Abstract

X-ray microscopy is a successful technique with applications in several key fields. Fresnel zone plates (FZPs) have been the optical elements driving its success, especially in the soft X-ray range. However, focusing of hard X-rays via FZPs remains a challenge. It is demonstrated here, that two multilayer type FZPs, delivered from the same multilayer deposit, focus both hard and soft X-rays with high fidelity. The results prove that these lenses can achieve at least 21 nm half-pitch resolution at 1.2 keV demonstrated by direct imaging, and sub-30 nm FWHM (full-pitch) resolution at 7.9 keV, deduced from autocorrelation analysis. Reported FZPs had more than 10% diffraction efficiency near 1.5 keV.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. J. Vila-Comamala, Y. Pan, J. J. Lombardo, W. M. Harris, W. K. S. Chiu, C. David, and Y. Wang, “Zone-doubled Fresnel zone plates for high-resolution hard X-ray full-field transmission microscopy,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 19(5), 705–709 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. E. Zschech, C. Wyon, C. E. Murray, and G. Schneider, “Devices, materials, and processes for nanoelectronics: characterization with advanced x‐ray techniques using lab‐based and synchrotron radiation sources,” Adv. Eng. Mater. 13(8), 811–836 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. Bisig, M. Stärk, M.-A. Mawass, C. Moutafis, J. Rhensius, J. Heidler, F. Büttner, M. Noske, M. Weigand, S. Eisebitt, T. Tyliszczak, B. Van Waeyenberge, H. Stoll, G. Schütz, and M. Kläui, “Correlation between spin structure oscillations and domain wall velocities,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2328 (2013).
  4. M. Kammerer, H. Stoll, M. Noske, M. Sproll, M. Weigand, C. Illg, G. Woltersdorf, M. Fähnle, C. Back, and G. Schütz, “Fast spin-wave-mediated magnetic vortex core reversal,” Phys. Rev. B 86(13), 134426 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. Kirz and C. Jacobsen, “The history and future of X-ray microscopy,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 186, 012001 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  6. P. Kirkpatrick and A. V. Baez, “Formation of optical images by X-Rays,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 38(9), 766–774 (1948).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. S. Matsuyama, T. Wakioka, N. Kidani, T. Kimura, H. Mimura, Y. Sano, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, K. Tamasaku, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “One-dimensional Wolter optics with a sub-50 nm spatial resolution,” Opt. Lett. 35(21), 3583–3585 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. K. Yamauchi, H. Mimura, T. Kimura, H. Yumoto, S. Handa, S. Matsuyama, K. Arima, Y. Sano, K. Yamamura, K. Inagaki, H. Nakamori, J. Kim, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, and T. Ishikawa, “Single-nanometer focusing of hard x-rays by Kirkpatrick-Baez mirrors,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 23(39), 394206 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. S. Matsuyama, N. Kidani, H. Mimura, Y. Sano, Y. Kohmura, K. Tamasaku, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Hard-X-ray imaging optics based on four aspherical mirrors with 50 nm resolution,” Opt. Express 20(9), 10310–10319 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. D. T. Attwood, Soft X-rays and Extreme Ultraviolet Radiation: Principles and Applications (Cambridge University Press, 2000).
  11. J. Kirz, “Phase zone plates for x rays and the extreme uv,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 64(3), 301–309 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. Maser and G. Schmahl, “Coupled wave description of the diffraction by zone plates with high aspect ratios,” Opt. Commun. 89(2-4), 355–362 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  13. G. Schneider, S. Rehbein, and S. Werner, “Volume Effects in Zone Plates,” in Modern Developments in X-Ray and Neutron Optics, A. Erko, M. Idir, T. Krist, and A. Michette, eds. (Springer Berlin / Heidelberg, 2008), pp. 137–171.
  14. S. Werner, S. Rehbein, P. Guttmann, and G. Schneider, “3-D structured on-chip stacked zone plates for nanoscale X-ray imaging with high efficiency,” Nano Res. 7, 1–8 (2014).
    [CrossRef]
  15. K. Keskinbora, A.-L. Robisch, M. Mayer, C. Grévent, A. V. Szeghalmi, M. Knez, M. Weigand, I. Snigireva, A. Snigirev, T. Salditt, and G. Schütz, “Recent advances in use of atomic layer deposition and focused ion beams for fabrication of Fresnel zone plates for hard x-rays,” Proc. SPIE 8851, 885119 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  16. Y.-T. Chen, T.-N. Lo, Y. S. Chu, J. Yi, C.-J. Liu, J.-Y. Wang, C.-L. Wang, C.-W. Chiu, T.-E. Hua, Y. Hwu, Q. Shen, G.-C. Yin, K. S. Liang, H.-M. Lin, J. H. Je, and G. Margaritondo, “Full-field hard x-ray microscopy below 30 nm: a challenging nanofabrication achievement,” Nanotechnology 19(39), 395302 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. H. Yan, V. Rose, D. Shu, E. Lima, H. C. Kang, R. Conley, C. Liu, N. Jahedi, A. T. Macrander, G. B. Stephenson, M. Holt, Y. S. Chu, M. Lu, and J. Maser, “Two dimensional hard x-ray nanofocusing with crossed multilayer Laue lenses,” Opt. Express 19(16), 15069–15076 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. H. R. Wu, S. T. Chen, Y. S. Chu, R. Conley, N. Bouet, C. C. Chien, H. H. Chen, C. H. Lin, H. T. Tung, H. H. Chen, G. Margaritondo, J. H. Je, and Y. Hwu, “Nanoresolution radiology of neurons,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 45(24), 242001 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  19. M. Osterhoff, M. Bartels, F. Döring, C. Eberl, T. Hoinkes, S. Hoffmann, T. Liese, V. Radisch, A. Rauschenbeutel, A.-L. Robisch, A. Ruhlandt, F. Schlenkrich, T. Salditt, and H.-U. Krebs, “Two-dimensional sub-5-nm hard x-ray focusing with MZP,” Proc. SPIE 8848, 884802 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  20. T. Koyama, H. Takenaka, S. Ichimaru, T. Ohchi, T. Tsuji, H. Takano, and Y. Kagoshima, “Development of Multilayer Laue Lenses; (1) Linear Type,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1365, 24–27 (2011).
  21. T. Koyama, H. Takano, S. Konishi, T. Tsuji, H. Takenaka, S. Ichimaru, T. Ohchi, and Y. Kagoshima, “Circular multilayer zone plate for high-energy x-ray nano-imaging,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 013705 (2012).
  22. H. Takano, S. Konishi, T. Koyama, Y. Tsusaka, S. Ichimaru, T. Ohchi, H. Takenaka, and Y. Kagoshima, “Point spread function measurement of an X-ray beam focused by a multilayer zone plate with narrow annular aperture,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 21(2), 446–448 (2014).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. X. Huang, H. Yan, E. Nazaretski, R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, K. Lauer, L. Li, D. Eom, D. Legnini, R. Harder, I. K. Robinson, and Y. S. Chu, “11 nm hard X-ray focus from a large-aperture multilayer Laue lens,” Sci. Rep.  3, 3562 (2013).
  24. M. Mayer, C. Grévent, A. Szeghalmi, M. Knez, M. Weigand, S. Rehbein, G. Schneider, B. Baretzky, and G. Schütz, “Multilayer Fresnel zone plate for soft X-ray microscopy resolves sub-39nm structures,” Ultramicroscopy 111(12), 1706–1711 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. T. Liese, V. Radisch, I. Knorr, M. Reese, P. Großmann, K. Mann, and H.-U. Krebs, “Development of laser deposited multilayer zone plate structures for soft X-ray radiation,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 257(12), 5138–5141 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  26. S. Tamura, “Multilayer Fresnel zone plate with high-diffraction efficiency: application of composite layer to x-ray optics,” in Metal, Ceramic and Polymeric Composites for Various Uses, J. Cuppoletti, ed. (InTech, 2011), pp. 637–654.
  27. F. Döring, A. L. Robisch, C. Eberl, M. Osterhoff, A. Ruhlandt, T. Liese, F. Schlenkrich, S. Hoffmann, M. Bartels, T. Salditt, and H. U. Krebs, “Sub-5 nm hard x-ray point focusing by a combined Kirkpatrick-Baez mirror and multilayer zone plate,” Opt. Express 21(16), 19311–19323 (2013).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. R. M. Bionta and K. M. Skulina, “Hard x-ray sputtered-sliced phase zone plates,” MRS Online Proc. Lib. 307, 343 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  29. D. Rudolph, B. Niemann, and G. Schmahl, “Status of the sputtered sliced zone plates for x-ray microscopy,” Proc. Soc. Photo Opt. Instrum. Eng. 316, 103–105 (1981).
  30. D. Rudolph and G. Schmahl, “High power zone plates for a soft x-ray microscope,” Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 342(1 Ultrasoft X-R), 94–104 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  31. N. Kamijo, S. Tamura, Y. Suzuki, K. Handa, A. Takeuchi, S. Yamamoto, M. Ando, K. Ohsumi, and H. Kihara, “Fabrication of a hard x-ray sputtered-sliced Fresnel phase zone plate,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68(1), 14–16 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  32. T. Koyama, T. Tsuji, H. Takano, Y. Kagoshima, S. Ichimaru, T. Ohchi, and H. Takenaka, “Development of Multilayer Laue Lenses; (2) Circular Type,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1365, 100–103 (2011).
  33. Z. Cai, Y. Xiao, I. Dragomir-Cernatescu, R. Snyder, Z. Wang, and B. Lai, “Direct Observation of Strain Segregation in ZnO Nanorings Using X-ray Diffraction,” (Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), 2006).
  34. R. P. Winarski, M. V. Holt, V. Rose, P. Fuesz, D. Carbaugh, C. Benson, D. Shu, D. Kline, G. B. Stephenson, I. McNulty, and J. Maser, “A hard X-ray nanoprobe beamline for nanoscale microscopy,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 19(6), 1056–1060 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  35. G. E. Ice, J. D. Budai, and J. W. L. Pang, “The race to x-ray microbeam and nanobeam science,” Science 334(6060), 1234–1239 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  36. A. Ruhlandt, T. Liese, V. Radisch, S. P. Kruger, M. Osterhoff, K. Giewekemeyer, H. U. Krebs, and T. Salditt, “A combined Kirkpatrick-Baez mirror and multilayer lens for sub-10 nm x-ray focusing,” AIP Adv. 2(1), 012175 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  37. J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier optics (Roberts and Company Publishers, 2005).
  38. J. R. Fienup, “Reconstruction of an object from the modulus of its Fourier transform,” Opt. Lett. 3(1), 27–29 (1978).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  39. R. Follath, J. S. Schmidt, M. Weigand, K. Fauth, R. Garrett, I. Gentle, K. Nugent, and S. Wilkins, “The X-ray microscopy beamline UE46-PGM2 at BESSY,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1234, 323–326 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  40. M. Mayer, K. Keskinbora, C. Grévent, A. Szeghalmi, M. Knez, M. Weigand, A. Snigirev, I. Snigireva, and G. Schütz, “Efficient focusing of 8 keV x-rays with multilayer Fresnel zone plates fabricated by atomic layer deposition and focused ion beam milling,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 20(3), 433–440 (2013).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  41. J. Vila-Comamala, K. Jefimovs, J. Raabe, T. Pilvi, R. H. Fink, M. Senoner, A. Maassdorf, M. Ritala, and C. David, “Advanced thin film technology for ultrahigh resolution X-ray microscopy,” Ultramicroscopy 109(11), 1360–1364 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  42. W. B. Yun, P. J. Viccaro, B. Lai, and J. Chrzas, “Coherent hard x-ray focusing optics and applications,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63(1), 582 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  43. S. Werner, S. Rehbein, P. Guttmann, S. Heim, and G. Schneider, “Towards high diffraction efficiency zone plates for X-ray microscopy,” Microelectron. Eng. 87(5-8), 1557–1560 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  44. H. Rarback and J. Kirz, “Optical Performance of Apodized Zone Plates,” Proc. SPIE 0316, 120–127 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  45. M. J. Simpson and A. G. Michette, “Imaging properties of modified Fresnel zone plates,” Optica Acta: International Journal of Optics 31(4), 403–413 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  46. A. A. Michelson, Studies in Optics (Dover Publications, Incorporated, 1995).
  47. G. R. Morrison, “Phase contrast and darkfield imaging in x-ray microscopy,” Proc. SPIE 1741, 186–193 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  48. K. Keskinbora, C. Grévent, U. Eigenthaler, M. Weigand, and G. Schütz, “Rapid prototyping of Fresnel zone plates via direct Ga+ ion beam lithography for high-resolution x-ray imaging,” ACS Nano 7(11), 9788–9797 (2013).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  49. R. Lizárraga, E. Holmström, S. C. Parker, and C. Arrouvel, “Structural characterization of amorphous alumina and its polymorphs from first-principles XPS and NMR calculations,” Phys. Rev. B 83(9), 094201 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  50. S. P. Adiga, P. Zapol, and L. A. Curtiss, “Atomistic simulations of amorphous alumina surfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 74(6), 064204 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  51. T. Campbell, R. K. Kalia, A. Nakano, P. Vashishta, S. Ogata, and S. Rodgers, “Dynamics of oxidation of aluminum nanoclusters using variable charge molecular-dynamics simulations on parallel computers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(24), 4866–4869 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  52. H. L. Wang, C. H. Lin, and M. H. Hon, “The dependence of hardness on the density of amorphous alumina thin films by PECVD,” Thin Solid Films 310(1-2), 260–264 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  53. J. R. Wank, S. M. George, and A. W. Weimer, “Nanocoating individual cohesive boron nitride particles in a fluidized bed by ALD,” Powder Technol. 142(1), 59–69 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  54. L. F. Hakim, J. Blackson, S. M. George, and A. W. Weimer, “Nanocoating individual silica nanoparticles by atomic layer deposition in a fluidized bed reactor,” Chem. Vap. Deposition 11(10), 420–425 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  55. K. Kukli, M. Ritala, and M. Leskelä, “Atomic layer epitaxy growth of tantalum oxide thin films from Ta(OC2H5)5 and H2O,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 142(5), 1670–1675 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  56. C. Chaneliere, J. L. Autran, R. A. B. Devine, and B. Balland, “Tantalum pentoxide (Ta2O5) thin films for advanced dielectric applications,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep. 22(6), 269–322 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  57. S. Gorelick, J. Vila-Comamala, V. A. Guzenko, R. Barrett, M. Salomé, and C. David, “High-efficiency Fresnel zone plates for hard X-rays by 100 keV e-beam lithography and electroplating,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 18(3), 442–446 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  58. E. Nazaretski, H. Yan, J. Kim, K. Lauer, K. Gofron, D. Shu, and Y. Chu, “Development of a 10 nm spatial resolution Hard X-ray Microscope for the Nanoprobe beamline at NSLS-II,” Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 58, J46003 (2013).
  59. Z. Cai, B. Lai, W. Yun, P. Ilinski, D. Legnini, J. Maser, and W. Rodrigues, “A hard x-ray scanning microprobe for fluorescence imaging and microdiffraction at the advanced photon source,” AIP Conf. Proc. 507, 472–477 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  60. Y. Xiao, Z. Cai, Z. L. Wang, B. Lai, and Y. S. Chu, “An X-ray nanodiffraction technique for structural characterization of individual nanomaterials,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 12(2), 124–128 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  61. W. Chao, P. Fischer, T. Tyliszczak, S. Rekawa, E. Anderson, and P. Naulleau, “Real space soft x-ray imaging at 10 nm spatial resolution,” Opt. Express 20(9), 9777–9783 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  62. S. Rehbein, P. Guttmann, S. Werner, and G. Schneider, “Characterization of the resolving power and contrast transfer function of a transmission X-ray microscope with partially coherent illumination,” Opt. Express 20(6), 5830–5839 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2014 (2)

S. Werner, S. Rehbein, P. Guttmann, and G. Schneider, “3-D structured on-chip stacked zone plates for nanoscale X-ray imaging with high efficiency,” Nano Res. 7, 1–8 (2014).
[CrossRef]

H. Takano, S. Konishi, T. Koyama, Y. Tsusaka, S. Ichimaru, T. Ohchi, H. Takenaka, and Y. Kagoshima, “Point spread function measurement of an X-ray beam focused by a multilayer zone plate with narrow annular aperture,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 21(2), 446–448 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2013 (8)

X. Huang, H. Yan, E. Nazaretski, R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, K. Lauer, L. Li, D. Eom, D. Legnini, R. Harder, I. K. Robinson, and Y. S. Chu, “11 nm hard X-ray focus from a large-aperture multilayer Laue lens,” Sci. Rep.  3, 3562 (2013).

F. Döring, A. L. Robisch, C. Eberl, M. Osterhoff, A. Ruhlandt, T. Liese, F. Schlenkrich, S. Hoffmann, M. Bartels, T. Salditt, and H. U. Krebs, “Sub-5 nm hard x-ray point focusing by a combined Kirkpatrick-Baez mirror and multilayer zone plate,” Opt. Express 21(16), 19311–19323 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Mayer, K. Keskinbora, C. Grévent, A. Szeghalmi, M. Knez, M. Weigand, A. Snigirev, I. Snigireva, and G. Schütz, “Efficient focusing of 8 keV x-rays with multilayer Fresnel zone plates fabricated by atomic layer deposition and focused ion beam milling,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 20(3), 433–440 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Keskinbora, A.-L. Robisch, M. Mayer, C. Grévent, A. V. Szeghalmi, M. Knez, M. Weigand, I. Snigireva, A. Snigirev, T. Salditt, and G. Schütz, “Recent advances in use of atomic layer deposition and focused ion beams for fabrication of Fresnel zone plates for hard x-rays,” Proc. SPIE 8851, 885119 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. Osterhoff, M. Bartels, F. Döring, C. Eberl, T. Hoinkes, S. Hoffmann, T. Liese, V. Radisch, A. Rauschenbeutel, A.-L. Robisch, A. Ruhlandt, F. Schlenkrich, T. Salditt, and H.-U. Krebs, “Two-dimensional sub-5-nm hard x-ray focusing with MZP,” Proc. SPIE 8848, 884802 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. Bisig, M. Stärk, M.-A. Mawass, C. Moutafis, J. Rhensius, J. Heidler, F. Büttner, M. Noske, M. Weigand, S. Eisebitt, T. Tyliszczak, B. Van Waeyenberge, H. Stoll, G. Schütz, and M. Kläui, “Correlation between spin structure oscillations and domain wall velocities,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2328 (2013).

K. Keskinbora, C. Grévent, U. Eigenthaler, M. Weigand, and G. Schütz, “Rapid prototyping of Fresnel zone plates via direct Ga+ ion beam lithography for high-resolution x-ray imaging,” ACS Nano 7(11), 9788–9797 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Nazaretski, H. Yan, J. Kim, K. Lauer, K. Gofron, D. Shu, and Y. Chu, “Development of a 10 nm spatial resolution Hard X-ray Microscope for the Nanoprobe beamline at NSLS-II,” Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 58, J46003 (2013).

2012 (9)

W. Chao, P. Fischer, T. Tyliszczak, S. Rekawa, E. Anderson, and P. Naulleau, “Real space soft x-ray imaging at 10 nm spatial resolution,” Opt. Express 20(9), 9777–9783 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Rehbein, P. Guttmann, S. Werner, and G. Schneider, “Characterization of the resolving power and contrast transfer function of a transmission X-ray microscope with partially coherent illumination,” Opt. Express 20(6), 5830–5839 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Kammerer, H. Stoll, M. Noske, M. Sproll, M. Weigand, C. Illg, G. Woltersdorf, M. Fähnle, C. Back, and G. Schütz, “Fast spin-wave-mediated magnetic vortex core reversal,” Phys. Rev. B 86(13), 134426 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Vila-Comamala, Y. Pan, J. J. Lombardo, W. M. Harris, W. K. S. Chiu, C. David, and Y. Wang, “Zone-doubled Fresnel zone plates for high-resolution hard X-ray full-field transmission microscopy,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 19(5), 705–709 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Koyama, H. Takano, S. Konishi, T. Tsuji, H. Takenaka, S. Ichimaru, T. Ohchi, and Y. Kagoshima, “Circular multilayer zone plate for high-energy x-ray nano-imaging,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 013705 (2012).

S. Matsuyama, N. Kidani, H. Mimura, Y. Sano, Y. Kohmura, K. Tamasaku, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Hard-X-ray imaging optics based on four aspherical mirrors with 50 nm resolution,” Opt. Express 20(9), 10310–10319 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ruhlandt, T. Liese, V. Radisch, S. P. Kruger, M. Osterhoff, K. Giewekemeyer, H. U. Krebs, and T. Salditt, “A combined Kirkpatrick-Baez mirror and multilayer lens for sub-10 nm x-ray focusing,” AIP Adv. 2(1), 012175 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Wu, S. T. Chen, Y. S. Chu, R. Conley, N. Bouet, C. C. Chien, H. H. Chen, C. H. Lin, H. T. Tung, H. H. Chen, G. Margaritondo, J. H. Je, and Y. Hwu, “Nanoresolution radiology of neurons,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 45(24), 242001 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. P. Winarski, M. V. Holt, V. Rose, P. Fuesz, D. Carbaugh, C. Benson, D. Shu, D. Kline, G. B. Stephenson, I. McNulty, and J. Maser, “A hard X-ray nanoprobe beamline for nanoscale microscopy,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 19(6), 1056–1060 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (8)

G. E. Ice, J. D. Budai, and J. W. L. Pang, “The race to x-ray microbeam and nanobeam science,” Science 334(6060), 1234–1239 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Mayer, C. Grévent, A. Szeghalmi, M. Knez, M. Weigand, S. Rehbein, G. Schneider, B. Baretzky, and G. Schütz, “Multilayer Fresnel zone plate for soft X-ray microscopy resolves sub-39nm structures,” Ultramicroscopy 111(12), 1706–1711 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Liese, V. Radisch, I. Knorr, M. Reese, P. Großmann, K. Mann, and H.-U. Krebs, “Development of laser deposited multilayer zone plate structures for soft X-ray radiation,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 257(12), 5138–5141 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Yan, V. Rose, D. Shu, E. Lima, H. C. Kang, R. Conley, C. Liu, N. Jahedi, A. T. Macrander, G. B. Stephenson, M. Holt, Y. S. Chu, M. Lu, and J. Maser, “Two dimensional hard x-ray nanofocusing with crossed multilayer Laue lenses,” Opt. Express 19(16), 15069–15076 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Zschech, C. Wyon, C. E. Murray, and G. Schneider, “Devices, materials, and processes for nanoelectronics: characterization with advanced x‐ray techniques using lab‐based and synchrotron radiation sources,” Adv. Eng. Mater. 13(8), 811–836 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. Yamauchi, H. Mimura, T. Kimura, H. Yumoto, S. Handa, S. Matsuyama, K. Arima, Y. Sano, K. Yamamura, K. Inagaki, H. Nakamori, J. Kim, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, and T. Ishikawa, “Single-nanometer focusing of hard x-rays by Kirkpatrick-Baez mirrors,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 23(39), 394206 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Gorelick, J. Vila-Comamala, V. A. Guzenko, R. Barrett, M. Salomé, and C. David, “High-efficiency Fresnel zone plates for hard X-rays by 100 keV e-beam lithography and electroplating,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 18(3), 442–446 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Lizárraga, E. Holmström, S. C. Parker, and C. Arrouvel, “Structural characterization of amorphous alumina and its polymorphs from first-principles XPS and NMR calculations,” Phys. Rev. B 83(9), 094201 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (3)

S. Werner, S. Rehbein, P. Guttmann, S. Heim, and G. Schneider, “Towards high diffraction efficiency zone plates for X-ray microscopy,” Microelectron. Eng. 87(5-8), 1557–1560 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Follath, J. S. Schmidt, M. Weigand, K. Fauth, R. Garrett, I. Gentle, K. Nugent, and S. Wilkins, “The X-ray microscopy beamline UE46-PGM2 at BESSY,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1234, 323–326 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Matsuyama, T. Wakioka, N. Kidani, T. Kimura, H. Mimura, Y. Sano, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, K. Tamasaku, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “One-dimensional Wolter optics with a sub-50 nm spatial resolution,” Opt. Lett. 35(21), 3583–3585 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

J. Kirz and C. Jacobsen, “The history and future of X-ray microscopy,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 186, 012001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Vila-Comamala, K. Jefimovs, J. Raabe, T. Pilvi, R. H. Fink, M. Senoner, A. Maassdorf, M. Ritala, and C. David, “Advanced thin film technology for ultrahigh resolution X-ray microscopy,” Ultramicroscopy 109(11), 1360–1364 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

Y.-T. Chen, T.-N. Lo, Y. S. Chu, J. Yi, C.-J. Liu, J.-Y. Wang, C.-L. Wang, C.-W. Chiu, T.-E. Hua, Y. Hwu, Q. Shen, G.-C. Yin, K. S. Liang, H.-M. Lin, J. H. Je, and G. Margaritondo, “Full-field hard x-ray microscopy below 30 nm: a challenging nanofabrication achievement,” Nanotechnology 19(39), 395302 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

S. P. Adiga, P. Zapol, and L. A. Curtiss, “Atomistic simulations of amorphous alumina surfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 74(6), 064204 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

L. F. Hakim, J. Blackson, S. M. George, and A. W. Weimer, “Nanocoating individual silica nanoparticles by atomic layer deposition in a fluidized bed reactor,” Chem. Vap. Deposition 11(10), 420–425 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Xiao, Z. Cai, Z. L. Wang, B. Lai, and Y. S. Chu, “An X-ray nanodiffraction technique for structural characterization of individual nanomaterials,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 12(2), 124–128 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

J. R. Wank, S. M. George, and A. W. Weimer, “Nanocoating individual cohesive boron nitride particles in a fluidized bed by ALD,” Powder Technol. 142(1), 59–69 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

Z. Cai, B. Lai, W. Yun, P. Ilinski, D. Legnini, J. Maser, and W. Rodrigues, “A hard x-ray scanning microprobe for fluorescence imaging and microdiffraction at the advanced photon source,” AIP Conf. Proc. 507, 472–477 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

T. Campbell, R. K. Kalia, A. Nakano, P. Vashishta, S. Ogata, and S. Rodgers, “Dynamics of oxidation of aluminum nanoclusters using variable charge molecular-dynamics simulations on parallel computers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(24), 4866–4869 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

C. Chaneliere, J. L. Autran, R. A. B. Devine, and B. Balland, “Tantalum pentoxide (Ta2O5) thin films for advanced dielectric applications,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep. 22(6), 269–322 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

H. L. Wang, C. H. Lin, and M. H. Hon, “The dependence of hardness on the density of amorphous alumina thin films by PECVD,” Thin Solid Films 310(1-2), 260–264 (1997).
[CrossRef]

N. Kamijo, S. Tamura, Y. Suzuki, K. Handa, A. Takeuchi, S. Yamamoto, M. Ando, K. Ohsumi, and H. Kihara, “Fabrication of a hard x-ray sputtered-sliced Fresnel phase zone plate,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68(1), 14–16 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

K. Kukli, M. Ritala, and M. Leskelä, “Atomic layer epitaxy growth of tantalum oxide thin films from Ta(OC2H5)5 and H2O,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 142(5), 1670–1675 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993 (2)

G. R. Morrison, “Phase contrast and darkfield imaging in x-ray microscopy,” Proc. SPIE 1741, 186–193 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Bionta and K. M. Skulina, “Hard x-ray sputtered-sliced phase zone plates,” MRS Online Proc. Lib. 307, 343 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (2)

W. B. Yun, P. J. Viccaro, B. Lai, and J. Chrzas, “Coherent hard x-ray focusing optics and applications,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63(1), 582 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Maser and G. Schmahl, “Coupled wave description of the diffraction by zone plates with high aspect ratios,” Opt. Commun. 89(2-4), 355–362 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

M. J. Simpson and A. G. Michette, “Imaging properties of modified Fresnel zone plates,” Optica Acta: International Journal of Optics 31(4), 403–413 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

H. Rarback and J. Kirz, “Optical Performance of Apodized Zone Plates,” Proc. SPIE 0316, 120–127 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

D. Rudolph, B. Niemann, and G. Schmahl, “Status of the sputtered sliced zone plates for x-ray microscopy,” Proc. Soc. Photo Opt. Instrum. Eng. 316, 103–105 (1981).

1980 (1)

D. Rudolph and G. Schmahl, “High power zone plates for a soft x-ray microscope,” Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 342(1 Ultrasoft X-R), 94–104 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

1974 (1)

1948 (1)

Adiga, S. P.

S. P. Adiga, P. Zapol, and L. A. Curtiss, “Atomistic simulations of amorphous alumina surfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 74(6), 064204 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, E.

Ando, M.

N. Kamijo, S. Tamura, Y. Suzuki, K. Handa, A. Takeuchi, S. Yamamoto, M. Ando, K. Ohsumi, and H. Kihara, “Fabrication of a hard x-ray sputtered-sliced Fresnel phase zone plate,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68(1), 14–16 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Arima, K.

K. Yamauchi, H. Mimura, T. Kimura, H. Yumoto, S. Handa, S. Matsuyama, K. Arima, Y. Sano, K. Yamamura, K. Inagaki, H. Nakamori, J. Kim, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, and T. Ishikawa, “Single-nanometer focusing of hard x-rays by Kirkpatrick-Baez mirrors,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 23(39), 394206 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arrouvel, C.

R. Lizárraga, E. Holmström, S. C. Parker, and C. Arrouvel, “Structural characterization of amorphous alumina and its polymorphs from first-principles XPS and NMR calculations,” Phys. Rev. B 83(9), 094201 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Autran, J. L.

C. Chaneliere, J. L. Autran, R. A. B. Devine, and B. Balland, “Tantalum pentoxide (Ta2O5) thin films for advanced dielectric applications,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep. 22(6), 269–322 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Back, C.

M. Kammerer, H. Stoll, M. Noske, M. Sproll, M. Weigand, C. Illg, G. Woltersdorf, M. Fähnle, C. Back, and G. Schütz, “Fast spin-wave-mediated magnetic vortex core reversal,” Phys. Rev. B 86(13), 134426 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Baez, A. V.

Balland, B.

C. Chaneliere, J. L. Autran, R. A. B. Devine, and B. Balland, “Tantalum pentoxide (Ta2O5) thin films for advanced dielectric applications,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep. 22(6), 269–322 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Baretzky, B.

M. Mayer, C. Grévent, A. Szeghalmi, M. Knez, M. Weigand, S. Rehbein, G. Schneider, B. Baretzky, and G. Schütz, “Multilayer Fresnel zone plate for soft X-ray microscopy resolves sub-39nm structures,” Ultramicroscopy 111(12), 1706–1711 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barrett, R.

S. Gorelick, J. Vila-Comamala, V. A. Guzenko, R. Barrett, M. Salomé, and C. David, “High-efficiency Fresnel zone plates for hard X-rays by 100 keV e-beam lithography and electroplating,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 18(3), 442–446 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bartels, M.

F. Döring, A. L. Robisch, C. Eberl, M. Osterhoff, A. Ruhlandt, T. Liese, F. Schlenkrich, S. Hoffmann, M. Bartels, T. Salditt, and H. U. Krebs, “Sub-5 nm hard x-ray point focusing by a combined Kirkpatrick-Baez mirror and multilayer zone plate,” Opt. Express 21(16), 19311–19323 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Osterhoff, M. Bartels, F. Döring, C. Eberl, T. Hoinkes, S. Hoffmann, T. Liese, V. Radisch, A. Rauschenbeutel, A.-L. Robisch, A. Ruhlandt, F. Schlenkrich, T. Salditt, and H.-U. Krebs, “Two-dimensional sub-5-nm hard x-ray focusing with MZP,” Proc. SPIE 8848, 884802 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Benson, C.

R. P. Winarski, M. V. Holt, V. Rose, P. Fuesz, D. Carbaugh, C. Benson, D. Shu, D. Kline, G. B. Stephenson, I. McNulty, and J. Maser, “A hard X-ray nanoprobe beamline for nanoscale microscopy,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 19(6), 1056–1060 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bionta, R. M.

R. M. Bionta and K. M. Skulina, “Hard x-ray sputtered-sliced phase zone plates,” MRS Online Proc. Lib. 307, 343 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Bisig, A.

A. Bisig, M. Stärk, M.-A. Mawass, C. Moutafis, J. Rhensius, J. Heidler, F. Büttner, M. Noske, M. Weigand, S. Eisebitt, T. Tyliszczak, B. Van Waeyenberge, H. Stoll, G. Schütz, and M. Kläui, “Correlation between spin structure oscillations and domain wall velocities,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2328 (2013).

Blackson, J.

L. F. Hakim, J. Blackson, S. M. George, and A. W. Weimer, “Nanocoating individual silica nanoparticles by atomic layer deposition in a fluidized bed reactor,” Chem. Vap. Deposition 11(10), 420–425 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bouet, N.

X. Huang, H. Yan, E. Nazaretski, R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, K. Lauer, L. Li, D. Eom, D. Legnini, R. Harder, I. K. Robinson, and Y. S. Chu, “11 nm hard X-ray focus from a large-aperture multilayer Laue lens,” Sci. Rep.  3, 3562 (2013).

H. R. Wu, S. T. Chen, Y. S. Chu, R. Conley, N. Bouet, C. C. Chien, H. H. Chen, C. H. Lin, H. T. Tung, H. H. Chen, G. Margaritondo, J. H. Je, and Y. Hwu, “Nanoresolution radiology of neurons,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 45(24), 242001 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Budai, J. D.

G. E. Ice, J. D. Budai, and J. W. L. Pang, “The race to x-ray microbeam and nanobeam science,” Science 334(6060), 1234–1239 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Büttner, F.

A. Bisig, M. Stärk, M.-A. Mawass, C. Moutafis, J. Rhensius, J. Heidler, F. Büttner, M. Noske, M. Weigand, S. Eisebitt, T. Tyliszczak, B. Van Waeyenberge, H. Stoll, G. Schütz, and M. Kläui, “Correlation between spin structure oscillations and domain wall velocities,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2328 (2013).

Cai, Z.

Y. Xiao, Z. Cai, Z. L. Wang, B. Lai, and Y. S. Chu, “An X-ray nanodiffraction technique for structural characterization of individual nanomaterials,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 12(2), 124–128 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Cai, B. Lai, W. Yun, P. Ilinski, D. Legnini, J. Maser, and W. Rodrigues, “A hard x-ray scanning microprobe for fluorescence imaging and microdiffraction at the advanced photon source,” AIP Conf. Proc. 507, 472–477 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Campbell, T.

T. Campbell, R. K. Kalia, A. Nakano, P. Vashishta, S. Ogata, and S. Rodgers, “Dynamics of oxidation of aluminum nanoclusters using variable charge molecular-dynamics simulations on parallel computers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(24), 4866–4869 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Carbaugh, D.

R. P. Winarski, M. V. Holt, V. Rose, P. Fuesz, D. Carbaugh, C. Benson, D. Shu, D. Kline, G. B. Stephenson, I. McNulty, and J. Maser, “A hard X-ray nanoprobe beamline for nanoscale microscopy,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 19(6), 1056–1060 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chaneliere, C.

C. Chaneliere, J. L. Autran, R. A. B. Devine, and B. Balland, “Tantalum pentoxide (Ta2O5) thin films for advanced dielectric applications,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep. 22(6), 269–322 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chao, W.

Chen, H. H.

H. R. Wu, S. T. Chen, Y. S. Chu, R. Conley, N. Bouet, C. C. Chien, H. H. Chen, C. H. Lin, H. T. Tung, H. H. Chen, G. Margaritondo, J. H. Je, and Y. Hwu, “Nanoresolution radiology of neurons,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 45(24), 242001 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Wu, S. T. Chen, Y. S. Chu, R. Conley, N. Bouet, C. C. Chien, H. H. Chen, C. H. Lin, H. T. Tung, H. H. Chen, G. Margaritondo, J. H. Je, and Y. Hwu, “Nanoresolution radiology of neurons,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 45(24), 242001 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chen, S. T.

H. R. Wu, S. T. Chen, Y. S. Chu, R. Conley, N. Bouet, C. C. Chien, H. H. Chen, C. H. Lin, H. T. Tung, H. H. Chen, G. Margaritondo, J. H. Je, and Y. Hwu, “Nanoresolution radiology of neurons,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 45(24), 242001 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.-T.

Y.-T. Chen, T.-N. Lo, Y. S. Chu, J. Yi, C.-J. Liu, J.-Y. Wang, C.-L. Wang, C.-W. Chiu, T.-E. Hua, Y. Hwu, Q. Shen, G.-C. Yin, K. S. Liang, H.-M. Lin, J. H. Je, and G. Margaritondo, “Full-field hard x-ray microscopy below 30 nm: a challenging nanofabrication achievement,” Nanotechnology 19(39), 395302 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chien, C. C.

H. R. Wu, S. T. Chen, Y. S. Chu, R. Conley, N. Bouet, C. C. Chien, H. H. Chen, C. H. Lin, H. T. Tung, H. H. Chen, G. Margaritondo, J. H. Je, and Y. Hwu, “Nanoresolution radiology of neurons,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 45(24), 242001 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chiu, C.-W.

Y.-T. Chen, T.-N. Lo, Y. S. Chu, J. Yi, C.-J. Liu, J.-Y. Wang, C.-L. Wang, C.-W. Chiu, T.-E. Hua, Y. Hwu, Q. Shen, G.-C. Yin, K. S. Liang, H.-M. Lin, J. H. Je, and G. Margaritondo, “Full-field hard x-ray microscopy below 30 nm: a challenging nanofabrication achievement,” Nanotechnology 19(39), 395302 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chiu, W. K. S.

J. Vila-Comamala, Y. Pan, J. J. Lombardo, W. M. Harris, W. K. S. Chiu, C. David, and Y. Wang, “Zone-doubled Fresnel zone plates for high-resolution hard X-ray full-field transmission microscopy,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 19(5), 705–709 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chrzas, J.

W. B. Yun, P. J. Viccaro, B. Lai, and J. Chrzas, “Coherent hard x-ray focusing optics and applications,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63(1), 582 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Chu, Y.

E. Nazaretski, H. Yan, J. Kim, K. Lauer, K. Gofron, D. Shu, and Y. Chu, “Development of a 10 nm spatial resolution Hard X-ray Microscope for the Nanoprobe beamline at NSLS-II,” Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 58, J46003 (2013).

Chu, Y. S.

X. Huang, H. Yan, E. Nazaretski, R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, K. Lauer, L. Li, D. Eom, D. Legnini, R. Harder, I. K. Robinson, and Y. S. Chu, “11 nm hard X-ray focus from a large-aperture multilayer Laue lens,” Sci. Rep.  3, 3562 (2013).

H. R. Wu, S. T. Chen, Y. S. Chu, R. Conley, N. Bouet, C. C. Chien, H. H. Chen, C. H. Lin, H. T. Tung, H. H. Chen, G. Margaritondo, J. H. Je, and Y. Hwu, “Nanoresolution radiology of neurons,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 45(24), 242001 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Yan, V. Rose, D. Shu, E. Lima, H. C. Kang, R. Conley, C. Liu, N. Jahedi, A. T. Macrander, G. B. Stephenson, M. Holt, Y. S. Chu, M. Lu, and J. Maser, “Two dimensional hard x-ray nanofocusing with crossed multilayer Laue lenses,” Opt. Express 19(16), 15069–15076 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y.-T. Chen, T.-N. Lo, Y. S. Chu, J. Yi, C.-J. Liu, J.-Y. Wang, C.-L. Wang, C.-W. Chiu, T.-E. Hua, Y. Hwu, Q. Shen, G.-C. Yin, K. S. Liang, H.-M. Lin, J. H. Je, and G. Margaritondo, “Full-field hard x-ray microscopy below 30 nm: a challenging nanofabrication achievement,” Nanotechnology 19(39), 395302 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Xiao, Z. Cai, Z. L. Wang, B. Lai, and Y. S. Chu, “An X-ray nanodiffraction technique for structural characterization of individual nanomaterials,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 12(2), 124–128 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Conley, R.

X. Huang, H. Yan, E. Nazaretski, R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, K. Lauer, L. Li, D. Eom, D. Legnini, R. Harder, I. K. Robinson, and Y. S. Chu, “11 nm hard X-ray focus from a large-aperture multilayer Laue lens,” Sci. Rep.  3, 3562 (2013).

H. R. Wu, S. T. Chen, Y. S. Chu, R. Conley, N. Bouet, C. C. Chien, H. H. Chen, C. H. Lin, H. T. Tung, H. H. Chen, G. Margaritondo, J. H. Je, and Y. Hwu, “Nanoresolution radiology of neurons,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 45(24), 242001 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Yan, V. Rose, D. Shu, E. Lima, H. C. Kang, R. Conley, C. Liu, N. Jahedi, A. T. Macrander, G. B. Stephenson, M. Holt, Y. S. Chu, M. Lu, and J. Maser, “Two dimensional hard x-ray nanofocusing with crossed multilayer Laue lenses,” Opt. Express 19(16), 15069–15076 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Curtiss, L. A.

S. P. Adiga, P. Zapol, and L. A. Curtiss, “Atomistic simulations of amorphous alumina surfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 74(6), 064204 (2006).
[CrossRef]

David, C.

J. Vila-Comamala, Y. Pan, J. J. Lombardo, W. M. Harris, W. K. S. Chiu, C. David, and Y. Wang, “Zone-doubled Fresnel zone plates for high-resolution hard X-ray full-field transmission microscopy,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 19(5), 705–709 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Gorelick, J. Vila-Comamala, V. A. Guzenko, R. Barrett, M. Salomé, and C. David, “High-efficiency Fresnel zone plates for hard X-rays by 100 keV e-beam lithography and electroplating,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 18(3), 442–446 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Vila-Comamala, K. Jefimovs, J. Raabe, T. Pilvi, R. H. Fink, M. Senoner, A. Maassdorf, M. Ritala, and C. David, “Advanced thin film technology for ultrahigh resolution X-ray microscopy,” Ultramicroscopy 109(11), 1360–1364 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Devine, R. A. B.

C. Chaneliere, J. L. Autran, R. A. B. Devine, and B. Balland, “Tantalum pentoxide (Ta2O5) thin films for advanced dielectric applications,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep. 22(6), 269–322 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Döring, F.

F. Döring, A. L. Robisch, C. Eberl, M. Osterhoff, A. Ruhlandt, T. Liese, F. Schlenkrich, S. Hoffmann, M. Bartels, T. Salditt, and H. U. Krebs, “Sub-5 nm hard x-ray point focusing by a combined Kirkpatrick-Baez mirror and multilayer zone plate,” Opt. Express 21(16), 19311–19323 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Osterhoff, M. Bartels, F. Döring, C. Eberl, T. Hoinkes, S. Hoffmann, T. Liese, V. Radisch, A. Rauschenbeutel, A.-L. Robisch, A. Ruhlandt, F. Schlenkrich, T. Salditt, and H.-U. Krebs, “Two-dimensional sub-5-nm hard x-ray focusing with MZP,” Proc. SPIE 8848, 884802 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Eberl, C.

M. Osterhoff, M. Bartels, F. Döring, C. Eberl, T. Hoinkes, S. Hoffmann, T. Liese, V. Radisch, A. Rauschenbeutel, A.-L. Robisch, A. Ruhlandt, F. Schlenkrich, T. Salditt, and H.-U. Krebs, “Two-dimensional sub-5-nm hard x-ray focusing with MZP,” Proc. SPIE 8848, 884802 (2013).
[CrossRef]

F. Döring, A. L. Robisch, C. Eberl, M. Osterhoff, A. Ruhlandt, T. Liese, F. Schlenkrich, S. Hoffmann, M. Bartels, T. Salditt, and H. U. Krebs, “Sub-5 nm hard x-ray point focusing by a combined Kirkpatrick-Baez mirror and multilayer zone plate,” Opt. Express 21(16), 19311–19323 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eigenthaler, U.

K. Keskinbora, C. Grévent, U. Eigenthaler, M. Weigand, and G. Schütz, “Rapid prototyping of Fresnel zone plates via direct Ga+ ion beam lithography for high-resolution x-ray imaging,” ACS Nano 7(11), 9788–9797 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eisebitt, S.

A. Bisig, M. Stärk, M.-A. Mawass, C. Moutafis, J. Rhensius, J. Heidler, F. Büttner, M. Noske, M. Weigand, S. Eisebitt, T. Tyliszczak, B. Van Waeyenberge, H. Stoll, G. Schütz, and M. Kläui, “Correlation between spin structure oscillations and domain wall velocities,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2328 (2013).

Eom, D.

X. Huang, H. Yan, E. Nazaretski, R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, K. Lauer, L. Li, D. Eom, D. Legnini, R. Harder, I. K. Robinson, and Y. S. Chu, “11 nm hard X-ray focus from a large-aperture multilayer Laue lens,” Sci. Rep.  3, 3562 (2013).

Fähnle, M.

M. Kammerer, H. Stoll, M. Noske, M. Sproll, M. Weigand, C. Illg, G. Woltersdorf, M. Fähnle, C. Back, and G. Schütz, “Fast spin-wave-mediated magnetic vortex core reversal,” Phys. Rev. B 86(13), 134426 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Fauth, K.

R. Follath, J. S. Schmidt, M. Weigand, K. Fauth, R. Garrett, I. Gentle, K. Nugent, and S. Wilkins, “The X-ray microscopy beamline UE46-PGM2 at BESSY,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1234, 323–326 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fienup, J. R.

Fink, R. H.

J. Vila-Comamala, K. Jefimovs, J. Raabe, T. Pilvi, R. H. Fink, M. Senoner, A. Maassdorf, M. Ritala, and C. David, “Advanced thin film technology for ultrahigh resolution X-ray microscopy,” Ultramicroscopy 109(11), 1360–1364 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fischer, P.

Follath, R.

R. Follath, J. S. Schmidt, M. Weigand, K. Fauth, R. Garrett, I. Gentle, K. Nugent, and S. Wilkins, “The X-ray microscopy beamline UE46-PGM2 at BESSY,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1234, 323–326 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fuesz, P.

R. P. Winarski, M. V. Holt, V. Rose, P. Fuesz, D. Carbaugh, C. Benson, D. Shu, D. Kline, G. B. Stephenson, I. McNulty, and J. Maser, “A hard X-ray nanoprobe beamline for nanoscale microscopy,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 19(6), 1056–1060 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Garrett, R.

R. Follath, J. S. Schmidt, M. Weigand, K. Fauth, R. Garrett, I. Gentle, K. Nugent, and S. Wilkins, “The X-ray microscopy beamline UE46-PGM2 at BESSY,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1234, 323–326 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gentle, I.

R. Follath, J. S. Schmidt, M. Weigand, K. Fauth, R. Garrett, I. Gentle, K. Nugent, and S. Wilkins, “The X-ray microscopy beamline UE46-PGM2 at BESSY,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1234, 323–326 (2010).
[CrossRef]

George, S. M.

L. F. Hakim, J. Blackson, S. M. George, and A. W. Weimer, “Nanocoating individual silica nanoparticles by atomic layer deposition in a fluidized bed reactor,” Chem. Vap. Deposition 11(10), 420–425 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Wank, S. M. George, and A. W. Weimer, “Nanocoating individual cohesive boron nitride particles in a fluidized bed by ALD,” Powder Technol. 142(1), 59–69 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Giewekemeyer, K.

A. Ruhlandt, T. Liese, V. Radisch, S. P. Kruger, M. Osterhoff, K. Giewekemeyer, H. U. Krebs, and T. Salditt, “A combined Kirkpatrick-Baez mirror and multilayer lens for sub-10 nm x-ray focusing,” AIP Adv. 2(1), 012175 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Gofron, K.

E. Nazaretski, H. Yan, J. Kim, K. Lauer, K. Gofron, D. Shu, and Y. Chu, “Development of a 10 nm spatial resolution Hard X-ray Microscope for the Nanoprobe beamline at NSLS-II,” Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 58, J46003 (2013).

Gorelick, S.

S. Gorelick, J. Vila-Comamala, V. A. Guzenko, R. Barrett, M. Salomé, and C. David, “High-efficiency Fresnel zone plates for hard X-rays by 100 keV e-beam lithography and electroplating,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 18(3), 442–446 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grévent, C.

K. Keskinbora, C. Grévent, U. Eigenthaler, M. Weigand, and G. Schütz, “Rapid prototyping of Fresnel zone plates via direct Ga+ ion beam lithography for high-resolution x-ray imaging,” ACS Nano 7(11), 9788–9797 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Mayer, K. Keskinbora, C. Grévent, A. Szeghalmi, M. Knez, M. Weigand, A. Snigirev, I. Snigireva, and G. Schütz, “Efficient focusing of 8 keV x-rays with multilayer Fresnel zone plates fabricated by atomic layer deposition and focused ion beam milling,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 20(3), 433–440 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Keskinbora, A.-L. Robisch, M. Mayer, C. Grévent, A. V. Szeghalmi, M. Knez, M. Weigand, I. Snigireva, A. Snigirev, T. Salditt, and G. Schütz, “Recent advances in use of atomic layer deposition and focused ion beams for fabrication of Fresnel zone plates for hard x-rays,” Proc. SPIE 8851, 885119 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. Mayer, C. Grévent, A. Szeghalmi, M. Knez, M. Weigand, S. Rehbein, G. Schneider, B. Baretzky, and G. Schütz, “Multilayer Fresnel zone plate for soft X-ray microscopy resolves sub-39nm structures,” Ultramicroscopy 111(12), 1706–1711 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Großmann, P.

T. Liese, V. Radisch, I. Knorr, M. Reese, P. Großmann, K. Mann, and H.-U. Krebs, “Development of laser deposited multilayer zone plate structures for soft X-ray radiation,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 257(12), 5138–5141 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Guttmann, P.

S. Werner, S. Rehbein, P. Guttmann, and G. Schneider, “3-D structured on-chip stacked zone plates for nanoscale X-ray imaging with high efficiency,” Nano Res. 7, 1–8 (2014).
[CrossRef]

S. Rehbein, P. Guttmann, S. Werner, and G. Schneider, “Characterization of the resolving power and contrast transfer function of a transmission X-ray microscope with partially coherent illumination,” Opt. Express 20(6), 5830–5839 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Werner, S. Rehbein, P. Guttmann, S. Heim, and G. Schneider, “Towards high diffraction efficiency zone plates for X-ray microscopy,” Microelectron. Eng. 87(5-8), 1557–1560 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Guzenko, V. A.

S. Gorelick, J. Vila-Comamala, V. A. Guzenko, R. Barrett, M. Salomé, and C. David, “High-efficiency Fresnel zone plates for hard X-rays by 100 keV e-beam lithography and electroplating,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 18(3), 442–446 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hakim, L. F.

L. F. Hakim, J. Blackson, S. M. George, and A. W. Weimer, “Nanocoating individual silica nanoparticles by atomic layer deposition in a fluidized bed reactor,” Chem. Vap. Deposition 11(10), 420–425 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Handa, K.

N. Kamijo, S. Tamura, Y. Suzuki, K. Handa, A. Takeuchi, S. Yamamoto, M. Ando, K. Ohsumi, and H. Kihara, “Fabrication of a hard x-ray sputtered-sliced Fresnel phase zone plate,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68(1), 14–16 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Handa, S.

K. Yamauchi, H. Mimura, T. Kimura, H. Yumoto, S. Handa, S. Matsuyama, K. Arima, Y. Sano, K. Yamamura, K. Inagaki, H. Nakamori, J. Kim, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, and T. Ishikawa, “Single-nanometer focusing of hard x-rays by Kirkpatrick-Baez mirrors,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 23(39), 394206 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harder, R.

X. Huang, H. Yan, E. Nazaretski, R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, K. Lauer, L. Li, D. Eom, D. Legnini, R. Harder, I. K. Robinson, and Y. S. Chu, “11 nm hard X-ray focus from a large-aperture multilayer Laue lens,” Sci. Rep.  3, 3562 (2013).

Harris, W. M.

J. Vila-Comamala, Y. Pan, J. J. Lombardo, W. M. Harris, W. K. S. Chiu, C. David, and Y. Wang, “Zone-doubled Fresnel zone plates for high-resolution hard X-ray full-field transmission microscopy,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 19(5), 705–709 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heidler, J.

A. Bisig, M. Stärk, M.-A. Mawass, C. Moutafis, J. Rhensius, J. Heidler, F. Büttner, M. Noske, M. Weigand, S. Eisebitt, T. Tyliszczak, B. Van Waeyenberge, H. Stoll, G. Schütz, and M. Kläui, “Correlation between spin structure oscillations and domain wall velocities,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2328 (2013).

Heim, S.

S. Werner, S. Rehbein, P. Guttmann, S. Heim, and G. Schneider, “Towards high diffraction efficiency zone plates for X-ray microscopy,” Microelectron. Eng. 87(5-8), 1557–1560 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hoffmann, S.

M. Osterhoff, M. Bartels, F. Döring, C. Eberl, T. Hoinkes, S. Hoffmann, T. Liese, V. Radisch, A. Rauschenbeutel, A.-L. Robisch, A. Ruhlandt, F. Schlenkrich, T. Salditt, and H.-U. Krebs, “Two-dimensional sub-5-nm hard x-ray focusing with MZP,” Proc. SPIE 8848, 884802 (2013).
[CrossRef]

F. Döring, A. L. Robisch, C. Eberl, M. Osterhoff, A. Ruhlandt, T. Liese, F. Schlenkrich, S. Hoffmann, M. Bartels, T. Salditt, and H. U. Krebs, “Sub-5 nm hard x-ray point focusing by a combined Kirkpatrick-Baez mirror and multilayer zone plate,” Opt. Express 21(16), 19311–19323 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hoinkes, T.

M. Osterhoff, M. Bartels, F. Döring, C. Eberl, T. Hoinkes, S. Hoffmann, T. Liese, V. Radisch, A. Rauschenbeutel, A.-L. Robisch, A. Ruhlandt, F. Schlenkrich, T. Salditt, and H.-U. Krebs, “Two-dimensional sub-5-nm hard x-ray focusing with MZP,” Proc. SPIE 8848, 884802 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Holmström, E.

R. Lizárraga, E. Holmström, S. C. Parker, and C. Arrouvel, “Structural characterization of amorphous alumina and its polymorphs from first-principles XPS and NMR calculations,” Phys. Rev. B 83(9), 094201 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Holt, M.

Holt, M. V.

R. P. Winarski, M. V. Holt, V. Rose, P. Fuesz, D. Carbaugh, C. Benson, D. Shu, D. Kline, G. B. Stephenson, I. McNulty, and J. Maser, “A hard X-ray nanoprobe beamline for nanoscale microscopy,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 19(6), 1056–1060 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hon, M. H.

H. L. Wang, C. H. Lin, and M. H. Hon, “The dependence of hardness on the density of amorphous alumina thin films by PECVD,” Thin Solid Films 310(1-2), 260–264 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hua, T.-E.

Y.-T. Chen, T.-N. Lo, Y. S. Chu, J. Yi, C.-J. Liu, J.-Y. Wang, C.-L. Wang, C.-W. Chiu, T.-E. Hua, Y. Hwu, Q. Shen, G.-C. Yin, K. S. Liang, H.-M. Lin, J. H. Je, and G. Margaritondo, “Full-field hard x-ray microscopy below 30 nm: a challenging nanofabrication achievement,” Nanotechnology 19(39), 395302 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, X.

X. Huang, H. Yan, E. Nazaretski, R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, K. Lauer, L. Li, D. Eom, D. Legnini, R. Harder, I. K. Robinson, and Y. S. Chu, “11 nm hard X-ray focus from a large-aperture multilayer Laue lens,” Sci. Rep.  3, 3562 (2013).

Hwu, Y.

H. R. Wu, S. T. Chen, Y. S. Chu, R. Conley, N. Bouet, C. C. Chien, H. H. Chen, C. H. Lin, H. T. Tung, H. H. Chen, G. Margaritondo, J. H. Je, and Y. Hwu, “Nanoresolution radiology of neurons,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 45(24), 242001 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y.-T. Chen, T.-N. Lo, Y. S. Chu, J. Yi, C.-J. Liu, J.-Y. Wang, C.-L. Wang, C.-W. Chiu, T.-E. Hua, Y. Hwu, Q. Shen, G.-C. Yin, K. S. Liang, H.-M. Lin, J. H. Je, and G. Margaritondo, “Full-field hard x-ray microscopy below 30 nm: a challenging nanofabrication achievement,” Nanotechnology 19(39), 395302 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ice, G. E.

G. E. Ice, J. D. Budai, and J. W. L. Pang, “The race to x-ray microbeam and nanobeam science,” Science 334(6060), 1234–1239 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ichimaru, S.

H. Takano, S. Konishi, T. Koyama, Y. Tsusaka, S. Ichimaru, T. Ohchi, H. Takenaka, and Y. Kagoshima, “Point spread function measurement of an X-ray beam focused by a multilayer zone plate with narrow annular aperture,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 21(2), 446–448 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Koyama, H. Takano, S. Konishi, T. Tsuji, H. Takenaka, S. Ichimaru, T. Ohchi, and Y. Kagoshima, “Circular multilayer zone plate for high-energy x-ray nano-imaging,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 013705 (2012).

Ilinski, P.

Z. Cai, B. Lai, W. Yun, P. Ilinski, D. Legnini, J. Maser, and W. Rodrigues, “A hard x-ray scanning microprobe for fluorescence imaging and microdiffraction at the advanced photon source,” AIP Conf. Proc. 507, 472–477 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Illg, C.

M. Kammerer, H. Stoll, M. Noske, M. Sproll, M. Weigand, C. Illg, G. Woltersdorf, M. Fähnle, C. Back, and G. Schütz, “Fast spin-wave-mediated magnetic vortex core reversal,” Phys. Rev. B 86(13), 134426 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Inagaki, K.

K. Yamauchi, H. Mimura, T. Kimura, H. Yumoto, S. Handa, S. Matsuyama, K. Arima, Y. Sano, K. Yamamura, K. Inagaki, H. Nakamori, J. Kim, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, and T. Ishikawa, “Single-nanometer focusing of hard x-rays by Kirkpatrick-Baez mirrors,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 23(39), 394206 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ishikawa, T.

Jacobsen, C.

J. Kirz and C. Jacobsen, “The history and future of X-ray microscopy,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 186, 012001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jahedi, N.

Je, J. H.

H. R. Wu, S. T. Chen, Y. S. Chu, R. Conley, N. Bouet, C. C. Chien, H. H. Chen, C. H. Lin, H. T. Tung, H. H. Chen, G. Margaritondo, J. H. Je, and Y. Hwu, “Nanoresolution radiology of neurons,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 45(24), 242001 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y.-T. Chen, T.-N. Lo, Y. S. Chu, J. Yi, C.-J. Liu, J.-Y. Wang, C.-L. Wang, C.-W. Chiu, T.-E. Hua, Y. Hwu, Q. Shen, G.-C. Yin, K. S. Liang, H.-M. Lin, J. H. Je, and G. Margaritondo, “Full-field hard x-ray microscopy below 30 nm: a challenging nanofabrication achievement,” Nanotechnology 19(39), 395302 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jefimovs, K.

J. Vila-Comamala, K. Jefimovs, J. Raabe, T. Pilvi, R. H. Fink, M. Senoner, A. Maassdorf, M. Ritala, and C. David, “Advanced thin film technology for ultrahigh resolution X-ray microscopy,” Ultramicroscopy 109(11), 1360–1364 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kagoshima, Y.

H. Takano, S. Konishi, T. Koyama, Y. Tsusaka, S. Ichimaru, T. Ohchi, H. Takenaka, and Y. Kagoshima, “Point spread function measurement of an X-ray beam focused by a multilayer zone plate with narrow annular aperture,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 21(2), 446–448 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Koyama, H. Takano, S. Konishi, T. Tsuji, H. Takenaka, S. Ichimaru, T. Ohchi, and Y. Kagoshima, “Circular multilayer zone plate for high-energy x-ray nano-imaging,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 013705 (2012).

Kalia, R. K.

T. Campbell, R. K. Kalia, A. Nakano, P. Vashishta, S. Ogata, and S. Rodgers, “Dynamics of oxidation of aluminum nanoclusters using variable charge molecular-dynamics simulations on parallel computers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(24), 4866–4869 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kamijo, N.

N. Kamijo, S. Tamura, Y. Suzuki, K. Handa, A. Takeuchi, S. Yamamoto, M. Ando, K. Ohsumi, and H. Kihara, “Fabrication of a hard x-ray sputtered-sliced Fresnel phase zone plate,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68(1), 14–16 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kammerer, M.

M. Kammerer, H. Stoll, M. Noske, M. Sproll, M. Weigand, C. Illg, G. Woltersdorf, M. Fähnle, C. Back, and G. Schütz, “Fast spin-wave-mediated magnetic vortex core reversal,” Phys. Rev. B 86(13), 134426 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kang, H. C.

Keskinbora, K.

K. Keskinbora, A.-L. Robisch, M. Mayer, C. Grévent, A. V. Szeghalmi, M. Knez, M. Weigand, I. Snigireva, A. Snigirev, T. Salditt, and G. Schütz, “Recent advances in use of atomic layer deposition and focused ion beams for fabrication of Fresnel zone plates for hard x-rays,” Proc. SPIE 8851, 885119 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. Mayer, K. Keskinbora, C. Grévent, A. Szeghalmi, M. Knez, M. Weigand, A. Snigirev, I. Snigireva, and G. Schütz, “Efficient focusing of 8 keV x-rays with multilayer Fresnel zone plates fabricated by atomic layer deposition and focused ion beam milling,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 20(3), 433–440 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Keskinbora, C. Grévent, U. Eigenthaler, M. Weigand, and G. Schütz, “Rapid prototyping of Fresnel zone plates via direct Ga+ ion beam lithography for high-resolution x-ray imaging,” ACS Nano 7(11), 9788–9797 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kidani, N.

Kihara, H.

N. Kamijo, S. Tamura, Y. Suzuki, K. Handa, A. Takeuchi, S. Yamamoto, M. Ando, K. Ohsumi, and H. Kihara, “Fabrication of a hard x-ray sputtered-sliced Fresnel phase zone plate,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68(1), 14–16 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J.

E. Nazaretski, H. Yan, J. Kim, K. Lauer, K. Gofron, D. Shu, and Y. Chu, “Development of a 10 nm spatial resolution Hard X-ray Microscope for the Nanoprobe beamline at NSLS-II,” Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 58, J46003 (2013).

K. Yamauchi, H. Mimura, T. Kimura, H. Yumoto, S. Handa, S. Matsuyama, K. Arima, Y. Sano, K. Yamamura, K. Inagaki, H. Nakamori, J. Kim, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, and T. Ishikawa, “Single-nanometer focusing of hard x-rays by Kirkpatrick-Baez mirrors,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 23(39), 394206 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kimura, T.

K. Yamauchi, H. Mimura, T. Kimura, H. Yumoto, S. Handa, S. Matsuyama, K. Arima, Y. Sano, K. Yamamura, K. Inagaki, H. Nakamori, J. Kim, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, and T. Ishikawa, “Single-nanometer focusing of hard x-rays by Kirkpatrick-Baez mirrors,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 23(39), 394206 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Matsuyama, T. Wakioka, N. Kidani, T. Kimura, H. Mimura, Y. Sano, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, K. Tamasaku, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “One-dimensional Wolter optics with a sub-50 nm spatial resolution,” Opt. Lett. 35(21), 3583–3585 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kirkpatrick, P.

Kirz, J.

J. Kirz and C. Jacobsen, “The history and future of X-ray microscopy,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 186, 012001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Rarback and J. Kirz, “Optical Performance of Apodized Zone Plates,” Proc. SPIE 0316, 120–127 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. Kirz, “Phase zone plates for x rays and the extreme uv,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 64(3), 301–309 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Kläui, M.

A. Bisig, M. Stärk, M.-A. Mawass, C. Moutafis, J. Rhensius, J. Heidler, F. Büttner, M. Noske, M. Weigand, S. Eisebitt, T. Tyliszczak, B. Van Waeyenberge, H. Stoll, G. Schütz, and M. Kläui, “Correlation between spin structure oscillations and domain wall velocities,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2328 (2013).

Kline, D.

R. P. Winarski, M. V. Holt, V. Rose, P. Fuesz, D. Carbaugh, C. Benson, D. Shu, D. Kline, G. B. Stephenson, I. McNulty, and J. Maser, “A hard X-ray nanoprobe beamline for nanoscale microscopy,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 19(6), 1056–1060 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Knez, M.

M. Mayer, K. Keskinbora, C. Grévent, A. Szeghalmi, M. Knez, M. Weigand, A. Snigirev, I. Snigireva, and G. Schütz, “Efficient focusing of 8 keV x-rays with multilayer Fresnel zone plates fabricated by atomic layer deposition and focused ion beam milling,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 20(3), 433–440 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Keskinbora, A.-L. Robisch, M. Mayer, C. Grévent, A. V. Szeghalmi, M. Knez, M. Weigand, I. Snigireva, A. Snigirev, T. Salditt, and G. Schütz, “Recent advances in use of atomic layer deposition and focused ion beams for fabrication of Fresnel zone plates for hard x-rays,” Proc. SPIE 8851, 885119 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. Mayer, C. Grévent, A. Szeghalmi, M. Knez, M. Weigand, S. Rehbein, G. Schneider, B. Baretzky, and G. Schütz, “Multilayer Fresnel zone plate for soft X-ray microscopy resolves sub-39nm structures,” Ultramicroscopy 111(12), 1706–1711 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Knorr, I.

T. Liese, V. Radisch, I. Knorr, M. Reese, P. Großmann, K. Mann, and H.-U. Krebs, “Development of laser deposited multilayer zone plate structures for soft X-ray radiation,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 257(12), 5138–5141 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kohmura, Y.

Konishi, S.

H. Takano, S. Konishi, T. Koyama, Y. Tsusaka, S. Ichimaru, T. Ohchi, H. Takenaka, and Y. Kagoshima, “Point spread function measurement of an X-ray beam focused by a multilayer zone plate with narrow annular aperture,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 21(2), 446–448 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Koyama, H. Takano, S. Konishi, T. Tsuji, H. Takenaka, S. Ichimaru, T. Ohchi, and Y. Kagoshima, “Circular multilayer zone plate for high-energy x-ray nano-imaging,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 013705 (2012).

Koyama, T.

H. Takano, S. Konishi, T. Koyama, Y. Tsusaka, S. Ichimaru, T. Ohchi, H. Takenaka, and Y. Kagoshima, “Point spread function measurement of an X-ray beam focused by a multilayer zone plate with narrow annular aperture,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 21(2), 446–448 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Koyama, H. Takano, S. Konishi, T. Tsuji, H. Takenaka, S. Ichimaru, T. Ohchi, and Y. Kagoshima, “Circular multilayer zone plate for high-energy x-ray nano-imaging,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 013705 (2012).

Krebs, H. U.

F. Döring, A. L. Robisch, C. Eberl, M. Osterhoff, A. Ruhlandt, T. Liese, F. Schlenkrich, S. Hoffmann, M. Bartels, T. Salditt, and H. U. Krebs, “Sub-5 nm hard x-ray point focusing by a combined Kirkpatrick-Baez mirror and multilayer zone plate,” Opt. Express 21(16), 19311–19323 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ruhlandt, T. Liese, V. Radisch, S. P. Kruger, M. Osterhoff, K. Giewekemeyer, H. U. Krebs, and T. Salditt, “A combined Kirkpatrick-Baez mirror and multilayer lens for sub-10 nm x-ray focusing,” AIP Adv. 2(1), 012175 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Krebs, H.-U.

M. Osterhoff, M. Bartels, F. Döring, C. Eberl, T. Hoinkes, S. Hoffmann, T. Liese, V. Radisch, A. Rauschenbeutel, A.-L. Robisch, A. Ruhlandt, F. Schlenkrich, T. Salditt, and H.-U. Krebs, “Two-dimensional sub-5-nm hard x-ray focusing with MZP,” Proc. SPIE 8848, 884802 (2013).
[CrossRef]

T. Liese, V. Radisch, I. Knorr, M. Reese, P. Großmann, K. Mann, and H.-U. Krebs, “Development of laser deposited multilayer zone plate structures for soft X-ray radiation,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 257(12), 5138–5141 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kruger, S. P.

A. Ruhlandt, T. Liese, V. Radisch, S. P. Kruger, M. Osterhoff, K. Giewekemeyer, H. U. Krebs, and T. Salditt, “A combined Kirkpatrick-Baez mirror and multilayer lens for sub-10 nm x-ray focusing,” AIP Adv. 2(1), 012175 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kukli, K.

K. Kukli, M. Ritala, and M. Leskelä, “Atomic layer epitaxy growth of tantalum oxide thin films from Ta(OC2H5)5 and H2O,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 142(5), 1670–1675 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lai, B.

Y. Xiao, Z. Cai, Z. L. Wang, B. Lai, and Y. S. Chu, “An X-ray nanodiffraction technique for structural characterization of individual nanomaterials,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 12(2), 124–128 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Cai, B. Lai, W. Yun, P. Ilinski, D. Legnini, J. Maser, and W. Rodrigues, “A hard x-ray scanning microprobe for fluorescence imaging and microdiffraction at the advanced photon source,” AIP Conf. Proc. 507, 472–477 (2000).
[CrossRef]

W. B. Yun, P. J. Viccaro, B. Lai, and J. Chrzas, “Coherent hard x-ray focusing optics and applications,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63(1), 582 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Lauer, K.

X. Huang, H. Yan, E. Nazaretski, R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, K. Lauer, L. Li, D. Eom, D. Legnini, R. Harder, I. K. Robinson, and Y. S. Chu, “11 nm hard X-ray focus from a large-aperture multilayer Laue lens,” Sci. Rep.  3, 3562 (2013).

E. Nazaretski, H. Yan, J. Kim, K. Lauer, K. Gofron, D. Shu, and Y. Chu, “Development of a 10 nm spatial resolution Hard X-ray Microscope for the Nanoprobe beamline at NSLS-II,” Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 58, J46003 (2013).

Legnini, D.

X. Huang, H. Yan, E. Nazaretski, R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, K. Lauer, L. Li, D. Eom, D. Legnini, R. Harder, I. K. Robinson, and Y. S. Chu, “11 nm hard X-ray focus from a large-aperture multilayer Laue lens,” Sci. Rep.  3, 3562 (2013).

Z. Cai, B. Lai, W. Yun, P. Ilinski, D. Legnini, J. Maser, and W. Rodrigues, “A hard x-ray scanning microprobe for fluorescence imaging and microdiffraction at the advanced photon source,” AIP Conf. Proc. 507, 472–477 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Leskelä, M.

K. Kukli, M. Ritala, and M. Leskelä, “Atomic layer epitaxy growth of tantalum oxide thin films from Ta(OC2H5)5 and H2O,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 142(5), 1670–1675 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Li, L.

X. Huang, H. Yan, E. Nazaretski, R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, K. Lauer, L. Li, D. Eom, D. Legnini, R. Harder, I. K. Robinson, and Y. S. Chu, “11 nm hard X-ray focus from a large-aperture multilayer Laue lens,” Sci. Rep.  3, 3562 (2013).

Liang, K. S.

Y.-T. Chen, T.-N. Lo, Y. S. Chu, J. Yi, C.-J. Liu, J.-Y. Wang, C.-L. Wang, C.-W. Chiu, T.-E. Hua, Y. Hwu, Q. Shen, G.-C. Yin, K. S. Liang, H.-M. Lin, J. H. Je, and G. Margaritondo, “Full-field hard x-ray microscopy below 30 nm: a challenging nanofabrication achievement,” Nanotechnology 19(39), 395302 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liese, T.

M. Osterhoff, M. Bartels, F. Döring, C. Eberl, T. Hoinkes, S. Hoffmann, T. Liese, V. Radisch, A. Rauschenbeutel, A.-L. Robisch, A. Ruhlandt, F. Schlenkrich, T. Salditt, and H.-U. Krebs, “Two-dimensional sub-5-nm hard x-ray focusing with MZP,” Proc. SPIE 8848, 884802 (2013).
[CrossRef]

F. Döring, A. L. Robisch, C. Eberl, M. Osterhoff, A. Ruhlandt, T. Liese, F. Schlenkrich, S. Hoffmann, M. Bartels, T. Salditt, and H. U. Krebs, “Sub-5 nm hard x-ray point focusing by a combined Kirkpatrick-Baez mirror and multilayer zone plate,” Opt. Express 21(16), 19311–19323 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ruhlandt, T. Liese, V. Radisch, S. P. Kruger, M. Osterhoff, K. Giewekemeyer, H. U. Krebs, and T. Salditt, “A combined Kirkpatrick-Baez mirror and multilayer lens for sub-10 nm x-ray focusing,” AIP Adv. 2(1), 012175 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. Liese, V. Radisch, I. Knorr, M. Reese, P. Großmann, K. Mann, and H.-U. Krebs, “Development of laser deposited multilayer zone plate structures for soft X-ray radiation,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 257(12), 5138–5141 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lima, E.

Lin, C. H.

H. R. Wu, S. T. Chen, Y. S. Chu, R. Conley, N. Bouet, C. C. Chien, H. H. Chen, C. H. Lin, H. T. Tung, H. H. Chen, G. Margaritondo, J. H. Je, and Y. Hwu, “Nanoresolution radiology of neurons,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 45(24), 242001 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. L. Wang, C. H. Lin, and M. H. Hon, “The dependence of hardness on the density of amorphous alumina thin films by PECVD,” Thin Solid Films 310(1-2), 260–264 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lin, H.-M.

Y.-T. Chen, T.-N. Lo, Y. S. Chu, J. Yi, C.-J. Liu, J.-Y. Wang, C.-L. Wang, C.-W. Chiu, T.-E. Hua, Y. Hwu, Q. Shen, G.-C. Yin, K. S. Liang, H.-M. Lin, J. H. Je, and G. Margaritondo, “Full-field hard x-ray microscopy below 30 nm: a challenging nanofabrication achievement,” Nanotechnology 19(39), 395302 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, C.

Liu, C.-J.

Y.-T. Chen, T.-N. Lo, Y. S. Chu, J. Yi, C.-J. Liu, J.-Y. Wang, C.-L. Wang, C.-W. Chiu, T.-E. Hua, Y. Hwu, Q. Shen, G.-C. Yin, K. S. Liang, H.-M. Lin, J. H. Je, and G. Margaritondo, “Full-field hard x-ray microscopy below 30 nm: a challenging nanofabrication achievement,” Nanotechnology 19(39), 395302 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lizárraga, R.

R. Lizárraga, E. Holmström, S. C. Parker, and C. Arrouvel, “Structural characterization of amorphous alumina and its polymorphs from first-principles XPS and NMR calculations,” Phys. Rev. B 83(9), 094201 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lo, T.-N.

Y.-T. Chen, T.-N. Lo, Y. S. Chu, J. Yi, C.-J. Liu, J.-Y. Wang, C.-L. Wang, C.-W. Chiu, T.-E. Hua, Y. Hwu, Q. Shen, G.-C. Yin, K. S. Liang, H.-M. Lin, J. H. Je, and G. Margaritondo, “Full-field hard x-ray microscopy below 30 nm: a challenging nanofabrication achievement,” Nanotechnology 19(39), 395302 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lombardo, J. J.

J. Vila-Comamala, Y. Pan, J. J. Lombardo, W. M. Harris, W. K. S. Chiu, C. David, and Y. Wang, “Zone-doubled Fresnel zone plates for high-resolution hard X-ray full-field transmission microscopy,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 19(5), 705–709 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lu, M.

Maassdorf, A.

J. Vila-Comamala, K. Jefimovs, J. Raabe, T. Pilvi, R. H. Fink, M. Senoner, A. Maassdorf, M. Ritala, and C. David, “Advanced thin film technology for ultrahigh resolution X-ray microscopy,” Ultramicroscopy 109(11), 1360–1364 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Macrander, A. T.

Mann, K.

T. Liese, V. Radisch, I. Knorr, M. Reese, P. Großmann, K. Mann, and H.-U. Krebs, “Development of laser deposited multilayer zone plate structures for soft X-ray radiation,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 257(12), 5138–5141 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Margaritondo, G.

H. R. Wu, S. T. Chen, Y. S. Chu, R. Conley, N. Bouet, C. C. Chien, H. H. Chen, C. H. Lin, H. T. Tung, H. H. Chen, G. Margaritondo, J. H. Je, and Y. Hwu, “Nanoresolution radiology of neurons,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 45(24), 242001 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y.-T. Chen, T.-N. Lo, Y. S. Chu, J. Yi, C.-J. Liu, J.-Y. Wang, C.-L. Wang, C.-W. Chiu, T.-E. Hua, Y. Hwu, Q. Shen, G.-C. Yin, K. S. Liang, H.-M. Lin, J. H. Je, and G. Margaritondo, “Full-field hard x-ray microscopy below 30 nm: a challenging nanofabrication achievement,” Nanotechnology 19(39), 395302 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maser, J.

R. P. Winarski, M. V. Holt, V. Rose, P. Fuesz, D. Carbaugh, C. Benson, D. Shu, D. Kline, G. B. Stephenson, I. McNulty, and J. Maser, “A hard X-ray nanoprobe beamline for nanoscale microscopy,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 19(6), 1056–1060 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Yan, V. Rose, D. Shu, E. Lima, H. C. Kang, R. Conley, C. Liu, N. Jahedi, A. T. Macrander, G. B. Stephenson, M. Holt, Y. S. Chu, M. Lu, and J. Maser, “Two dimensional hard x-ray nanofocusing with crossed multilayer Laue lenses,” Opt. Express 19(16), 15069–15076 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Cai, B. Lai, W. Yun, P. Ilinski, D. Legnini, J. Maser, and W. Rodrigues, “A hard x-ray scanning microprobe for fluorescence imaging and microdiffraction at the advanced photon source,” AIP Conf. Proc. 507, 472–477 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Maser and G. Schmahl, “Coupled wave description of the diffraction by zone plates with high aspect ratios,” Opt. Commun. 89(2-4), 355–362 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Matsuyama, S.

Mawass, M.-A.

A. Bisig, M. Stärk, M.-A. Mawass, C. Moutafis, J. Rhensius, J. Heidler, F. Büttner, M. Noske, M. Weigand, S. Eisebitt, T. Tyliszczak, B. Van Waeyenberge, H. Stoll, G. Schütz, and M. Kläui, “Correlation between spin structure oscillations and domain wall velocities,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2328 (2013).

Mayer, M.

K. Keskinbora, A.-L. Robisch, M. Mayer, C. Grévent, A. V. Szeghalmi, M. Knez, M. Weigand, I. Snigireva, A. Snigirev, T. Salditt, and G. Schütz, “Recent advances in use of atomic layer deposition and focused ion beams for fabrication of Fresnel zone plates for hard x-rays,” Proc. SPIE 8851, 885119 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. Mayer, K. Keskinbora, C. Grévent, A. Szeghalmi, M. Knez, M. Weigand, A. Snigirev, I. Snigireva, and G. Schütz, “Efficient focusing of 8 keV x-rays with multilayer Fresnel zone plates fabricated by atomic layer deposition and focused ion beam milling,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 20(3), 433–440 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Mayer, C. Grévent, A. Szeghalmi, M. Knez, M. Weigand, S. Rehbein, G. Schneider, B. Baretzky, and G. Schütz, “Multilayer Fresnel zone plate for soft X-ray microscopy resolves sub-39nm structures,” Ultramicroscopy 111(12), 1706–1711 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McNulty, I.

R. P. Winarski, M. V. Holt, V. Rose, P. Fuesz, D. Carbaugh, C. Benson, D. Shu, D. Kline, G. B. Stephenson, I. McNulty, and J. Maser, “A hard X-ray nanoprobe beamline for nanoscale microscopy,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 19(6), 1056–1060 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Michette, A. G.

M. J. Simpson and A. G. Michette, “Imaging properties of modified Fresnel zone plates,” Optica Acta: International Journal of Optics 31(4), 403–413 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Mimura, H.

Morrison, G. R.

G. R. Morrison, “Phase contrast and darkfield imaging in x-ray microscopy,” Proc. SPIE 1741, 186–193 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Moutafis, C.

A. Bisig, M. Stärk, M.-A. Mawass, C. Moutafis, J. Rhensius, J. Heidler, F. Büttner, M. Noske, M. Weigand, S. Eisebitt, T. Tyliszczak, B. Van Waeyenberge, H. Stoll, G. Schütz, and M. Kläui, “Correlation between spin structure oscillations and domain wall velocities,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2328 (2013).

Murray, C. E.

E. Zschech, C. Wyon, C. E. Murray, and G. Schneider, “Devices, materials, and processes for nanoelectronics: characterization with advanced x‐ray techniques using lab‐based and synchrotron radiation sources,” Adv. Eng. Mater. 13(8), 811–836 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nakamori, H.

K. Yamauchi, H. Mimura, T. Kimura, H. Yumoto, S. Handa, S. Matsuyama, K. Arima, Y. Sano, K. Yamamura, K. Inagaki, H. Nakamori, J. Kim, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, and T. Ishikawa, “Single-nanometer focusing of hard x-rays by Kirkpatrick-Baez mirrors,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 23(39), 394206 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nakano, A.

T. Campbell, R. K. Kalia, A. Nakano, P. Vashishta, S. Ogata, and S. Rodgers, “Dynamics of oxidation of aluminum nanoclusters using variable charge molecular-dynamics simulations on parallel computers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(24), 4866–4869 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Naulleau, P.

Nazaretski, E.

E. Nazaretski, H. Yan, J. Kim, K. Lauer, K. Gofron, D. Shu, and Y. Chu, “Development of a 10 nm spatial resolution Hard X-ray Microscope for the Nanoprobe beamline at NSLS-II,” Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 58, J46003 (2013).

X. Huang, H. Yan, E. Nazaretski, R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, K. Lauer, L. Li, D. Eom, D. Legnini, R. Harder, I. K. Robinson, and Y. S. Chu, “11 nm hard X-ray focus from a large-aperture multilayer Laue lens,” Sci. Rep.  3, 3562 (2013).

Niemann, B.

D. Rudolph, B. Niemann, and G. Schmahl, “Status of the sputtered sliced zone plates for x-ray microscopy,” Proc. Soc. Photo Opt. Instrum. Eng. 316, 103–105 (1981).

Nishino, Y.

K. Yamauchi, H. Mimura, T. Kimura, H. Yumoto, S. Handa, S. Matsuyama, K. Arima, Y. Sano, K. Yamamura, K. Inagaki, H. Nakamori, J. Kim, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, and T. Ishikawa, “Single-nanometer focusing of hard x-rays by Kirkpatrick-Baez mirrors,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 23(39), 394206 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Matsuyama, T. Wakioka, N. Kidani, T. Kimura, H. Mimura, Y. Sano, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, K. Tamasaku, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “One-dimensional Wolter optics with a sub-50 nm spatial resolution,” Opt. Lett. 35(21), 3583–3585 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Noske, M.

A. Bisig, M. Stärk, M.-A. Mawass, C. Moutafis, J. Rhensius, J. Heidler, F. Büttner, M. Noske, M. Weigand, S. Eisebitt, T. Tyliszczak, B. Van Waeyenberge, H. Stoll, G. Schütz, and M. Kläui, “Correlation between spin structure oscillations and domain wall velocities,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2328 (2013).

M. Kammerer, H. Stoll, M. Noske, M. Sproll, M. Weigand, C. Illg, G. Woltersdorf, M. Fähnle, C. Back, and G. Schütz, “Fast spin-wave-mediated magnetic vortex core reversal,” Phys. Rev. B 86(13), 134426 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nugent, K.

R. Follath, J. S. Schmidt, M. Weigand, K. Fauth, R. Garrett, I. Gentle, K. Nugent, and S. Wilkins, “The X-ray microscopy beamline UE46-PGM2 at BESSY,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1234, 323–326 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ogata, S.

T. Campbell, R. K. Kalia, A. Nakano, P. Vashishta, S. Ogata, and S. Rodgers, “Dynamics of oxidation of aluminum nanoclusters using variable charge molecular-dynamics simulations on parallel computers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(24), 4866–4869 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ohchi, T.

H. Takano, S. Konishi, T. Koyama, Y. Tsusaka, S. Ichimaru, T. Ohchi, H. Takenaka, and Y. Kagoshima, “Point spread function measurement of an X-ray beam focused by a multilayer zone plate with narrow annular aperture,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 21(2), 446–448 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Koyama, H. Takano, S. Konishi, T. Tsuji, H. Takenaka, S. Ichimaru, T. Ohchi, and Y. Kagoshima, “Circular multilayer zone plate for high-energy x-ray nano-imaging,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 013705 (2012).

Ohsumi, K.

N. Kamijo, S. Tamura, Y. Suzuki, K. Handa, A. Takeuchi, S. Yamamoto, M. Ando, K. Ohsumi, and H. Kihara, “Fabrication of a hard x-ray sputtered-sliced Fresnel phase zone plate,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68(1), 14–16 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Osterhoff, M.

F. Döring, A. L. Robisch, C. Eberl, M. Osterhoff, A. Ruhlandt, T. Liese, F. Schlenkrich, S. Hoffmann, M. Bartels, T. Salditt, and H. U. Krebs, “Sub-5 nm hard x-ray point focusing by a combined Kirkpatrick-Baez mirror and multilayer zone plate,” Opt. Express 21(16), 19311–19323 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Osterhoff, M. Bartels, F. Döring, C. Eberl, T. Hoinkes, S. Hoffmann, T. Liese, V. Radisch, A. Rauschenbeutel, A.-L. Robisch, A. Ruhlandt, F. Schlenkrich, T. Salditt, and H.-U. Krebs, “Two-dimensional sub-5-nm hard x-ray focusing with MZP,” Proc. SPIE 8848, 884802 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. Ruhlandt, T. Liese, V. Radisch, S. P. Kruger, M. Osterhoff, K. Giewekemeyer, H. U. Krebs, and T. Salditt, “A combined Kirkpatrick-Baez mirror and multilayer lens for sub-10 nm x-ray focusing,” AIP Adv. 2(1), 012175 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Pan, Y.

J. Vila-Comamala, Y. Pan, J. J. Lombardo, W. M. Harris, W. K. S. Chiu, C. David, and Y. Wang, “Zone-doubled Fresnel zone plates for high-resolution hard X-ray full-field transmission microscopy,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 19(5), 705–709 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pang, J. W. L.

G. E. Ice, J. D. Budai, and J. W. L. Pang, “The race to x-ray microbeam and nanobeam science,” Science 334(6060), 1234–1239 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Parker, S. C.

R. Lizárraga, E. Holmström, S. C. Parker, and C. Arrouvel, “Structural characterization of amorphous alumina and its polymorphs from first-principles XPS and NMR calculations,” Phys. Rev. B 83(9), 094201 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Pilvi, T.

J. Vila-Comamala, K. Jefimovs, J. Raabe, T. Pilvi, R. H. Fink, M. Senoner, A. Maassdorf, M. Ritala, and C. David, “Advanced thin film technology for ultrahigh resolution X-ray microscopy,” Ultramicroscopy 109(11), 1360–1364 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Raabe, J.

J. Vila-Comamala, K. Jefimovs, J. Raabe, T. Pilvi, R. H. Fink, M. Senoner, A. Maassdorf, M. Ritala, and C. David, “Advanced thin film technology for ultrahigh resolution X-ray microscopy,” Ultramicroscopy 109(11), 1360–1364 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Radisch, V.

M. Osterhoff, M. Bartels, F. Döring, C. Eberl, T. Hoinkes, S. Hoffmann, T. Liese, V. Radisch, A. Rauschenbeutel, A.-L. Robisch, A. Ruhlandt, F. Schlenkrich, T. Salditt, and H.-U. Krebs, “Two-dimensional sub-5-nm hard x-ray focusing with MZP,” Proc. SPIE 8848, 884802 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. Ruhlandt, T. Liese, V. Radisch, S. P. Kruger, M. Osterhoff, K. Giewekemeyer, H. U. Krebs, and T. Salditt, “A combined Kirkpatrick-Baez mirror and multilayer lens for sub-10 nm x-ray focusing,” AIP Adv. 2(1), 012175 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. Liese, V. Radisch, I. Knorr, M. Reese, P. Großmann, K. Mann, and H.-U. Krebs, “Development of laser deposited multilayer zone plate structures for soft X-ray radiation,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 257(12), 5138–5141 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Rarback, H.

H. Rarback and J. Kirz, “Optical Performance of Apodized Zone Plates,” Proc. SPIE 0316, 120–127 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Rauschenbeutel, A.

M. Osterhoff, M. Bartels, F. Döring, C. Eberl, T. Hoinkes, S. Hoffmann, T. Liese, V. Radisch, A. Rauschenbeutel, A.-L. Robisch, A. Ruhlandt, F. Schlenkrich, T. Salditt, and H.-U. Krebs, “Two-dimensional sub-5-nm hard x-ray focusing with MZP,” Proc. SPIE 8848, 884802 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Reese, M.

T. Liese, V. Radisch, I. Knorr, M. Reese, P. Großmann, K. Mann, and H.-U. Krebs, “Development of laser deposited multilayer zone plate structures for soft X-ray radiation,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 257(12), 5138–5141 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Rehbein, S.

S. Werner, S. Rehbein, P. Guttmann, and G. Schneider, “3-D structured on-chip stacked zone plates for nanoscale X-ray imaging with high efficiency,” Nano Res. 7, 1–8 (2014).
[CrossRef]

S. Rehbein, P. Guttmann, S. Werner, and G. Schneider, “Characterization of the resolving power and contrast transfer function of a transmission X-ray microscope with partially coherent illumination,” Opt. Express 20(6), 5830–5839 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Mayer, C. Grévent, A. Szeghalmi, M. Knez, M. Weigand, S. Rehbein, G. Schneider, B. Baretzky, and G. Schütz, “Multilayer Fresnel zone plate for soft X-ray microscopy resolves sub-39nm structures,” Ultramicroscopy 111(12), 1706–1711 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Werner, S. Rehbein, P. Guttmann, S. Heim, and G. Schneider, “Towards high diffraction efficiency zone plates for X-ray microscopy,” Microelectron. Eng. 87(5-8), 1557–1560 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Rekawa, S.

Rhensius, J.

A. Bisig, M. Stärk, M.-A. Mawass, C. Moutafis, J. Rhensius, J. Heidler, F. Büttner, M. Noske, M. Weigand, S. Eisebitt, T. Tyliszczak, B. Van Waeyenberge, H. Stoll, G. Schütz, and M. Kläui, “Correlation between spin structure oscillations and domain wall velocities,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2328 (2013).

Ritala, M.

J. Vila-Comamala, K. Jefimovs, J. Raabe, T. Pilvi, R. H. Fink, M. Senoner, A. Maassdorf, M. Ritala, and C. David, “Advanced thin film technology for ultrahigh resolution X-ray microscopy,” Ultramicroscopy 109(11), 1360–1364 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Kukli, M. Ritala, and M. Leskelä, “Atomic layer epitaxy growth of tantalum oxide thin films from Ta(OC2H5)5 and H2O,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 142(5), 1670–1675 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Robinson, I. K.

X. Huang, H. Yan, E. Nazaretski, R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, K. Lauer, L. Li, D. Eom, D. Legnini, R. Harder, I. K. Robinson, and Y. S. Chu, “11 nm hard X-ray focus from a large-aperture multilayer Laue lens,” Sci. Rep.  3, 3562 (2013).

Robisch, A. L.

Robisch, A.-L.

M. Osterhoff, M. Bartels, F. Döring, C. Eberl, T. Hoinkes, S. Hoffmann, T. Liese, V. Radisch, A. Rauschenbeutel, A.-L. Robisch, A. Ruhlandt, F. Schlenkrich, T. Salditt, and H.-U. Krebs, “Two-dimensional sub-5-nm hard x-ray focusing with MZP,” Proc. SPIE 8848, 884802 (2013).
[CrossRef]

K. Keskinbora, A.-L. Robisch, M. Mayer, C. Grévent, A. V. Szeghalmi, M. Knez, M. Weigand, I. Snigireva, A. Snigirev, T. Salditt, and G. Schütz, “Recent advances in use of atomic layer deposition and focused ion beams for fabrication of Fresnel zone plates for hard x-rays,” Proc. SPIE 8851, 885119 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Rodgers, S.

T. Campbell, R. K. Kalia, A. Nakano, P. Vashishta, S. Ogata, and S. Rodgers, “Dynamics of oxidation of aluminum nanoclusters using variable charge molecular-dynamics simulations on parallel computers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(24), 4866–4869 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rodrigues, W.

Z. Cai, B. Lai, W. Yun, P. Ilinski, D. Legnini, J. Maser, and W. Rodrigues, “A hard x-ray scanning microprobe for fluorescence imaging and microdiffraction at the advanced photon source,” AIP Conf. Proc. 507, 472–477 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rose, V.

R. P. Winarski, M. V. Holt, V. Rose, P. Fuesz, D. Carbaugh, C. Benson, D. Shu, D. Kline, G. B. Stephenson, I. McNulty, and J. Maser, “A hard X-ray nanoprobe beamline for nanoscale microscopy,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 19(6), 1056–1060 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Yan, V. Rose, D. Shu, E. Lima, H. C. Kang, R. Conley, C. Liu, N. Jahedi, A. T. Macrander, G. B. Stephenson, M. Holt, Y. S. Chu, M. Lu, and J. Maser, “Two dimensional hard x-ray nanofocusing with crossed multilayer Laue lenses,” Opt. Express 19(16), 15069–15076 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rudolph, D.

D. Rudolph, B. Niemann, and G. Schmahl, “Status of the sputtered sliced zone plates for x-ray microscopy,” Proc. Soc. Photo Opt. Instrum. Eng. 316, 103–105 (1981).

D. Rudolph and G. Schmahl, “High power zone plates for a soft x-ray microscope,” Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 342(1 Ultrasoft X-R), 94–104 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Ruhlandt, A.

M. Osterhoff, M. Bartels, F. Döring, C. Eberl, T. Hoinkes, S. Hoffmann, T. Liese, V. Radisch, A. Rauschenbeutel, A.-L. Robisch, A. Ruhlandt, F. Schlenkrich, T. Salditt, and H.-U. Krebs, “Two-dimensional sub-5-nm hard x-ray focusing with MZP,” Proc. SPIE 8848, 884802 (2013).
[CrossRef]

F. Döring, A. L. Robisch, C. Eberl, M. Osterhoff, A. Ruhlandt, T. Liese, F. Schlenkrich, S. Hoffmann, M. Bartels, T. Salditt, and H. U. Krebs, “Sub-5 nm hard x-ray point focusing by a combined Kirkpatrick-Baez mirror and multilayer zone plate,” Opt. Express 21(16), 19311–19323 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ruhlandt, T. Liese, V. Radisch, S. P. Kruger, M. Osterhoff, K. Giewekemeyer, H. U. Krebs, and T. Salditt, “A combined Kirkpatrick-Baez mirror and multilayer lens for sub-10 nm x-ray focusing,” AIP Adv. 2(1), 012175 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Salditt, T.

F. Döring, A. L. Robisch, C. Eberl, M. Osterhoff, A. Ruhlandt, T. Liese, F. Schlenkrich, S. Hoffmann, M. Bartels, T. Salditt, and H. U. Krebs, “Sub-5 nm hard x-ray point focusing by a combined Kirkpatrick-Baez mirror and multilayer zone plate,” Opt. Express 21(16), 19311–19323 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Osterhoff, M. Bartels, F. Döring, C. Eberl, T. Hoinkes, S. Hoffmann, T. Liese, V. Radisch, A. Rauschenbeutel, A.-L. Robisch, A. Ruhlandt, F. Schlenkrich, T. Salditt, and H.-U. Krebs, “Two-dimensional sub-5-nm hard x-ray focusing with MZP,” Proc. SPIE 8848, 884802 (2013).
[CrossRef]

K. Keskinbora, A.-L. Robisch, M. Mayer, C. Grévent, A. V. Szeghalmi, M. Knez, M. Weigand, I. Snigireva, A. Snigirev, T. Salditt, and G. Schütz, “Recent advances in use of atomic layer deposition and focused ion beams for fabrication of Fresnel zone plates for hard x-rays,” Proc. SPIE 8851, 885119 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. Ruhlandt, T. Liese, V. Radisch, S. P. Kruger, M. Osterhoff, K. Giewekemeyer, H. U. Krebs, and T. Salditt, “A combined Kirkpatrick-Baez mirror and multilayer lens for sub-10 nm x-ray focusing,” AIP Adv. 2(1), 012175 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Salomé, M.

S. Gorelick, J. Vila-Comamala, V. A. Guzenko, R. Barrett, M. Salomé, and C. David, “High-efficiency Fresnel zone plates for hard X-rays by 100 keV e-beam lithography and electroplating,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 18(3), 442–446 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sano, Y.

Schlenkrich, F.

M. Osterhoff, M. Bartels, F. Döring, C. Eberl, T. Hoinkes, S. Hoffmann, T. Liese, V. Radisch, A. Rauschenbeutel, A.-L. Robisch, A. Ruhlandt, F. Schlenkrich, T. Salditt, and H.-U. Krebs, “Two-dimensional sub-5-nm hard x-ray focusing with MZP,” Proc. SPIE 8848, 884802 (2013).
[CrossRef]

F. Döring, A. L. Robisch, C. Eberl, M. Osterhoff, A. Ruhlandt, T. Liese, F. Schlenkrich, S. Hoffmann, M. Bartels, T. Salditt, and H. U. Krebs, “Sub-5 nm hard x-ray point focusing by a combined Kirkpatrick-Baez mirror and multilayer zone plate,” Opt. Express 21(16), 19311–19323 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmahl, G.

J. Maser and G. Schmahl, “Coupled wave description of the diffraction by zone plates with high aspect ratios,” Opt. Commun. 89(2-4), 355–362 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. Rudolph, B. Niemann, and G. Schmahl, “Status of the sputtered sliced zone plates for x-ray microscopy,” Proc. Soc. Photo Opt. Instrum. Eng. 316, 103–105 (1981).

D. Rudolph and G. Schmahl, “High power zone plates for a soft x-ray microscope,” Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 342(1 Ultrasoft X-R), 94–104 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, J. S.

R. Follath, J. S. Schmidt, M. Weigand, K. Fauth, R. Garrett, I. Gentle, K. Nugent, and S. Wilkins, “The X-ray microscopy beamline UE46-PGM2 at BESSY,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1234, 323–326 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Schneider, G.

S. Werner, S. Rehbein, P. Guttmann, and G. Schneider, “3-D structured on-chip stacked zone plates for nanoscale X-ray imaging with high efficiency,” Nano Res. 7, 1–8 (2014).
[CrossRef]

S. Rehbein, P. Guttmann, S. Werner, and G. Schneider, “Characterization of the resolving power and contrast transfer function of a transmission X-ray microscope with partially coherent illumination,” Opt. Express 20(6), 5830–5839 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Zschech, C. Wyon, C. E. Murray, and G. Schneider, “Devices, materials, and processes for nanoelectronics: characterization with advanced x‐ray techniques using lab‐based and synchrotron radiation sources,” Adv. Eng. Mater. 13(8), 811–836 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Mayer, C. Grévent, A. Szeghalmi, M. Knez, M. Weigand, S. Rehbein, G. Schneider, B. Baretzky, and G. Schütz, “Multilayer Fresnel zone plate for soft X-ray microscopy resolves sub-39nm structures,” Ultramicroscopy 111(12), 1706–1711 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Werner, S. Rehbein, P. Guttmann, S. Heim, and G. Schneider, “Towards high diffraction efficiency zone plates for X-ray microscopy,” Microelectron. Eng. 87(5-8), 1557–1560 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Schütz, G.

M. Mayer, K. Keskinbora, C. Grévent, A. Szeghalmi, M. Knez, M. Weigand, A. Snigirev, I. Snigireva, and G. Schütz, “Efficient focusing of 8 keV x-rays with multilayer Fresnel zone plates fabricated by atomic layer deposition and focused ion beam milling,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 20(3), 433–440 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Bisig, M. Stärk, M.-A. Mawass, C. Moutafis, J. Rhensius, J. Heidler, F. Büttner, M. Noske, M. Weigand, S. Eisebitt, T. Tyliszczak, B. Van Waeyenberge, H. Stoll, G. Schütz, and M. Kläui, “Correlation between spin structure oscillations and domain wall velocities,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2328 (2013).

K. Keskinbora, A.-L. Robisch, M. Mayer, C. Grévent, A. V. Szeghalmi, M. Knez, M. Weigand, I. Snigireva, A. Snigirev, T. Salditt, and G. Schütz, “Recent advances in use of atomic layer deposition and focused ion beams for fabrication of Fresnel zone plates for hard x-rays,” Proc. SPIE 8851, 885119 (2013).
[CrossRef]

K. Keskinbora, C. Grévent, U. Eigenthaler, M. Weigand, and G. Schütz, “Rapid prototyping of Fresnel zone plates via direct Ga+ ion beam lithography for high-resolution x-ray imaging,” ACS Nano 7(11), 9788–9797 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Kammerer, H. Stoll, M. Noske, M. Sproll, M. Weigand, C. Illg, G. Woltersdorf, M. Fähnle, C. Back, and G. Schütz, “Fast spin-wave-mediated magnetic vortex core reversal,” Phys. Rev. B 86(13), 134426 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Mayer, C. Grévent, A. Szeghalmi, M. Knez, M. Weigand, S. Rehbein, G. Schneider, B. Baretzky, and G. Schütz, “Multilayer Fresnel zone plate for soft X-ray microscopy resolves sub-39nm structures,” Ultramicroscopy 111(12), 1706–1711 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Senoner, M.

J. Vila-Comamala, K. Jefimovs, J. Raabe, T. Pilvi, R. H. Fink, M. Senoner, A. Maassdorf, M. Ritala, and C. David, “Advanced thin film technology for ultrahigh resolution X-ray microscopy,” Ultramicroscopy 109(11), 1360–1364 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shen, Q.

Y.-T. Chen, T.-N. Lo, Y. S. Chu, J. Yi, C.-J. Liu, J.-Y. Wang, C.-L. Wang, C.-W. Chiu, T.-E. Hua, Y. Hwu, Q. Shen, G.-C. Yin, K. S. Liang, H.-M. Lin, J. H. Je, and G. Margaritondo, “Full-field hard x-ray microscopy below 30 nm: a challenging nanofabrication achievement,” Nanotechnology 19(39), 395302 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shu, D.

E. Nazaretski, H. Yan, J. Kim, K. Lauer, K. Gofron, D. Shu, and Y. Chu, “Development of a 10 nm spatial resolution Hard X-ray Microscope for the Nanoprobe beamline at NSLS-II,” Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 58, J46003 (2013).

R. P. Winarski, M. V. Holt, V. Rose, P. Fuesz, D. Carbaugh, C. Benson, D. Shu, D. Kline, G. B. Stephenson, I. McNulty, and J. Maser, “A hard X-ray nanoprobe beamline for nanoscale microscopy,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 19(6), 1056–1060 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Yan, V. Rose, D. Shu, E. Lima, H. C. Kang, R. Conley, C. Liu, N. Jahedi, A. T. Macrander, G. B. Stephenson, M. Holt, Y. S. Chu, M. Lu, and J. Maser, “Two dimensional hard x-ray nanofocusing with crossed multilayer Laue lenses,” Opt. Express 19(16), 15069–15076 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Simpson, M. J.

M. J. Simpson and A. G. Michette, “Imaging properties of modified Fresnel zone plates,” Optica Acta: International Journal of Optics 31(4), 403–413 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Skulina, K. M.

R. M. Bionta and K. M. Skulina, “Hard x-ray sputtered-sliced phase zone plates,” MRS Online Proc. Lib. 307, 343 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Snigirev, A.

M. Mayer, K. Keskinbora, C. Grévent, A. Szeghalmi, M. Knez, M. Weigand, A. Snigirev, I. Snigireva, and G. Schütz, “Efficient focusing of 8 keV x-rays with multilayer Fresnel zone plates fabricated by atomic layer deposition and focused ion beam milling,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 20(3), 433–440 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Keskinbora, A.-L. Robisch, M. Mayer, C. Grévent, A. V. Szeghalmi, M. Knez, M. Weigand, I. Snigireva, A. Snigirev, T. Salditt, and G. Schütz, “Recent advances in use of atomic layer deposition and focused ion beams for fabrication of Fresnel zone plates for hard x-rays,” Proc. SPIE 8851, 885119 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Snigireva, I.

K. Keskinbora, A.-L. Robisch, M. Mayer, C. Grévent, A. V. Szeghalmi, M. Knez, M. Weigand, I. Snigireva, A. Snigirev, T. Salditt, and G. Schütz, “Recent advances in use of atomic layer deposition and focused ion beams for fabrication of Fresnel zone plates for hard x-rays,” Proc. SPIE 8851, 885119 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. Mayer, K. Keskinbora, C. Grévent, A. Szeghalmi, M. Knez, M. Weigand, A. Snigirev, I. Snigireva, and G. Schütz, “Efficient focusing of 8 keV x-rays with multilayer Fresnel zone plates fabricated by atomic layer deposition and focused ion beam milling,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 20(3), 433–440 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sproll, M.

M. Kammerer, H. Stoll, M. Noske, M. Sproll, M. Weigand, C. Illg, G. Woltersdorf, M. Fähnle, C. Back, and G. Schütz, “Fast spin-wave-mediated magnetic vortex core reversal,” Phys. Rev. B 86(13), 134426 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Stärk, M.

A. Bisig, M. Stärk, M.-A. Mawass, C. Moutafis, J. Rhensius, J. Heidler, F. Büttner, M. Noske, M. Weigand, S. Eisebitt, T. Tyliszczak, B. Van Waeyenberge, H. Stoll, G. Schütz, and M. Kläui, “Correlation between spin structure oscillations and domain wall velocities,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2328 (2013).

Stephenson, G. B.

R. P. Winarski, M. V. Holt, V. Rose, P. Fuesz, D. Carbaugh, C. Benson, D. Shu, D. Kline, G. B. Stephenson, I. McNulty, and J. Maser, “A hard X-ray nanoprobe beamline for nanoscale microscopy,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 19(6), 1056–1060 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Yan, V. Rose, D. Shu, E. Lima, H. C. Kang, R. Conley, C. Liu, N. Jahedi, A. T. Macrander, G. B. Stephenson, M. Holt, Y. S. Chu, M. Lu, and J. Maser, “Two dimensional hard x-ray nanofocusing with crossed multilayer Laue lenses,” Opt. Express 19(16), 15069–15076 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stoll, H.

A. Bisig, M. Stärk, M.-A. Mawass, C. Moutafis, J. Rhensius, J. Heidler, F. Büttner, M. Noske, M. Weigand, S. Eisebitt, T. Tyliszczak, B. Van Waeyenberge, H. Stoll, G. Schütz, and M. Kläui, “Correlation between spin structure oscillations and domain wall velocities,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2328 (2013).

M. Kammerer, H. Stoll, M. Noske, M. Sproll, M. Weigand, C. Illg, G. Woltersdorf, M. Fähnle, C. Back, and G. Schütz, “Fast spin-wave-mediated magnetic vortex core reversal,” Phys. Rev. B 86(13), 134426 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, Y.

N. Kamijo, S. Tamura, Y. Suzuki, K. Handa, A. Takeuchi, S. Yamamoto, M. Ando, K. Ohsumi, and H. Kihara, “Fabrication of a hard x-ray sputtered-sliced Fresnel phase zone plate,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68(1), 14–16 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Szeghalmi, A.

M. Mayer, K. Keskinbora, C. Grévent, A. Szeghalmi, M. Knez, M. Weigand, A. Snigirev, I. Snigireva, and G. Schütz, “Efficient focusing of 8 keV x-rays with multilayer Fresnel zone plates fabricated by atomic layer deposition and focused ion beam milling,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 20(3), 433–440 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Mayer, C. Grévent, A. Szeghalmi, M. Knez, M. Weigand, S. Rehbein, G. Schneider, B. Baretzky, and G. Schütz, “Multilayer Fresnel zone plate for soft X-ray microscopy resolves sub-39nm structures,” Ultramicroscopy 111(12), 1706–1711 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Szeghalmi, A. V.

K. Keskinbora, A.-L. Robisch, M. Mayer, C. Grévent, A. V. Szeghalmi, M. Knez, M. Weigand, I. Snigireva, A. Snigirev, T. Salditt, and G. Schütz, “Recent advances in use of atomic layer deposition and focused ion beams for fabrication of Fresnel zone plates for hard x-rays,” Proc. SPIE 8851, 885119 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Takano, H.

H. Takano, S. Konishi, T. Koyama, Y. Tsusaka, S. Ichimaru, T. Ohchi, H. Takenaka, and Y. Kagoshima, “Point spread function measurement of an X-ray beam focused by a multilayer zone plate with narrow annular aperture,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 21(2), 446–448 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Koyama, H. Takano, S. Konishi, T. Tsuji, H. Takenaka, S. Ichimaru, T. Ohchi, and Y. Kagoshima, “Circular multilayer zone plate for high-energy x-ray nano-imaging,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 013705 (2012).

Takenaka, H.

H. Takano, S. Konishi, T. Koyama, Y. Tsusaka, S. Ichimaru, T. Ohchi, H. Takenaka, and Y. Kagoshima, “Point spread function measurement of an X-ray beam focused by a multilayer zone plate with narrow annular aperture,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 21(2), 446–448 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Koyama, H. Takano, S. Konishi, T. Tsuji, H. Takenaka, S. Ichimaru, T. Ohchi, and Y. Kagoshima, “Circular multilayer zone plate for high-energy x-ray nano-imaging,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 013705 (2012).

Takeuchi, A.

N. Kamijo, S. Tamura, Y. Suzuki, K. Handa, A. Takeuchi, S. Yamamoto, M. Ando, K. Ohsumi, and H. Kihara, “Fabrication of a hard x-ray sputtered-sliced Fresnel phase zone plate,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68(1), 14–16 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tamasaku, K.

Tamura, S.

N. Kamijo, S. Tamura, Y. Suzuki, K. Handa, A. Takeuchi, S. Yamamoto, M. Ando, K. Ohsumi, and H. Kihara, “Fabrication of a hard x-ray sputtered-sliced Fresnel phase zone plate,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68(1), 14–16 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tsuji, T.

T. Koyama, H. Takano, S. Konishi, T. Tsuji, H. Takenaka, S. Ichimaru, T. Ohchi, and Y. Kagoshima, “Circular multilayer zone plate for high-energy x-ray nano-imaging,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 013705 (2012).

Tsusaka, Y.

H. Takano, S. Konishi, T. Koyama, Y. Tsusaka, S. Ichimaru, T. Ohchi, H. Takenaka, and Y. Kagoshima, “Point spread function measurement of an X-ray beam focused by a multilayer zone plate with narrow annular aperture,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 21(2), 446–448 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tung, H. T.

H. R. Wu, S. T. Chen, Y. S. Chu, R. Conley, N. Bouet, C. C. Chien, H. H. Chen, C. H. Lin, H. T. Tung, H. H. Chen, G. Margaritondo, J. H. Je, and Y. Hwu, “Nanoresolution radiology of neurons,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 45(24), 242001 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Tyliszczak, T.

A. Bisig, M. Stärk, M.-A. Mawass, C. Moutafis, J. Rhensius, J. Heidler, F. Büttner, M. Noske, M. Weigand, S. Eisebitt, T. Tyliszczak, B. Van Waeyenberge, H. Stoll, G. Schütz, and M. Kläui, “Correlation between spin structure oscillations and domain wall velocities,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2328 (2013).

W. Chao, P. Fischer, T. Tyliszczak, S. Rekawa, E. Anderson, and P. Naulleau, “Real space soft x-ray imaging at 10 nm spatial resolution,” Opt. Express 20(9), 9777–9783 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Van Waeyenberge, B.

A. Bisig, M. Stärk, M.-A. Mawass, C. Moutafis, J. Rhensius, J. Heidler, F. Büttner, M. Noske, M. Weigand, S. Eisebitt, T. Tyliszczak, B. Van Waeyenberge, H. Stoll, G. Schütz, and M. Kläui, “Correlation between spin structure oscillations and domain wall velocities,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2328 (2013).

Vashishta, P.

T. Campbell, R. K. Kalia, A. Nakano, P. Vashishta, S. Ogata, and S. Rodgers, “Dynamics of oxidation of aluminum nanoclusters using variable charge molecular-dynamics simulations on parallel computers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(24), 4866–4869 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Viccaro, P. J.

W. B. Yun, P. J. Viccaro, B. Lai, and J. Chrzas, “Coherent hard x-ray focusing optics and applications,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63(1), 582 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Vila-Comamala, J.

J. Vila-Comamala, Y. Pan, J. J. Lombardo, W. M. Harris, W. K. S. Chiu, C. David, and Y. Wang, “Zone-doubled Fresnel zone plates for high-resolution hard X-ray full-field transmission microscopy,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 19(5), 705–709 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Gorelick, J. Vila-Comamala, V. A. Guzenko, R. Barrett, M. Salomé, and C. David, “High-efficiency Fresnel zone plates for hard X-rays by 100 keV e-beam lithography and electroplating,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 18(3), 442–446 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Vila-Comamala, K. Jefimovs, J. Raabe, T. Pilvi, R. H. Fink, M. Senoner, A. Maassdorf, M. Ritala, and C. David, “Advanced thin film technology for ultrahigh resolution X-ray microscopy,” Ultramicroscopy 109(11), 1360–1364 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wakioka, T.

Wang, C.-L.

Y.-T. Chen, T.-N. Lo, Y. S. Chu, J. Yi, C.-J. Liu, J.-Y. Wang, C.-L. Wang, C.-W. Chiu, T.-E. Hua, Y. Hwu, Q. Shen, G.-C. Yin, K. S. Liang, H.-M. Lin, J. H. Je, and G. Margaritondo, “Full-field hard x-ray microscopy below 30 nm: a challenging nanofabrication achievement,” Nanotechnology 19(39), 395302 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, H. L.

H. L. Wang, C. H. Lin, and M. H. Hon, “The dependence of hardness on the density of amorphous alumina thin films by PECVD,” Thin Solid Films 310(1-2), 260–264 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.-Y.

Y.-T. Chen, T.-N. Lo, Y. S. Chu, J. Yi, C.-J. Liu, J.-Y. Wang, C.-L. Wang, C.-W. Chiu, T.-E. Hua, Y. Hwu, Q. Shen, G.-C. Yin, K. S. Liang, H.-M. Lin, J. H. Je, and G. Margaritondo, “Full-field hard x-ray microscopy below 30 nm: a challenging nanofabrication achievement,” Nanotechnology 19(39), 395302 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, Y.

J. Vila-Comamala, Y. Pan, J. J. Lombardo, W. M. Harris, W. K. S. Chiu, C. David, and Y. Wang, “Zone-doubled Fresnel zone plates for high-resolution hard X-ray full-field transmission microscopy,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 19(5), 705–709 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, Z. L.

Y. Xiao, Z. Cai, Z. L. Wang, B. Lai, and Y. S. Chu, “An X-ray nanodiffraction technique for structural characterization of individual nanomaterials,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 12(2), 124–128 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wank, J. R.

J. R. Wank, S. M. George, and A. W. Weimer, “Nanocoating individual cohesive boron nitride particles in a fluidized bed by ALD,” Powder Technol. 142(1), 59–69 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Weigand, M.

K. Keskinbora, C. Grévent, U. Eigenthaler, M. Weigand, and G. Schütz, “Rapid prototyping of Fresnel zone plates via direct Ga+ ion beam lithography for high-resolution x-ray imaging,” ACS Nano 7(11), 9788–9797 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Bisig, M. Stärk, M.-A. Mawass, C. Moutafis, J. Rhensius, J. Heidler, F. Büttner, M. Noske, M. Weigand, S. Eisebitt, T. Tyliszczak, B. Van Waeyenberge, H. Stoll, G. Schütz, and M. Kläui, “Correlation between spin structure oscillations and domain wall velocities,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2328 (2013).

K. Keskinbora, A.-L. Robisch, M. Mayer, C. Grévent, A. V. Szeghalmi, M. Knez, M. Weigand, I. Snigireva, A. Snigirev, T. Salditt, and G. Schütz, “Recent advances in use of atomic layer deposition and focused ion beams for fabrication of Fresnel zone plates for hard x-rays,” Proc. SPIE 8851, 885119 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. Mayer, K. Keskinbora, C. Grévent, A. Szeghalmi, M. Knez, M. Weigand, A. Snigirev, I. Snigireva, and G. Schütz, “Efficient focusing of 8 keV x-rays with multilayer Fresnel zone plates fabricated by atomic layer deposition and focused ion beam milling,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 20(3), 433–440 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Kammerer, H. Stoll, M. Noske, M. Sproll, M. Weigand, C. Illg, G. Woltersdorf, M. Fähnle, C. Back, and G. Schütz, “Fast spin-wave-mediated magnetic vortex core reversal,” Phys. Rev. B 86(13), 134426 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Mayer, C. Grévent, A. Szeghalmi, M. Knez, M. Weigand, S. Rehbein, G. Schneider, B. Baretzky, and G. Schütz, “Multilayer Fresnel zone plate for soft X-ray microscopy resolves sub-39nm structures,” Ultramicroscopy 111(12), 1706–1711 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Follath, J. S. Schmidt, M. Weigand, K. Fauth, R. Garrett, I. Gentle, K. Nugent, and S. Wilkins, “The X-ray microscopy beamline UE46-PGM2 at BESSY,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1234, 323–326 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Weimer, A. W.

L. F. Hakim, J. Blackson, S. M. George, and A. W. Weimer, “Nanocoating individual silica nanoparticles by atomic layer deposition in a fluidized bed reactor,” Chem. Vap. Deposition 11(10), 420–425 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Wank, S. M. George, and A. W. Weimer, “Nanocoating individual cohesive boron nitride particles in a fluidized bed by ALD,” Powder Technol. 142(1), 59–69 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Werner, S.

S. Werner, S. Rehbein, P. Guttmann, and G. Schneider, “3-D structured on-chip stacked zone plates for nanoscale X-ray imaging with high efficiency,” Nano Res. 7, 1–8 (2014).
[CrossRef]

S. Rehbein, P. Guttmann, S. Werner, and G. Schneider, “Characterization of the resolving power and contrast transfer function of a transmission X-ray microscope with partially coherent illumination,” Opt. Express 20(6), 5830–5839 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Werner, S. Rehbein, P. Guttmann, S. Heim, and G. Schneider, “Towards high diffraction efficiency zone plates for X-ray microscopy,” Microelectron. Eng. 87(5-8), 1557–1560 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wilkins, S.

R. Follath, J. S. Schmidt, M. Weigand, K. Fauth, R. Garrett, I. Gentle, K. Nugent, and S. Wilkins, “The X-ray microscopy beamline UE46-PGM2 at BESSY,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1234, 323–326 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Winarski, R. P.

R. P. Winarski, M. V. Holt, V. Rose, P. Fuesz, D. Carbaugh, C. Benson, D. Shu, D. Kline, G. B. Stephenson, I. McNulty, and J. Maser, “A hard X-ray nanoprobe beamline for nanoscale microscopy,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 19(6), 1056–1060 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Woltersdorf, G.

M. Kammerer, H. Stoll, M. Noske, M. Sproll, M. Weigand, C. Illg, G. Woltersdorf, M. Fähnle, C. Back, and G. Schütz, “Fast spin-wave-mediated magnetic vortex core reversal,” Phys. Rev. B 86(13), 134426 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wu, H. R.

H. R. Wu, S. T. Chen, Y. S. Chu, R. Conley, N. Bouet, C. C. Chien, H. H. Chen, C. H. Lin, H. T. Tung, H. H. Chen, G. Margaritondo, J. H. Je, and Y. Hwu, “Nanoresolution radiology of neurons,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 45(24), 242001 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wyon, C.

E. Zschech, C. Wyon, C. E. Murray, and G. Schneider, “Devices, materials, and processes for nanoelectronics: characterization with advanced x‐ray techniques using lab‐based and synchrotron radiation sources,” Adv. Eng. Mater. 13(8), 811–836 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Xiao, Y.

Y. Xiao, Z. Cai, Z. L. Wang, B. Lai, and Y. S. Chu, “An X-ray nanodiffraction technique for structural characterization of individual nanomaterials,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 12(2), 124–128 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yabashi, M.

Yamamoto, S.

N. Kamijo, S. Tamura, Y. Suzuki, K. Handa, A. Takeuchi, S. Yamamoto, M. Ando, K. Ohsumi, and H. Kihara, “Fabrication of a hard x-ray sputtered-sliced Fresnel phase zone plate,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68(1), 14–16 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yamamura, K.

K. Yamauchi, H. Mimura, T. Kimura, H. Yumoto, S. Handa, S. Matsuyama, K. Arima, Y. Sano, K. Yamamura, K. Inagaki, H. Nakamori, J. Kim, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, and T. Ishikawa, “Single-nanometer focusing of hard x-rays by Kirkpatrick-Baez mirrors,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 23(39), 394206 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yamauchi, K.

Yan, H.

X. Huang, H. Yan, E. Nazaretski, R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, K. Lauer, L. Li, D. Eom, D. Legnini, R. Harder, I. K. Robinson, and Y. S. Chu, “11 nm hard X-ray focus from a large-aperture multilayer Laue lens,” Sci. Rep.  3, 3562 (2013).

E. Nazaretski, H. Yan, J. Kim, K. Lauer, K. Gofron, D. Shu, and Y. Chu, “Development of a 10 nm spatial resolution Hard X-ray Microscope for the Nanoprobe beamline at NSLS-II,” Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 58, J46003 (2013).

H. Yan, V. Rose, D. Shu, E. Lima, H. C. Kang, R. Conley, C. Liu, N. Jahedi, A. T. Macrander, G. B. Stephenson, M. Holt, Y. S. Chu, M. Lu, and J. Maser, “Two dimensional hard x-ray nanofocusing with crossed multilayer Laue lenses,” Opt. Express 19(16), 15069–15076 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yi, J.

Y.-T. Chen, T.-N. Lo, Y. S. Chu, J. Yi, C.-J. Liu, J.-Y. Wang, C.-L. Wang, C.-W. Chiu, T.-E. Hua, Y. Hwu, Q. Shen, G.-C. Yin, K. S. Liang, H.-M. Lin, J. H. Je, and G. Margaritondo, “Full-field hard x-ray microscopy below 30 nm: a challenging nanofabrication achievement,” Nanotechnology 19(39), 395302 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yin, G.-C.

Y.-T. Chen, T.-N. Lo, Y. S. Chu, J. Yi, C.-J. Liu, J.-Y. Wang, C.-L. Wang, C.-W. Chiu, T.-E. Hua, Y. Hwu, Q. Shen, G.-C. Yin, K. S. Liang, H.-M. Lin, J. H. Je, and G. Margaritondo, “Full-field hard x-ray microscopy below 30 nm: a challenging nanofabrication achievement,” Nanotechnology 19(39), 395302 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yumoto, H.

K. Yamauchi, H. Mimura, T. Kimura, H. Yumoto, S. Handa, S. Matsuyama, K. Arima, Y. Sano, K. Yamamura, K. Inagaki, H. Nakamori, J. Kim, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, and T. Ishikawa, “Single-nanometer focusing of hard x-rays by Kirkpatrick-Baez mirrors,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 23(39), 394206 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yun, W.

Z. Cai, B. Lai, W. Yun, P. Ilinski, D. Legnini, J. Maser, and W. Rodrigues, “A hard x-ray scanning microprobe for fluorescence imaging and microdiffraction at the advanced photon source,” AIP Conf. Proc. 507, 472–477 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yun, W. B.

W. B. Yun, P. J. Viccaro, B. Lai, and J. Chrzas, “Coherent hard x-ray focusing optics and applications,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63(1), 582 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Zapol, P.

S. P. Adiga, P. Zapol, and L. A. Curtiss, “Atomistic simulations of amorphous alumina surfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 74(6), 064204 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, J.

X. Huang, H. Yan, E. Nazaretski, R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, K. Lauer, L. Li, D. Eom, D. Legnini, R. Harder, I. K. Robinson, and Y. S. Chu, “11 nm hard X-ray focus from a large-aperture multilayer Laue lens,” Sci. Rep.  3, 3562 (2013).

Zschech, E.

E. Zschech, C. Wyon, C. E. Murray, and G. Schneider, “Devices, materials, and processes for nanoelectronics: characterization with advanced x‐ray techniques using lab‐based and synchrotron radiation sources,” Adv. Eng. Mater. 13(8), 811–836 (2011).
[CrossRef]

ACS Nano (1)

K. Keskinbora, C. Grévent, U. Eigenthaler, M. Weigand, and G. Schütz, “Rapid prototyping of Fresnel zone plates via direct Ga+ ion beam lithography for high-resolution x-ray imaging,” ACS Nano 7(11), 9788–9797 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adv. Eng. Mater. (1)

E. Zschech, C. Wyon, C. E. Murray, and G. Schneider, “Devices, materials, and processes for nanoelectronics: characterization with advanced x‐ray techniques using lab‐based and synchrotron radiation sources,” Adv. Eng. Mater. 13(8), 811–836 (2011).
[CrossRef]

AIP Adv. (1)

A. Ruhlandt, T. Liese, V. Radisch, S. P. Kruger, M. Osterhoff, K. Giewekemeyer, H. U. Krebs, and T. Salditt, “A combined Kirkpatrick-Baez mirror and multilayer lens for sub-10 nm x-ray focusing,” AIP Adv. 2(1), 012175 (2012).
[CrossRef]

AIP Conf. Proc. (2)

R. Follath, J. S. Schmidt, M. Weigand, K. Fauth, R. Garrett, I. Gentle, K. Nugent, and S. Wilkins, “The X-ray microscopy beamline UE46-PGM2 at BESSY,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1234, 323–326 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Cai, B. Lai, W. Yun, P. Ilinski, D. Legnini, J. Maser, and W. Rodrigues, “A hard x-ray scanning microprobe for fluorescence imaging and microdiffraction at the advanced photon source,” AIP Conf. Proc. 507, 472–477 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. (1)

D. Rudolph and G. Schmahl, “High power zone plates for a soft x-ray microscope,” Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 342(1 Ultrasoft X-R), 94–104 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Surf. Sci. (1)

T. Liese, V. Radisch, I. Knorr, M. Reese, P. Großmann, K. Mann, and H.-U. Krebs, “Development of laser deposited multilayer zone plate structures for soft X-ray radiation,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 257(12), 5138–5141 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. (1)

E. Nazaretski, H. Yan, J. Kim, K. Lauer, K. Gofron, D. Shu, and Y. Chu, “Development of a 10 nm spatial resolution Hard X-ray Microscope for the Nanoprobe beamline at NSLS-II,” Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 58, J46003 (2013).

Chem. Vap. Deposition (1)

L. F. Hakim, J. Blackson, S. M. George, and A. W. Weimer, “Nanocoating individual silica nanoparticles by atomic layer deposition in a fluidized bed reactor,” Chem. Vap. Deposition 11(10), 420–425 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Electrochem. Soc. (1)

K. Kukli, M. Ritala, and M. Leskelä, “Atomic layer epitaxy growth of tantalum oxide thin films from Ta(OC2H5)5 and H2O,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 142(5), 1670–1675 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

J. Phys. Condens. Matter (1)

K. Yamauchi, H. Mimura, T. Kimura, H. Yumoto, S. Handa, S. Matsuyama, K. Arima, Y. Sano, K. Yamamura, K. Inagaki, H. Nakamori, J. Kim, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, and T. Ishikawa, “Single-nanometer focusing of hard x-rays by Kirkpatrick-Baez mirrors,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 23(39), 394206 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Phys. Conf. Ser. (1)

J. Kirz and C. Jacobsen, “The history and future of X-ray microscopy,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 186, 012001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. (1)

H. R. Wu, S. T. Chen, Y. S. Chu, R. Conley, N. Bouet, C. C. Chien, H. H. Chen, C. H. Lin, H. T. Tung, H. H. Chen, G. Margaritondo, J. H. Je, and Y. Hwu, “Nanoresolution radiology of neurons,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 45(24), 242001 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Synchrotron Radiat. (6)

J. Vila-Comamala, Y. Pan, J. J. Lombardo, W. M. Harris, W. K. S. Chiu, C. David, and Y. Wang, “Zone-doubled Fresnel zone plates for high-resolution hard X-ray full-field transmission microscopy,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 19(5), 705–709 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Takano, S. Konishi, T. Koyama, Y. Tsusaka, S. Ichimaru, T. Ohchi, H. Takenaka, and Y. Kagoshima, “Point spread function measurement of an X-ray beam focused by a multilayer zone plate with narrow annular aperture,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 21(2), 446–448 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. P. Winarski, M. V. Holt, V. Rose, P. Fuesz, D. Carbaugh, C. Benson, D. Shu, D. Kline, G. B. Stephenson, I. McNulty, and J. Maser, “A hard X-ray nanoprobe beamline for nanoscale microscopy,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 19(6), 1056–1060 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Mayer, K. Keskinbora, C. Grévent, A. Szeghalmi, M. Knez, M. Weigand, A. Snigirev, I. Snigireva, and G. Schütz, “Efficient focusing of 8 keV x-rays with multilayer Fresnel zone plates fabricated by atomic layer deposition and focused ion beam milling,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 20(3), 433–440 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Gorelick, J. Vila-Comamala, V. A. Guzenko, R. Barrett, M. Salomé, and C. David, “High-efficiency Fresnel zone plates for hard X-rays by 100 keV e-beam lithography and electroplating,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 18(3), 442–446 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Xiao, Z. Cai, Z. L. Wang, B. Lai, and Y. S. Chu, “An X-ray nanodiffraction technique for structural characterization of individual nanomaterials,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 12(2), 124–128 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep. (1)

C. Chaneliere, J. L. Autran, R. A. B. Devine, and B. Balland, “Tantalum pentoxide (Ta2O5) thin films for advanced dielectric applications,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep. 22(6), 269–322 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Microelectron. Eng. (1)

S. Werner, S. Rehbein, P. Guttmann, S. Heim, and G. Schneider, “Towards high diffraction efficiency zone plates for X-ray microscopy,” Microelectron. Eng. 87(5-8), 1557–1560 (2010).
[CrossRef]

MRS Online Proc. Lib. (1)

R. M. Bionta and K. M. Skulina, “Hard x-ray sputtered-sliced phase zone plates,” MRS Online Proc. Lib. 307, 343 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Nano Res. (1)

S. Werner, S. Rehbein, P. Guttmann, and G. Schneider, “3-D structured on-chip stacked zone plates for nanoscale X-ray imaging with high efficiency,” Nano Res. 7, 1–8 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Nanotechnology (1)

Y.-T. Chen, T.-N. Lo, Y. S. Chu, J. Yi, C.-J. Liu, J.-Y. Wang, C.-L. Wang, C.-W. Chiu, T.-E. Hua, Y. Hwu, Q. Shen, G.-C. Yin, K. S. Liang, H.-M. Lin, J. H. Je, and G. Margaritondo, “Full-field hard x-ray microscopy below 30 nm: a challenging nanofabrication achievement,” Nanotechnology 19(39), 395302 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Commun. (1)

A. Bisig, M. Stärk, M.-A. Mawass, C. Moutafis, J. Rhensius, J. Heidler, F. Büttner, M. Noske, M. Weigand, S. Eisebitt, T. Tyliszczak, B. Van Waeyenberge, H. Stoll, G. Schütz, and M. Kläui, “Correlation between spin structure oscillations and domain wall velocities,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2328 (2013).

Opt. Commun. (1)

J. Maser and G. Schmahl, “Coupled wave description of the diffraction by zone plates with high aspect ratios,” Opt. Commun. 89(2-4), 355–362 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Optica Acta: International Journal of Optics (1)

M. J. Simpson and A. G. Michette, “Imaging properties of modified Fresnel zone plates,” Optica Acta: International Journal of Optics 31(4), 403–413 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (3)

R. Lizárraga, E. Holmström, S. C. Parker, and C. Arrouvel, “Structural characterization of amorphous alumina and its polymorphs from first-principles XPS and NMR calculations,” Phys. Rev. B 83(9), 094201 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. P. Adiga, P. Zapol, and L. A. Curtiss, “Atomistic simulations of amorphous alumina surfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 74(6), 064204 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Kammerer, H. Stoll, M. Noske, M. Sproll, M. Weigand, C. Illg, G. Woltersdorf, M. Fähnle, C. Back, and G. Schütz, “Fast spin-wave-mediated magnetic vortex core reversal,” Phys. Rev. B 86(13), 134426 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

T. Campbell, R. K. Kalia, A. Nakano, P. Vashishta, S. Ogata, and S. Rodgers, “Dynamics of oxidation of aluminum nanoclusters using variable charge molecular-dynamics simulations on parallel computers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(24), 4866–4869 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Powder Technol. (1)

J. R. Wank, S. M. George, and A. W. Weimer, “Nanocoating individual cohesive boron nitride particles in a fluidized bed by ALD,” Powder Technol. 142(1), 59–69 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Soc. Photo Opt. Instrum. Eng. (1)

D. Rudolph, B. Niemann, and G. Schmahl, “Status of the sputtered sliced zone plates for x-ray microscopy,” Proc. Soc. Photo Opt. Instrum. Eng. 316, 103–105 (1981).

Proc. SPIE (4)

M. Osterhoff, M. Bartels, F. Döring, C. Eberl, T. Hoinkes, S. Hoffmann, T. Liese, V. Radisch, A. Rauschenbeutel, A.-L. Robisch, A. Ruhlandt, F. Schlenkrich, T. Salditt, and H.-U. Krebs, “Two-dimensional sub-5-nm hard x-ray focusing with MZP,” Proc. SPIE 8848, 884802 (2013).
[CrossRef]

K. Keskinbora, A.-L. Robisch, M. Mayer, C. Grévent, A. V. Szeghalmi, M. Knez, M. Weigand, I. Snigireva, A. Snigirev, T. Salditt, and G. Schütz, “Recent advances in use of atomic layer deposition and focused ion beams for fabrication of Fresnel zone plates for hard x-rays,” Proc. SPIE 8851, 885119 (2013).
[CrossRef]

G. R. Morrison, “Phase contrast and darkfield imaging in x-ray microscopy,” Proc. SPIE 1741, 186–193 (1993).
[CrossRef]

H. Rarback and J. Kirz, “Optical Performance of Apodized Zone Plates,” Proc. SPIE 0316, 120–127 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (3)

W. B. Yun, P. J. Viccaro, B. Lai, and J. Chrzas, “Coherent hard x-ray focusing optics and applications,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63(1), 582 (1992).
[CrossRef]

T. Koyama, H. Takano, S. Konishi, T. Tsuji, H. Takenaka, S. Ichimaru, T. Ohchi, and Y. Kagoshima, “Circular multilayer zone plate for high-energy x-ray nano-imaging,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 013705 (2012).

N. Kamijo, S. Tamura, Y. Suzuki, K. Handa, A. Takeuchi, S. Yamamoto, M. Ando, K. Ohsumi, and H. Kihara, “Fabrication of a hard x-ray sputtered-sliced Fresnel phase zone plate,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68(1), 14–16 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sci. Rep (1)

X. Huang, H. Yan, E. Nazaretski, R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, K. Lauer, L. Li, D. Eom, D. Legnini, R. Harder, I. K. Robinson, and Y. S. Chu, “11 nm hard X-ray focus from a large-aperture multilayer Laue lens,” Sci. Rep.  3, 3562 (2013).

Science (1)

G. E. Ice, J. D. Budai, and J. W. L. Pang, “The race to x-ray microbeam and nanobeam science,” Science 334(6060), 1234–1239 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thin Solid Films (1)

H. L. Wang, C. H. Lin, and M. H. Hon, “The dependence of hardness on the density of amorphous alumina thin films by PECVD,” Thin Solid Films 310(1-2), 260–264 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ultramicroscopy (2)

J. Vila-Comamala, K. Jefimovs, J. Raabe, T. Pilvi, R. H. Fink, M. Senoner, A. Maassdorf, M. Ritala, and C. David, “Advanced thin film technology for ultrahigh resolution X-ray microscopy,” Ultramicroscopy 109(11), 1360–1364 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Mayer, C. Grévent, A. Szeghalmi, M. Knez, M. Weigand, S. Rehbein, G. Schneider, B. Baretzky, and G. Schütz, “Multilayer Fresnel zone plate for soft X-ray microscopy resolves sub-39nm structures,” Ultramicroscopy 111(12), 1706–1711 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (8)

S. Tamura, “Multilayer Fresnel zone plate with high-diffraction efficiency: application of composite layer to x-ray optics,” in Metal, Ceramic and Polymeric Composites for Various Uses, J. Cuppoletti, ed. (InTech, 2011), pp. 637–654.

J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier optics (Roberts and Company Publishers, 2005).

T. Koyama, T. Tsuji, H. Takano, Y. Kagoshima, S. Ichimaru, T. Ohchi, and H. Takenaka, “Development of Multilayer Laue Lenses; (2) Circular Type,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1365, 100–103 (2011).

Z. Cai, Y. Xiao, I. Dragomir-Cernatescu, R. Snyder, Z. Wang, and B. Lai, “Direct Observation of Strain Segregation in ZnO Nanorings Using X-ray Diffraction,” (Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), 2006).

G. Schneider, S. Rehbein, and S. Werner, “Volume Effects in Zone Plates,” in Modern Developments in X-Ray and Neutron Optics, A. Erko, M. Idir, T. Krist, and A. Michette, eds. (Springer Berlin / Heidelberg, 2008), pp. 137–171.

T. Koyama, H. Takenaka, S. Ichimaru, T. Ohchi, T. Tsuji, H. Takano, and Y. Kagoshima, “Development of Multilayer Laue Lenses; (1) Linear Type,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1365, 24–27 (2011).

D. T. Attwood, Soft X-rays and Extreme Ultraviolet Radiation: Principles and Applications (Cambridge University Press, 2000).

A. A. Michelson, Studies in Optics (Dover Publications, Incorporated, 1995).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

SEM images of the SXR-FZP prior to beamstop deposition; a) Overview of the SXR-FZP exhibiting the excellent surface quality and homogeneous coverage. Charging in the glass fiber, as a result of the electron bombardment, is responsible for the curvilinear fine structures seen in the core. b-d) higher magnification images from around the FZP. One can see the very well defined layers throughout the multilayer as well as all around the ML-FZP.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The diffraction efficiency map of the multilayer Fresnel zone plate made out of Al2O3 of 3.95 g/cm3 density and Ta2O5 of 8.2 g/cm3 density (bulk crystalline densities), calculated according to the TGA. Note that the structure gives reasonable diffraction efficiency even down below 1 keV and increases well above 20% at 8 keV. Two important absorption edges, one at ~1555 eV and one at ~1710 eV, are due to Al K-edge and Ta M-edge, respectively.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

a) Schematic drawing of the experiment. K-B mirrors were used to collect light and illuminate the ML-FZP. A set of absorbers upstream the K-B mirrors (not shown), as well as a beamstop located downstream in the flight-tube can be used in order to protect the detector from direct light. b) Photographic image of the experimental setup showing the zone plate holder. c) Microscopic image of ML-FZP and the TEM holder on which the zone plate is positioned.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

a) Far field intensity as measured by an area detector with an acquisition time of 100 seconds. One can see the hollow diffraction cones are cut at the detector plane resulting in the 1st, 2nd and 3rd order ring patterns clearly. Acquired while the beamstop was in the beam path and without any attenuator. b) Far field intensity without the beamstop but with a 50 µm thick Mo attenuator prior to the KBM. Scale bars are 100 µm−1. c) 3D representation of the topmost part of the autocorrelation function (ACF) as calculated by an inverse Fourier transform of the far field pattern shown in b. d) The small peak in the center of the autocorrelation function was isolated and fit with a Gaussian along the x- and y- direction. The resulting horizontal and vertical line profiles of the autocorrelation function are plotted here. The FWHM of the Gaussian fits were 59 and 52 nm in the horizontal and vertical direction, respectively.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

a) Imaging: the SXR-FZP is shown after alignment. The 1st order focus is isolated by an OSA (17 µm in diameter) positioned between the SXR-FZP and the sample. A test object sample was raster scanned over the focus while the total transmitted light was collected by an avalanche photodiode (APD) to construct the STXM image. b) DE measurement: A smaller pinhole (4.4 µm in diameter) positioned close to the 1st order focal plane is raster scanned across ML-FZP, also covering an unobstructed area serving as a reference to determine the incident light falling on the ML-FZP.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

a) Point by point STXM image of a Siemens star taken at 1 keV with 80 µm vertical and fully open horizontal slits, 10 nm step size and 5 ms pixel dwell time. Given values are average line-and-space distances. b) ROI-1 on the 500 nm thick BAM-L200 sample. Line by line scan, taken at 1.2 keV with 50 µm vertical and full open horizontal slits, 10 nm step size and 1 ms pixel dwell time. c) ROI-2 on the 200 nm thick BAM-L200 sample. Point by point scan, taken at 1.2 keV with 50 x 50 µm slits utilizing, 5 nm step size and 35 ms pixel dwell time. The values given in a) and b) are some of the certified half-pitch sizes and the associated uncertainties. d) The experimental CTFs of the SXR-FZP extracted from the images shown in b) and c) as well as a third image of ROI-2 of the 500 nm thick lamella (not shown) are compared to the simulated CTFs of the SXR-FZP. A mathematical model of test object was convolved with the analytical Airy pattern of the SXR-FZP taking the large central stop into account. Possible imperfect interface profile of the sample was simulated by slightly smoothing the test object.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

a) A line by line image scan of the small pinhole (4.4 µm) showing the projection of the light through the different portions of the SXR-FZP. Taken at 1570 eV with 80 µm x open slit, 500 nm step size, 5 ms dwell time. b) A line scan over the 4.4 µm wide pinhole at various energies, utilized for the demonstration of the rapid increase in efficiency near 1550 eV due to the absorption edge of the lens material, namely the Al in Al2O3, followed by a rapid decrease. c) Theoretical and experimental diffraction efficiencies as a function of energy for different material densities (bulk and amorphous thin films as detailed in the text). A sharp change in the DE near the aluminum absorption edge, following the calculated value, can be seen in the vicinity of 1555 eV.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Summary of the multilayer Fresnel zone plates used as focusing optics at hard and soft X-ray ranges

Equations (1)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

F 1 {G | f X , f Y | 2 }=g(x,y) g * (x,y)

Metrics