Abstract

A 3kW liquid-convection-cooled Nd:YAG CW laser resonator with a novel design is developed and demonstrated, in which the straight-through geometry is adopted that the oscillating laser propagates through multiple thin slabs and multiple cooling flow layers in Brewster angle. Using the elastically-supported Nd:YAG single-crystal thin slabs at different doping levels, a multimode laser output with the output power of 3006 W is obtained from the stable cavity at the pump power of 19960 W, corresponding to an optical-optical efficiency of 15.1%, and a slope efficiency of 21.2%.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. A. Giesen and J. Speiser, “Fifteen years of work on thin-disk lasers: results and scaling laws,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(3), 598–609 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  2. H. Bruesselbach and D. S. Sumida, “A 2.65-kW Yb:YAG single-rod laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(3), 600–603 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  3. V. Sazegari, M. R. J. Milani, and A. K. Jafari, “Structural and optical behavior due to thermal effects in end-pumped Yb:YAG disk lasers,” Appl. Opt. 49(36), 6910–6916 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. J. Vetrovec, A. Koumvakalis, R. Shah, and T. Endo, “Development of solid-state disk laser for high-average power,” Proc. SPIE 4968, 54–64 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  5. G. D. Goodno, S. Palese, J. Harkenrider, and H. Injeyan, “Yb:YAG power oscillator with high brightness and linear polarization,” Opt. Lett. 26(21), 1672–1674 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. A. Minassian, B. A. Thompson, G. Smith, and M. J. Damzen, “High-power scaling (>100 W) of a diode-pumped TEM00 Nd:GdVO4 laser system,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(3), 621–625 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  7. R. Brockmann and D. Havrilla, “Disk laser: a new generation of industrial lasers,” Proc. SPIE 7193, 71931R (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. Mandl and D. E. Klimek, “Textron’s J-HPSSL 100 kW ThinZag® Laser Program” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, JThH2 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  9. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/High_Energy_Liquid_Laser_Area_Defense_System
  10. P. Li, Q. Liu, X. Fu, and M. Gong, “Large-aperture end-pumped Nd:YAG thin-disk laser directly cooled by liquid,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 11(4), 041408 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  11. X. Fu, Q. Liu, P. Li, and M. Gong, “Direct-liquid-cooled Nd:YAG thin disk laser oscillator,” Appl. Phys. B 111(3), 517–521 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  12. X. Fu, Q. Liu, P. Li, and M. Gong, “Wavefront aberration induced by beam passage through a water-convection-cooled Nd:YAG thin disk,” J. Opt. 15(5), 055704 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  13. P. Li, X. Fu, Q. Liu, and M. Gong, “Analysis of wavefront aberration induced by turbulent flow field in liquid-convection-cooled disk laser,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 30(8), 2161–2167 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  14. C. Orth, R. Beach, C. Bibeau, E. Honea, K. Jancaitis, J. Lawson, C. Marshall, R. Sacks, K. Schaffers, J. Skidmore, and S. Sutton, “Design modeling of the 100-J diode-pumped solid-state laser for Project Mercury,” Proc. SPIE 3265, Solid State Lasers VII, 114 (1998).
  15. S. Tidwell, J. Seamans, M. Bowers, and A. Cousins, “Scaling CW diode-end-pumped Nd:YAG lasers to high average powers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(4), 997–1009 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  16. Y. Chen, B. Chen, M. Patel, A. Kar, and M. Bass, “Calculation of thermal-gradient-induced stress birefringence in slab lasers-II,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40(7), 917–928 (2004).
    [CrossRef]

2013 (4)

X. Fu, Q. Liu, P. Li, and M. Gong, “Direct-liquid-cooled Nd:YAG thin disk laser oscillator,” Appl. Phys. B 111(3), 517–521 (2013).
[CrossRef]

X. Fu, Q. Liu, P. Li, and M. Gong, “Wavefront aberration induced by beam passage through a water-convection-cooled Nd:YAG thin disk,” J. Opt. 15(5), 055704 (2013).
[CrossRef]

P. Li, Q. Liu, X. Fu, and M. Gong, “Large-aperture end-pumped Nd:YAG thin-disk laser directly cooled by liquid,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 11(4), 041408 (2013).
[CrossRef]

P. Li, X. Fu, Q. Liu, and M. Gong, “Analysis of wavefront aberration induced by turbulent flow field in liquid-convection-cooled disk laser,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 30(8), 2161–2167 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

2009 (1)

R. Brockmann and D. Havrilla, “Disk laser: a new generation of industrial lasers,” Proc. SPIE 7193, 71931R (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

A. Giesen and J. Speiser, “Fifteen years of work on thin-disk lasers: results and scaling laws,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(3), 598–609 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

H. Bruesselbach and D. S. Sumida, “A 2.65-kW Yb:YAG single-rod laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(3), 600–603 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Minassian, B. A. Thompson, G. Smith, and M. J. Damzen, “High-power scaling (>100 W) of a diode-pumped TEM00 Nd:GdVO4 laser system,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(3), 621–625 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

Y. Chen, B. Chen, M. Patel, A. Kar, and M. Bass, “Calculation of thermal-gradient-induced stress birefringence in slab lasers-II,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40(7), 917–928 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

J. Vetrovec, A. Koumvakalis, R. Shah, and T. Endo, “Development of solid-state disk laser for high-average power,” Proc. SPIE 4968, 54–64 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

1992 (1)

S. Tidwell, J. Seamans, M. Bowers, and A. Cousins, “Scaling CW diode-end-pumped Nd:YAG lasers to high average powers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(4), 997–1009 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Bass, M.

Y. Chen, B. Chen, M. Patel, A. Kar, and M. Bass, “Calculation of thermal-gradient-induced stress birefringence in slab lasers-II,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40(7), 917–928 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bowers, M.

S. Tidwell, J. Seamans, M. Bowers, and A. Cousins, “Scaling CW diode-end-pumped Nd:YAG lasers to high average powers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(4), 997–1009 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Brockmann, R.

R. Brockmann and D. Havrilla, “Disk laser: a new generation of industrial lasers,” Proc. SPIE 7193, 71931R (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bruesselbach, H.

H. Bruesselbach and D. S. Sumida, “A 2.65-kW Yb:YAG single-rod laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(3), 600–603 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chen, B.

Y. Chen, B. Chen, M. Patel, A. Kar, and M. Bass, “Calculation of thermal-gradient-induced stress birefringence in slab lasers-II,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40(7), 917–928 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.

Y. Chen, B. Chen, M. Patel, A. Kar, and M. Bass, “Calculation of thermal-gradient-induced stress birefringence in slab lasers-II,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40(7), 917–928 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cousins, A.

S. Tidwell, J. Seamans, M. Bowers, and A. Cousins, “Scaling CW diode-end-pumped Nd:YAG lasers to high average powers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(4), 997–1009 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Damzen, M. J.

A. Minassian, B. A. Thompson, G. Smith, and M. J. Damzen, “High-power scaling (>100 W) of a diode-pumped TEM00 Nd:GdVO4 laser system,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(3), 621–625 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Endo, T.

J. Vetrovec, A. Koumvakalis, R. Shah, and T. Endo, “Development of solid-state disk laser for high-average power,” Proc. SPIE 4968, 54–64 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fu, X.

P. Li, Q. Liu, X. Fu, and M. Gong, “Large-aperture end-pumped Nd:YAG thin-disk laser directly cooled by liquid,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 11(4), 041408 (2013).
[CrossRef]

P. Li, X. Fu, Q. Liu, and M. Gong, “Analysis of wavefront aberration induced by turbulent flow field in liquid-convection-cooled disk laser,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 30(8), 2161–2167 (2013).
[CrossRef]

X. Fu, Q. Liu, P. Li, and M. Gong, “Direct-liquid-cooled Nd:YAG thin disk laser oscillator,” Appl. Phys. B 111(3), 517–521 (2013).
[CrossRef]

X. Fu, Q. Liu, P. Li, and M. Gong, “Wavefront aberration induced by beam passage through a water-convection-cooled Nd:YAG thin disk,” J. Opt. 15(5), 055704 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Giesen, A.

A. Giesen and J. Speiser, “Fifteen years of work on thin-disk lasers: results and scaling laws,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(3), 598–609 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gong, M.

X. Fu, Q. Liu, P. Li, and M. Gong, “Wavefront aberration induced by beam passage through a water-convection-cooled Nd:YAG thin disk,” J. Opt. 15(5), 055704 (2013).
[CrossRef]

X. Fu, Q. Liu, P. Li, and M. Gong, “Direct-liquid-cooled Nd:YAG thin disk laser oscillator,” Appl. Phys. B 111(3), 517–521 (2013).
[CrossRef]

P. Li, X. Fu, Q. Liu, and M. Gong, “Analysis of wavefront aberration induced by turbulent flow field in liquid-convection-cooled disk laser,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 30(8), 2161–2167 (2013).
[CrossRef]

P. Li, Q. Liu, X. Fu, and M. Gong, “Large-aperture end-pumped Nd:YAG thin-disk laser directly cooled by liquid,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 11(4), 041408 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Goodno, G. D.

Harkenrider, J.

Havrilla, D.

R. Brockmann and D. Havrilla, “Disk laser: a new generation of industrial lasers,” Proc. SPIE 7193, 71931R (2009).
[CrossRef]

Injeyan, H.

Jafari, A. K.

Kar, A.

Y. Chen, B. Chen, M. Patel, A. Kar, and M. Bass, “Calculation of thermal-gradient-induced stress birefringence in slab lasers-II,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40(7), 917–928 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Koumvakalis, A.

J. Vetrovec, A. Koumvakalis, R. Shah, and T. Endo, “Development of solid-state disk laser for high-average power,” Proc. SPIE 4968, 54–64 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Li, P.

P. Li, Q. Liu, X. Fu, and M. Gong, “Large-aperture end-pumped Nd:YAG thin-disk laser directly cooled by liquid,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 11(4), 041408 (2013).
[CrossRef]

P. Li, X. Fu, Q. Liu, and M. Gong, “Analysis of wavefront aberration induced by turbulent flow field in liquid-convection-cooled disk laser,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 30(8), 2161–2167 (2013).
[CrossRef]

X. Fu, Q. Liu, P. Li, and M. Gong, “Direct-liquid-cooled Nd:YAG thin disk laser oscillator,” Appl. Phys. B 111(3), 517–521 (2013).
[CrossRef]

X. Fu, Q. Liu, P. Li, and M. Gong, “Wavefront aberration induced by beam passage through a water-convection-cooled Nd:YAG thin disk,” J. Opt. 15(5), 055704 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Q.

X. Fu, Q. Liu, P. Li, and M. Gong, “Wavefront aberration induced by beam passage through a water-convection-cooled Nd:YAG thin disk,” J. Opt. 15(5), 055704 (2013).
[CrossRef]

X. Fu, Q. Liu, P. Li, and M. Gong, “Direct-liquid-cooled Nd:YAG thin disk laser oscillator,” Appl. Phys. B 111(3), 517–521 (2013).
[CrossRef]

P. Li, X. Fu, Q. Liu, and M. Gong, “Analysis of wavefront aberration induced by turbulent flow field in liquid-convection-cooled disk laser,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 30(8), 2161–2167 (2013).
[CrossRef]

P. Li, Q. Liu, X. Fu, and M. Gong, “Large-aperture end-pumped Nd:YAG thin-disk laser directly cooled by liquid,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 11(4), 041408 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Milani, M. R. J.

Minassian, A.

A. Minassian, B. A. Thompson, G. Smith, and M. J. Damzen, “High-power scaling (>100 W) of a diode-pumped TEM00 Nd:GdVO4 laser system,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(3), 621–625 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Palese, S.

Patel, M.

Y. Chen, B. Chen, M. Patel, A. Kar, and M. Bass, “Calculation of thermal-gradient-induced stress birefringence in slab lasers-II,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40(7), 917–928 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sazegari, V.

Seamans, J.

S. Tidwell, J. Seamans, M. Bowers, and A. Cousins, “Scaling CW diode-end-pumped Nd:YAG lasers to high average powers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(4), 997–1009 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Shah, R.

J. Vetrovec, A. Koumvakalis, R. Shah, and T. Endo, “Development of solid-state disk laser for high-average power,” Proc. SPIE 4968, 54–64 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Smith, G.

A. Minassian, B. A. Thompson, G. Smith, and M. J. Damzen, “High-power scaling (>100 W) of a diode-pumped TEM00 Nd:GdVO4 laser system,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(3), 621–625 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Speiser, J.

A. Giesen and J. Speiser, “Fifteen years of work on thin-disk lasers: results and scaling laws,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(3), 598–609 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sumida, D. S.

H. Bruesselbach and D. S. Sumida, “A 2.65-kW Yb:YAG single-rod laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(3), 600–603 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Thompson, B. A.

A. Minassian, B. A. Thompson, G. Smith, and M. J. Damzen, “High-power scaling (>100 W) of a diode-pumped TEM00 Nd:GdVO4 laser system,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(3), 621–625 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tidwell, S.

S. Tidwell, J. Seamans, M. Bowers, and A. Cousins, “Scaling CW diode-end-pumped Nd:YAG lasers to high average powers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(4), 997–1009 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Vetrovec, J.

J. Vetrovec, A. Koumvakalis, R. Shah, and T. Endo, “Development of solid-state disk laser for high-average power,” Proc. SPIE 4968, 54–64 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

X. Fu, Q. Liu, P. Li, and M. Gong, “Direct-liquid-cooled Nd:YAG thin disk laser oscillator,” Appl. Phys. B 111(3), 517–521 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Chin. Opt. Lett. (1)

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

S. Tidwell, J. Seamans, M. Bowers, and A. Cousins, “Scaling CW diode-end-pumped Nd:YAG lasers to high average powers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(4), 997–1009 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chen, B. Chen, M. Patel, A. Kar, and M. Bass, “Calculation of thermal-gradient-induced stress birefringence in slab lasers-II,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40(7), 917–928 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (3)

A. Giesen and J. Speiser, “Fifteen years of work on thin-disk lasers: results and scaling laws,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(3), 598–609 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Bruesselbach and D. S. Sumida, “A 2.65-kW Yb:YAG single-rod laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(3), 600–603 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Minassian, B. A. Thompson, G. Smith, and M. J. Damzen, “High-power scaling (>100 W) of a diode-pumped TEM00 Nd:GdVO4 laser system,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(3), 621–625 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. (1)

X. Fu, Q. Liu, P. Li, and M. Gong, “Wavefront aberration induced by beam passage through a water-convection-cooled Nd:YAG thin disk,” J. Opt. 15(5), 055704 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. SPIE (2)

R. Brockmann and D. Havrilla, “Disk laser: a new generation of industrial lasers,” Proc. SPIE 7193, 71931R (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Vetrovec, A. Koumvakalis, R. Shah, and T. Endo, “Development of solid-state disk laser for high-average power,” Proc. SPIE 4968, 54–64 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

A. Mandl and D. E. Klimek, “Textron’s J-HPSSL 100 kW ThinZag® Laser Program” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, JThH2 (2010).
[CrossRef]

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/High_Energy_Liquid_Laser_Area_Defense_System

C. Orth, R. Beach, C. Bibeau, E. Honea, K. Jancaitis, J. Lawson, C. Marshall, R. Sacks, K. Schaffers, J. Skidmore, and S. Sutton, “Design modeling of the 100-J diode-pumped solid-state laser for Project Mercury,” Proc. SPIE 3265, Solid State Lasers VII, 114 (1998).

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Figures (15)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Configuration of large-aperture multi-slab laser oscillator.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Simulated pump intensity distribution at the pump surface.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Absorption coefficient of heavy water with different deuteration degree, compared with the deionized water.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Flow optimization: (a) flow rate homogenizer; (b) flow rate distribution at the thin slab.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Beam path through the gain medium module (fused silica window, heavy water layers and Nd:YAG thin slabs).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

The doping concentration and pump absorption efficiency of the eleven slabs.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Depolarization loss after 1 piece of slab: (a) rigidly fixed slab; (b) elastically held slab.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Measured pump light distribution of one stack.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

CW output power as a function of the pump power.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

CW output power with different output coupling (Rcurv = 500 mm).

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

CW output power with different curvature radius of the high reflector (R = 90%).

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

CW output power with different LD arrays.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

The simulated pump light profile at the pump surface: (a) 30 arrays pumping; (b) 16 arrays pumping.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

CW output power with different thickness of cooling flow layer.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Near-field profile of the laser output.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Comparison between the Rigidly Fixed Slab and Elastically Held Slab in Terms of Thermal Effect and Depolarization Loss

Metrics