-Hugo, A. Weidemann, R. Gould, R. Arnone, J. H. Churnside, and E. Jaroz, “Ocean color patterns help to predict depth of optical layers in stratified coastal waters,” J. Appl. Remote Sens. 5(1), 053548 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Churnside, A. F. Sharov, and R. A. Richter, “Aerial surveys of fish in estuaries: a case study in Chesapeake Bay,” ICES J. Mar. Sci. 68(1), 239–244 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Churnside and P. L. Donaghay, “Thin scattering layers observed by airborne lidar,” ICES J. Mar. Sci. 66(4), 778–789 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Churnside, “Polarization effects on oceanographic lidar,” Opt. Express 16(2), 1196–1207 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. Churnside and L. A. Ostrovsky, “Lidar observation of a strongly nonlinear internal wave train in the Gulf of Alaska,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 26(1), 167–177 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Churnside and J. J. Wilson, “Airborne lidar for fisheries applications,” Opt. Eng. 40(3), 406–414 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Churnside, V. V. Tatarskii, and J. J. Wilson, “Oceanographic lidar attenuation coefficients and signal fluctuations measured from a ship in the Southern California Bight,” Appl. Opt. 37(15), 3105–3112 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Claustre, H.

A. Bricaud, M. Babin, A. Morel, and H. Claustre, “Variability in the chlorophyll-specific absorption coefficients of natural phytoplankton: Analysis and parametrization,” J. Geophys. Res. 100(C7), 13321–13332 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Cordero, L.

Cuomo, V.

G. Pappalardo, A. Amodeo, L. Mona, M. Pandolfi, N. Pergola, and V. Cuomo, “Raman lidar observations of aerosol emitted during the 2002 Etna eruption,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 31(5), L05120 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dall’Olmo, G.

M. J. Behrenfeld, Y. Hu, C. A. Hostetler, G. Dall’Olmo, S. D. Rodier, J. W. Hair, and C. R. Trepte, “Space‐based lidar measurements of global ocean carbon stocks,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 40(16), 4355–4360 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Darecki, M.

Z.-P. Lee, M. Darecki, K. L. Carder, C. O. Davis, D. Stramski, and W. J. Rhea, “Diffuse attenuation coefficient of downwelling irradiance: An evaluation of remote sensing methods,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, C02017 (2005).

Davis, C. O.

Z.-P. Lee, M. Darecki, K. L. Carder, C. O. Davis, D. Stramski, and W. J. Rhea, “Diffuse attenuation coefficient of downwelling irradiance: An evaluation of remote sensing methods,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, C02017 (2005).

Donaghay, P. L.

J. H. Lee, J. H. Churnside, R. D. Marchbanks, P. L. Donaghay, and J. M. Sullivan, “Oceanographic lidar profiles compared with estimates from in situ optical measurements,” Appl. Opt. 52(4), 786–794 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. Churnside, R. D. Marchbanks, J. H. Lee, J. A. Shaw, A. Weidemann, and P. L. Donaghay, “Airborne lidar detection and characterization of internal waves in a shallow fjord,” J. Appl. Remote Sens. 6(1), 063611 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Churnside and P. L. Donaghay, “Thin scattering layers observed by airborne lidar,” ICES J. Mar. Sci. 66(4), 778–789 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Sullivan, M. S. Twardowski, P. L. Donaghay, and S. A. Freeman, “Use of optical scattering to discriminate particle types in coastal waters,” Appl. Opt. 44(9), 1667–1680 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Twardowski, J. M. Sullivan, P. L. Donaghay, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, “Microscale quantification of the absorption by dissolved and particulate material in coastal waters with an AC-9,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 16(6), 691–707 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ferrare, R. A.

A. H. Omar, D. M. Winker, M. A. Vaughan, Y. Hu, C. R. Trepte, R. A. Ferrare, K.-P. Lee, C. A. Hostetler, C. Kittaka, R. R. Rogers, R. E. Kuehn, and Z. Liu, “The CALIPSO automated aerosol classification and lidar ratio selection algorithm,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 26(10), 1994–2014 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Freeman, S. A.

Fry, E. S.

Gan, C. M.

Gentili, B.

Gordon, H. R.

Gould, R.

M. A. Montes-Hugo, A. Weidemann, R. Gould, R. Arnone, J. H. Churnside, and E. Jaroz, “Ocean color patterns help to predict depth of optical layers in stratified coastal waters,” J. Appl. Remote Sens. 5(1), 053548 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Montes, J. Churnside, Z. Lee, R. Gould, R. Arnone, and A. Weidemann, “Relationships between water attenuation coefficients derived from active and passive remote sensing: a case study from two coastal environments,” Appl. Opt. 50(18), 2990–2999 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gross, B.

Hair, J. W.

M. J. Behrenfeld, Y. Hu, C. A. Hostetler, G. Dall’Olmo, S. D. Rodier, J. W. Hair, and C. R. Trepte, “Space‐based lidar measurements of global ocean carbon stocks,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 40(16), 4355–4360 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Hogan, R. J.

E. J. O’Connor, A. J. Illingworth, and R. J. Hogan, “A technique for autocalibration of cloud lidar,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 21(5), 777–786 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hostetler, C. A.

M. J. Behrenfeld, Y. Hu, C. A. Hostetler, G. Dall’Olmo, S. D. Rodier, J. W. Hair, and C. R. Trepte, “Space‐based lidar measurements of global ocean carbon stocks,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 40(16), 4355–4360 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. H. Omar, D. M. Winker, M. A. Vaughan, Y. Hu, C. R. Trepte, R. A. Ferrare, K.-P. Lee, C. A. Hostetler, C. Kittaka, R. R. Rogers, R. E. Kuehn, and Z. Liu, “The CALIPSO automated aerosol classification and lidar ratio selection algorithm,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 26(10), 1994–2014 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hu, Y.

M. J. Behrenfeld, Y. Hu, C. A. Hostetler, G. Dall’Olmo, S. D. Rodier, J. W. Hair, and C. R. Trepte, “Space‐based lidar measurements of global ocean carbon stocks,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 40(16), 4355–4360 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Vaughan, Z. Liu, M. J. McGill, Y. Hu, and M. D. Obland, “On the spectral dependence of backscatter from cirrus clouds: Assessing CALIOP's 1064 nm calibration assumptions using cloud physics lidar measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 115(D14), D14206 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. H. Omar, D. M. Winker, M. A. Vaughan, Y. Hu, C. R. Trepte, R. A. Ferrare, K.-P. Lee, C. A. Hostetler, C. Kittaka, R. R. Rogers, R. E. Kuehn, and Z. Liu, “The CALIPSO automated aerosol classification and lidar ratio selection algorithm,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 26(10), 1994–2014 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Hu, “Depolarization ratio-effective lidar ratio relation: Theoretical basis for space lidar cloud phase discrimination,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 34(11), L11812 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Illingworth, A. J.

E. J. O’Connor, A. J. Illingworth, and R. J. Hogan, “A technique for autocalibration of cloud lidar,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 21(5), 777–786 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jaroz, E.

M. A. Montes-Hugo, A. Weidemann, R. Gould, R. Arnone, J. H. Churnside, and E. Jaroz, “Ocean color patterns help to predict depth of optical layers in stratified coastal waters,” J. Appl. Remote Sens. 5(1), 053548 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jin, Z.

Kattawar, G. W.

Kholodkevich, E. D.

O. A. Bukin, A. Y. Major, A. N. Pavlov, B. M. Shevtsov, and E. D. Kholodkevich, “Measurement of the lightscattering layers structure and detection of the dynamic processes in the upper ocean layer by shipborne lidar,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 19(4), 707–715 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kittaka, C.

A. H. Omar, D. M. Winker, M. A. Vaughan, Y. Hu, C. R. Trepte, R. A. Ferrare, K.-P. Lee, C. A. Hostetler, C. Kittaka, R. R. Rogers, R. E. Kuehn, and Z. Liu, “The CALIPSO automated aerosol classification and lidar ratio selection algorithm,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 26(10), 1994–2014 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kuehn, R. E.

A. H. Omar, D. M. Winker, M. A. Vaughan, Y. Hu, C. R. Trepte, R. A. Ferrare, K.-P. Lee, C. A. Hostetler, C. Kittaka, R. R. Rogers, R. E. Kuehn, and Z. Liu, “The CALIPSO automated aerosol classification and lidar ratio selection algorithm,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 26(10), 1994–2014 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J. H.

J. H. Lee, J. H. Churnside, R. D. Marchbanks, P. L. Donaghay, and J. M. Sullivan, “Oceanographic lidar profiles compared with estimates from in situ optical measurements,” Appl. Opt. 52(4), 786–794 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. Churnside, R. D. Marchbanks, J. H. Lee, J. A. Shaw, A. Weidemann, and P. L. Donaghay, “Airborne lidar detection and characterization of internal waves in a shallow fjord,” J. Appl. Remote Sens. 6(1), 063611 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K.-P.

A. H. Omar, D. M. Winker, M. A. Vaughan, Y. Hu, C. R. Trepte, R. A. Ferrare, K.-P. Lee, C. A. Hostetler, C. Kittaka, R. R. Rogers, R. E. Kuehn, and Z. Liu, “The CALIPSO automated aerosol classification and lidar ratio selection algorithm,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 26(10), 1994–2014 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Z.

Lee, Z.-P.

Z.-P. Lee, M. Darecki, K. L. Carder, C. O. Davis, D. Stramski, and W. J. Rhea, “Diffuse attenuation coefficient of downwelling irradiance: An evaluation of remote sensing methods,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, C02017 (2005).

Liu, Z.

M. A. Vaughan, Z. Liu, M. J. McGill, Y. Hu, and M. D. Obland, “On the spectral dependence of backscatter from cirrus clouds: Assessing CALIOP's 1064 nm calibration assumptions using cloud physics lidar measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 115(D14), D14206 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. H. Omar, D. M. Winker, M. A. Vaughan, Y. Hu, C. R. Trepte, R. A. Ferrare, K.-P. Lee, C. A. Hostetler, C. Kittaka, R. R. Rogers, R. E. Kuehn, and Z. Liu, “The CALIPSO automated aerosol classification and lidar ratio selection algorithm,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 26(10), 1994–2014 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. Liu, N. Sugimoto, and T. Murayama, “Extinction-to-backscatter ratio of asian dust observed with high-spectral-resolution lidar and Raman lidar,” Appl. Opt. 41(15), 2760–2767 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Loisel, H.

H. Loisel and A. Morel, “Light scattering and chlorophyll concentration in case 1 waters: A reexamination,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 43(5), 847–858 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lu, X.

J. Churnside, B. McCarty, and X. Lu, “Subsurface signals from ocean an orbiting polarization lidar,” Remote Sens. 5(7), 3457–3475 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Major, A. Y.

O. A. Bukin, A. Y. Major, A. N. Pavlov, B. M. Shevtsov, and E. D. Kholodkevich, “Measurement of the lightscattering layers structure and detection of the dynamic processes in the upper ocean layer by shipborne lidar,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 19(4), 707–715 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Marchbanks, R. D.

J. H. Lee, J. H. Churnside, R. D. Marchbanks, P. L. Donaghay, and J. M. Sullivan, “Oceanographic lidar profiles compared with estimates from in situ optical measurements,” Appl. Opt. 52(4), 786–794 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. Churnside, R. D. Marchbanks, J. H. Lee, J. A. Shaw, A. Weidemann, and P. L. Donaghay, “Airborne lidar detection and characterization of internal waves in a shallow fjord,” J. Appl. Remote Sens. 6(1), 063611 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Maritorena, S.

A. Morel and S. Maritorena, “Bio-optical properties of oceanic waters: A reappraisal,” J. Geophys. Res.: Ocean. 106(C4), 7163–7180 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mattis, I.

I. Mattis, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, U. Wandinger, and D. Althausen, “Dual-wavelength Raman lidar observations of the extinction-to-backscatter ratio of Saharan dust,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 014721 (2002).

McCarty, B.

J. Churnside, B. McCarty, and X. Lu, “Subsurface signals from ocean an orbiting polarization lidar,” Remote Sens. 5(7), 3457–3475 (2013).
[CrossRef]

McGill, M. J.

M. A. Vaughan, Z. Liu, M. J. McGill, Y. Hu, and M. D. Obland, “On the spectral dependence of backscatter from cirrus clouds: Assessing CALIOP's 1064 nm calibration assumptions using cloud physics lidar measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 115(D14), D14206 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mobley, C. D.

Mona, L.

G. Pappalardo, A. Amodeo, L. Mona, M. Pandolfi, N. Pergola, and V. Cuomo, “Raman lidar observations of aerosol emitted during the 2002 Etna eruption,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 31(5), L05120 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Montes, M. A.

Montes-Hugo, M. A.

M. A. Montes-Hugo, A. Weidemann, R. Gould, R. Arnone, J. H. Churnside, and E. Jaroz, “Ocean color patterns help to predict depth of optical layers in stratified coastal waters,” J. Appl. Remote Sens. 5(1), 053548 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Morel, A.

A. Morel, D. Antoine, and B. Gentili, “Bidirectional reflectance of oceanic waters: accounting for Raman emission and varying particle scattering phase function,” Appl. Opt. 41(30), 6289–6306 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Morel and S. Maritorena, “Bio-optical properties of oceanic waters: A reappraisal,” J. Geophys. Res.: Ocean. 106(C4), 7163–7180 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. Loisel and A. Morel, “Light scattering and chlorophyll concentration in case 1 waters: A reexamination,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 43(5), 847–858 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Bricaud, M. Babin, A. Morel, and H. Claustre, “Variability in the chlorophyll-specific absorption coefficients of natural phytoplankton: Analysis and parametrization,” J. Geophys. Res. 100(C7), 13321–13332 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Mobley, B. Gentili, H. R. Gordon, Z. Jin, G. W. Kattawar, A. Morel, P. Reinersman, K. Stamnes, and R. H. Stavn, “Comparison of numerical models for computing underwater light fields,” Appl. Opt. 32(36), 7484–7504 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Morel, “Light and marine photosynthesis: a spectral model with geochemical and climatological implications,” Prog. Oceanogr. 26(3), 263–306 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Moshary, F.

Müller, D.

I. Mattis, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, U. Wandinger, and D. Althausen, “Dual-wavelength Raman lidar observations of the extinction-to-backscatter ratio of Saharan dust,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 014721 (2002).

Murayama, T.

Nee, J.-B.

O’Connor, E. J.

E. J. O’Connor, A. J. Illingworth, and R. J. Hogan, “A technique for autocalibration of cloud lidar,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 21(5), 777–786 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Obland, M. D.

M. A. Vaughan, Z. Liu, M. J. McGill, Y. Hu, and M. D. Obland, “On the spectral dependence of backscatter from cirrus clouds: Assessing CALIOP's 1064 nm calibration assumptions using cloud physics lidar measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 115(D14), D14206 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Omar, A. H.

A. H. Omar, D. M. Winker, M. A. Vaughan, Y. Hu, C. R. Trepte, R. A. Ferrare, K.-P. Lee, C. A. Hostetler, C. Kittaka, R. R. Rogers, R. E. Kuehn, and Z. Liu, “The CALIPSO automated aerosol classification and lidar ratio selection algorithm,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 26(10), 1994–2014 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ostrovsky, L. A.

J. H. Churnside and L. A. Ostrovsky, “Lidar observation of a strongly nonlinear internal wave train in the Gulf of Alaska,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 26(1), 167–177 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pandolfi, M.

G. Pappalardo, A. Amodeo, L. Mona, M. Pandolfi, N. Pergola, and V. Cuomo, “Raman lidar observations of aerosol emitted during the 2002 Etna eruption,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 31(5), L05120 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pappalardo, G.

G. Pappalardo, A. Amodeo, L. Mona, M. Pandolfi, N. Pergola, and V. Cuomo, “Raman lidar observations of aerosol emitted during the 2002 Etna eruption,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 31(5), L05120 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pavlov, A. N.

O. A. Bukin, A. Y. Major, A. N. Pavlov, B. M. Shevtsov, and E. D. Kholodkevich, “Measurement of the lightscattering layers structure and detection of the dynamic processes in the upper ocean layer by shipborne lidar,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 19(4), 707–715 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Pergola, N.

G. Pappalardo, A. Amodeo, L. Mona, M. Pandolfi, N. Pergola, and V. Cuomo, “Raman lidar observations of aerosol emitted during the 2002 Etna eruption,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 31(5), L05120 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pope, R. M.

Prieur, L.

L. Prieur and S. Sathyendranath, “An optical classification of coastal and oceanic waters based on the specific spectral absorption curves of phytoplankton pigments, dissolved organic matter, and other particulate materials,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 26(4), 671–689 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Reinersman, P.

Rhea, W. J.

Z.-P. Lee, M. Darecki, K. L. Carder, C. O. Davis, D. Stramski, and W. J. Rhea, “Diffuse attenuation coefficient of downwelling irradiance: An evaluation of remote sensing methods,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, C02017 (2005).

Richter, R. A.

J. H. Churnside, A. F. Sharov, and R. A. Richter, “Aerial surveys of fish in estuaries: a case study in Chesapeake Bay,” ICES J. Mar. Sci. 68(1), 239–244 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Rodier, S. D.

M. J. Behrenfeld, Y. Hu, C. A. Hostetler, G. Dall’Olmo, S. D. Rodier, J. W. Hair, and C. R. Trepte, “Space‐based lidar measurements of global ocean carbon stocks,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 40(16), 4355–4360 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Rogers, R. R.

A. H. Omar, D. M. Winker, M. A. Vaughan, Y. Hu, C. R. Trepte, R. A. Ferrare, K.-P. Lee, C. A. Hostetler, C. Kittaka, R. R. Rogers, R. E. Kuehn, and Z. Liu, “The CALIPSO automated aerosol classification and lidar ratio selection algorithm,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 26(10), 1994–2014 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sathyendranath, S.

L. Prieur and S. Sathyendranath, “An optical classification of coastal and oceanic waters based on the specific spectral absorption curves of phytoplankton pigments, dissolved organic matter, and other particulate materials,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 26(4), 671–689 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Sharov, A. F.

J. H. Churnside, A. F. Sharov, and R. A. Richter, “Aerial surveys of fish in estuaries: a case study in Chesapeake Bay,” ICES J. Mar. Sci. 68(1), 239–244 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Shaw, J. A.

J. H. Churnside, R. D. Marchbanks, J. H. Lee, J. A. Shaw, A. Weidemann, and P. L. Donaghay, “Airborne lidar detection and characterization of internal waves in a shallow fjord,” J. Appl. Remote Sens. 6(1), 063611 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Shevtsov, B. M.

O. A. Bukin, A. Y. Major, A. N. Pavlov, B. M. Shevtsov, and E. D. Kholodkevich, “Measurement of the lightscattering layers structure and detection of the dynamic processes in the upper ocean layer by shipborne lidar,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 19(4), 707–715 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Stamnes, K.

Stavn, R. H.

Stramski, D.

Z.-P. Lee, M. Darecki, K. L. Carder, C. O. Davis, D. Stramski, and W. J. Rhea, “Diffuse attenuation coefficient of downwelling irradiance: An evaluation of remote sensing methods,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, C02017 (2005).

Sugimoto, N.

Sullivan, J. M.

Tatarskii, V. V.

Trepte, C. R.

M. J. Behrenfeld, Y. Hu, C. A. Hostetler, G. Dall’Olmo, S. D. Rodier, J. W. Hair, and C. R. Trepte, “Space‐based lidar measurements of global ocean carbon stocks,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 40(16), 4355–4360 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. H. Omar, D. M. Winker, M. A. Vaughan, Y. Hu, C. R. Trepte, R. A. Ferrare, K.-P. Lee, C. A. Hostetler, C. Kittaka, R. R. Rogers, R. E. Kuehn, and Z. Liu, “The CALIPSO automated aerosol classification and lidar ratio selection algorithm,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 26(10), 1994–2014 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Twardowski, M. S.

Vaughan, M. A.

M. A. Vaughan, Z. Liu, M. J. McGill, Y. Hu, and M. D. Obland, “On the spectral dependence of backscatter from cirrus clouds: Assessing CALIOP's 1064 nm calibration assumptions using cloud physics lidar measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 115(D14), D14206 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. H. Omar, D. M. Winker, M. A. Vaughan, Y. Hu, C. R. Trepte, R. A. Ferrare, K.-P. Lee, C. A. Hostetler, C. Kittaka, R. R. Rogers, R. E. Kuehn, and Z. Liu, “The CALIPSO automated aerosol classification and lidar ratio selection algorithm,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 26(10), 1994–2014 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wandinger, U.

I. Mattis, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, U. Wandinger, and D. Althausen, “Dual-wavelength Raman lidar observations of the extinction-to-backscatter ratio of Saharan dust,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 014721 (2002).

Weidemann, A.

J. H. Churnside, R. D. Marchbanks, J. H. Lee, J. A. Shaw, A. Weidemann, and P. L. Donaghay, “Airborne lidar detection and characterization of internal waves in a shallow fjord,” J. Appl. Remote Sens. 6(1), 063611 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Montes-Hugo, A. Weidemann, R. Gould, R. Arnone, J. H. Churnside, and E. Jaroz, “Ocean color patterns help to predict depth of optical layers in stratified coastal waters,” J. Appl. Remote Sens. 5(1), 053548 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Montes, J. Churnside, Z. Lee, R. Gould, R. Arnone, and A. Weidemann, “Relationships between water attenuation coefficients derived from active and passive remote sensing: a case study from two coastal environments,” Appl. Opt. 50(18), 2990–2999 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wilson, J. J.

Winker, D. M.

A. H. Omar, D. M. Winker, M. A. Vaughan, Y. Hu, C. R. Trepte, R. A. Ferrare, K.-P. Lee, C. A. Hostetler, C. Kittaka, R. R. Rogers, R. E. Kuehn, and Z. Liu, “The CALIPSO automated aerosol classification and lidar ratio selection algorithm,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 26(10), 1994–2014 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Y.

Zaneveld, J. R. V.

M. S. Twardowski, J. M. Sullivan, P. L. Donaghay, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, “Microscale quantification of the absorption by dissolved and particulate material in coastal waters with an AC-9,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 16(6), 691–707 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (12)

J. H. Churnside, V. V. Tatarskii, and J. J. Wilson, “Oceanographic lidar attenuation coefficients and signal fluctuations measured from a ship in the Southern California Bight,” Appl. Opt. 37(15), 3105–3112 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W.-N. Chen, C.-W. Chiang, and J.-B. Nee, “Lidar ratio and depolarization ratio for cirrus clouds,” Appl. Opt. 41(30), 6470–6476 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Liu, N. Sugimoto, and T. Murayama, “Extinction-to-backscatter ratio of asian dust observed with high-spectral-resolution lidar and Raman lidar,” Appl. Opt. 41(15), 2760–2767 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, “Interpretation of airborne oceanic lidar: effects of multiple scattering,” Appl. Opt. 21(16), 2996–3001 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Pope and E. S. Fry, “Absorption spectrum (380-700 nm) of pure water. II. Integrating cavity measurements,” Appl. Opt. 36(33), 8710–8723 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. D. Mobley, B. Gentili, H. R. Gordon, Z. Jin, G. W. Kattawar, A. Morel, P. Reinersman, K. Stamnes, and R. H. Stavn, “Comparison of numerical models for computing underwater light fields,” Appl. Opt. 32(36), 7484–7504 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Morel, D. Antoine, and B. Gentili, “Bidirectional reflectance of oceanic waters: accounting for Raman emission and varying particle scattering phase function,” Appl. Opt. 41(30), 6289–6306 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Sullivan and M. S. Twardowski, “Angular shape of the oceanic particulate volume scattering function in the backward direction,” Appl. Opt. 48(35), 6811–6819 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Sullivan, M. S. Twardowski, P. L. Donaghay, and S. A. Freeman, “Use of optical scattering to discriminate particle types in coastal waters,” Appl. Opt. 44(9), 1667–1680 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. Lee, J. H. Churnside, R. D. Marchbanks, P. L. Donaghay, and J. M. Sullivan, “Oceanographic lidar profiles compared with estimates from in situ optical measurements,” Appl. Opt. 52(4), 786–794 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Montes, J. Churnside, Z. Lee, R. Gould, R. Arnone, and A. Weidemann, “Relationships between water attenuation coefficients derived from active and passive remote sensing: a case study from two coastal environments,” Appl. Opt. 50(18), 2990–2999 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Wu, C. M. Gan, L. Cordero, B. Gross, F. Moshary, and S. Ahmed, “Calibration of the 1064 nm lidar channel using water phase and cirrus clouds,” Appl. Opt. 50(21), 3987–3999 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Geophys. Res. Lett. (4)

G. Pappalardo, A. Amodeo, L. Mona, M. Pandolfi, N. Pergola, and V. Cuomo, “Raman lidar observations of aerosol emitted during the 2002 Etna eruption,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 31(5), L05120 (2004).
[CrossRef]

I. Mattis, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, U. Wandinger, and D. Althausen, “Dual-wavelength Raman lidar observations of the extinction-to-backscatter ratio of Saharan dust,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 014721 (2002).

M. J. Behrenfeld, Y. Hu, C. A. Hostetler, G. Dall’Olmo, S. D. Rodier, J. W. Hair, and C. R. Trepte, “Space‐based lidar measurements of global ocean carbon stocks,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 40(16), 4355–4360 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. Hu, “Depolarization ratio-effective lidar ratio relation: Theoretical basis for space lidar cloud phase discrimination,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 34(11), L11812 (2007).
[CrossRef]

ICES J. Mar. Sci. (2)

J. H. Churnside, A. F. Sharov, and R. A. Richter, “Aerial surveys of fish in estuaries: a case study in Chesapeake Bay,” ICES J. Mar. Sci. 68(1), 239–244 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Churnside and P. L. Donaghay, “Thin scattering layers observed by airborne lidar,” ICES J. Mar. Sci. 66(4), 778–789 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Remote Sens. (2)

J. H. Churnside and L. A. Ostrovsky, “Lidar observation of a strongly nonlinear internal wave train in the Gulf of Alaska,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 26(1), 167–177 (2005).
[CrossRef]

O. A. Bukin, A. Y. Major, A. N. Pavlov, B. M. Shevtsov, and E. D. Kholodkevich, “Measurement of the lightscattering layers structure and detection of the dynamic processes in the upper ocean layer by shipborne lidar,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 19(4), 707–715 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Remote Sens. (2)

M. A. Montes-Hugo, A. Weidemann, R. Gould, R. Arnone, J. H. Churnside, and E. Jaroz, “Ocean color patterns help to predict depth of optical layers in stratified coastal waters,” J. Appl. Remote Sens. 5(1), 053548 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Churnside, R. D. Marchbanks, J. H. Lee, J. A. Shaw, A. Weidemann, and P. L. Donaghay, “Airborne lidar detection and characterization of internal waves in a shallow fjord,” J. Appl. Remote Sens. 6(1), 063611 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. (4)

A. H. Omar, D. M. Winker, M. A. Vaughan, Y. Hu, C. R. Trepte, R. A. Ferrare, K.-P. Lee, C. A. Hostetler, C. Kittaka, R. R. Rogers, R. E. Kuehn, and Z. Liu, “The CALIPSO automated aerosol classification and lidar ratio selection algorithm,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 26(10), 1994–2014 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Twardowski, J. M. Sullivan, P. L. Donaghay, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, “Microscale quantification of the absorption by dissolved and particulate material in coastal waters with an AC-9,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 16(6), 691–707 (1999).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. (1)

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[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res.: Ocean. (1)

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[CrossRef]

Limnol. Oceanogr. (2)

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Opt. Express (1)

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J. Sullivan, M. Twardowski, J. Ronald, V. Zaneveld, and C. Moore, “Measuring optical backscattering in water,” in Light Scattering Reviews 7 (Springer, 2013), pp. 189–224.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Plot of lidar ratio, SKd (black, left vertical axis), for the limiting case of α = Kd, and Sc (red, right axis) for the limiting case of α = c. Solid lines represent the conventional definition and dashed lines the modified definition.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Plot of lidar ratios, SKd (left panel) and Sc (right panel), calculated from in situ measurements. Black lines and symbols represent the theory and measurements using the conventional definition, and red lines and symbols using the modified definition.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Plot of lidar ratio, SKd, estimated from lidar measurements. Black lines and symbols represent the theory and measurements using the conventional definition and red lines and symbols using the modified definition.

Equations (16)

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S= α β( π ) = α b β ˜ ( π ) ,
K d = K dw +0.0474 C 0.67 ,
c=a+b,
a=1.055( 0.052+0.028 C 0.65 ),
b= b w +0.30 C 0.62 .
b= b w +0.416 C 0.766 .
β ˜ p =2.2× 10 3 f+2.2× 10 4 ( 1f ),
f=0.855[ 0.50.25 log 10 ( C ) ].
β ˜ p =0.151 b bp b p ,
b bp b p =0.002+0.01[ 0.50.25 log 10 ( C ) ].
S Kd = 0.0452+0.0474 C 0.67 1.94× 10 4 +6.28× 10 5 [ 72.5 log 10 ( C ) ] C 0.766
S ' Kd = 755 C 0.1 72.5 log 10 ( C )
S c = 0.0566+0.0295 C 0.65 +0.416 C 0.766 1.94× 10 4 +6.28× 10 5 [ 72.5 log 10 ( C ) ] C 0.766
S ' c = 6624+470 C 0.12 72.5 log 10 ( C ) .
β 0 = γ 0 ; α 0 =0 β 1 = γ 1 exp( 2ΔzS β 0 ); α 1 =S β 1 , β n = γ n exp( 2Δz m=0 n1 α m ); α n =S β n
A= α IS exp( 2αz ) A=( α α w IS' + β w I )exp( 2αz )

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