Abstract

We demonstrate an all-fiber passively Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser (EDFL) using a gold-nanosphere (GNS) based saturable absorber (SA) with evanescent field interaction. Using the interaction of evanescent field for fabricating SAs, long nonlinear interaction length of evanescent wave and GNSs can be achieved. The GNSs are synthesized from mixing solution of chloroauricacid (HAuCl4) and sodium citrate by the heating effects of the microfiber’s evanescent field radiation. The proposed passively Q-switched EDFL could give output pulses at 1562 nm with pulse width of 1.78 μs, a repetition rate of 58.1 kHz, a pulse energy of 133 nJ and a output power of 7.7 mW when pumped by a 980 nm laser diode of 237 mW.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  1. F. Kong, L. Liu, C. Sanders, Y. C. Chen, and K. K. Lee, “Phase locking of nanosecond pulses in a passively Q-switched two-element fiber laser array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 151110 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  2. P. Pérez-Millán, J. L. Cruz, and M. V. Andrés, “Active Q-switched distributed feedback erbium-doped fiber lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 011104 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  5. L. Pan, I. Utkin, and R. Fedosejevs, “Passively Q-switched ytterbium-doped double-clad fiber laser with a Cr4+: YAG saturable absorber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(24), 1979–1981 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  10. H. Liao, R. Xiao, J. Fu, P. Yu, G. Wong, and P. Sheng, “Large third-order optical nonlinearity in Au: SiO2 composite films near the percolation threshold,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1–3 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  21. Y. Cui, P. P. Shum, G. Wang, H. Chang, X. Q. Dinh, M. Jiang, and G. Humbert, “Size effect of gold nanoparticals on optical microfiber refractive index sensors,” in Proceedings of Sensor, Limerick, Ireland (IEEE, 2011), pp. 371–374.
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    [CrossRef]
  24. G. Sobon, J. Sotor, J. Jagiello, R. Kozinski, K. Librant, M. Zdrojek, L. Lipinska, and K. M. Abramski, “Linearly polarized, Q-switched Er-doped fiber laser based on reduced grapheme oxide saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 241106 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  25. Z. C. Tiu, F. Ahmad, S. J. Tan, H Ahmad, and S. W. Harun, “Passive Q-switched Erbium-doped fiber laser with graphene-polyethylene oxide saturable absorber in three different gain media,” Indian J Phys. 88(7), 727–731 (2014).
    [CrossRef]
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2014 (1)

Z. C. Tiu, F. Ahmad, S. J. Tan, H Ahmad, and S. W. Harun, “Passive Q-switched Erbium-doped fiber laser with graphene-polyethylene oxide saturable absorber in three different gain media,” Indian J Phys. 88(7), 727–731 (2014).
[CrossRef]

2013 (5)

2012 (3)

T. Jiang, Y. Xu, Q. Tian, L. Liu, Z. Kang, R. Yang, G. Qin, and W. Qin, “Passively Q-switching induced by gold nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 151122 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, Z. Luo, M. Zhou, C. Ye, H. Fu, Z. Cai, H. Cheng, H. Xu, and W. Qi, “Evanescent-light deposition of graphene onto tapered fibers for passive Q-switch and mode-locker,” IEEE Photon. J. 4(5), 1295–1305 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. Sobon, J. Sotor, J. Jagiello, R. Kozinski, K. Librant, M. Zdrojek, L. Lipinska, and K. M. Abramski, “Linearly polarized, Q-switched Er-doped fiber laser based on reduced grapheme oxide saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 241106 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (3)

2010 (3)

D. Zhou, L. Wei, B. Dong, and W. Liu, “Tunable passively Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser with carbon nanotubes as a saturable absorber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(1), 9–11 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Amos, K. Fuse, B. Xu, and S. Yamashita, “Optical deposition of graphene and carbon nanotubes in a fiber ferrule for passive mode-locked lasing,” Opt. Express 18(22), 23054–23061 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Dong, J. Hao, J. Hu, and C. Liaw, “Wide pulse-repetition-rate range tunable nanotube-switched low threshold erbium-doped fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(24), 1853–1855 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

2007 (3)

L. Pan, I. Utkin, and R. Fedosejevs, “Passively Q-switched ytterbium-doped double-clad fiber laser with a Cr4+: YAG saturable absorber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(24), 1979–1981 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. Kong, L. Liu, C. Sanders, Y. C. Chen, and K. K. Lee, “Phase locking of nanosecond pulses in a passively Q-switched two-element fiber laser array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 151110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. Huang, W. Qian, I. H. El-Sayed, and M. A. El-sayed, “The potential use of the enhanced nonlinear properties of gold nanospheres in photothermal cancer therapy,” Lasers Med. Sci. 39, 747–753 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

K. Tsuboi, S. Fukuba, M. Shimojo, M. Tanaka, K. Furuya, K. Fujita, and K. Kajikawa, “Second-harmonic spectroscopy of surface immobilized gold nanospheres above a gold surface supported by self-assembled monolayers,” J. Chem. Phys. 125, 174703 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

M. B. Mohamed and M. A. El-Sayed, “Femtosecond excitation dynamics in gold nanospheres and nanorods,” Phys. Rev. B 72, 235405 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. Pérez-Millán, J. L. Cruz, and M. V. Andrés, “Active Q-switched distributed feedback erbium-doped fiber lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 011104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

H. Liao, R. Xiao, J. Fu, P. Yu, G. Wong, and P. Sheng, “Large third-order optical nonlinearity in Au: SiO2 composite films near the percolation threshold,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1–3 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

T. A. Birks and Y. W. Li, “The shape of fiber tapers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10(4), 432–438 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Abramski, K. M.

G. Sobon, J. Sotor, J. Jagiello, R. Kozinski, K. Librant, M. Zdrojek, L. Lipinska, and K. M. Abramski, “Linearly polarized, Q-switched Er-doped fiber laser based on reduced grapheme oxide saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 241106 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ahmad, F.

Z. C. Tiu, F. Ahmad, S. J. Tan, H Ahmad, and S. W. Harun, “Passive Q-switched Erbium-doped fiber laser with graphene-polyethylene oxide saturable absorber in three different gain media,” Indian J Phys. 88(7), 727–731 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Ahmad, H

Z. C. Tiu, F. Ahmad, S. J. Tan, H Ahmad, and S. W. Harun, “Passive Q-switched Erbium-doped fiber laser with graphene-polyethylene oxide saturable absorber in three different gain media,” Indian J Phys. 88(7), 727–731 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Amos, M.

Andrés, M. V.

P. Pérez-Millán, J. L. Cruz, and M. V. Andrés, “Active Q-switched distributed feedback erbium-doped fiber lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 011104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Birks, T. A.

T. A. Birks and Y. W. Li, “The shape of fiber tapers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10(4), 432–438 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Cai, Z.

J. Wang, Z. Luo, M. Zhou, C. Ye, H. Fu, Z. Cai, H. Cheng, H. Xu, and W. Qi, “Evanescent-light deposition of graphene onto tapered fibers for passive Q-switch and mode-locker,” IEEE Photon. J. 4(5), 1295–1305 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Cao, J.

Chang, H.

Y. Cui, P. P. Shum, G. Wang, H. Chang, X. Q. Dinh, M. Jiang, and G. Humbert, “Size effect of gold nanoparticals on optical microfiber refractive index sensors,” in Proceedings of Sensor, Limerick, Ireland (IEEE, 2011), pp. 371–374.

Chang, H. L.

Chen, Y. C.

F. Kong, L. Liu, C. Sanders, Y. C. Chen, and K. K. Lee, “Phase locking of nanosecond pulses in a passively Q-switched two-element fiber laser array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 151110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y. F.

Cheng, H.

J. Wang, Z. Luo, M. Zhou, C. Ye, H. Fu, Z. Cai, H. Cheng, H. Xu, and W. Qi, “Evanescent-light deposition of graphene onto tapered fibers for passive Q-switch and mode-locker,” IEEE Photon. J. 4(5), 1295–1305 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chow, K.

H. Liu, K. Chow, S. Yamashita, and S. Set, “Carbon-nanotube-based passively Q-switched fiber laser for high energy pulse generation,” Opt. Laser Technol. 45, 713–716 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Cruz, J. L.

P. Pérez-Millán, J. L. Cruz, and M. V. Andrés, “Active Q-switched distributed feedback erbium-doped fiber lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 011104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cui, Y.

Y. Cui, P. P. Shum, G. Wang, H. Chang, X. Q. Dinh, M. Jiang, and G. Humbert, “Size effect of gold nanoparticals on optical microfiber refractive index sensors,” in Proceedings of Sensor, Limerick, Ireland (IEEE, 2011), pp. 371–374.

Dinh, X. Q.

Y. Cui, P. P. Shum, G. Wang, H. Chang, X. Q. Dinh, M. Jiang, and G. Humbert, “Size effect of gold nanoparticals on optical microfiber refractive index sensors,” in Proceedings of Sensor, Limerick, Ireland (IEEE, 2011), pp. 371–374.

Dong, B.

B. Dong, J. Hu, C. Liaw, J. Hao, and C. Yu, “Wideband-tunable nanotube Q-switched low threshold erbium doped fiber laser,” Appl. Opt. 50(10), 1442–1445 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Dong, J. Hao, J. Hu, and C. Liaw, “Wide pulse-repetition-rate range tunable nanotube-switched low threshold erbium-doped fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(24), 1853–1855 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Zhou, L. Wei, B. Dong, and W. Liu, “Tunable passively Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser with carbon nanotubes as a saturable absorber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(1), 9–11 (2010).
[CrossRef]

El-Sayed, I. H.

X. Huang, W. Qian, I. H. El-Sayed, and M. A. El-sayed, “The potential use of the enhanced nonlinear properties of gold nanospheres in photothermal cancer therapy,” Lasers Med. Sci. 39, 747–753 (2007).
[CrossRef]

El-sayed, M. A.

X. Huang, W. Qian, I. H. El-Sayed, and M. A. El-sayed, “The potential use of the enhanced nonlinear properties of gold nanospheres in photothermal cancer therapy,” Lasers Med. Sci. 39, 747–753 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. B. Mohamed and M. A. El-Sayed, “Femtosecond excitation dynamics in gold nanospheres and nanorods,” Phys. Rev. B 72, 235405 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fan, Q.

Fedosejevs, R.

L. Pan, I. Utkin, and R. Fedosejevs, “Passively Q-switched ytterbium-doped double-clad fiber laser with a Cr4+: YAG saturable absorber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(24), 1979–1981 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Feng, Y.

Z. Kang, Y. Xu, L. Zhang, Z. Jia, L. Liu, D. Zhao, Y. Feng, G. Qin, and W. Qin, “Passively mode-locking induced by gold nanorods in erbium-doped fiber lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 041105 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Fu, H.

J. Wang, Z. Luo, M. Zhou, C. Ye, H. Fu, Z. Cai, H. Cheng, H. Xu, and W. Qi, “Evanescent-light deposition of graphene onto tapered fibers for passive Q-switch and mode-locker,” IEEE Photon. J. 4(5), 1295–1305 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Fu, J.

H. Liao, R. Xiao, J. Fu, P. Yu, G. Wong, and P. Sheng, “Large third-order optical nonlinearity in Au: SiO2 composite films near the percolation threshold,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1–3 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fujita, K.

K. Tsuboi, S. Fukuba, M. Shimojo, M. Tanaka, K. Furuya, K. Fujita, and K. Kajikawa, “Second-harmonic spectroscopy of surface immobilized gold nanospheres above a gold surface supported by self-assembled monolayers,” J. Chem. Phys. 125, 174703 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fukuba, S.

K. Tsuboi, S. Fukuba, M. Shimojo, M. Tanaka, K. Furuya, K. Fujita, and K. Kajikawa, “Second-harmonic spectroscopy of surface immobilized gold nanospheres above a gold surface supported by self-assembled monolayers,” J. Chem. Phys. 125, 174703 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Furuya, K.

K. Tsuboi, S. Fukuba, M. Shimojo, M. Tanaka, K. Furuya, K. Fujita, and K. Kajikawa, “Second-harmonic spectroscopy of surface immobilized gold nanospheres above a gold surface supported by self-assembled monolayers,” J. Chem. Phys. 125, 174703 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fuse, K.

Guo, X.

Hao, J.

B. Dong, J. Hu, C. Liaw, J. Hao, and C. Yu, “Wideband-tunable nanotube Q-switched low threshold erbium doped fiber laser,” Appl. Opt. 50(10), 1442–1445 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Dong, J. Hao, J. Hu, and C. Liaw, “Wide pulse-repetition-rate range tunable nanotube-switched low threshold erbium-doped fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(24), 1853–1855 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hao, X.

Harun, S. W.

Z. C. Tiu, F. Ahmad, S. J. Tan, H Ahmad, and S. W. Harun, “Passive Q-switched Erbium-doped fiber laser with graphene-polyethylene oxide saturable absorber in three different gain media,” Indian J Phys. 88(7), 727–731 (2014).
[CrossRef]

He, J.

Hu, J.

B. Dong, J. Hu, C. Liaw, J. Hao, and C. Yu, “Wideband-tunable nanotube Q-switched low threshold erbium doped fiber laser,” Appl. Opt. 50(10), 1442–1445 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Dong, J. Hao, J. Hu, and C. Liaw, “Wide pulse-repetition-rate range tunable nanotube-switched low threshold erbium-doped fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(24), 1853–1855 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Huang, J. Y.

Huang, K. F.

Huang, S. C.

Huang, X.

X. Huang, W. Qian, I. H. El-Sayed, and M. A. El-sayed, “The potential use of the enhanced nonlinear properties of gold nanospheres in photothermal cancer therapy,” Lasers Med. Sci. 39, 747–753 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Humbert, G.

Y. Cui, P. P. Shum, G. Wang, H. Chang, X. Q. Dinh, M. Jiang, and G. Humbert, “Size effect of gold nanoparticals on optical microfiber refractive index sensors,” in Proceedings of Sensor, Limerick, Ireland (IEEE, 2011), pp. 371–374.

Jagiello, J.

G. Sobon, J. Sotor, J. Jagiello, R. Kozinski, K. Librant, M. Zdrojek, L. Lipinska, and K. M. Abramski, “Linearly polarized, Q-switched Er-doped fiber laser based on reduced grapheme oxide saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 241106 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Jia, Z.

Z. Kang, Y. Xu, L. Zhang, Z. Jia, L. Liu, D. Zhao, Y. Feng, G. Qin, and W. Qin, “Passively mode-locking induced by gold nanorods in erbium-doped fiber lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 041105 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Z. Kang, X. Guo, Z. Jia, Y. Xu, L. Liu, D. Zhao, G. Qin, and W. Qin, “Gold nanorods as saturable absorbers for all-fiber passively Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Mater. Express 3(11), 1986–1991 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, M.

Y. Cui, P. P. Shum, G. Wang, H. Chang, X. Q. Dinh, M. Jiang, and G. Humbert, “Size effect of gold nanoparticals on optical microfiber refractive index sensors,” in Proceedings of Sensor, Limerick, Ireland (IEEE, 2011), pp. 371–374.

Jiang, T.

T. Jiang, Z. Kang, G. Qin, J. Zhou, and W. Qin, “Low mode-locking threshold induced by surface plasmon field enhancement of gold nanoparticles,” Opt. Express 21(23), 27992–28000 (2013).
[CrossRef]

T. Jiang, Y. Xu, Q. Tian, L. Liu, Z. Kang, R. Yang, G. Qin, and W. Qin, “Passively Q-switching induced by gold nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 151122 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kajikawa, K.

K. Tsuboi, S. Fukuba, M. Shimojo, M. Tanaka, K. Furuya, K. Fujita, and K. Kajikawa, “Second-harmonic spectroscopy of surface immobilized gold nanospheres above a gold surface supported by self-assembled monolayers,” J. Chem. Phys. 125, 174703 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kang, Z.

T. Jiang, Z. Kang, G. Qin, J. Zhou, and W. Qin, “Low mode-locking threshold induced by surface plasmon field enhancement of gold nanoparticles,” Opt. Express 21(23), 27992–28000 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Z. Kang, Y. Xu, L. Zhang, Z. Jia, L. Liu, D. Zhao, Y. Feng, G. Qin, and W. Qin, “Passively mode-locking induced by gold nanorods in erbium-doped fiber lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 041105 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Z. Kang, X. Guo, Z. Jia, Y. Xu, L. Liu, D. Zhao, G. Qin, and W. Qin, “Gold nanorods as saturable absorbers for all-fiber passively Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Mater. Express 3(11), 1986–1991 (2013).
[CrossRef]

T. Jiang, Y. Xu, Q. Tian, L. Liu, Z. Kang, R. Yang, G. Qin, and W. Qin, “Passively Q-switching induced by gold nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 151122 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kong, F.

F. Kong, L. Liu, C. Sanders, Y. C. Chen, and K. K. Lee, “Phase locking of nanosecond pulses in a passively Q-switched two-element fiber laser array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 151110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kozinski, R.

G. Sobon, J. Sotor, J. Jagiello, R. Kozinski, K. Librant, M. Zdrojek, L. Lipinska, and K. M. Abramski, “Linearly polarized, Q-switched Er-doped fiber laser based on reduced grapheme oxide saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 241106 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K. K.

F. Kong, L. Liu, C. Sanders, Y. C. Chen, and K. K. Lee, “Phase locking of nanosecond pulses in a passively Q-switched two-element fiber laser array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 151110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Li, X.

Li, Y. W.

T. A. Birks and Y. W. Li, “The shape of fiber tapers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10(4), 432–438 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Liao, H.

H. Liao, R. Xiao, J. Fu, P. Yu, G. Wong, and P. Sheng, “Large third-order optical nonlinearity in Au: SiO2 composite films near the percolation threshold,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1–3 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Liaw, C.

B. Dong, J. Hu, C. Liaw, J. Hao, and C. Yu, “Wideband-tunable nanotube Q-switched low threshold erbium doped fiber laser,” Appl. Opt. 50(10), 1442–1445 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Dong, J. Hao, J. Hu, and C. Liaw, “Wide pulse-repetition-rate range tunable nanotube-switched low threshold erbium-doped fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(24), 1853–1855 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Librant, K.

G. Sobon, J. Sotor, J. Jagiello, R. Kozinski, K. Librant, M. Zdrojek, L. Lipinska, and K. M. Abramski, “Linearly polarized, Q-switched Er-doped fiber laser based on reduced grapheme oxide saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 241106 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lipinska, L.

G. Sobon, J. Sotor, J. Jagiello, R. Kozinski, K. Librant, M. Zdrojek, L. Lipinska, and K. M. Abramski, “Linearly polarized, Q-switched Er-doped fiber laser based on reduced grapheme oxide saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 241106 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Liu, H.

H. Liu, K. Chow, S. Yamashita, and S. Set, “Carbon-nanotube-based passively Q-switched fiber laser for high energy pulse generation,” Opt. Laser Technol. 45, 713–716 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J.

Liu, L.

Z. Kang, Y. Xu, L. Zhang, Z. Jia, L. Liu, D. Zhao, Y. Feng, G. Qin, and W. Qin, “Passively mode-locking induced by gold nanorods in erbium-doped fiber lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 041105 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Z. Kang, X. Guo, Z. Jia, Y. Xu, L. Liu, D. Zhao, G. Qin, and W. Qin, “Gold nanorods as saturable absorbers for all-fiber passively Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Mater. Express 3(11), 1986–1991 (2013).
[CrossRef]

T. Jiang, Y. Xu, Q. Tian, L. Liu, Z. Kang, R. Yang, G. Qin, and W. Qin, “Passively Q-switching induced by gold nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 151122 (2012).
[CrossRef]

F. Kong, L. Liu, C. Sanders, Y. C. Chen, and K. K. Lee, “Phase locking of nanosecond pulses in a passively Q-switched two-element fiber laser array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 151110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liu, W.

D. Zhou, L. Wei, B. Dong, and W. Liu, “Tunable passively Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser with carbon nanotubes as a saturable absorber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(1), 9–11 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.

Luo, Z.

J. Wang, Z. Luo, M. Zhou, C. Ye, H. Fu, Z. Cai, H. Cheng, H. Xu, and W. Qi, “Evanescent-light deposition of graphene onto tapered fibers for passive Q-switch and mode-locker,” IEEE Photon. J. 4(5), 1295–1305 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Mao, Q.

Mohamed, M. B.

M. B. Mohamed and M. A. El-Sayed, “Femtosecond excitation dynamics in gold nanospheres and nanorods,” Phys. Rev. B 72, 235405 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Oh, K.

W. Shin and K. Oh, “Analysis and Measurement of the OH absorption induced loss in a tapered single mode optical fiber,” in Proceedings of Conference of Lasers and Electro-Optics (IEEE, 2002), pp. 237–238.

Pan, L.

L. Pan, I. Utkin, and R. Fedosejevs, “Passively Q-switched ytterbium-doped double-clad fiber laser with a Cr4+: YAG saturable absorber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(24), 1979–1981 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pérez-Millán, P.

P. Pérez-Millán, J. L. Cruz, and M. V. Andrés, “Active Q-switched distributed feedback erbium-doped fiber lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 011104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Qi, W.

J. Wang, Z. Luo, M. Zhou, C. Ye, H. Fu, Z. Cai, H. Cheng, H. Xu, and W. Qi, “Evanescent-light deposition of graphene onto tapered fibers for passive Q-switch and mode-locker,” IEEE Photon. J. 4(5), 1295–1305 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Qian, W.

X. Huang, W. Qian, I. H. El-Sayed, and M. A. El-sayed, “The potential use of the enhanced nonlinear properties of gold nanospheres in photothermal cancer therapy,” Lasers Med. Sci. 39, 747–753 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Qin, G.

Z. Kang, X. Guo, Z. Jia, Y. Xu, L. Liu, D. Zhao, G. Qin, and W. Qin, “Gold nanorods as saturable absorbers for all-fiber passively Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Mater. Express 3(11), 1986–1991 (2013).
[CrossRef]

T. Jiang, Z. Kang, G. Qin, J. Zhou, and W. Qin, “Low mode-locking threshold induced by surface plasmon field enhancement of gold nanoparticles,” Opt. Express 21(23), 27992–28000 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Z. Kang, Y. Xu, L. Zhang, Z. Jia, L. Liu, D. Zhao, Y. Feng, G. Qin, and W. Qin, “Passively mode-locking induced by gold nanorods in erbium-doped fiber lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 041105 (2013).
[CrossRef]

T. Jiang, Y. Xu, Q. Tian, L. Liu, Z. Kang, R. Yang, G. Qin, and W. Qin, “Passively Q-switching induced by gold nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 151122 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Qin, W.

Z. Kang, X. Guo, Z. Jia, Y. Xu, L. Liu, D. Zhao, G. Qin, and W. Qin, “Gold nanorods as saturable absorbers for all-fiber passively Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Mater. Express 3(11), 1986–1991 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Z. Kang, Y. Xu, L. Zhang, Z. Jia, L. Liu, D. Zhao, Y. Feng, G. Qin, and W. Qin, “Passively mode-locking induced by gold nanorods in erbium-doped fiber lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 041105 (2013).
[CrossRef]

T. Jiang, Z. Kang, G. Qin, J. Zhou, and W. Qin, “Low mode-locking threshold induced by surface plasmon field enhancement of gold nanoparticles,” Opt. Express 21(23), 27992–28000 (2013).
[CrossRef]

T. Jiang, Y. Xu, Q. Tian, L. Liu, Z. Kang, R. Yang, G. Qin, and W. Qin, “Passively Q-switching induced by gold nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 151122 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Sanders, C.

F. Kong, L. Liu, C. Sanders, Y. C. Chen, and K. K. Lee, “Phase locking of nanosecond pulses in a passively Q-switched two-element fiber laser array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 151110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Set, S.

H. Liu, K. Chow, S. Yamashita, and S. Set, “Carbon-nanotube-based passively Q-switched fiber laser for high energy pulse generation,” Opt. Laser Technol. 45, 713–716 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Sheng, P.

H. Liao, R. Xiao, J. Fu, P. Yu, G. Wong, and P. Sheng, “Large third-order optical nonlinearity in Au: SiO2 composite films near the percolation threshold,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1–3 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Shimojo, M.

K. Tsuboi, S. Fukuba, M. Shimojo, M. Tanaka, K. Furuya, K. Fujita, and K. Kajikawa, “Second-harmonic spectroscopy of surface immobilized gold nanospheres above a gold surface supported by self-assembled monolayers,” J. Chem. Phys. 125, 174703 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shin, W.

W. Shin and K. Oh, “Analysis and Measurement of the OH absorption induced loss in a tapered single mode optical fiber,” in Proceedings of Conference of Lasers and Electro-Optics (IEEE, 2002), pp. 237–238.

Shum, P. P.

Y. Cui, P. P. Shum, G. Wang, H. Chang, X. Q. Dinh, M. Jiang, and G. Humbert, “Size effect of gold nanoparticals on optical microfiber refractive index sensors,” in Proceedings of Sensor, Limerick, Ireland (IEEE, 2011), pp. 371–374.

Sida, W.

Sobon, G.

G. Sobon, J. Sotor, J. Jagiello, R. Kozinski, K. Librant, M. Zdrojek, L. Lipinska, and K. M. Abramski, “Linearly polarized, Q-switched Er-doped fiber laser based on reduced grapheme oxide saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 241106 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Sotor, J.

G. Sobon, J. Sotor, J. Jagiello, R. Kozinski, K. Librant, M. Zdrojek, L. Lipinska, and K. M. Abramski, “Linearly polarized, Q-switched Er-doped fiber laser based on reduced grapheme oxide saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 241106 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Su, K. W.

Tan, S. J.

Z. C. Tiu, F. Ahmad, S. J. Tan, H Ahmad, and S. W. Harun, “Passive Q-switched Erbium-doped fiber laser with graphene-polyethylene oxide saturable absorber in three different gain media,” Indian J Phys. 88(7), 727–731 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, M.

K. Tsuboi, S. Fukuba, M. Shimojo, M. Tanaka, K. Furuya, K. Fujita, and K. Kajikawa, “Second-harmonic spectroscopy of surface immobilized gold nanospheres above a gold surface supported by self-assembled monolayers,” J. Chem. Phys. 125, 174703 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tian, Q.

T. Jiang, Y. Xu, Q. Tian, L. Liu, Z. Kang, R. Yang, G. Qin, and W. Qin, “Passively Q-switching induced by gold nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 151122 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Tiu, Z. C.

Z. C. Tiu, F. Ahmad, S. J. Tan, H Ahmad, and S. W. Harun, “Passive Q-switched Erbium-doped fiber laser with graphene-polyethylene oxide saturable absorber in three different gain media,” Indian J Phys. 88(7), 727–731 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Tsuboi, K.

K. Tsuboi, S. Fukuba, M. Shimojo, M. Tanaka, K. Furuya, K. Fujita, and K. Kajikawa, “Second-harmonic spectroscopy of surface immobilized gold nanospheres above a gold surface supported by self-assembled monolayers,” J. Chem. Phys. 125, 174703 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Utkin, I.

L. Pan, I. Utkin, and R. Fedosejevs, “Passively Q-switched ytterbium-doped double-clad fiber laser with a Cr4+: YAG saturable absorber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(24), 1979–1981 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wang, G.

Y. Cui, P. P. Shum, G. Wang, H. Chang, X. Q. Dinh, M. Jiang, and G. Humbert, “Size effect of gold nanoparticals on optical microfiber refractive index sensors,” in Proceedings of Sensor, Limerick, Ireland (IEEE, 2011), pp. 371–374.

Wang, J.

J. Wang, Z. Luo, M. Zhou, C. Ye, H. Fu, Z. Cai, H. Cheng, H. Xu, and W. Qi, “Evanescent-light deposition of graphene onto tapered fibers for passive Q-switch and mode-locker,” IEEE Photon. J. 4(5), 1295–1305 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wang, P.

Wei, L.

D. Zhou, L. Wei, B. Dong, and W. Liu, “Tunable passively Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser with carbon nanotubes as a saturable absorber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(1), 9–11 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wong, G.

H. Liao, R. Xiao, J. Fu, P. Yu, G. Wong, and P. Sheng, “Large third-order optical nonlinearity in Au: SiO2 composite films near the percolation threshold,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1–3 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Y.

Xiao, R.

H. Liao, R. Xiao, J. Fu, P. Yu, G. Wong, and P. Sheng, “Large third-order optical nonlinearity in Au: SiO2 composite films near the percolation threshold,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1–3 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Xu, B.

Xu, H.

J. Wang, Z. Luo, M. Zhou, C. Ye, H. Fu, Z. Cai, H. Cheng, H. Xu, and W. Qi, “Evanescent-light deposition of graphene onto tapered fibers for passive Q-switch and mode-locker,” IEEE Photon. J. 4(5), 1295–1305 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Xu, J.

Xu, Y.

Z. Kang, X. Guo, Z. Jia, Y. Xu, L. Liu, D. Zhao, G. Qin, and W. Qin, “Gold nanorods as saturable absorbers for all-fiber passively Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Mater. Express 3(11), 1986–1991 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Z. Kang, Y. Xu, L. Zhang, Z. Jia, L. Liu, D. Zhao, Y. Feng, G. Qin, and W. Qin, “Passively mode-locking induced by gold nanorods in erbium-doped fiber lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 041105 (2013).
[CrossRef]

T. Jiang, Y. Xu, Q. Tian, L. Liu, Z. Kang, R. Yang, G. Qin, and W. Qin, “Passively Q-switching induced by gold nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 151122 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yamashita, S.

H. Liu, K. Chow, S. Yamashita, and S. Set, “Carbon-nanotube-based passively Q-switched fiber laser for high energy pulse generation,” Opt. Laser Technol. 45, 713–716 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. Amos, K. Fuse, B. Xu, and S. Yamashita, “Optical deposition of graphene and carbon nanotubes in a fiber ferrule for passive mode-locked lasing,” Opt. Express 18(22), 23054–23061 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yang, K.

Yang, Q.

Yang, R.

T. Jiang, Y. Xu, Q. Tian, L. Liu, Z. Kang, R. Yang, G. Qin, and W. Qin, “Passively Q-switching induced by gold nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 151122 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yao, B.

Ye, C.

J. Wang, Z. Luo, M. Zhou, C. Ye, H. Fu, Z. Cai, H. Cheng, H. Xu, and W. Qi, “Evanescent-light deposition of graphene onto tapered fibers for passive Q-switch and mode-locker,” IEEE Photon. J. 4(5), 1295–1305 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yu, C.

Yu, P.

H. Liao, R. Xiao, J. Fu, P. Yu, G. Wong, and P. Sheng, “Large third-order optical nonlinearity in Au: SiO2 composite films near the percolation threshold,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1–3 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Zdrojek, M.

G. Sobon, J. Sotor, J. Jagiello, R. Kozinski, K. Librant, M. Zdrojek, L. Lipinska, and K. M. Abramski, “Linearly polarized, Q-switched Er-doped fiber laser based on reduced grapheme oxide saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 241106 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L.

Z. Kang, Y. Xu, L. Zhang, Z. Jia, L. Liu, D. Zhao, Y. Feng, G. Qin, and W. Qin, “Passively mode-locking induced by gold nanorods in erbium-doped fiber lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 041105 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, D.

Z. Kang, Y. Xu, L. Zhang, Z. Jia, L. Liu, D. Zhao, Y. Feng, G. Qin, and W. Qin, “Passively mode-locking induced by gold nanorods in erbium-doped fiber lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 041105 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Z. Kang, X. Guo, Z. Jia, Y. Xu, L. Liu, D. Zhao, G. Qin, and W. Qin, “Gold nanorods as saturable absorbers for all-fiber passively Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Mater. Express 3(11), 1986–1991 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, D.

D. Zhou, L. Wei, B. Dong, and W. Liu, “Tunable passively Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser with carbon nanotubes as a saturable absorber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(1), 9–11 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, J.

Zhou, M.

J. Wang, Z. Luo, M. Zhou, C. Ye, H. Fu, Z. Cai, H. Cheng, H. Xu, and W. Qi, “Evanescent-light deposition of graphene onto tapered fibers for passive Q-switch and mode-locker,” IEEE Photon. J. 4(5), 1295–1305 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (6)

H. Liao, R. Xiao, J. Fu, P. Yu, G. Wong, and P. Sheng, “Large third-order optical nonlinearity in Au: SiO2 composite films near the percolation threshold,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1–3 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. Jiang, Y. Xu, Q. Tian, L. Liu, Z. Kang, R. Yang, G. Qin, and W. Qin, “Passively Q-switching induced by gold nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 151122 (2012).
[CrossRef]

F. Kong, L. Liu, C. Sanders, Y. C. Chen, and K. K. Lee, “Phase locking of nanosecond pulses in a passively Q-switched two-element fiber laser array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 151110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Pérez-Millán, J. L. Cruz, and M. V. Andrés, “Active Q-switched distributed feedback erbium-doped fiber lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 011104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Z. Kang, Y. Xu, L. Zhang, Z. Jia, L. Liu, D. Zhao, Y. Feng, G. Qin, and W. Qin, “Passively mode-locking induced by gold nanorods in erbium-doped fiber lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 041105 (2013).
[CrossRef]

G. Sobon, J. Sotor, J. Jagiello, R. Kozinski, K. Librant, M. Zdrojek, L. Lipinska, and K. M. Abramski, “Linearly polarized, Q-switched Er-doped fiber laser based on reduced grapheme oxide saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 241106 (2012).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. J. (1)

J. Wang, Z. Luo, M. Zhou, C. Ye, H. Fu, Z. Cai, H. Cheng, H. Xu, and W. Qi, “Evanescent-light deposition of graphene onto tapered fibers for passive Q-switch and mode-locker,” IEEE Photon. J. 4(5), 1295–1305 (2012).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

D. Zhou, L. Wei, B. Dong, and W. Liu, “Tunable passively Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser with carbon nanotubes as a saturable absorber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(1), 9–11 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Pan, I. Utkin, and R. Fedosejevs, “Passively Q-switched ytterbium-doped double-clad fiber laser with a Cr4+: YAG saturable absorber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(24), 1979–1981 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Dong, J. Hao, J. Hu, and C. Liaw, “Wide pulse-repetition-rate range tunable nanotube-switched low threshold erbium-doped fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(24), 1853–1855 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Indian J Phys. (1)

Z. C. Tiu, F. Ahmad, S. J. Tan, H Ahmad, and S. W. Harun, “Passive Q-switched Erbium-doped fiber laser with graphene-polyethylene oxide saturable absorber in three different gain media,” Indian J Phys. 88(7), 727–731 (2014).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

K. Tsuboi, S. Fukuba, M. Shimojo, M. Tanaka, K. Furuya, K. Fujita, and K. Kajikawa, “Second-harmonic spectroscopy of surface immobilized gold nanospheres above a gold surface supported by self-assembled monolayers,” J. Chem. Phys. 125, 174703 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

T. A. Birks and Y. W. Li, “The shape of fiber tapers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10(4), 432–438 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Lasers Med. Sci. (1)

X. Huang, W. Qian, I. H. El-Sayed, and M. A. El-sayed, “The potential use of the enhanced nonlinear properties of gold nanospheres in photothermal cancer therapy,” Lasers Med. Sci. 39, 747–753 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Laser Technol. (1)

H. Liu, K. Chow, S. Yamashita, and S. Set, “Carbon-nanotube-based passively Q-switched fiber laser for high energy pulse generation,” Opt. Laser Technol. 45, 713–716 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Opt. Mater. Express (1)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

M. B. Mohamed and M. A. El-Sayed, “Femtosecond excitation dynamics in gold nanospheres and nanorods,” Phys. Rev. B 72, 235405 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

Y. Cui, P. P. Shum, G. Wang, H. Chang, X. Q. Dinh, M. Jiang, and G. Humbert, “Size effect of gold nanoparticals on optical microfiber refractive index sensors,” in Proceedings of Sensor, Limerick, Ireland (IEEE, 2011), pp. 371–374.

W. Shin and K. Oh, “Analysis and Measurement of the OH absorption induced loss in a tapered single mode optical fiber,” in Proceedings of Conference of Lasers and Electro-Optics (IEEE, 2002), pp. 237–238.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The same microfiber under different states. (a) The evanescent field of the microfiber by injecting a red light. (b) The stronger evanescent field radiation of the injecting red light after depositing GNSs. (c) SEM image of the GNSs deposited on the surface of the microfiber. The insertion is the microfiber deposited with GNSs.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) The transmissions of the microfiber before and after deposition of GNSs. (b) The modulation depth of the GNS-based SA.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The schematic of the passively Q-switched EDFL with the GNS-based SA.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) The spectrum of the Q-switched pulses with the 3dB bandwidth of 1.69 nm. (b) The pulse train with the repetition rate of 42.7 kHz. (c) The profile of the Q-switched pulse.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) The pulse width and the repetition rate varies with the increasing pump power. (b) The average output power and the single pulse energy changes with the increasing pump power.

Metrics