Abstract

We examine the near-IR light-matter interaction for graphene integrated cavity ring resonators based on silicon-on-insulator (SOI) race-track waveguides. Fitting of the cavity resonances from quasi-TE mode transmission spectra reveal the real part of the effective refractive index for graphene, neff = 2.23 ± 0.02 and linear absorption coefficient, αgTE = 0.11 ± 0.01dBμm−1. The evanescent nature of the guided mode coupling to graphene at resonance depends strongly on the height of the graphene above the cavity, which places limits on the cavity length for optical sensing applications.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  1. K. S. Novoselov, V. I. Fal’ko, L. Colombo, P. R. Gellert, M. G. Schwab, and K. Kim, “A roadmap for graphene,” Nature 490(7419), 192–200 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J.-M. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. P. P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50-Gb/s Silicon Optical Modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. W. Bogaerts, P. De Heyn, T. Van Vaerenbergh, K. De Vos, S. K. Selvaraja, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon microring resonators,” Laser and Photonics Reviews 6(1), 47–73 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [PubMed]
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  12. X. Li, W. Cai, J. An, S. Kim, J. Nah, D. Yang, R. Piner, A. Velamakanni, I. Jung, E. Tutuc, S. K. Banerjee, L. Colombo, and R. S. Ruoff, “Large-area synthesis of high-quality and uniform graphene films on copper foils,” Science 324(5932), 1312–1314 (2009).
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  14. K. Kim, S. Coh, L. Z. Tan, W. Regan, J. M. Yuk, E. Chatterjee, M. F. Crommie, M. L. Cohen, S. G. Louie, and A. Zettl, “Raman spectroscopy study of rotated double-layer graphene: misorientation-angle dependence of electronic structure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(24), 246103 (2012).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. P. Blake, E. W. Hill, A. H. Castro Neto, K. S. Novoselov, D. Jiang, R. Yang, T. J. Booth, and A. K. Geim, “Making graphene visible,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(6), 063124 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  21. Z. Lu and W. Zhao, “Nanoscale electro-optic modulation based on graphene-slot waveguides,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 29(6), 1490–1496 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  22. R. Kou, S. Tanabe, T. Tsuchizawa, K. Warabi, S. Suzuki, H. Hibino, H. Nakajima, and K. Yamada, “Characterization of optical absorption and polarization dependence of single-layer graphene integrated on a silicon wire waveguide,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 52(6R), 060203 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  23. H. Li, Y. Anugrah, S. J. Koester, and M. Li, “Optical absorption in graphene integrated on silicon waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(11), 111110 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  24. R. Kou, S. Tanabe, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Yamamoto, H. Hibino, H. Nakajima, and K. Yamada, “Influence of graphene on quality factor variation in a silicon ring resonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(9), 091122 (2014).
    [CrossRef]
  25. Q. Bao, H. Zhang, B. Wang, Z. Ni, C. H. Y. X. Lim, Y. Wang, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Broadband graphene polarizer,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 411–415 (2011).
    [CrossRef]

2014 (2)

C. Ciminelli, F. Dell’Olio, D. Conteduca, C. M. Campanella, and M. N. Armenise, “High performance SOI microring resonator for biochemical sensing,” Opt. Laser Technol. 59, 60–67 (2014).
[CrossRef]

R. Kou, S. Tanabe, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Yamamoto, H. Hibino, H. Nakajima, and K. Yamada, “Influence of graphene on quality factor variation in a silicon ring resonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(9), 091122 (2014).
[CrossRef]

2013 (2)

R. Kou, S. Tanabe, T. Tsuchizawa, K. Warabi, S. Suzuki, H. Hibino, H. Nakajima, and K. Yamada, “Characterization of optical absorption and polarization dependence of single-layer graphene integrated on a silicon wire waveguide,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 52(6R), 060203 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. K. Park, J. S. Kee, J. Y. Quah, V. Netto, J. Song, Q. Fang, E. M. La Fosse, and G.-Q. Lo, “Label-free aptamer sensor based on silicon microring resonators,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 176, 552–559 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (7)

K. Kim, S. Coh, L. Z. Tan, W. Regan, J. M. Yuk, E. Chatterjee, M. F. Crommie, M. L. Cohen, S. G. Louie, and A. Zettl, “Raman spectroscopy study of rotated double-layer graphene: misorientation-angle dependence of electronic structure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(24), 246103 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Prechtel, L. Song, D. Schuh, P. Ajayan, W. Wegscheider, and A. W. Holleitner, “Time-resolved ultrafast photocurrents and terahertz generation in freely suspended graphene,” Nat Commun 3, 646 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. S. Novoselov, V. I. Fal’ko, L. Colombo, P. R. Gellert, M. G. Schwab, and K. Kim, “A roadmap for graphene,” Nature 490(7419), 192–200 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J.-M. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. P. P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50-Gb/s Silicon Optical Modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Li, Y. Anugrah, S. J. Koester, and M. Li, “Optical absorption in graphene integrated on silicon waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(11), 111110 (2012).
[CrossRef]

W. Bogaerts, P. De Heyn, T. Van Vaerenbergh, K. De Vos, S. K. Selvaraja, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon microring resonators,” Laser and Photonics Reviews 6(1), 47–73 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Z. Lu and W. Zhao, “Nanoscale electro-optic modulation based on graphene-slot waveguides,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 29(6), 1490–1496 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (5)

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, B. Wang, Z. Ni, C. H. Y. X. Lim, Y. Wang, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Broadband graphene polarizer,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 411–415 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Li, X. Zheng, J. Yao, H. Thacker, I. Shubin, Y. Luo, K. Raj, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “25Gb/s 1V-driving CMOS ring modulator with integrated thermal tuning,” Opt. Express 19(21), 20435–20443 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Kim, J. Y. Choi, T. Kim, S. H. Cho, and H. J. Chung, “A role for graphene in silicon-based semiconductor devices,” Nature 479(7373), 338–344 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. E. Moses and A. D. Moorhouse, “The growing applications of click chemistry,” Opt. Express 19(21), 20435–20443 (2011).
[PubMed]

2010 (2)

H.-Y. Chen, M. Hirtz, X. Deng, T. Laue, H. Fuchs, and J. Lahann, “Substrate-independent dip-pen nanolithography based on reactive coatings,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132(51), 18023–18025 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Iqbal, M. A. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. G. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, R. C. Bailey, and L. C. Gunn, “Label-free biosensor arrays based on silicon ring resonators and high-speed optical scanning instrumentation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(3), 654–661 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

X. Li, W. Cai, J. An, S. Kim, J. Nah, D. Yang, R. Piner, A. Velamakanni, I. Jung, E. Tutuc, S. K. Banerjee, L. Colombo, and R. S. Ruoff, “Large-area synthesis of high-quality and uniform graphene films on copper foils,” Science 324(5932), 1312–1314 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Wang, Y. Wang, X. Cao, M. Feng, and G. Lan, “Vibrational properties of graphene and graphene layers,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 40(12), 1791–1796 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

I. Jung, M. Pelton, R. Piner, D. A. Dikin, S. Stankovich, S. Watcharotone, M. Hausner, and R. S. Ruoff, “Simple approach for high-contrast optical imaging and characterization of graphene-based sheets,” Nano Lett. 7(12), 3569–3575 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. H. Ni, H. M. Wang, J. Kasim, H. M. Fan, T. Yu, Y. H. Wu, Y. P. Feng, and Z. X. Shen, “Graphene thickness determination using reflection and contrast spectroscopy,” Nano Lett. 7(9), 2758–2763 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Blake, E. W. Hill, A. H. Castro Neto, K. S. Novoselov, D. Jiang, R. Yang, T. J. Booth, and A. K. Geim, “Making graphene visible,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(6), 063124 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

V. M. Menon, W. Tong, and S. R. Forrest, “Control of quality factor and critical coupling in microring resonators through integration of a semiconductor optical amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(5), 1343–1345 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Niehusmann, A. Vörckel, P. H. Bolivar, T. Wahlbrink, W. Henschel, and H. Kurz, “Ultrahigh-quality-factor silicon-on-insulator microring resonator,” Opt. Lett. 29(24), 2861–2863 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ajayan, P.

L. Prechtel, L. Song, D. Schuh, P. Ajayan, W. Wegscheider, and A. W. Holleitner, “Time-resolved ultrafast photocurrents and terahertz generation in freely suspended graphene,” Nat Commun 3, 646 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alic, N.

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J.-M. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. P. P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50-Gb/s Silicon Optical Modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).
[CrossRef]

An, J.

X. Li, W. Cai, J. An, S. Kim, J. Nah, D. Yang, R. Piner, A. Velamakanni, I. Jung, E. Tutuc, S. K. Banerjee, L. Colombo, and R. S. Ruoff, “Large-area synthesis of high-quality and uniform graphene films on copper foils,” Science 324(5932), 1312–1314 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anugrah, Y.

H. Li, Y. Anugrah, S. J. Koester, and M. Li, “Optical absorption in graphene integrated on silicon waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(11), 111110 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Armenise, M. N.

C. Ciminelli, F. Dell’Olio, D. Conteduca, C. M. Campanella, and M. N. Armenise, “High performance SOI microring resonator for biochemical sensing,” Opt. Laser Technol. 59, 60–67 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Baehr-Jones, T.

M. Iqbal, M. A. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. G. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, R. C. Bailey, and L. C. Gunn, “Label-free biosensor arrays based on silicon ring resonators and high-speed optical scanning instrumentation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(3), 654–661 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Baets, R.

W. Bogaerts, P. De Heyn, T. Van Vaerenbergh, K. De Vos, S. K. Selvaraja, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon microring resonators,” Laser and Photonics Reviews 6(1), 47–73 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Bailey, R. C.

M. Iqbal, M. A. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. G. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, R. C. Bailey, and L. C. Gunn, “Label-free biosensor arrays based on silicon ring resonators and high-speed optical scanning instrumentation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(3), 654–661 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Banerjee, S. K.

X. Li, W. Cai, J. An, S. Kim, J. Nah, D. Yang, R. Piner, A. Velamakanni, I. Jung, E. Tutuc, S. K. Banerjee, L. Colombo, and R. S. Ruoff, “Large-area synthesis of high-quality and uniform graphene films on copper foils,” Science 324(5932), 1312–1314 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bao, Q.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, B. Wang, Z. Ni, C. H. Y. X. Lim, Y. Wang, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Broadband graphene polarizer,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 411–415 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bienstman, P.

W. Bogaerts, P. De Heyn, T. Van Vaerenbergh, K. De Vos, S. K. Selvaraja, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon microring resonators,” Laser and Photonics Reviews 6(1), 47–73 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Blake, P.

P. Blake, E. W. Hill, A. H. Castro Neto, K. S. Novoselov, D. Jiang, R. Yang, T. J. Booth, and A. K. Geim, “Making graphene visible,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(6), 063124 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bogaerts, W.

W. Bogaerts, P. De Heyn, T. Van Vaerenbergh, K. De Vos, S. K. Selvaraja, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon microring resonators,” Laser and Photonics Reviews 6(1), 47–73 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Bolivar, P. H.

Booth, T. J.

P. Blake, E. W. Hill, A. H. Castro Neto, K. S. Novoselov, D. Jiang, R. Yang, T. J. Booth, and A. K. Geim, “Making graphene visible,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(6), 063124 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cai, W.

X. Li, W. Cai, J. An, S. Kim, J. Nah, D. Yang, R. Piner, A. Velamakanni, I. Jung, E. Tutuc, S. K. Banerjee, L. Colombo, and R. S. Ruoff, “Large-area synthesis of high-quality and uniform graphene films on copper foils,” Science 324(5932), 1312–1314 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Campanella, C. M.

C. Ciminelli, F. Dell’Olio, D. Conteduca, C. M. Campanella, and M. N. Armenise, “High performance SOI microring resonator for biochemical sensing,” Opt. Laser Technol. 59, 60–67 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Cao, X.

H. Wang, Y. Wang, X. Cao, M. Feng, and G. Lan, “Vibrational properties of graphene and graphene layers,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 40(12), 1791–1796 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Castro Neto, A. H.

P. Blake, E. W. Hill, A. H. Castro Neto, K. S. Novoselov, D. Jiang, R. Yang, T. J. Booth, and A. K. Geim, “Making graphene visible,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(6), 063124 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chatterjee, E.

K. Kim, S. Coh, L. Z. Tan, W. Regan, J. M. Yuk, E. Chatterjee, M. F. Crommie, M. L. Cohen, S. G. Louie, and A. Zettl, “Raman spectroscopy study of rotated double-layer graphene: misorientation-angle dependence of electronic structure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(24), 246103 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, H.-Y.

H.-Y. Chen, M. Hirtz, X. Deng, T. Laue, H. Fuchs, and J. Lahann, “Substrate-independent dip-pen nanolithography based on reactive coatings,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132(51), 18023–18025 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cho, S. H.

K. Kim, J. Y. Choi, T. Kim, S. H. Cho, and H. J. Chung, “A role for graphene in silicon-based semiconductor devices,” Nature 479(7373), 338–344 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choi, J. Y.

K. Kim, J. Y. Choi, T. Kim, S. H. Cho, and H. J. Chung, “A role for graphene in silicon-based semiconductor devices,” Nature 479(7373), 338–344 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chung, H. J.

K. Kim, J. Y. Choi, T. Kim, S. H. Cho, and H. J. Chung, “A role for graphene in silicon-based semiconductor devices,” Nature 479(7373), 338–344 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ciminelli, C.

C. Ciminelli, F. Dell’Olio, D. Conteduca, C. M. Campanella, and M. N. Armenise, “High performance SOI microring resonator for biochemical sensing,” Opt. Laser Technol. 59, 60–67 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Claes, T.

W. Bogaerts, P. De Heyn, T. Van Vaerenbergh, K. De Vos, S. K. Selvaraja, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon microring resonators,” Laser and Photonics Reviews 6(1), 47–73 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Coh, S.

K. Kim, S. Coh, L. Z. Tan, W. Regan, J. M. Yuk, E. Chatterjee, M. F. Crommie, M. L. Cohen, S. G. Louie, and A. Zettl, “Raman spectroscopy study of rotated double-layer graphene: misorientation-angle dependence of electronic structure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(24), 246103 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cohen, M. L.

K. Kim, S. Coh, L. Z. Tan, W. Regan, J. M. Yuk, E. Chatterjee, M. F. Crommie, M. L. Cohen, S. G. Louie, and A. Zettl, “Raman spectroscopy study of rotated double-layer graphene: misorientation-angle dependence of electronic structure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(24), 246103 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Colombo, L.

K. S. Novoselov, V. I. Fal’ko, L. Colombo, P. R. Gellert, M. G. Schwab, and K. Kim, “A roadmap for graphene,” Nature 490(7419), 192–200 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Li, W. Cai, J. An, S. Kim, J. Nah, D. Yang, R. Piner, A. Velamakanni, I. Jung, E. Tutuc, S. K. Banerjee, L. Colombo, and R. S. Ruoff, “Large-area synthesis of high-quality and uniform graphene films on copper foils,” Science 324(5932), 1312–1314 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Conteduca, D.

C. Ciminelli, F. Dell’Olio, D. Conteduca, C. M. Campanella, and M. N. Armenise, “High performance SOI microring resonator for biochemical sensing,” Opt. Laser Technol. 59, 60–67 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Crommie, M. F.

K. Kim, S. Coh, L. Z. Tan, W. Regan, J. M. Yuk, E. Chatterjee, M. F. Crommie, M. L. Cohen, S. G. Louie, and A. Zettl, “Raman spectroscopy study of rotated double-layer graphene: misorientation-angle dependence of electronic structure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(24), 246103 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cunningham, J. E.

De Heyn, P.

W. Bogaerts, P. De Heyn, T. Van Vaerenbergh, K. De Vos, S. K. Selvaraja, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon microring resonators,” Laser and Photonics Reviews 6(1), 47–73 (2012).
[CrossRef]

De Vos, K.

W. Bogaerts, P. De Heyn, T. Van Vaerenbergh, K. De Vos, S. K. Selvaraja, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon microring resonators,” Laser and Photonics Reviews 6(1), 47–73 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Dell’Olio, F.

C. Ciminelli, F. Dell’Olio, D. Conteduca, C. M. Campanella, and M. N. Armenise, “High performance SOI microring resonator for biochemical sensing,” Opt. Laser Technol. 59, 60–67 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Deng, X.

H.-Y. Chen, M. Hirtz, X. Deng, T. Laue, H. Fuchs, and J. Lahann, “Substrate-independent dip-pen nanolithography based on reactive coatings,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132(51), 18023–18025 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dikin, D. A.

I. Jung, M. Pelton, R. Piner, D. A. Dikin, S. Stankovich, S. Watcharotone, M. Hausner, and R. S. Ruoff, “Simple approach for high-contrast optical imaging and characterization of graphene-based sheets,” Nano Lett. 7(12), 3569–3575 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dumon, P.

W. Bogaerts, P. De Heyn, T. Van Vaerenbergh, K. De Vos, S. K. Selvaraja, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon microring resonators,” Laser and Photonics Reviews 6(1), 47–73 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Fal’ko, V. I.

K. S. Novoselov, V. I. Fal’ko, L. Colombo, P. R. Gellert, M. G. Schwab, and K. Kim, “A roadmap for graphene,” Nature 490(7419), 192–200 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fan, H. M.

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D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J.-M. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. P. P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50-Gb/s Silicon Optical Modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).
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M. Iqbal, M. A. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. G. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, R. C. Bailey, and L. C. Gunn, “Label-free biosensor arrays based on silicon ring resonators and high-speed optical scanning instrumentation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(3), 654–661 (2010).
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X. Li, W. Cai, J. An, S. Kim, J. Nah, D. Yang, R. Piner, A. Velamakanni, I. Jung, E. Tutuc, S. K. Banerjee, L. Colombo, and R. S. Ruoff, “Large-area synthesis of high-quality and uniform graphene films on copper foils,” Science 324(5932), 1312–1314 (2009).
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I. Jung, M. Pelton, R. Piner, D. A. Dikin, S. Stankovich, S. Watcharotone, M. Hausner, and R. S. Ruoff, “Simple approach for high-contrast optical imaging and characterization of graphene-based sheets,” Nano Lett. 7(12), 3569–3575 (2007).
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Z. H. Ni, H. M. Wang, J. Kasim, H. M. Fan, T. Yu, Y. H. Wu, Y. P. Feng, and Z. X. Shen, “Graphene thickness determination using reflection and contrast spectroscopy,” Nano Lett. 7(9), 2758–2763 (2007).
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M. K. Park, J. S. Kee, J. Y. Quah, V. Netto, J. Song, Q. Fang, E. M. La Fosse, and G.-Q. Lo, “Label-free aptamer sensor based on silicon microring resonators,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 176, 552–559 (2013).
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K. S. Novoselov, V. I. Fal’ko, L. Colombo, P. R. Gellert, M. G. Schwab, and K. Kim, “A roadmap for graphene,” Nature 490(7419), 192–200 (2012).
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K. Kim, S. Coh, L. Z. Tan, W. Regan, J. M. Yuk, E. Chatterjee, M. F. Crommie, M. L. Cohen, S. G. Louie, and A. Zettl, “Raman spectroscopy study of rotated double-layer graphene: misorientation-angle dependence of electronic structure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(24), 246103 (2012).
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R. Kou, S. Tanabe, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Yamamoto, H. Hibino, H. Nakajima, and K. Yamada, “Influence of graphene on quality factor variation in a silicon ring resonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(9), 091122 (2014).
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R. Kou, S. Tanabe, T. Tsuchizawa, K. Warabi, S. Suzuki, H. Hibino, H. Nakajima, and K. Yamada, “Characterization of optical absorption and polarization dependence of single-layer graphene integrated on a silicon wire waveguide,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 52(6R), 060203 (2013).
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D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J.-M. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. P. P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50-Gb/s Silicon Optical Modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).
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M. K. Park, J. S. Kee, J. Y. Quah, V. Netto, J. Song, Q. Fang, E. M. La Fosse, and G.-Q. Lo, “Label-free aptamer sensor based on silicon microring resonators,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 176, 552–559 (2013).
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H.-Y. Chen, M. Hirtz, X. Deng, T. Laue, H. Fuchs, and J. Lahann, “Substrate-independent dip-pen nanolithography based on reactive coatings,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132(51), 18023–18025 (2010).
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H. Wang, Y. Wang, X. Cao, M. Feng, and G. Lan, “Vibrational properties of graphene and graphene layers,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 40(12), 1791–1796 (2009).
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X. Li, W. Cai, J. An, S. Kim, J. Nah, D. Yang, R. Piner, A. Velamakanni, I. Jung, E. Tutuc, S. K. Banerjee, L. Colombo, and R. S. Ruoff, “Large-area synthesis of high-quality and uniform graphene films on copper foils,” Science 324(5932), 1312–1314 (2009).
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Q. Bao, H. Zhang, B. Wang, Z. Ni, C. H. Y. X. Lim, Y. Wang, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Broadband graphene polarizer,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 411–415 (2011).
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M. K. Park, J. S. Kee, J. Y. Quah, V. Netto, J. Song, Q. Fang, E. M. La Fosse, and G.-Q. Lo, “Label-free aptamer sensor based on silicon microring resonators,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 176, 552–559 (2013).
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K. Kim, S. Coh, L. Z. Tan, W. Regan, J. M. Yuk, E. Chatterjee, M. F. Crommie, M. L. Cohen, S. G. Louie, and A. Zettl, “Raman spectroscopy study of rotated double-layer graphene: misorientation-angle dependence of electronic structure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(24), 246103 (2012).
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D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J.-M. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. P. P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50-Gb/s Silicon Optical Modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).
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V. M. Menon, W. Tong, and S. R. Forrest, “Control of quality factor and critical coupling in microring resonators through integration of a semiconductor optical amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(5), 1343–1345 (2004).
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Moses, J. E.

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D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J.-M. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. P. P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50-Gb/s Silicon Optical Modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).
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X. Li, W. Cai, J. An, S. Kim, J. Nah, D. Yang, R. Piner, A. Velamakanni, I. Jung, E. Tutuc, S. K. Banerjee, L. Colombo, and R. S. Ruoff, “Large-area synthesis of high-quality and uniform graphene films on copper foils,” Science 324(5932), 1312–1314 (2009).
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R. Kou, S. Tanabe, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Yamamoto, H. Hibino, H. Nakajima, and K. Yamada, “Influence of graphene on quality factor variation in a silicon ring resonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(9), 091122 (2014).
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R. Kou, S. Tanabe, T. Tsuchizawa, K. Warabi, S. Suzuki, H. Hibino, H. Nakajima, and K. Yamada, “Characterization of optical absorption and polarization dependence of single-layer graphene integrated on a silicon wire waveguide,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 52(6R), 060203 (2013).
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M. K. Park, J. S. Kee, J. Y. Quah, V. Netto, J. Song, Q. Fang, E. M. La Fosse, and G.-Q. Lo, “Label-free aptamer sensor based on silicon microring resonators,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 176, 552–559 (2013).
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Q. Bao, H. Zhang, B. Wang, Z. Ni, C. H. Y. X. Lim, Y. Wang, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Broadband graphene polarizer,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 411–415 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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Z. H. Ni, H. M. Wang, J. Kasim, H. M. Fan, T. Yu, Y. H. Wu, Y. P. Feng, and Z. X. Shen, “Graphene thickness determination using reflection and contrast spectroscopy,” Nano Lett. 7(9), 2758–2763 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Niehusmann, J.

Novoselov, K. S.

K. S. Novoselov, V. I. Fal’ko, L. Colombo, P. R. Gellert, M. G. Schwab, and K. Kim, “A roadmap for graphene,” Nature 490(7419), 192–200 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Blake, E. W. Hill, A. H. Castro Neto, K. S. Novoselov, D. Jiang, R. Yang, T. J. Booth, and A. K. Geim, “Making graphene visible,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(6), 063124 (2007).
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M. K. Park, J. S. Kee, J. Y. Quah, V. Netto, J. Song, Q. Fang, E. M. La Fosse, and G.-Q. Lo, “Label-free aptamer sensor based on silicon microring resonators,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 176, 552–559 (2013).
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I. Jung, M. Pelton, R. Piner, D. A. Dikin, S. Stankovich, S. Watcharotone, M. Hausner, and R. S. Ruoff, “Simple approach for high-contrast optical imaging and characterization of graphene-based sheets,” Nano Lett. 7(12), 3569–3575 (2007).
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X. Li, W. Cai, J. An, S. Kim, J. Nah, D. Yang, R. Piner, A. Velamakanni, I. Jung, E. Tutuc, S. K. Banerjee, L. Colombo, and R. S. Ruoff, “Large-area synthesis of high-quality and uniform graphene films on copper foils,” Science 324(5932), 1312–1314 (2009).
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I. Jung, M. Pelton, R. Piner, D. A. Dikin, S. Stankovich, S. Watcharotone, M. Hausner, and R. S. Ruoff, “Simple approach for high-contrast optical imaging and characterization of graphene-based sheets,” Nano Lett. 7(12), 3569–3575 (2007).
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M. K. Park, J. S. Kee, J. Y. Quah, V. Netto, J. Song, Q. Fang, E. M. La Fosse, and G.-Q. Lo, “Label-free aptamer sensor based on silicon microring resonators,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 176, 552–559 (2013).
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D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J.-M. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. P. P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50-Gb/s Silicon Optical Modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).
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D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J.-M. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. P. P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50-Gb/s Silicon Optical Modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).
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K. Kim, S. Coh, L. Z. Tan, W. Regan, J. M. Yuk, E. Chatterjee, M. F. Crommie, M. L. Cohen, S. G. Louie, and A. Zettl, “Raman spectroscopy study of rotated double-layer graphene: misorientation-angle dependence of electronic structure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(24), 246103 (2012).
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X. Li, W. Cai, J. An, S. Kim, J. Nah, D. Yang, R. Piner, A. Velamakanni, I. Jung, E. Tutuc, S. K. Banerjee, L. Colombo, and R. S. Ruoff, “Large-area synthesis of high-quality and uniform graphene films on copper foils,” Science 324(5932), 1312–1314 (2009).
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I. Jung, M. Pelton, R. Piner, D. A. Dikin, S. Stankovich, S. Watcharotone, M. Hausner, and R. S. Ruoff, “Simple approach for high-contrast optical imaging and characterization of graphene-based sheets,” Nano Lett. 7(12), 3569–3575 (2007).
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K. S. Novoselov, V. I. Fal’ko, L. Colombo, P. R. Gellert, M. G. Schwab, and K. Kim, “A roadmap for graphene,” Nature 490(7419), 192–200 (2012).
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Song, J.

M. K. Park, J. S. Kee, J. Y. Quah, V. Netto, J. Song, Q. Fang, E. M. La Fosse, and G.-Q. Lo, “Label-free aptamer sensor based on silicon microring resonators,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 176, 552–559 (2013).
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L. Prechtel, L. Song, D. Schuh, P. Ajayan, W. Wegscheider, and A. W. Holleitner, “Time-resolved ultrafast photocurrents and terahertz generation in freely suspended graphene,” Nat Commun 3, 646 (2012).
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M. Iqbal, M. A. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. G. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, R. C. Bailey, and L. C. Gunn, “Label-free biosensor arrays based on silicon ring resonators and high-speed optical scanning instrumentation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(3), 654–661 (2010).
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I. Jung, M. Pelton, R. Piner, D. A. Dikin, S. Stankovich, S. Watcharotone, M. Hausner, and R. S. Ruoff, “Simple approach for high-contrast optical imaging and characterization of graphene-based sheets,” Nano Lett. 7(12), 3569–3575 (2007).
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R. Kou, S. Tanabe, T. Tsuchizawa, K. Warabi, S. Suzuki, H. Hibino, H. Nakajima, and K. Yamada, “Characterization of optical absorption and polarization dependence of single-layer graphene integrated on a silicon wire waveguide,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 52(6R), 060203 (2013).
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K. Kim, S. Coh, L. Z. Tan, W. Regan, J. M. Yuk, E. Chatterjee, M. F. Crommie, M. L. Cohen, S. G. Louie, and A. Zettl, “Raman spectroscopy study of rotated double-layer graphene: misorientation-angle dependence of electronic structure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(24), 246103 (2012).
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R. Kou, S. Tanabe, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Yamamoto, H. Hibino, H. Nakajima, and K. Yamada, “Influence of graphene on quality factor variation in a silicon ring resonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(9), 091122 (2014).
[CrossRef]

R. Kou, S. Tanabe, T. Tsuchizawa, K. Warabi, S. Suzuki, H. Hibino, H. Nakajima, and K. Yamada, “Characterization of optical absorption and polarization dependence of single-layer graphene integrated on a silicon wire waveguide,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 52(6R), 060203 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Tang, D. Y.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, B. Wang, Z. Ni, C. H. Y. X. Lim, Y. Wang, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Broadband graphene polarizer,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 411–415 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Thacker, H.

Thomson, D. J.

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J.-M. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. P. P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50-Gb/s Silicon Optical Modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Tong, W.

V. M. Menon, W. Tong, and S. R. Forrest, “Control of quality factor and critical coupling in microring resonators through integration of a semiconductor optical amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(5), 1343–1345 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tsuchizawa, T.

R. Kou, S. Tanabe, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Yamamoto, H. Hibino, H. Nakajima, and K. Yamada, “Influence of graphene on quality factor variation in a silicon ring resonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(9), 091122 (2014).
[CrossRef]

R. Kou, S. Tanabe, T. Tsuchizawa, K. Warabi, S. Suzuki, H. Hibino, H. Nakajima, and K. Yamada, “Characterization of optical absorption and polarization dependence of single-layer graphene integrated on a silicon wire waveguide,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 52(6R), 060203 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Tutuc, E.

X. Li, W. Cai, J. An, S. Kim, J. Nah, D. Yang, R. Piner, A. Velamakanni, I. Jung, E. Tutuc, S. K. Banerjee, L. Colombo, and R. S. Ruoff, “Large-area synthesis of high-quality and uniform graphene films on copper foils,” Science 324(5932), 1312–1314 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tybor, F.

M. Iqbal, M. A. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. G. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, R. C. Bailey, and L. C. Gunn, “Label-free biosensor arrays based on silicon ring resonators and high-speed optical scanning instrumentation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(3), 654–661 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ulin-Avila, E.

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Van Thourhout, D.

W. Bogaerts, P. De Heyn, T. Van Vaerenbergh, K. De Vos, S. K. Selvaraja, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon microring resonators,” Laser and Photonics Reviews 6(1), 47–73 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Van Vaerenbergh, T.

W. Bogaerts, P. De Heyn, T. Van Vaerenbergh, K. De Vos, S. K. Selvaraja, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon microring resonators,” Laser and Photonics Reviews 6(1), 47–73 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Velamakanni, A.

X. Li, W. Cai, J. An, S. Kim, J. Nah, D. Yang, R. Piner, A. Velamakanni, I. Jung, E. Tutuc, S. K. Banerjee, L. Colombo, and R. S. Ruoff, “Large-area synthesis of high-quality and uniform graphene films on copper foils,” Science 324(5932), 1312–1314 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vörckel, A.

Wahlbrink, T.

Wang, B.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, B. Wang, Z. Ni, C. H. Y. X. Lim, Y. Wang, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Broadband graphene polarizer,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 411–415 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wang, F.

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, H.

H. Wang, Y. Wang, X. Cao, M. Feng, and G. Lan, “Vibrational properties of graphene and graphene layers,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 40(12), 1791–1796 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, H. M.

Z. H. Ni, H. M. Wang, J. Kasim, H. M. Fan, T. Yu, Y. H. Wu, Y. P. Feng, and Z. X. Shen, “Graphene thickness determination using reflection and contrast spectroscopy,” Nano Lett. 7(9), 2758–2763 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, Y.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, B. Wang, Z. Ni, C. H. Y. X. Lim, Y. Wang, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Broadband graphene polarizer,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 411–415 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Wang, Y. Wang, X. Cao, M. Feng, and G. Lan, “Vibrational properties of graphene and graphene layers,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 40(12), 1791–1796 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Warabi, K.

R. Kou, S. Tanabe, T. Tsuchizawa, K. Warabi, S. Suzuki, H. Hibino, H. Nakajima, and K. Yamada, “Characterization of optical absorption and polarization dependence of single-layer graphene integrated on a silicon wire waveguide,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 52(6R), 060203 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Watcharotone, S.

I. Jung, M. Pelton, R. Piner, D. A. Dikin, S. Stankovich, S. Watcharotone, M. Hausner, and R. S. Ruoff, “Simple approach for high-contrast optical imaging and characterization of graphene-based sheets,” Nano Lett. 7(12), 3569–3575 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wegscheider, W.

L. Prechtel, L. Song, D. Schuh, P. Ajayan, W. Wegscheider, and A. W. Holleitner, “Time-resolved ultrafast photocurrents and terahertz generation in freely suspended graphene,” Nat Commun 3, 646 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, Y. H.

Z. H. Ni, H. M. Wang, J. Kasim, H. M. Fan, T. Yu, Y. H. Wu, Y. P. Feng, and Z. X. Shen, “Graphene thickness determination using reflection and contrast spectroscopy,” Nano Lett. 7(9), 2758–2763 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yamada, K.

R. Kou, S. Tanabe, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Yamamoto, H. Hibino, H. Nakajima, and K. Yamada, “Influence of graphene on quality factor variation in a silicon ring resonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(9), 091122 (2014).
[CrossRef]

R. Kou, S. Tanabe, T. Tsuchizawa, K. Warabi, S. Suzuki, H. Hibino, H. Nakajima, and K. Yamada, “Characterization of optical absorption and polarization dependence of single-layer graphene integrated on a silicon wire waveguide,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 52(6R), 060203 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, T.

R. Kou, S. Tanabe, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Yamamoto, H. Hibino, H. Nakajima, and K. Yamada, “Influence of graphene on quality factor variation in a silicon ring resonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(9), 091122 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Yang, D.

X. Li, W. Cai, J. An, S. Kim, J. Nah, D. Yang, R. Piner, A. Velamakanni, I. Jung, E. Tutuc, S. K. Banerjee, L. Colombo, and R. S. Ruoff, “Large-area synthesis of high-quality and uniform graphene films on copper foils,” Science 324(5932), 1312–1314 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, R.

P. Blake, E. W. Hill, A. H. Castro Neto, K. S. Novoselov, D. Jiang, R. Yang, T. J. Booth, and A. K. Geim, “Making graphene visible,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(6), 063124 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yao, J.

Yin, X.

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, T.

Z. H. Ni, H. M. Wang, J. Kasim, H. M. Fan, T. Yu, Y. H. Wu, Y. P. Feng, and Z. X. Shen, “Graphene thickness determination using reflection and contrast spectroscopy,” Nano Lett. 7(9), 2758–2763 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yuk, J. M.

K. Kim, S. Coh, L. Z. Tan, W. Regan, J. M. Yuk, E. Chatterjee, M. F. Crommie, M. L. Cohen, S. G. Louie, and A. Zettl, “Raman spectroscopy study of rotated double-layer graphene: misorientation-angle dependence of electronic structure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(24), 246103 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zentgraf, T.

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zettl, A.

K. Kim, S. Coh, L. Z. Tan, W. Regan, J. M. Yuk, E. Chatterjee, M. F. Crommie, M. L. Cohen, S. G. Louie, and A. Zettl, “Raman spectroscopy study of rotated double-layer graphene: misorientation-angle dependence of electronic structure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(24), 246103 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, H.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, B. Wang, Z. Ni, C. H. Y. X. Lim, Y. Wang, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Broadband graphene polarizer,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 411–415 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhao, W.

Zheng, X.

Zlatanovic, S.

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J.-M. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. P. P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50-Gb/s Silicon Optical Modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

P. Blake, E. W. Hill, A. H. Castro Neto, K. S. Novoselov, D. Jiang, R. Yang, T. J. Booth, and A. K. Geim, “Making graphene visible,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(6), 063124 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Li, Y. Anugrah, S. J. Koester, and M. Li, “Optical absorption in graphene integrated on silicon waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(11), 111110 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. Kou, S. Tanabe, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Yamamoto, H. Hibino, H. Nakajima, and K. Yamada, “Influence of graphene on quality factor variation in a silicon ring resonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(9), 091122 (2014).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. Iqbal, M. A. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. G. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, R. C. Bailey, and L. C. Gunn, “Label-free biosensor arrays based on silicon ring resonators and high-speed optical scanning instrumentation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(3), 654–661 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J.-M. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. P. P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50-Gb/s Silicon Optical Modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).
[CrossRef]

V. M. Menon, W. Tong, and S. R. Forrest, “Control of quality factor and critical coupling in microring resonators through integration of a semiconductor optical amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(5), 1343–1345 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

H.-Y. Chen, M. Hirtz, X. Deng, T. Laue, H. Fuchs, and J. Lahann, “Substrate-independent dip-pen nanolithography based on reactive coatings,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132(51), 18023–18025 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Raman Spectrosc. (1)

H. Wang, Y. Wang, X. Cao, M. Feng, and G. Lan, “Vibrational properties of graphene and graphene layers,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 40(12), 1791–1796 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

R. Kou, S. Tanabe, T. Tsuchizawa, K. Warabi, S. Suzuki, H. Hibino, H. Nakajima, and K. Yamada, “Characterization of optical absorption and polarization dependence of single-layer graphene integrated on a silicon wire waveguide,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 52(6R), 060203 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Laser and Photonics Reviews (1)

W. Bogaerts, P. De Heyn, T. Van Vaerenbergh, K. De Vos, S. K. Selvaraja, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon microring resonators,” Laser and Photonics Reviews 6(1), 47–73 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (2)

I. Jung, M. Pelton, R. Piner, D. A. Dikin, S. Stankovich, S. Watcharotone, M. Hausner, and R. S. Ruoff, “Simple approach for high-contrast optical imaging and characterization of graphene-based sheets,” Nano Lett. 7(12), 3569–3575 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. H. Ni, H. M. Wang, J. Kasim, H. M. Fan, T. Yu, Y. H. Wu, Y. P. Feng, and Z. X. Shen, “Graphene thickness determination using reflection and contrast spectroscopy,” Nano Lett. 7(9), 2758–2763 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat Commun (1)

L. Prechtel, L. Song, D. Schuh, P. Ajayan, W. Wegscheider, and A. W. Holleitner, “Time-resolved ultrafast photocurrents and terahertz generation in freely suspended graphene,” Nat Commun 3, 646 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (1)

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, B. Wang, Z. Ni, C. H. Y. X. Lim, Y. Wang, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Broadband graphene polarizer,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 411–415 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nature (3)

K. S. Novoselov, V. I. Fal’ko, L. Colombo, P. R. Gellert, M. G. Schwab, and K. Kim, “A roadmap for graphene,” Nature 490(7419), 192–200 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Kim, J. Y. Choi, T. Kim, S. H. Cho, and H. J. Chung, “A role for graphene in silicon-based semiconductor devices,” Nature 479(7373), 338–344 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Laser Technol. (1)

C. Ciminelli, F. Dell’Olio, D. Conteduca, C. M. Campanella, and M. N. Armenise, “High performance SOI microring resonator for biochemical sensing,” Opt. Laser Technol. 59, 60–67 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

K. Kim, S. Coh, L. Z. Tan, W. Regan, J. M. Yuk, E. Chatterjee, M. F. Crommie, M. L. Cohen, S. G. Louie, and A. Zettl, “Raman spectroscopy study of rotated double-layer graphene: misorientation-angle dependence of electronic structure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(24), 246103 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (1)

X. Li, W. Cai, J. An, S. Kim, J. Nah, D. Yang, R. Piner, A. Velamakanni, I. Jung, E. Tutuc, S. K. Banerjee, L. Colombo, and R. S. Ruoff, “Large-area synthesis of high-quality and uniform graphene films on copper foils,” Science 324(5932), 1312–1314 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sens. Actuators B Chem. (1)

M. K. Park, J. S. Kee, J. Y. Quah, V. Netto, J. Song, Q. Fang, E. M. La Fosse, and G.-Q. Lo, “Label-free aptamer sensor based on silicon microring resonators,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 176, 552–559 (2013).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic of the graphene integrated race-track resonator; The image illustrates the selective (partial) coverage of the race-track at the coupling section with the un-coated wire-guide (b) free-space optical set-up for measuring the resonator device transmission characteristics

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Measured (red) transmission spectrum for a silicon racetrack cavity resonator (physical dimensions, r = 40μm and Lc = 13μm) without graphene. The model (blue) curve is derived from a fit using Eq. (1) with r = 42.5μm, Lc = 14μm, α = 1.737dBcm−1 and neff = 3.249. Inset: close-up of the resonance peak around 1.56825nm

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Measured (red) and modelled (Eq. (1), blue) transmission spectra (offset for clarity). Fits to both data sets yield residual minima with physical dimensions r = 10, 20μm and Lc = 13μm, neff = 2.23 ± 0.02 and α = 0.11dBμm−1 (b) Optical images of the two corresponding, selectively coated graphene integrated silicon racetrack cavity resonators with (top) r = 10μm and (bottom) r = 20μm. (c) Measured peak extinction as a function of the light-matter (graphene) interaction length, Lg with linear regression fit of the form ER(Lg)dB = ER(0)dB - αLg with slope α = 0.104dBμm−1

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) contour plot of the calculated signal attenuation, Ag (blue – low, red – high, contour lines – 1dB increment) as a function of length, Lg and height, h of graphene over the silicon cavity ring resonator (b) calculated Ag as a function of Lg for specific heights (h = 0, 50, 100nm) along with our measured data (blue squares) and (c) calculated Ag as a function of height for specific lengths (Lg = 25, 75, 150μm). The red dashed lines in (b) and (c) indicate the graphene (Lg, h) co-ordinates where the cavity resonance signal is attenuated by 3dB

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

T( λ,L, n eff ,α )=( 1γ ) [ ( 1k )( 1γ ) e α ( L n eff ) 2 i( 2π n eff 2 L λ ) 1( 1γ )( 1k ) e α ( L n eff ) 2 i( 2π n eff 2 L λ ) ] 2
α( h )= α 0 e 2γh
A g ( L g ,h ) dB = [ ER( 0 )ER( L g ) ] dB = α 0 e 2γh L g

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