Abstract

The subsurface damages (SSD) of fused silica developed during deterministic small tool polishing are experimentally investigated in this study. A leather pad (i.e., poromeric) is validated to be nearly SSD-free and superior to pitch and polyurethane. Rough abrasives are found to obviously increase SSD depth, and a leather pad can efficiently suppress the adverse effect of rough abrasives. The SSD depth induced by pitch and polyurethane pads (with rough abrasive) ranges from 0.77 to 1.49μm (~1/7-1/5 of abrasive size). High pressure, low velocity and slurry concentration can slightly increase SSD depth. Material removal rate of leather pad is also validated to be comparable with polyurethane and much higher than pitch tool; surface roughness polished by leather pad is Ra = 1.13nm, which is close to that of pitch but much better than polyurethane.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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2014 (1)

2013 (1)

2012 (2)

R. Laheurte, P. Darnis, N. Darbois, O. Cahuc, and J. Neauport, “Subsurface damage distribution characterization of ground surfaces using Abbott-Firestone curves,” Opt. Express 20(12), 13551–13559 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Walker, A. Beaucamp, R. Evans, T. Fox-Leonard, N. Fairhurst, C. Gray, S. Hamidi, H. Li, W. Messelink, J. Mitchell, P. Rees, and G. Yu, “Edge-control and surface-smoothness in sub-aperture polishing of mirror segments,” Proc. SPIE 8450, 84502A (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (1)

J. B. Johnson, D. W. Kim, R. E. Parks, and J. H. Burge, “New approach for pre-polish grinding with low subsurface damage,” Proc. SPIE 8126, 81261E (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (3)

2009 (3)

2008 (2)

T. Suratwala, R. Steele, M. D. Feit, L. Wong, P. Miller, J. Menapace, and P. Davis, “Effect of rogue particles on the sub-surface damage of fused silica during grinding/polishing,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354(18), 2023–2037 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. G. Li, J. Hou, Q. Xu, J. Wang, W. Yang, and Y. B. Guo, “The characteristics of optics polished with a polyurethane pad,” Opt. Express 16(14), 10285–10293 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (3)

2006 (1)

T. Suratwala, L. Wong, P. Miller, M. D. Feit, J. Menapace, R. Steele, P. Davis, and D. Walmer, “Sub-surface mechanical damage distributions during grinding of fused silica,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(52-54), 5601–5617 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

P. E. Miller, T. I. Suratwala, L. L. Wong, M. D. Feit, J. A. Menapace, P. J. Davis, and R. A. Steele, “The distribution of subsurface damage in fused silica,” Proc. SPIE 5991, 599101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Randi, J. C. Lambropoulos, and S. D. Jacobs, “Subsurface damage in some single crystalline optical materials,” Appl. Opt. 44(12), 2241–2249 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. B. Cheng, Z. J. Feng, K. Cheng, and Y. W. Wang, “Design of a six-axis high precision machine tool and its application in machining aspherical optical mirrors,” Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf. 45(9), 1085–1094 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

W. Kordonski, A. Shorey, and A. Sekeres, “New magnetically assisted finishing method: material removal with magnetorheological fluid jet,” Proc. SPIE 5l80, 107–114 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Feit and A. M. Rubenchik, “Influence of subsurface cracks on laser induced surface damage,” Proc. SPIE 5273, 264–272 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Campbell, R. A. Hawley-Fedder, C. J. Stolz, J. A. Menapace, M. R. Borden, P. K. Whitman, J. Yu, M. J. Runkel, M. O. Riley, M. D. Feit, and R. P. Hackel, “NIF optical materials and fabrication technologies: an overview,” Proc. SPIE 5341, 84–101 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

D. D. Walker, D. Brooks, A. King, R. Freeman, R. Morton, G. McCavana, and S. W. Kim, “The ‘Precessions’ tooling for polishing and figuring flat, spherical and aspheric surfaces,” Opt. Express 11(8), 958–964 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. J. Evans, E. Paul, D. Dornfeld, D. A. Lucca, G. Byrne, M. Tricard, F. Klocke, O. Dambon, and B. A. Mullany, “Material removal mechanisms in lapping and polishing,” CIRP Annals-Manufacturing Technology 52(2), 611–633 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (3)

2000 (1)

1999 (2)

J. C. Lambropoulos, Y. Li, P. Funkenbusch, and J. Ruckman, “Non-contact estimate of grinding subsurface damage,” Proc. SPIE 3782, 41–50 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Lambropoulos, S. D. Jacobs, and J. Ruckman, “Material removal mechanisms from grinding to polishing,” Ceram. Trans. 102, 113–128 (1999).

1993 (1)

M. Buijs and K. K. Houten, “A model for lapping of glass,” J. Mater. Sci. 28(11), 3014–3020 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

1987 (1)

1977 (1)

Ambard, C.

An, H. K.

Baldwin, A.

Beaucamp, A.

D. Walker, A. Beaucamp, R. Evans, T. Fox-Leonard, N. Fairhurst, C. Gray, S. Hamidi, H. Li, W. Messelink, J. Mitchell, P. Rees, and G. Yu, “Edge-control and surface-smoothness in sub-aperture polishing of mirror segments,” Proc. SPIE 8450, 84502A (2012).
[CrossRef]

Bifano, T. G.

Blaineau, P.

Borden, M. R.

J. H. Campbell, R. A. Hawley-Fedder, C. J. Stolz, J. A. Menapace, M. R. Borden, P. K. Whitman, J. Yu, M. J. Runkel, M. O. Riley, M. D. Feit, and R. P. Hackel, “NIF optical materials and fabrication technologies: an overview,” Proc. SPIE 5341, 84–101 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Brooks, D.

Buijs, M.

M. Buijs and K. K. Houten, “A model for lapping of glass,” J. Mater. Sci. 28(11), 3014–3020 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Burge, J. H.

Byrne, G.

C. J. Evans, E. Paul, D. Dornfeld, D. A. Lucca, G. Byrne, M. Tricard, F. Klocke, O. Dambon, and B. A. Mullany, “Material removal mechanisms in lapping and polishing,” CIRP Annals-Manufacturing Technology 52(2), 611–633 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cahuc, O.

Campbell, J. H.

J. H. Campbell, R. A. Hawley-Fedder, C. J. Stolz, J. A. Menapace, M. R. Borden, P. K. Whitman, J. Yu, M. J. Runkel, M. O. Riley, M. D. Feit, and R. P. Hackel, “NIF optical materials and fabrication technologies: an overview,” Proc. SPIE 5341, 84–101 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chase, L. L.

Cheng, H. B.

Z. C. Dong, H. B. Cheng, and H. Y. Tam, “Modified subaperture tool influence functions of a flat-pitch polisher with reverse-calculated material removal rate,” Appl. Opt. 53(11), 2455–2464 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. B. Cheng, Z. J. Feng, K. Cheng, and Y. W. Wang, “Design of a six-axis high precision machine tool and its application in machining aspherical optical mirrors,” Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf. 45(9), 1085–1094 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, K.

H. B. Cheng, Z. J. Feng, K. Cheng, and Y. W. Wang, “Design of a six-axis high precision machine tool and its application in machining aspherical optical mirrors,” Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf. 45(9), 1085–1094 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cormont, P.

Dambon, O.

C. J. Evans, E. Paul, D. Dornfeld, D. A. Lucca, G. Byrne, M. Tricard, F. Klocke, O. Dambon, and B. A. Mullany, “Material removal mechanisms in lapping and polishing,” CIRP Annals-Manufacturing Technology 52(2), 611–633 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Darbois, N.

Darnis, P.

Davis, P.

T. Suratwala, R. Steele, M. D. Feit, L. Wong, P. Miller, J. Menapace, and P. Davis, “Effect of rogue particles on the sub-surface damage of fused silica during grinding/polishing,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354(18), 2023–2037 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Suratwala, L. Wong, P. Miller, M. D. Feit, J. Menapace, R. Steele, P. Davis, and D. Walmer, “Sub-surface mechanical damage distributions during grinding of fused silica,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(52-54), 5601–5617 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Davis, P. J.

P. E. Miller, T. I. Suratwala, L. L. Wong, M. D. Feit, J. A. Menapace, P. J. Davis, and R. A. Steele, “The distribution of subsurface damage in fused silica,” Proc. SPIE 5991, 599101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

DeGroote, J. E.

J. E. DeGroote, S. D. Jacobs, L. L. Gregg, A. E. Marino, and J. C. Hayes, “Quantitative characterization of optical polishing pitch,” Proc. SPIE 4451, 209–221 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Destribats, J.

Dong, Z. C.

Dornfeld, D.

C. J. Evans, E. Paul, D. Dornfeld, D. A. Lucca, G. Byrne, M. Tricard, F. Klocke, O. Dambon, and B. A. Mullany, “Material removal mechanisms in lapping and polishing,” CIRP Annals-Manufacturing Technology 52(2), 611–633 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dumas, P.

P. Dumas, C. Hall, B. Hallock, and M. Tricard, “Complete sub-aperture pre-polishing & finishing solution to improve speed and determinism in asphere manufacture,” Proc. SPIE 6671, 667111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Edwards, D. F.

Evans, C. J.

C. J. Evans, E. Paul, D. Dornfeld, D. A. Lucca, G. Byrne, M. Tricard, F. Klocke, O. Dambon, and B. A. Mullany, “Material removal mechanisms in lapping and polishing,” CIRP Annals-Manufacturing Technology 52(2), 611–633 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Evans, R.

D. Walker, A. Beaucamp, R. Evans, T. Fox-Leonard, N. Fairhurst, C. Gray, S. Hamidi, H. Li, W. Messelink, J. Mitchell, P. Rees, and G. Yu, “Edge-control and surface-smoothness in sub-aperture polishing of mirror segments,” Proc. SPIE 8450, 84502A (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. Tonnellier, P. Morantz, P. Shore, A. Baldwin, R. Evans, and D. D. Walker, “Subsurface damage in precision ground ULE and Zerodur® surfaces,” Opt. Express 15(19), 12197–12205 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fairhurst, N.

D. Walker, A. Beaucamp, R. Evans, T. Fox-Leonard, N. Fairhurst, C. Gray, S. Hamidi, H. Li, W. Messelink, J. Mitchell, P. Rees, and G. Yu, “Edge-control and surface-smoothness in sub-aperture polishing of mirror segments,” Proc. SPIE 8450, 84502A (2012).
[CrossRef]

Feinberg, M. R.

Feit, M. D.

T. Suratwala, R. Steele, M. D. Feit, L. Wong, P. Miller, J. Menapace, and P. Davis, “Effect of rogue particles on the sub-surface damage of fused silica during grinding/polishing,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354(18), 2023–2037 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Suratwala, L. Wong, P. Miller, M. D. Feit, J. Menapace, R. Steele, P. Davis, and D. Walmer, “Sub-surface mechanical damage distributions during grinding of fused silica,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(52-54), 5601–5617 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. E. Miller, T. I. Suratwala, L. L. Wong, M. D. Feit, J. A. Menapace, P. J. Davis, and R. A. Steele, “The distribution of subsurface damage in fused silica,” Proc. SPIE 5991, 599101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Feit and A. M. Rubenchik, “Influence of subsurface cracks on laser induced surface damage,” Proc. SPIE 5273, 264–272 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Campbell, R. A. Hawley-Fedder, C. J. Stolz, J. A. Menapace, M. R. Borden, P. K. Whitman, J. Yu, M. J. Runkel, M. O. Riley, M. D. Feit, and R. P. Hackel, “NIF optical materials and fabrication technologies: an overview,” Proc. SPIE 5341, 84–101 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Feng, Z. J.

H. B. Cheng, Z. J. Feng, K. Cheng, and Y. W. Wang, “Design of a six-axis high precision machine tool and its application in machining aspherical optical mirrors,” Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf. 45(9), 1085–1094 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fox-Leonard, T.

D. Walker, A. Beaucamp, R. Evans, T. Fox-Leonard, N. Fairhurst, C. Gray, S. Hamidi, H. Li, W. Messelink, J. Mitchell, P. Rees, and G. Yu, “Edge-control and surface-smoothness in sub-aperture polishing of mirror segments,” Proc. SPIE 8450, 84502A (2012).
[CrossRef]

Freeman, R.

Funkenbusch, P.

J. C. Lambropoulos, Y. Li, P. Funkenbusch, and J. Ruckman, “Non-contact estimate of grinding subsurface damage,” Proc. SPIE 3782, 41–50 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gans, R. F.

Génin, F. Y.

Golini, D.

Gray, C.

D. Walker, A. Beaucamp, R. Evans, T. Fox-Leonard, N. Fairhurst, C. Gray, S. Hamidi, H. Li, W. Messelink, J. Mitchell, P. Rees, and G. Yu, “Edge-control and surface-smoothness in sub-aperture polishing of mirror segments,” Proc. SPIE 8450, 84502A (2012).
[CrossRef]

Gregg, L. L.

J. E. DeGroote, S. D. Jacobs, L. L. Gregg, A. E. Marino, and J. C. Hayes, “Quantitative characterization of optical polishing pitch,” Proc. SPIE 4451, 209–221 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Guo, Y. B.

Hackel, R. P.

J. H. Campbell, R. A. Hawley-Fedder, C. J. Stolz, J. A. Menapace, M. R. Borden, P. K. Whitman, J. Yu, M. J. Runkel, M. O. Riley, M. D. Feit, and R. P. Hackel, “NIF optical materials and fabrication technologies: an overview,” Proc. SPIE 5341, 84–101 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hall, C.

P. Dumas, C. Hall, B. Hallock, and M. Tricard, “Complete sub-aperture pre-polishing & finishing solution to improve speed and determinism in asphere manufacture,” Proc. SPIE 6671, 667111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hallock, B.

P. Dumas, C. Hall, B. Hallock, and M. Tricard, “Complete sub-aperture pre-polishing & finishing solution to improve speed and determinism in asphere manufacture,” Proc. SPIE 6671, 667111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hamidi, S.

D. Walker, A. Beaucamp, R. Evans, T. Fox-Leonard, N. Fairhurst, C. Gray, S. Hamidi, H. Li, W. Messelink, J. Mitchell, P. Rees, and G. Yu, “Edge-control and surface-smoothness in sub-aperture polishing of mirror segments,” Proc. SPIE 8450, 84502A (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hawley-Fedder, R. A.

J. H. Campbell, R. A. Hawley-Fedder, C. J. Stolz, J. A. Menapace, M. R. Borden, P. K. Whitman, J. Yu, M. J. Runkel, M. O. Riley, M. D. Feit, and R. P. Hackel, “NIF optical materials and fabrication technologies: an overview,” Proc. SPIE 5341, 84–101 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hayes, J. C.

J. E. DeGroote, S. D. Jacobs, L. L. Gregg, A. E. Marino, and J. C. Hayes, “Quantitative characterization of optical polishing pitch,” Proc. SPIE 4451, 209–221 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hed, P. P.

Horenstein, M. N.

Hou, J.

Houten, K. K.

M. Buijs and K. K. Houten, “A model for lapping of glass,” J. Mater. Sci. 28(11), 3014–3020 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Jacobs, S. D.

Johnson, J. B.

J. B. Johnson, D. W. Kim, R. E. Parks, and J. H. Burge, “New approach for pre-polish grinding with low subsurface damage,” Proc. SPIE 8126, 81261E (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jones, R. A.

Kim, D. W.

Kim, S. W.

King, A.

Klocke, F.

C. J. Evans, E. Paul, D. Dornfeld, D. A. Lucca, G. Byrne, M. Tricard, F. Klocke, O. Dambon, and B. A. Mullany, “Material removal mechanisms in lapping and polishing,” CIRP Annals-Manufacturing Technology 52(2), 611–633 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kordonski, W.

W. Kordonski, A. Shorey, and A. Sekeres, “New magnetically assisted finishing method: material removal with magnetorheological fluid jet,” Proc. SPIE 5l80, 107–114 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kordonski, W. I.

Laheurte, R.

Lambropoulos, J. C.

J. C. Lambropoulos, C. L. Miao, and S. D. Jacobs, “Magnetic field effects on shear and normal stresses in magnetorheological finishing,” Opt. Express 18(19), 19713–19723 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. N. Shafrir, J. C. Lambropoulos, and S. D. Jacobs, “Subsurface damage and microstructure development in precision microground hard ceramics using magnetorheological finishing spots,” Appl. Opt. 46(22), 5500–5515 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Randi, J. C. Lambropoulos, and S. D. Jacobs, “Subsurface damage in some single crystalline optical materials,” Appl. Opt. 44(12), 2241–2249 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Lambropoulos, S. D. Jacobs, and J. Ruckman, “Material removal mechanisms from grinding to polishing,” Ceram. Trans. 102, 113–128 (1999).

J. C. Lambropoulos, Y. Li, P. Funkenbusch, and J. Ruckman, “Non-contact estimate of grinding subsurface damage,” Proc. SPIE 3782, 41–50 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Lambropoulos, “From abrasive size to subsurface damage in grinding,” Optical Fabrication and Testing, OSA Technical Digest17–18 (2000).

Legros, P.

Li, H.

D. Walker, A. Beaucamp, R. Evans, T. Fox-Leonard, N. Fairhurst, C. Gray, S. Hamidi, H. Li, W. Messelink, J. Mitchell, P. Rees, and G. Yu, “Edge-control and surface-smoothness in sub-aperture polishing of mirror segments,” Proc. SPIE 8450, 84502A (2012).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.

J. C. Lambropoulos, Y. Li, P. Funkenbusch, and J. Ruckman, “Non-contact estimate of grinding subsurface damage,” Proc. SPIE 3782, 41–50 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y. G.

Lucca, D. A.

C. J. Evans, E. Paul, D. Dornfeld, D. A. Lucca, G. Byrne, M. Tricard, F. Klocke, O. Dambon, and B. A. Mullany, “Material removal mechanisms in lapping and polishing,” CIRP Annals-Manufacturing Technology 52(2), 611–633 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Luitot, C.

Marino, A. E.

J. E. DeGroote, S. D. Jacobs, L. L. Gregg, A. E. Marino, and J. C. Hayes, “Quantitative characterization of optical polishing pitch,” Proc. SPIE 4451, 209–221 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Maunier, C.

McCavana, G.

Menapace, J.

T. Suratwala, R. Steele, M. D. Feit, L. Wong, P. Miller, J. Menapace, and P. Davis, “Effect of rogue particles on the sub-surface damage of fused silica during grinding/polishing,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354(18), 2023–2037 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Suratwala, L. Wong, P. Miller, M. D. Feit, J. Menapace, R. Steele, P. Davis, and D. Walmer, “Sub-surface mechanical damage distributions during grinding of fused silica,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(52-54), 5601–5617 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Menapace, J. A.

P. E. Miller, T. I. Suratwala, L. L. Wong, M. D. Feit, J. A. Menapace, P. J. Davis, and R. A. Steele, “The distribution of subsurface damage in fused silica,” Proc. SPIE 5991, 599101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Campbell, R. A. Hawley-Fedder, C. J. Stolz, J. A. Menapace, M. R. Borden, P. K. Whitman, J. Yu, M. J. Runkel, M. O. Riley, M. D. Feit, and R. P. Hackel, “NIF optical materials and fabrication technologies: an overview,” Proc. SPIE 5341, 84–101 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Messelink, W.

D. Walker, A. Beaucamp, R. Evans, T. Fox-Leonard, N. Fairhurst, C. Gray, S. Hamidi, H. Li, W. Messelink, J. Mitchell, P. Rees, and G. Yu, “Edge-control and surface-smoothness in sub-aperture polishing of mirror segments,” Proc. SPIE 8450, 84502A (2012).
[CrossRef]

Miao, C. L.

Miller, P.

T. Suratwala, R. Steele, M. D. Feit, L. Wong, P. Miller, J. Menapace, and P. Davis, “Effect of rogue particles on the sub-surface damage of fused silica during grinding/polishing,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354(18), 2023–2037 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Suratwala, L. Wong, P. Miller, M. D. Feit, J. Menapace, R. Steele, P. Davis, and D. Walmer, “Sub-surface mechanical damage distributions during grinding of fused silica,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(52-54), 5601–5617 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Miller, P. E.

P. E. Miller, T. I. Suratwala, L. L. Wong, M. D. Feit, J. A. Menapace, P. J. Davis, and R. A. Steele, “The distribution of subsurface damage in fused silica,” Proc. SPIE 5991, 599101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mitchell, J.

D. Walker, A. Beaucamp, R. Evans, T. Fox-Leonard, N. Fairhurst, C. Gray, S. Hamidi, H. Li, W. Messelink, J. Mitchell, P. Rees, and G. Yu, “Edge-control and surface-smoothness in sub-aperture polishing of mirror segments,” Proc. SPIE 8450, 84502A (2012).
[CrossRef]

Morantz, P.

Morton, R.

Mullany, B. A.

C. J. Evans, E. Paul, D. Dornfeld, D. A. Lucca, G. Byrne, M. Tricard, F. Klocke, O. Dambon, and B. A. Mullany, “Material removal mechanisms in lapping and polishing,” CIRP Annals-Manufacturing Technology 52(2), 611–633 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Neauport, J.

Park, W. H.

Parks, R. E.

J. B. Johnson, D. W. Kim, R. E. Parks, and J. H. Burge, “New approach for pre-polish grinding with low subsurface damage,” Proc. SPIE 8126, 81261E (2011).
[CrossRef]

Paul, E.

C. J. Evans, E. Paul, D. Dornfeld, D. A. Lucca, G. Byrne, M. Tricard, F. Klocke, O. Dambon, and B. A. Mullany, “Material removal mechanisms in lapping and polishing,” CIRP Annals-Manufacturing Technology 52(2), 611–633 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pintault, B.

Pistor, T. V.

Randi, J. A.

Rees, P.

D. Walker, A. Beaucamp, R. Evans, T. Fox-Leonard, N. Fairhurst, C. Gray, S. Hamidi, H. Li, W. Messelink, J. Mitchell, P. Rees, and G. Yu, “Edge-control and surface-smoothness in sub-aperture polishing of mirror segments,” Proc. SPIE 8450, 84502A (2012).
[CrossRef]

Riley, M. O.

J. H. Campbell, R. A. Hawley-Fedder, C. J. Stolz, J. A. Menapace, M. R. Borden, P. K. Whitman, J. Yu, M. J. Runkel, M. O. Riley, M. D. Feit, and R. P. Hackel, “NIF optical materials and fabrication technologies: an overview,” Proc. SPIE 5341, 84–101 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rondeau, O.

Rubenchik, A. M.

M. D. Feit and A. M. Rubenchik, “Influence of subsurface cracks on laser induced surface damage,” Proc. SPIE 5273, 264–272 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ruckman, J.

J. C. Lambropoulos, Y. Li, P. Funkenbusch, and J. Ruckman, “Non-contact estimate of grinding subsurface damage,” Proc. SPIE 3782, 41–50 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Lambropoulos, S. D. Jacobs, and J. Ruckman, “Material removal mechanisms from grinding to polishing,” Ceram. Trans. 102, 113–128 (1999).

Runkel, M. J.

J. H. Campbell, R. A. Hawley-Fedder, C. J. Stolz, J. A. Menapace, M. R. Borden, P. K. Whitman, J. Yu, M. J. Runkel, M. O. Riley, M. D. Feit, and R. P. Hackel, “NIF optical materials and fabrication technologies: an overview,” Proc. SPIE 5341, 84–101 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Salleo, A.

Sandri, G.

Sekeres, A.

W. Kordonski, A. Shorey, and A. Sekeres, “New magnetically assisted finishing method: material removal with magnetorheological fluid jet,” Proc. SPIE 5l80, 107–114 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shafrir, S. N.

Shanbhag, P. M.

Shore, P.

Shorey, A.

W. Kordonski, A. Shorey, and A. Sekeres, “New magnetically assisted finishing method: material removal with magnetorheological fluid jet,” Proc. SPIE 5l80, 107–114 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shorey, A. B.

Steele, R.

T. Suratwala, R. Steele, M. D. Feit, L. Wong, P. Miller, J. Menapace, and P. Davis, “Effect of rogue particles on the sub-surface damage of fused silica during grinding/polishing,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354(18), 2023–2037 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Suratwala, L. Wong, P. Miller, M. D. Feit, J. Menapace, R. Steele, P. Davis, and D. Walmer, “Sub-surface mechanical damage distributions during grinding of fused silica,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(52-54), 5601–5617 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Steele, R. A.

P. E. Miller, T. I. Suratwala, L. L. Wong, M. D. Feit, J. A. Menapace, P. J. Davis, and R. A. Steele, “The distribution of subsurface damage in fused silica,” Proc. SPIE 5991, 599101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Stolz, C. J.

J. H. Campbell, R. A. Hawley-Fedder, C. J. Stolz, J. A. Menapace, M. R. Borden, P. K. Whitman, J. Yu, M. J. Runkel, M. O. Riley, M. D. Feit, and R. P. Hackel, “NIF optical materials and fabrication technologies: an overview,” Proc. SPIE 5341, 84–101 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Suratwala, T.

T. Suratwala, R. Steele, M. D. Feit, L. Wong, P. Miller, J. Menapace, and P. Davis, “Effect of rogue particles on the sub-surface damage of fused silica during grinding/polishing,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354(18), 2023–2037 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Suratwala, L. Wong, P. Miller, M. D. Feit, J. Menapace, R. Steele, P. Davis, and D. Walmer, “Sub-surface mechanical damage distributions during grinding of fused silica,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(52-54), 5601–5617 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Suratwala, T. I.

P. E. Miller, T. I. Suratwala, L. L. Wong, M. D. Feit, J. A. Menapace, P. J. Davis, and R. A. Steele, “The distribution of subsurface damage in fused silica,” Proc. SPIE 5991, 599101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tam, H. Y.

Tonnellier, X.

Tricard, M.

P. Dumas, C. Hall, B. Hallock, and M. Tricard, “Complete sub-aperture pre-polishing & finishing solution to improve speed and determinism in asphere manufacture,” Proc. SPIE 6671, 667111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Evans, E. Paul, D. Dornfeld, D. A. Lucca, G. Byrne, M. Tricard, F. Klocke, O. Dambon, and B. A. Mullany, “Material removal mechanisms in lapping and polishing,” CIRP Annals-Manufacturing Technology 52(2), 611–633 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Walker, D.

D. Walker, A. Beaucamp, R. Evans, T. Fox-Leonard, N. Fairhurst, C. Gray, S. Hamidi, H. Li, W. Messelink, J. Mitchell, P. Rees, and G. Yu, “Edge-control and surface-smoothness in sub-aperture polishing of mirror segments,” Proc. SPIE 8450, 84502A (2012).
[CrossRef]

Walker, D. D.

Walmer, D.

T. Suratwala, L. Wong, P. Miller, M. D. Feit, J. Menapace, R. Steele, P. Davis, and D. Walmer, “Sub-surface mechanical damage distributions during grinding of fused silica,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(52-54), 5601–5617 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

Wang, Y. W.

H. B. Cheng, Z. J. Feng, K. Cheng, and Y. W. Wang, “Design of a six-axis high precision machine tool and its application in machining aspherical optical mirrors,” Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf. 45(9), 1085–1094 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Whitman, P. K.

J. H. Campbell, R. A. Hawley-Fedder, C. J. Stolz, J. A. Menapace, M. R. Borden, P. K. Whitman, J. Yu, M. J. Runkel, M. O. Riley, M. D. Feit, and R. P. Hackel, “NIF optical materials and fabrication technologies: an overview,” Proc. SPIE 5341, 84–101 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wong, L.

T. Suratwala, R. Steele, M. D. Feit, L. Wong, P. Miller, J. Menapace, and P. Davis, “Effect of rogue particles on the sub-surface damage of fused silica during grinding/polishing,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354(18), 2023–2037 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Suratwala, L. Wong, P. Miller, M. D. Feit, J. Menapace, R. Steele, P. Davis, and D. Walmer, “Sub-surface mechanical damage distributions during grinding of fused silica,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(52-54), 5601–5617 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wong, L. L.

P. E. Miller, T. I. Suratwala, L. L. Wong, M. D. Feit, J. A. Menapace, P. J. Davis, and R. A. Steele, “The distribution of subsurface damage in fused silica,” Proc. SPIE 5991, 599101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Q.

Yang, W.

Yu, G.

D. Walker, A. Beaucamp, R. Evans, T. Fox-Leonard, N. Fairhurst, C. Gray, S. Hamidi, H. Li, W. Messelink, J. Mitchell, P. Rees, and G. Yu, “Edge-control and surface-smoothness in sub-aperture polishing of mirror segments,” Proc. SPIE 8450, 84502A (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yu, J.

J. H. Campbell, R. A. Hawley-Fedder, C. J. Stolz, J. A. Menapace, M. R. Borden, P. K. Whitman, J. Yu, M. J. Runkel, M. O. Riley, M. D. Feit, and R. P. Hackel, “NIF optical materials and fabrication technologies: an overview,” Proc. SPIE 5341, 84–101 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (9)

R. A. Jones, “Optimization of computer controlled polishing,” Appl. Opt. 16(1), 218–224 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. B. Shorey, S. D. Jacobs, W. I. Kordonski, and R. F. Gans, “Experiments and observations regarding the mechanisms of glass removal in magnetorheological finishing,” Appl. Opt. 40(1), 20–33 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. M. Shanbhag, M. R. Feinberg, G. Sandri, M. N. Horenstein, and T. G. Bifano, “Ion-beam machining of millimeter scale optics,” Appl. Opt. 39(4), 599–611 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. P. Hed and D. F. Edwards, “Optical glass fabrication technology. 2: Relationship between surface roughness and subsurface damage,” Appl. Opt. 26(21), 4677–4680 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Golini and S. D. Jacobs, “Physics of loose abrasive microgrinding,” Appl. Opt. 30(19), 2761–2777 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Neauport, J. Destribats, C. Maunier, C. Ambard, P. Cormont, B. Pintault, and O. Rondeau, “Loose abrasive slurries for optical glass lapping,” Appl. Opt. 49(30), 5736–5745 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Randi, J. C. Lambropoulos, and S. D. Jacobs, “Subsurface damage in some single crystalline optical materials,” Appl. Opt. 44(12), 2241–2249 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. N. Shafrir, J. C. Lambropoulos, and S. D. Jacobs, “Subsurface damage and microstructure development in precision microground hard ceramics using magnetorheological finishing spots,” Appl. Opt. 46(22), 5500–5515 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. C. Dong, H. B. Cheng, and H. Y. Tam, “Modified subaperture tool influence functions of a flat-pitch polisher with reverse-calculated material removal rate,” Appl. Opt. 53(11), 2455–2464 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ceram. Trans. (1)

J. C. Lambropoulos, S. D. Jacobs, and J. Ruckman, “Material removal mechanisms from grinding to polishing,” Ceram. Trans. 102, 113–128 (1999).

CIRP Annals-Manufacturing Technology (1)

C. J. Evans, E. Paul, D. Dornfeld, D. A. Lucca, G. Byrne, M. Tricard, F. Klocke, O. Dambon, and B. A. Mullany, “Material removal mechanisms in lapping and polishing,” CIRP Annals-Manufacturing Technology 52(2), 611–633 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf. (1)

H. B. Cheng, Z. J. Feng, K. Cheng, and Y. W. Wang, “Design of a six-axis high precision machine tool and its application in machining aspherical optical mirrors,” Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf. 45(9), 1085–1094 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Sci. (1)

M. Buijs and K. K. Houten, “A model for lapping of glass,” J. Mater. Sci. 28(11), 3014–3020 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (2)

T. Suratwala, L. Wong, P. Miller, M. D. Feit, J. Menapace, R. Steele, P. Davis, and D. Walmer, “Sub-surface mechanical damage distributions during grinding of fused silica,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(52-54), 5601–5617 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Suratwala, R. Steele, M. D. Feit, L. Wong, P. Miller, J. Menapace, and P. Davis, “Effect of rogue particles on the sub-surface damage of fused silica during grinding/polishing,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354(18), 2023–2037 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Opt. Express (10)

D. D. Walker, D. Brooks, A. King, R. Freeman, R. Morton, G. McCavana, and S. W. Kim, “The ‘Precessions’ tooling for polishing and figuring flat, spherical and aspheric surfaces,” Opt. Express 11(8), 958–964 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. W. Kim, W. H. Park, S. W. Kim, and J. H. Burge, “Parametric modeling of edge effects for polishing tool influence functions,” Opt. Express 17(7), 5656–5665 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. W. Kim, W. H. Park, H. K. An, and J. H. Burge, “Parametric smoothing model for visco-elastic polishing tools,” Opt. Express 18(21), 22515–22526 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Lambropoulos, C. L. Miao, and S. D. Jacobs, “Magnetic field effects on shear and normal stresses in magnetorheological finishing,” Opt. Express 18(19), 19713–19723 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Tonnellier, P. Morantz, P. Shore, A. Baldwin, R. Evans, and D. D. Walker, “Subsurface damage in precision ground ULE and Zerodur® surfaces,” Opt. Express 15(19), 12197–12205 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. G. Li, J. Hou, Q. Xu, J. Wang, W. Yang, and Y. B. Guo, “The characteristics of optics polished with a polyurethane pad,” Opt. Express 16(14), 10285–10293 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Neauport, C. Ambard, P. Cormont, N. Darbois, J. Destribats, C. Luitot, and O. Rondeau, “Subsurface damage measurement of ground fused silica parts by HF etching techniques,” Opt. Express 17(22), 20448–20456 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Neauport, P. Cormont, P. Legros, C. Ambard, and J. Destribats, “Imaging subsurface damage of grinded fused silica optics by confocal fluorescence microscopy,” Opt. Express 17(5), 3543–3554 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Laheurte, P. Darnis, N. Darbois, O. Cahuc, and J. Neauport, “Subsurface damage distribution characterization of ground surfaces using Abbott-Firestone curves,” Opt. Express 20(12), 13551–13559 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Blaineau, R. Laheurte, P. Darnis, N. Darbois, O. Cahuc, and J. Neauport, “Relations between subsurface damage depth and surface roughness of grinded fused silica,” Opt. Express 21(25), 30433–30443 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE (9)

J. B. Johnson, D. W. Kim, R. E. Parks, and J. H. Burge, “New approach for pre-polish grinding with low subsurface damage,” Proc. SPIE 8126, 81261E (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. E. DeGroote, S. D. Jacobs, L. L. Gregg, A. E. Marino, and J. C. Hayes, “Quantitative characterization of optical polishing pitch,” Proc. SPIE 4451, 209–221 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. E. Miller, T. I. Suratwala, L. L. Wong, M. D. Feit, J. A. Menapace, P. J. Davis, and R. A. Steele, “The distribution of subsurface damage in fused silica,” Proc. SPIE 5991, 599101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

W. Kordonski, A. Shorey, and A. Sekeres, “New magnetically assisted finishing method: material removal with magnetorheological fluid jet,” Proc. SPIE 5l80, 107–114 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. Dumas, C. Hall, B. Hallock, and M. Tricard, “Complete sub-aperture pre-polishing & finishing solution to improve speed and determinism in asphere manufacture,” Proc. SPIE 6671, 667111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Walker, A. Beaucamp, R. Evans, T. Fox-Leonard, N. Fairhurst, C. Gray, S. Hamidi, H. Li, W. Messelink, J. Mitchell, P. Rees, and G. Yu, “Edge-control and surface-smoothness in sub-aperture polishing of mirror segments,” Proc. SPIE 8450, 84502A (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Feit and A. M. Rubenchik, “Influence of subsurface cracks on laser induced surface damage,” Proc. SPIE 5273, 264–272 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Campbell, R. A. Hawley-Fedder, C. J. Stolz, J. A. Menapace, M. R. Borden, P. K. Whitman, J. Yu, M. J. Runkel, M. O. Riley, M. D. Feit, and R. P. Hackel, “NIF optical materials and fabrication technologies: an overview,” Proc. SPIE 5341, 84–101 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Lambropoulos, Y. Li, P. Funkenbusch, and J. Ruckman, “Non-contact estimate of grinding subsurface damage,” Proc. SPIE 3782, 41–50 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

J. C. Lambropoulos, “From abrasive size to subsurface damage in grinding,” Optical Fabrication and Testing, OSA Technical Digest17–18 (2000).

R. Williamson, Field Guide to Optical Fabrication (SPIE, 2011), Chap. 2.

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Figures (18)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Structure of JR-1800 and (b) the polishing process of Φ150mm segment.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Surface form after small tool polishing, with uniform removal within ~Φ80mm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Pitch pad, grooved; (b) polyurethane pad, grooved; (c) leather pad, not grooved.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) SEM micrograph of CeO2 1#, 10000 × magnification, one graduation 10μm; (b) SEM micrograph of CeO2 2#, 2000 × magnification, one graduation 50μm; (c) SEM micrograph of CeO2 3#, 2500 × magnification, one graduation 50μm; (d) size distribution curves of three kinds of CeO2.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Surface form of the MRF groove; (b) four profiles used for inspecting SSD; (c) profile of line AA’ and two inspectors; (d) the position difference of two inspectors in X and Y direction.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Surface morphologies as the removal depth increasing (a) 0.0μm; (b) 0.16μm; (c) 0.32μm; (d) 0.48μm; (e) 0.63μm; (f) 0.79μm; (g) 0.95μm; (h) 1.11μm.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Principle diagram of SSD measurement.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Surface morphologies of S1 (a) position A before pitch polishing; (b) position B before pitch polishing; (c) position A after pitch polishing; (b) position B after pitch polishing.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Surface morphologies of S2 (a) position A before polyurethane polishing; (b) position B before polyurethane polishing; (c) position A after polyurethane polishing; (d) position B after polyurethane polishing.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Surface morphology of S3 (a) position A before leather polishing; (b) position B before leather polishing; (c) position A after leather polishing; (d) position B after leather polishing.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Surface morphologies after polishing by pitch pad with (a) slurry 2#; (b) slurry 3#.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Surface morphologies after polishing by polyurethane pad with (a) slurry 2#; (b) slurry 3#.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Surface morphologies after polishing by leather pad with (a) slurry 2#; (b) slurry 3#.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

The surface morphologies versus pressure with leather pad and slurry 1#: (a) S10: pressure 0.05MPa; (b) S3: pressure 0.10MPa; (c) S11: pressure 0.15MPa.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

The surface morphologies versus spinning velocity of leather pad with slurry 1#: (a) S12: velocity 100rpm; (b) S3: velocity 300rpm; (c) S13: velocity 500rpm.

Fig. 16
Fig. 16

The comparison between SSD depth of fused silica polished by small tools and the law presented by Lambropoulos [18].

Fig. 17
Fig. 17

The removal map of three polishing pads in 2 min.

Fig. 18
Fig. 18

The removal rate and surface roughness (Ra value) of fused silica polished by three pads.

Tables (8)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Previous Researches on SSD Depth and SR

Tables Icon

Table 2 Configurations of Three Pads used in This Study

Tables Icon

Table 3 Configurations of Five Slurries Used in This Study

Tables Icon

Table 4 Reproducibility Experiment of SSD Depth Measurement

Tables Icon

Table 5 Parameters for Pad Material Investigation

Tables Icon

Table 6 Parameters for Abrasive Slurry Investigation

Tables Icon

Table 7 Parameters for Pressure and Velocity Investigations

Tables Icon

Table 8 SSD Depth Polished by Pitch and Polyurethane Pads

Equations (1)

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0.3 L 0.68 <SSD(μm)<2 L 0.85

Metrics